ESH Handbook 2002
Download ESH Handbook 2002...
ESH ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY & HEALTH HANDBOOK
The information contained in this booklet is purely advisory and for the purpose of assisting contractors/employers in the areas of environment, safety and health. The content in this booklet does not purport to refer to or guarantee compliance with regulations that may be applicable to such practices and conditions. This booklet should not be considered a definitive listing of all regulations nor an absolute solution to all environmental, safety and health issues. Nike assumes no responsibility for the implementation, management, or procedures contained herein.
Nike, Inc. One Bowerman Drive Beaverton, Oregon 97005-6453
Copyright © 2002 Nike, Inc. All rights reserved.
Table of Contents 1.
ESH Management ............................................... 1-1 A. Management System ..................................... 1-1 B. ESH Committee .......................................... 1-12 C. Injury/Illness System Management .............. 1-15 • Incident/Accident Investigation System ... 1-16 • Reporting Hazards ................................... 1-17 • Evaluating Hazards .................................. 1-17 • Correcting Hazards .................................. 1-18
Environmental Protection ................................... 2-1 A. Air Emissions ................................................ 2-1 B. Hazardous Waste ........................................... 2-9 C. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) ............... 2-14 D. Wastewater .................................................. 2-16 E. Solid Waste ................................................. 2-20 F. UST ............................................................ 2-22 G. AST ............................................................ 2-26 H. Spill Response ............................................. 2-29
Chemical Management ....................................... 3-1 A. Chemical Hazard Communication ................ 3-1 B. Hazardous Material Labeling ......................... 3-1 C. Restricted Manufacturing Substances (RMS) 3-9 D. Storage, Handling, Distribution, Dispensing 3-11
Facilities and Maintenance .................................. 4-1 A. General Work Environment .......................... 4-1 • Housekeeping ............................................ 4-1 • Floors and Walls ........................................ 4-2 • Stairs and Stairways ................................... 4-3 • Exits .......................................................... 4-7 • Illumination .............................................. 4-9 B. Ventilation .................................................. 4-14 • Exhaust Ventilation .................................. 4-14 • Fume Hoods ............................................ 4-18 C. Accident Prevention Signs and Tags ............. 4-21
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D. Machine Shop Safety ................................... 4-23 • General Rules .......................................... 4-23 • Bench and Pedestal Grinders .................... 4-24 • Air Hoses, Tools and Compressors ........... 4-26 • Fan Guards .............................................. 4-28 • Portable and Powered Hand Tools ........... 4-28 • Tool and Equipment Maintenance ........... 4-32 • Ladder Safety ........................................... 4-45 • Compressed Gas Cylinders ...................... 4-48 E. Contractor and Subcontractor Safety ........... 4-52 F. Confined Spaces Protection ......................... 4-53 G. Welding, Cutting and Brazing (Hot-Work) . 4-55 5.
Industrial Health ................................................. 5-1 A. Heat Stress Prevention ................................... 5-1 B. Cold Stress Prevention ................................... 5-4 C. Occupational Noise Exposure ........................ 5-7 D. Ergonomics ................................................. 5-15 E. Non-Ionizing Radiation (Ultraviolet (UV) and Radio Frequency (RF) Radiation) ......... 5-23 F. Bloodborne Pathogens ................................. 5-32 G. Asbestos ...................................................... 5-35 H. Occupational Exposure Limits ..................... 5-39
Emergency Preparedness and Response ............... 6-1 A. Emergency Action ......................................... 6-1 B. Fire Protection ............................................... 6-4 • Fire Protection Plan ................................... 6-4 • Fire Protection Measures ............................ 6-7 • Fire Brigades .............................................. 6-7 • Fire Extinguishers .................................... 6-10 C. Medical Services and First Aid ..................... 6-18 • General .................................................... 6-18 • First Aid Kits ........................................... 6-20 • Eyewash and Shower/Drenching Equipment ............................................... 6-22
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Personal Protective Equipment ............................ 7-1 • Job Attire ................................................... 7-1 • Head Protection ......................................... 7-2 • Eye and Face Protection ............................. 7-3 • Hand Protection ........................................ 7-6 • Foot Protection ........................................ 7-11 • Respiratory Protection ............................. 7-11 • Hearing Protection .................................. 7-17 • Fall Protection ......................................... 7-19
Machine and Equipment Safety ........................... 8-1 A. Motor Vehicle Operation and Forklifts .......... 8-1 B. Energy Control (Lockout/Tagout) ............... 8-10 C. Machine Guarding ...................................... 8-16 D. Mills and Calenders .................................... 8-27 E. Electrical Safety ........................................... 8-31 F. Cranes, Hoists, Chains and Slings ............... 8-43
General Health .................................................... 9-1 A. Dormitories ................................................... 9-1 B. Clinics ........................................................... 9-6 C. Canteens ..................................................... 9-11 D. Sanitation .................................................... 9-15 E. Drinking Water ........................................... 9-18 F. Childcare Facility Management ................... 9-21
Sampling Equipment/Device Guidelines ........... 10-1 A. 3M Organic Vapor Monitors (OVM) .......... 10-1 B. Sound Level Metering Guidelines ................ 10-5
General Information, Weights and Measures ..... 11-1
1. ESH Management 1 A. Management System 1. ESH Policy Contractors/employers are required to establish and maintain an ESH policy statement that is documented, implemented and communicated to all employees and addresses the following: a. Appropriateness to the nature, scale and impacts of its activities, products or services. b. Commitment to continual improvement and pollution prevention. c. Commitment to comply with relevant ESH legislation and regulations, and with other requirements to which the organization subscribes. d. A framework for setting and reviewing ESH objectives and targets. e. Availability to the public. 2. ESH Aspects a. The purpose of this section is to define the process by which contractors/employers identify significant ESH aspects of its activities, products or services. b. This process must take into account the cost and time of undertaking the analysis and the availability of reliable data. c. Information already developed for regulatory or other purposes may be used in this process. d. This section must address the degree of control the organization may have over the ESH aspects being considered.
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e. In documenting the ESH aspects/impacts identification process, this section must address the following: 1) The criteria used to determine significance. 2) Applicable processes and operations of the contractor/employer to be assessed (i.e., process flow charts). 3) Responsibilities for aspects/impacts identification. 4) Consideration of aspects/impacts under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. 5) How new or planned activities and processes are assessed. 3. Legal and Other Requirements a. The purpose of this section is to define the process for identification and access to legal and other requirements to which the contractor/employer subscribes. b. This section must also describe the process of monitoring these requirements. c. Things to look for: 1) This section must specifically identify the regulatory and other relevant ESH requirements that apply to the contractor/employer (e.g., a listing and the name of the individual who maintains the list). 2) This section must identify who is responsible for reviewing and analyzing draft and final regulations/legislation and how their applicability is documented (e.g., procedural references).
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3) This section must also address how these requirements or changes to requirements are communicated to employees and management. 4. Objectives and Targets a. The purpose of this section is to define the process the contractor/employer uses to establish and document ESH objectives and targets. b. This section must clearly provide the links between the contractor’s/employer’s ESH aspects/ impacts, ESH policy, and other commitments the contractor/employer has made with regard to the environment. c. Things to look for: 1) This section must specifically address how objectives and targets are set and approved by the contractor/employer, and specifically how they are to be documented, measured, reviewed and revised. 2) When establishing and reviewing its objectives, the contractor/employer must consider its legal and other requirements, its significant ESH aspects, its technological options, the financial, operational and business requirements, its commitment to pollution prevention, and the views of interested parties. 5. ESH Management Program a. The purpose of this section of is to describe the management program the contractor/employer will utilize to achieve its established ESH objectives and targets. b. Things to look for:
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1) This section must designate responsibility for achieving objectives and targets at each relevant function and level. 2) This section must include the means and timeframe by which the objectives and targets are to be achieved. 6. Structure and Responsibility a. The purpose of this section is to define specific roles, responsibilities and authorities the contractor/employer has established to facilitate an effective ESH management system. b. This section must clearly designate the responsibilities for implementation of the contractor/employer management system. c. It must identify the senior management representative(s) who have specific responsibility and authority to: 1) Ensure the management system requirements are established, implemented and maintained. 2) Report on the performance of the management system to top management. This section must include some discussion of how the contractor/ employer is providing resources (human, financial, and technological) to support the management system. 7. Training, Awareness and Competence a. The purpose of this section is to define how the contractor/employer identifies training needs and implements training programs. b. These training programs ensure all employees whose work may cause a significant impact on the environment and/or the safety and health of
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employees are aware of their roles and responsibilities and are competent to carry out their work activities as defined in the management system. c. Things to look for: 1) This section must clearly describe the procedures (related to training) the contractor/ employer has put in place to ensure its employees understand: a) The importance of conformance with the ESH policy. b) The significant impact (actual or potential) of their work activities. c) The consequences of deviating from specified operating procedures 8. Communication a. The purpose of this section is to provide an overview of the contractor’s/employer’s internal and external communication systems that support the ongoing implementation of the management system. b. The contractor/employer is required to establish and maintain procedures for internal communication between various levels and functions of the organization and for documenting and responding to communications from interested external parties. c. This section of the manual must describe or provide reference to the contractor’s/employer’s major internal and external communication systems or procedures for:
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1) Communication of the contractor’s/employer’s ESH policies, objectives, targets, and programs. 2) Communication of the contractor’s/employer’s significant ESH aspects and procedures for evaluating changes. 3) Communication of legal and other requirements (i.e., Nike requirements). 4) Communication of operating procedures and criteria for operations associated with significant ESH aspects. 5) Communication of emergency preparedness and response procedures. 6) Communication of procedures to monitor and measure key characteristics of its operations and activities. 7) Communication of employee concerns and questions. 8) Receiving, documenting, and responding to relevant communication from external interested parties (e.g., customers, the public). 9) Making the contractor’s/employer’s ESH policy available to the public. 10) Communication of ESH requirements to vendors, suppliers, and contractors/employers. 9. Documentation a. The purpose of this section is to describe how the contractor/employer establishes and maintains information, in paper or electronic form, that describes the core elements of the management system, their interaction, and direction to related documentation.
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b. All 17 elements of this standard must be described or cross-referenced in this section. 10. Document Control a. The purpose of this section is to describe the contractor’s/employer’s document-control system for controlling all documents required by the standard. b. This section must address how management system documents: 1) Can be located (i.e., are periodically reviewed, revised and approved by authorized personnel). 2) Are available at all locations where operations essential to the effective functioning of the management system are performed. 3) Are properly removed from all points of use or marked as obsolete as appropriate. 4) Are retained as necessary for legal or knowledge preservation purposes when obsolete. 11. Operational Control a. The purpose of this section is to describe how the contractor/employer has identified those operations and activities that are associated with the identified significant ESH aspects. b. This section must describe how the contractor/ employer plans these activities, including maintenance, in order to ensure they are carried out in line with its ESH policies, objectives and targets. c. Things to look for: 1) This section must clearly describe how the contractor/employer establishes and maintains
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documented procedures to cover situations that could lead to deviations from the ESH policy, objectives and targets. 2) This section must describe how operating criteria is established, as well as the individual responsible for the procedural activities. 3) This section must cover procedures related to identifiable significant ESH aspects of goods and services used by the contractor/employer and the process of communicating those procedures and requirements to suppliers and contractors/employers. 12. Emergency Preparedness and Response a. The purpose of this section is to describe the system (procedures) the contractor/employer maintains to enable it to identify and respond to potential accidents and emergency situations, and for preventing and/or mitigating the ESH impacts that may result. b. This section can be generally used to reference emergency preparedness and response programs the operation already has in place. c. Things to look for: 1) How the emergency preparedness and response procedures are reviewed and revised. 2) How the procedures are periodically tested (including drills). 3) Who is responsible for generating and maintaining procedures. 13. Monitoring and Measurement a. The purpose of this section is to identify how the contractor/employer establishes and maintains
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documented procedures to monitor and measure the key characteristics of its operations and activities that can have a significant impact on the environment and/or safety and health of the employees. b. This section must discuss how information is recorded and performance tracked with regard to ESH objectives and targets, and how the process is used to ensure that all equipment used in monitoring and measurement is properly calibrated and maintained. c. Things to look for: 1) This section must include specific procedures in place for monitoring and measurement, including the process for periodic evaluation of compliance with relevant ESH legislation and regulations. 2) This section must discuss the required features of the monitoring and measurement procedures including individuals responsible for these programs. 14. Nonconformance and Corrective and Preventive Action a. The purpose of this section is to define how the contractor/employer identifies, investigates and resolves nonconformance in the ESH management system. b. This section must address how the contractor/ employer has assigned responsibility and authority for these activities and how it records any changes to documented procedures resulting from corrective and preventive action.
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c. Things to look for:
1) This section must include various means of measuring, monitoring, auditing, self-assessing and other review systems that feed information into the corrective action system. 2) This section must reveal how management ensures that corrective and preventive actions have been implemented and that there is a systematic follow-up to ensure effectiveness. 15. Records a. The purpose of this section is to describe the process the contractor/employer uses to identify, maintain, and dispose of its ESH records. b. This section describes the minimum requirements for ESH records generation, maintenance and retention procedures. c. This section must also identify the records that will be used as objective evidence of the contractor’s/employer’s conformance to the requirements of the management system. d. Things to look for: 1) This section must include: a) Who is responsible for determining what records are required. b) Who is responsible for filing and maintenance. c) Guidelines for records management. d) Location of comprehensive ESH records lists.
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16. Management System Audit a. The purpose of this section is to describe the process the contractor/employer uses to evaluate the effectiveness of the ESH Management System. b. This section must describe the procedure used in the management system evaluation and include how the results are presented to senior management. c. This section must clearly describe the management system audit program responsibilities including: 1) Audit scheduling. 2) Audit scope. 3) Deficiency reporting. 4) Auditor requirements. 17. Management Review a. The purpose of this section is to describe how the contractor’s/employer’s top management reviews the ESH management system to ensure its continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness. b. This section is intended to describe how senior management will address changes to policy, objectives and targets, and other elements of the management system in light of management system audit results or changing circumstances which could effect the continual improvement process. c. This section must clearly describe: 1) The frequency of the management review. 2) The individual responsible for initiating the review.
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3) The scope of the review (e.g., audit results (internal and external), complaints and information requests, corrective action summaries, objectives and targets). 4) How and where review results will be documented. 5) Individuals on the review team.
B. ESH Committee 1. Formation and Membership a. A committee composed of both employee and management representatives will be established at the facility. b. All working shifts must be represented. c. Representatives must serve a minimum one-year term. d. The committee will select the chairperson. 2. Duties and Functions a. The ESH committee’s function is to assist management in developing and maintaining the essential elements of the environment, safety and health program. The committee will promote awareness of and provide a means of communicating environment, safety and health issues and concerns between management and employees. The ESH committee has the complete support of senior management. b. The committee will establish a written agenda to prescribe the order in which the committee’s business will be addressed during the meeting. c. The committee will evaluate the facility’s environment, safety and health policies and
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procedures, and make written recommendations for change or adoption of new policies and procedures. A reasonable time limit must be established for management to respond to the recommendations presented by the ESH committee. 3. Employee Involvement a. ESH committee meetings will be held at least monthly. The meetings will be documented in the form of minutes. The minutes will be: 1) Posted where employees can read them. 2) Maintained for 3 years. b. The ESH committee representatives may also elect to review the minutes with their departments. 4. Incident/Accident Analysis a. The committee will review any incidents/accidents that have occurred during the past month. The committee will also determine if any accident trends are developing. b. It may be necessary to invite the supervisor who investigated an accident to attend the meeting to clarify questions concerning the investigation process. 5. Hazard Assessment and Control a. The ESH committee will conduct environment, safety, and health inspections of the facilities, including the offices and grounds, at least quarterly. b. The inspections will be documented using an environment, safety and health inspection checklist.
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The ESH committee members must be properly trained in the following: a. ESH committee duties and functions. b. Hazard identification in the workplace. c. The applicable Nike Code Leadership Standards (CLS) and any applicable local ESH requirements. d. Techniques regarding incident/accident analysis and implementation of corrective actions. 7. Minutes Guidelines a. The minutes must be: 1) Typed. 2) Brief, concise, and well-organized. 3) Distributed within 3 working days. (The committee must develop a distribution list.) b. Contents must include: 1) Title. 2) Date meeting was held. 3) Time meeting was opened or called to order. 4) Names and departments of members present. 5) Names and departments of members absent. 6) Names, titles, and organizations of guests. 7) Statements indicating that minutes of previous meetings were read or acknowledged. 8) Unfinished business including report(s) and/or recommendation(s) not acted on.
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9) Recommendations completed since last meeting. 10) New business. 11) New recommendations. 12) Remarks/comments. 13) Time adjourned. 14) Date and time next meeting to be held. 15) Signature of chairperson. c. Style and format should best fit needs, or use the form provided.
C. Injury/Illness System Management 1. General Principles a. Contractors/employers must prepare and maintain records of occupational injuries and illnesses. b. Each contrator/employer must investigate every injury or illness that employees suffer in connection with their employment, to determine the means that must be taken to prevent recurrence. c. Contractors/employers must follow the reporting procedures listed on pages 1-20 through 1-22. 2. Injury/Illness Tracking and Records a. Contractors/employers must maintain in each factory a log and summary of all injuries and illnesses (resulting in a fatality, hospitalization, lost workdays, medical treatment, job transfer or termination, or loss of consciousness) for that factory, and enter each event no later than 7 working days after receiving the information.
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b. Contractors/employers must establish a written supplementary record of factors (incident/accident report form) that caused the injury or illness. c. Contractors/employers must post an annual summary of occupational injuries and illnesses. This posting will include the year’s totals, calendar year covered, company/factory name, management signature, title and date. The summary must be posted by February 1 of each year and must remain in place until April 30 of the same year. If country law requires different dates than those mentioned, then those dates must be met. d. The log and summary, written supplementary record, and the annual summary must be retained in each factory for 5 years following the end of the year to which they related. e. Contractors/employers must apply these requirements to all incidents involving factory employees, on-site vendors, and visitors, which results in personal injury or illness. f. Contractors/employers must train all employees in the incident/accident reporting procedures. g. Contractors/employers must conduct an annual review of this program to confirm that employees are familiar with the incident/accident reporting requirements and that the program is managed properly. 3. Incident/Accident Investigation System a. Supervisors must investigate an incident/accident as soon as possible after the incident to preserve physical evidence and obtain witness statements while memories are fresh. The supervisor must determine and record all facts surrounding the
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incident. Causes and effects must be analyzed to discover the basic reason for the incident. Necessary action must be taken as soon as possible to prevent recurrence of the incident. b. The supervisor must complete the Supervisor’s Incident/Accident Investigation Report, with help from the employee. Each section of the report must be thoroughly completed. It is important that the employee describe the incident in his or her own words and that the employee sign his or her name on the appropriate line. c. The Incident/Accident Investigation Report must be completed for all incidents, even those that don’t result in an injury or illness claim. d. A copy of the completed form must be sent to Nike. The original must be maintained by the human resources department or clinic. If the incident results in a work related injury or illness claim, the insurance company needs to receive a copy of the report form. 4. Reporting hazards a. Employees are expected and encouraged to report any hazard that they believe exists in the workplace. No reprisals will be taken against employees for reporting any condition they feel constitutes an unsafe condition. b. Employees must report hazards to their supervisor, department ESH committee representative, or a member of senior management. Employees must report hazards on forms provided. 5. Evaluating hazards Facilities must use the following methods and procedures to identify and evaluate workplace hazards:
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a. Quarterly environment, safety and health inspections conducted by the ESH committee. b. Employee reports of unsafe or unhealthy work conditions and subsequent investigations and actions. c. Investigation after an employee sustains an onthe-job occupational incident/accident. d. Periodic environment, safety and health surveys conducted by environment, safety and health consultants employed by the location’s insurance carrier. 6. Correcting hazards a. Serious hazards (those with the potential to cause death or serious physical harm to an employee) will be corrected immediately. All employees exposed to this hazard will be removed from the area. Employees assigned to correct the hazard will be provided with all necessary safeguards, including personal protective equipment and devices. b. All other hazards will be corrected in a timely fashion with times for correction being agreed upon by senior management and the department supervisor. Protection may include temporary work procedures or personal protective equipment. c. In regard to a. and b. above, if warranted, administrative action will be taken to protect the environment, safety and health of affected employees prior to the correction. (For example, equipment violation, multiple-shift isolation, etc.) d. Once a hazard is identified, the best course of action is to immediately eliminate the hazardous,
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unsafe condition. Since this is not always possible, the senior manager sometimes must rank identified hazards by the potential for destructive consequences. Hazards that rank high in the potential for both frequency (number of accidents) and severity must be addressed first. • Critical—Any condition that requires immediate action to correct. • Potential—Any condition that, if left unattended, may cause harm. 7. Contractor/Employer Incident/Accident Reporting Procedures a. Prior to initiating Nike procedures, factory must identify and comply with country law. b. All incidents and accidents resulting in death, injury, or causing illness to employees and events (near-miss accidents) must be reported in order to: 1) Establish a written record of factors that cause injuries and illnesses and events (near-misses) that might have resulted in death, injury or illness. 2) Maintain a capability to promptly investigate incidents and events in order to initiate and support corrective and/or preventative action. 3) Provide statistical information for use in analyzing all phases of incidents and events. c. This Incident/Accident Reporting System applies to all incidences involving contract factory employees, on-site vendors, contracted third-party employees, and visitors that results in (or might have resulted in) personal death, injury or illness.
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2. Environmental Protection A. Air Emissions 1. General Principles a. Emissions of toxic substances to the outside atmosphere from production and non-production sources (e.g., welding, painting, waste burning, etc.) are required to be controlled, minimized and/ or eliminated whenever possible at owned and contracted facilities. b. Contractors/employers must be aware how these substances can be emitted to the outside atmosphere and how these emissions can and must be controlled, minimized or eliminated inaccordance with Nike standards and applicable local requirements. The primary areas where potential air emission will be found are: 1) Solvent cleaning processes (Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions). 2) Dryers and curing ovens (VOC). 3) Painting and touch-up (VOC and Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC) emissions). 4) Boiler operations (Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions). 5) Air conditioning equipment (Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions). 6) Welding (CO2 and particulate emissions). 7) Grinding (particulate emissions). 8) Chemical storage and dispensing (VOC and ODC emissions).
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9) General operations where respiratory protection is required (all emissions). 10) Waste burning.
c. All emission sources must be addressed by documentation and physical controls or a combination of both. 1) Documentation Controls: Generally refer to required operating procedures, inspections and documentation (see Section 2). 2) Physical Controls: Generally refer to physical equipment (see Section 3). 2. Air Emission Documentation Controls To achieve Nike’s air emission objective, each facility must be able to demonstrate they have the following documentation controls in place: a. Emission source inventory. The facility must have available for inspection an inventory of all emission sources. The inventory must include: Figure 2-1: Stackhead Designs
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1) Location of emission sources. 2) Types and quantities of pollutant emitted. 3) Air pollution control devices and removal efficiencies. 4) Permit numbers for emission sources and control devices. b. Asbestos Inventory. Contractor/employer must maintain an asbestos inventory that includes the location and type (friable versus nonfriable). c. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Inventory. Contractor/employer must maintain a CFC inventory that includes: 1) Location and type of equipment. 2) Quantity and type of CFCs. d. Ozone Depleting Chemical (ODC) Inventory. (Sample chemicals below.) Contractor/employer must maintain an ODC inventory that includes: 1) Location, type and quantity of ODCs. 2) Chart depicting ODC quantity versus month/ year. Table 2-1: Abbreviated ODC Table
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e. Routine inspections and maintenance. Contractor/employer must maintain a record of inspections and maintenance for all pollution control devices to ensure their effectiveness.
3. Air Emissions Physical Controls Processes that utilize volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) or emit other toxic substances must have air quality physical control devices installed, such as: Figure 2-2: Fume Hood Cutaway
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a. Fume hoods and spray booths. Must be equipped with pollution control devices. b. Buffing and grinding equipment. Must be equipped with exhaust fans and bag-houses to collect dust particles. c. Pollution control equipment 1) Used filters must be replaced on a regular basis. 2) Used filters must be tested to ensure they are not a hazardous waste prior to disposal.
Figure 2-3: Dust and Centrifugal Collector
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B. Hazardous Waste 1. General Principles a. Hazardous wastes from production and nonproduction sources are required to be controlled, minimized and/or eliminated whenever possible. Many countries have specific laws and regulations that regulate these substances and each facility must know these requirements. b. A hazardous waste is generally defined by the following characteristics: 1) It is a solid, liquid or gas substance that can no longer be used and must be discarded. 2) It is flammable (flash point below 100 degrees Fahrenheit (37.8 degrees Celsius). 3) It is corrosive (acids or oxidizers). 4) It is toxic (generally referred to as poisons). 5) It is explosive (easily ignitable with violent reaction). 6) It is radioactive. c. The contractor/employer must be aware that hazardous wastes come from a variety of sources and that these wastes left uncontrolled can adversely impact human health and the environment. Hazardous wastes are required to be controlled, minimized and/or eliminated inaccordance with Nike standards and local requirements. The primary areas where hazardous wastes will be found are: 1) Solvent cleaning or materials preparation areas. 2) Spot cleaning areas (used rags).
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3) Painting operations (paint gun cleaners and paint removers). 4) Maintenance areas (cleaners, light ballasts, used batteries, used hydrologic fluids, etc.).
5) Wastewater treatment sludges. 6) Empty solvent cleaning and wastewater treatment chemical containers (e.g., drums and 5 gallon (19 liter) cans). 7) Laboratory wastes. 8) Cooling tower chemicals. 9) Landscaping (pesticides and herbicides). 10) Used filters. d. All hazardous waste sources must be addressed by Documentation and Physical Controls and combinations of both. 1) Documentation Controls: Generally refer to required operating procedures, inspections and documentation (see Section 2). 2) Physical Controls: Generally refer to physical equipment (see Section 3). 2. Hazardous waste Documentation Controls. To achieve Nike’s hazardous waste management objective each facility must be able to demonstrate they have the following administrative controls in place: a. Hazardous waste inventory. The facility should have available for inspection an inventory of all hazardous waste sources. 1) Waste streams are characterized as hazardous by laboratory testing or process knowledge. b. Hazardous waste reporting. The facility must maintain a hazardous waste reporting form.
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c. Hazardous waste handling procedures and training. The facility must have written procedures for hazardous handling, storage and disposal and documented employee training (including emergency response and spill training). d. Hazardous waste disposal facilities. The facility must maintain a list of disposal facilities used for all off site disposal including: 1) Date of disposal. 2) Location and name of disposal facility. 3) Name and quantity of waste disposed. 4) Tracking or shipping numbers as applicable. e. Routine inspections and maintenance. Contractor/employer must maintain a record of inspections for hazardous waste storage areas. 3. Hazardous Waste Physical Controls. Hazardous wastes must have the following engineering controls in place: a. Hazardous waste containers. The facility must use containers for hazardous waste (including containers in satellite accumulation areas) that meet the following requirements: 1) Are appropriate for the waste being stored in them (e.g., acids are not stored in metal drums). 2) Are clearly labeled “Hazardous Waste.” (See Figure 2-4 next page.) 3) Are closed (except when adding hazardous waste). 4) Ignitable wastes are bonded and grounded. (See Chapter 3, pages 17–22.)
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b. Designated storage areas that include the following: 1) Impermeable floor surface (concrete or other).
2) Emergency response equipment (spill kits). 3) Covered or otherwise protected from rain or other elements. Figure 2-4: Hazardous Waste Labels
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4) Secondary containment equal to 110 percent of volume of materials stored. 5) Separate areas for incompatible wastes (e.g., acids and oxidizers). 6) Signage indicating storage of hazardous wastes. 7) Locking gate or door. c. Designated satellite/workplace hazardous waste accumulation areas that include the following: 1) Clearly marked and designated as satellite/ workplace hazardous waste accumulation area. 2) Must be at or near the point of generation. Figure 2-5: Secondary Containment Unit
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C. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) 1. General Principles
a. The presence of PCBs can pose a significant threat to the environment and well being of employees. PCBs are typically found in capacitors, transformers and other electrical equipment and if released, can contaminate air, soil and water. b. PCBs have been used in many industrial applications. Because of their insulating properties, chemical instability and relative inflammability, they have been typically found in the following: 1) Capacitors 2) Transformers 3) Electrical equipment 4) Plasticizers 5) Surface coatings 6) Inks 7) Adhesives 8) Flame retardants 9) Paints c. All PCBs must be managed using Documentation and Physical Controls or a combination of both. 1) Documentation Controls: Generally refer to required operating procedures, inspections and documentation (see Section 2). 2) Physical Controls: Generally refer to physical equipment (see Section 3).
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2. PCB Documentation Controls To achieve Nike’s management objectives, each facility must be able to demonstrate they have the following documentation controls in place: a. PCB survey. The facility must have available for inspection an inventory of all suspected PCBcontaining equipment. Inventory will include but not be limited to: 1) Lighting equipment (ballasts) 2) On-site transformers b. Laboratory analyses of suspected PCB containing equipment. c. If necessary, facility must develop PCB removal plan or develop procedures to manage PCBcontaining equipment left in service, including routine maintenance and equipment inspections. d. Facility must establish procedures to ensure all PCB-containing equipment that is removed for disposal is removed to an approved disposal facility; applicable employees must be trained on these procedures. e. Records of removal and disposal of PCB containing equipment must be maintained. 3. PCB Physical Controls The following physical control must be in place: “Waste” light ballasts identified as PCB containing must be accumulated separately from other solid wastes.
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D. Wastewater 1. General Principles
a. Discharges of process and sanitary (people related) wastewater to the outside environment are required to be controlled, minimized and/or treated at all owned and contracted facilities. Uncontrolled (untreated) discharges can have an adverse effect to both human health and the environment and are specifically regulated by both Nike standards and local/country requirements. b. The contractor/employer must be aware of how contaminated water discharges are emitted to the outside environment and how these discharges can be controlled, minimized and/or eliminated. The typical areas where wastewater discharges will be found are: 1) Solvent cleaning processes. 2) Outsole and midsole degreasers. 3) Compressor and boiler blow-down. 4) Cooling tower blow-down. 5) Sanitary systems (toilets, kitchens and canteens in factories and dormitories). 6) Wastewater treatment plant. 7) Laminating. 8) Mold shops. 9) Dyeing. 10) Outside cleaning. 11) Outside chemical storage areas. 12) Waste storage areas.
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13) Chemical dispensing areas. 14) Vehicle parking areas. c. Documentation and Physical Controls or combinations of both must address all discharge sources. 1) Documentation Controls: Generally refer to required operating procedures, inspections and documentation (see Section 2). 2) Physical Controls: Generally refer to physical equipment (see Section 3). 2. Wastewater Documentation Controls To achieve wastewater objectives, each facility must be able to demonstrate it has the following administrative controls in place: a. Discharge source inventory. The facility must have available for inspection an inventory of all discharge sources. The inventory must include: 1) Location of discharge points and discharge sources. 2) Types and quantities of pollutant discharged. 3) Water pollution control devices (wastewater treatment plants, oil/water separators, etc.) and removal efficiencies. 4) Permit numbers for discharge sources and control devices as appropriate. b. Discharge Sampling Plan. The facility must maintain a wastewater (including rain water) sampling plan that includes: 1) The locations and types of samples (including sludge from wastewater treatment plants).
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2) Name of certified laboratory performing the analyses. 3) Frequency of sampling.
c. Employee Training. Facility must ensure employees operating wastewater treatment equipment are properly trained and include the following; 1) Training records and certifications. 2) Personal protective equipment. 3) Emergency operational control (shutdown) procedures. d. Routine inspections and maintenance. Facility must maintain a record of inspections and maintenance for all wastewater pollution control devices to ensure their effectiveness 3. Wastewater Physical Controls Processes where water and toxic substances directly interact and are discharged from the facility must have one of the following wastewater engineering control in place: a. Wastewater Treatment Plant Must be designed to meet discharge standards. b. Oil/Water Separator For operations where oil and gasoline are washed down to drains. c. Outside Drains and curbing. Rain water that may interact with materials and equipment stored outside the facility must be managed by: 1) Diverting from running off the facility by curbs, berms, or culverts.
Figure 2-6: Wastewater Treatment Process
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2) Collected in a drainage system that is separate from the process and sanitary wastewater system. 3) Tested prior to discharge.
2 E. Solid Waste 1. General Principles a. Solid wastes from production and non-production sources are required to be controlled, minimized and/or eliminated whenever possible. b. The contractor/employer must be aware that solid wastes come from a variety of sources and that these wastes take resources to manage (money and time) and can adversely impact the environment. Solid wastes are required to be controlled, minimized or eliminated in-accordance with Nike standards and local requirements. Examples of solid waste are: 1) Packaging scrap (boxes, straps, pallets, wraps, etc.). 2) Cutting and trimming wastes. 3) Office waste (paper, boxes, etc.). 4) Cafeteria wastes. 5) Dorm wastes. 7) Maintenance wastes (waste oils, scrap metal, wood, empty containers, landscaping debris). 8) Production wastes (defective product, gloves, dust masks, empty containers, rags, etc.). c. All solid waste sources must be addressed by Documentation and Physical Controls or a combination of both.
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1) Documentation Controls: Generally refer to required operating procedures, inspections and documentation (see Section 2). 2) Physical Controls: Generally refer to physical equipment (see Section 3). 2. Solid Waste Documentation Controls To achieve the solid-waste management objective, each facility must be able to demonstrate they have the following documentation controls in place: a. Solid waste inventory. The facility must have available for inspection an inventory of all solid waste sources. b. Solid waste reporting. Contractor/employer must maintain a solid waste reporting form on a monthly basis that includes: 1) Total waste. 2) Disposed waste. 3) Recycled waste. c. Routine inspections and maintenance. Contractor/employer must maintain a record of inspections for solid waste storage areas. d. Disposal method must be documented. e. Solid waste disposal. The facility must maintain a list for solid-waste disposal that includes the following: 1) Name of vendors collecting solid waste and removing offsite. 2) Vendor permits that may be necessary for solid waste disposal and/or recycling. 3) Date of disposal.
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4) Location and name of disposal facility. 3. Solid Waste Physical Controls
Solid wastes must have the following physical controls in place: a. Separate garages or bins for each waste (including liquid wastes and recyclables). 1) Garages or bins must be covered. 2) Garages or bins must have adequate flooring (concrete or other impermeable surface). 3) Garages or bins must be secured with fire suppression equipment. b. Solid wastes must be separated from liquid waste storage. c. Labeled and marked 1) Labels must indicate waste designation (e.g., trash, recycle, etc.). 2) Signs must indicate that smoking is prohibited. 3) All labels and signs must appear in both English and the language of the employee.
F. Underground Storage Tank 1. General Principles a. The presence and use of underground storage tanks (USTs) can pose a significant threat to the environment. USTs are typically used for storage of fuels and other industrial chemicals that if released can contaminate both the soil and ground water. Appropriate control and management of USTs is required by Nike Code Leadership standards and local requirements.
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b. The contractor/employer must be aware that there are various types of storage units that are considered to be “underground” storage tanks, these can include: 1) Bulk fuel storage tanks with more than 10 percent of the tank located below ground level. 2) Vaults. 3) Material conveyance piping (70 percent or more located below ground). 4) Sumps. 5) Trenches. c. All USTs must be managed using Documentation and Physical Controls or a combination of both. 1) Documentation Controls: Generally refer to required operating procedures, inspections and documentation (see Section 2). 2) Physical Controls: Generally refer to physical equipment (see Section 3). 2. UST Documentation Controls To achieve the UST management objectives, each facility must be able to demonstrate they have the following documentation controls in place: a. Records that indicate UST type, location, size, age, and contents. b. Fill and overfill prevention procedures. The facility must have UST fill procedures available for inspection. c. Certification of employee training. The facility must have available for inspection employee training records on proper tank management and spill response.
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d. Spill response procedures. The facility must have appropriate spill response procedures available for inspection.
e. Periodic tank inspections. The facility must inspect all USTs daily and document equipment inspected and any necessary repairs or corrective actions. f. The UST must be tested annually to ensure tank is not leaking. 3. UST Physical Controls USTs must have the following physical control devices installed: a. Secondary containment/protective barriers. All USTs must have secondary containment. 1) Must be capable of holding 110 percent of the storage tank capacity. Figure 2-7: Underground Storage Tank With Secondary Containment Barrier
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2) Exposed UST components such as vent pipes and fill valves must have appropriate physical barriers to protect them from contact with vehicles and machinery. b. Corrosion protection is added to unprotected steel USTs. c. Leak detection systems. 1) All USTs must have an operating leakdetection system. (See Figure 2-7 previous page.) 2) Leak detection systems must be periodically calibrated. d. Marking and labeling. 1) All USTs must have appropriate markings and labels indicating tank contents and applicable hazards. (See Chapter 3, Section B, Hazardous Materials Labeling). 2) Vent pipes and other ancillary tank components must be labeled. e. Spill response equipment. All USTs must have appropriate spill response equipment located within 50 feet (15 meters) of all USTs, or as specified by regulatory requirements. Equipment includes but is not limited to the following: 1) Alarms or other communication devices. 2) Booms and dykes. 3) Gloves, splash guards and other personal protective equipment.
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G. Aboveground Storage Tanks 1. General Principles
a. The presence and use of aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) can pose a significant threat to the environment. ASTs are typically used for storage of fuels and other industrial chemicals that, if released, can contaminate soil, surface water and ground water. Appropriate control and management of ASTs is required by Nike Code Leadership standards and local requirements. b. The contractor/employer must be aware that there are various types of storage units that are considered to be “aboveground” storage tanks. These can include but are not be limited to the following: 1) Bulk fuel storage tanks. 2) Boiler fuel reservoirs. 3) Solvent baths. c. All ASTs must be managed using Documentation and Physical Controls or a combination of both. 1) Documentation Controls: Generally refer to required operating procedures, inspections and documentation (see Section 2). 2) Physical Controls: Generally refer to physical equipment (see Section 3). 2. AST Documentation Controls To achieve the AST management objectives, each facility must be able to demonstrate they have the following documentation controls in place: a. Records that indicate AST type, location, size, age, and contents.
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b. Fill and overfill prevention procedures. The facility must have AST fill procedures available for inspection. c. Certification of employee/subcontractor training. The facility must have available for inspection employee training records on proper tank management and spill response. d. Spill response procedures. The facility must have available for inspection appropriate spill response procedures. e. Periodic Tank inspections. The facility must inspect all ASTs weekly and document equipment inspected and any necessary repairs or corrective actions. 3. AST Physical Controls ASTs must have the following physical control devices installed: a. Secondary containment/protective barriers. All ASTs must have secondary containment. (See Figure 2-8 next page.) 1) Must be capable of holding 110 percent of the storage tank capacity. 2) Exposed AST and AST components, such as piping and fill valves, must have appropriate physical barriers to protect them from contact with vehicles and machinery. b. Tank fill and dispensing pipe must be locked at all times (except when in use). c. Marking and labeling. 1) All ASTs must have appropriate markings and labels indicating tank contents and applicable
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Figure 2-8: Aboveground Storage Tanks With Secondary Containment Barriers
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hazards. (See Chapter 3, Section B, Hazardous Materials labeling.) 2) Piping and other ancillary tank components must be labeled. d. Spill response equipment. All ASTs must have appropriate spill response equipment located within 50 feet (15 meters) of all ASTs or as specified by regulatory requirements. Equipment must include but not be limited to the following: 1) Alarms or other communication devices. 2) Booms and dykes. 3) Gloves, splash guards and other personal protective equipment.
H. Spill Response 1. General Principles a. Chemicals, oils and other potentially hazardous materials (Hazmat) are a part of many of the manufacturing and maintenance processes at owned and contracted facilities. b. Contractors/employers must be aware that there is a potential for these chemicals, oils and potentially hazardous materials to be spilled. The facility must always be prepared to respond to such spills so as not to adversely affect human health and/or the environment and to ensure that they are managed in-accordance with Nike standards and local requirements. The primary areas where spills can occur are: 1) Hazmat receiving areas. 2) Hazmat dispensing and storage areas. 3) Chemical cleaning processes.
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4) Maintenance areas. 5) Oil storage areas. 6) Waste water treatment facilities.
7) Anywhere Hazmat may be used. c. All potential spills must be addressed by Documentation and Physical Controls or a combination of both. 1) Documentation Controls: Generally refer to required operating procedures, inspections and documentation (see Section 2). Figure 2-9: HazMat Storage Area
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2) Physical Controls: Generally refer to physical equipment (see Section 3). 2. Spill Response Documentation Controls To achieve the spill response objective each facility must be able to demonstrate they have the following documentation controls in place: a. Spill response plan and procedures. The facility must have available for inspection a spill response plan which designates the following: 1) Individuals responsible for coordinating spill response activities. 2) Alarms and warnings. 3) Evacuation procedures. 4) Area specific spill response procedures. b. Spill response training. The facility must have available for inspection spill response training records for all employees identified as spill responders. c. Spill corrective action form. The facility must maintain a record of spill causes and corrective actions. d. Periodic spill response drills. The facility must have available for inspection records of periodic spill response drills. 3. Spill Response Physical Controls a. Spill Control Stations. Facilities must have a spill control station in place. Spill control stations must be located within 50 feet (15 meters) of all
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potential spill sites and include but not be limited to the following:
1) Personal protective equipment (see Material Safety Data Sheet) for recommended equipment). 2) Chemical absorbent. 3) Drain covers. 4) Waste receptacles (buckets, drums, etc.). 5) Decontamination procedures.
Figure 2-10: Spill Kit
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Figure 2-11: Spill Response Cart
3. Chemical Management A. Chemical Hazard Communication Programs must consist of the following items: 1. A survey of potentially hazardous materials found at facilities. 2. A written procedure outlining methods for dealing with potentially hazardous materials found onsite. This procedure must be available for employee examination. 3. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are information data sheets on each potentially hazardous material that provide basic data on the characteristics and potential hazards associated with the material. These sheets must be readily accessible. 4. Labeling of containers of potentially hazardous materials to inform users of the contents and their potential hazards. 5. Employee training to acquaint employees with the potential hazards associated with materials in the workplace and the safe methods for working with them.
B. Hazardous Material Labeling There are three main systems of hazard warning labels that employees are likely to encounter: U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Hazardous Material Identification System (HMIS®), and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Employees must be aware of each of these systems.
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1. The following is a partial listing of the more commonly encountered DOT labels. DOT labels must be used on vehicles transporting hazardous materials and on containers used for transportation.
a. Explosives. Substances that will ignite with a violent reaction and can cause massive destruction.
Figure 3-1: Hazard Communications
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b. Non-Flammable Gas. A compressed gas that will not readily burn and is not poisonous. It is hazardous because it is under pressure and/or it can suffocate a person within a confined space. c. Flammable Gas. A gas that, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a flammable mixture with air at a concentration of 13 percent by volume or less. d. Poison Gas. Gases such as chlorine and anhydrous ammonia that are poisonous to humans or animals when inhaled. e. Flammable Liquid. Any liquid having a flash point below 100o F (37.8o C). Excluded are mixtures of liquids having components with flash points of 100 o F (37.8 o C) or higher, if the total of these components makes up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture. f. Flammable Solid. A solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive, that is liable to cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing, or that can be
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ignited readily and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious hazard.
g. Oxidizer and Oxidizing Agent. A substance that yields oxygen readily to stimulate the combustion (oxidation) of organic matter. h. Poison. A substance that is harmful to human health. Also called toxic. i. Radioactive. Material that emits radioactive particles or rays, such as many of the materials used in well logging or for industrial radiography. j. Corrosive. Causes visible destruction or irreversible alterations in living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. Causes a severe corrosion rate in steel. 2. The Hazardous Material Identification System (HMIS®) is a registered trademark of the National Paint & Coating Association. The code numbers are on a scale of 0 for no hazard to 4 for high hazard. Labels are coded for degree of health hazard, flammability, and reactivity. Recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) is written on the label at the time the label is placed into service. The codes are presented in Figure 3-2 facing page. The numbers on the label (Figure 3-3 on page 3-6) were selected solely for illustration purposes.
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Figure 3-2 HMIS® Chart
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Figure 3-3: HMIS® Label
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3. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) system is used in industrial plant and storage locations to provide information for fire fighting and emergency response personnel. The code numbers are on a scale of 0 for no hazard to 4 for high hazard. The labels are coded for degree of health hazard, fire hazard, reactivity, and special hazard. The numbers in Figure 3-4 below were created solely for illustration purposes. (See also Table 3-1: Hazardous Materials Guide next page.) Figure 3-4: NFPA Hazardous Materials Classification Chart
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Table 3-1: NFPA Hazardous Materials Guide
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C. Restricted Manufacturing Substances (RMS) 1. General Principals a. A number of chemicals are considered to be harmful to human health and the environement and are banned from being used at any phase of the manufacturing process at owned and contracted facilities. b. Contractors/employers must be aware that these chemicals are not to be used at any time and each facility is responsible for ensuring that only approved chemicals are used in accordance with Nike Code Leadership standards and local requirements. The primary areas where potentially non-approved chemicals will be found are: 1) Solvent-cleaning processes 2) Mixing rooms 3) Dye-preparation areas 4) Chemical storage areas 5) Maintenance areas 6) Rubber rooms 7) Molding areas 8) Painting/silk screening areas 9) Waste water pretreatment c. Prevention of banned chemicals entering into production and other processes can be effectively addressed by Documentation Controls. 1) Documentation Controls: Generally refer to required operating procedures, inspections and documentation (see Section 2).
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2. Banned Chemicals Documentation Controls To achieve the banned chemical use objective, each facility should be able to demonstrate they have the following documentation controls in place:
a. Chemical Inventory. The facility should have available for inspection a current inventory of all chemicals used on site. The inventory must include: 1) Name and process where chemicals are used 2) Quantities used and stored on site 3) MSDS 4) Certification the chemicals are not on the applicable RMS b. Purchase Approval Procedure. The facility must maintain a procedure to review all requests for new chemical purchases. The procedure must include: 1) Review of MSDS 2) Cross-check of proposed purchase against the RMS 3) Chemicals approved for purchase list 4) Chemical requisition form c. Routine Inspections. The facility must maintain a record of inspections for all chemical storage areas to ensure all chemicals on site are not on the RMS.
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D. Chemical Storage, Handling, Distribution, Dispensing 1. Solvents and Cleaning Agents a. Do not use gasoline or any other similar flammable materials for cleaning purposes. b. Review cleaning agent container labels to determine if contents are acceptable for the intended use. c. Incompatible materials must be stored separately. d. Cleaning agents must not be heated, or used on hot surfaces or near flames. e. Place rags that have been used with cleaning agents in designated covered metal containers until they can be properly cleaned or disposed of. f. Avoid skin contact with solvent liquids or inhaling vapors. Use nitrile, neoprene, or other suitable gloves to protect hands when using solvents and cleaning agents. If a cleaning agent or solvent comes in contact with the skin, clean the affected area with soap and water and apply a lotion to replace the natural body oils. g. Remove clothing that becomes contaminated with a cleaning agent as soon as possible. Clean skin with soap and water to prevent a chemical burn. h. Areas where cleaning solvents are used must be well ventilated. i. Fusible links on parts washers must not be modified or bypassed. [See Some Incompatible Chemicals next pages.]
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2. Electrical Bonding and Grounding a. Before transfer or collection of flammable liquids, dispensing containers or process equipment must be properly grounded and bonded to a receiving container. b. Static electricity is generated by the contact and separation of dissimilar material. For example, static electricity is generated when a fluid flows through a pipe, or from an orifice, into a tank. The principal hazards created by static electricity are those of fire and exposure, which are caused by spark dischargers containing sufficient energy to ignite any flammable or explosive vapors, gases, or dust which are present. Also, the shocking of personnel may cause an involuntary reaction, such as falling, which may lead to an injury. c. A point of great danger from a static spark is the place where a flammable vapor may be present in
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the air, such as an outlet of a flammable liquid fill pipe, a delivery hose nozzle, near an open flammable liquid container and around a tank truck fill opening or barrel bunghole. A spark between two bodies occurs when there is not a good electrical conductive path between them. Hence, grounding and bonding of flammable liquid containers is necessary to prevent static electricity from causing a spark. d. The terms “bonding” and “grounding” often have been used interchangeably because of poor understanding of the terms. Bonding is done to eliminate the difference in potential between objects. The purpose of grounding is to eliminate the difference in potential between an object and the ground. Bonding and grounding are effective only when the bonded objects are conductive. Although bonding will eliminate a difference in potential between the objects that are bonded, it will not eliminate a difference in potential between these objects and the earth unless one of the objects possesses an adequate conductive path to earth. Therefore, bonding will not eliminate the static charge, but will equalize potential between the objects bonded so that the spark will not occur between them. e. When two objects are bonded, the charges flow freely between the bodies and there is no difference in charge. f. An adequate ground will always discharge a charged conductive body and is recommended as a safety measure whenever any doubt exists concerning a situation, or a governing authority requires it.
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g. To avoid a spark from discharge of static electricity during filling operations, a wire bond should be provided between the storage container and the container being filled, unless the metallic path between the container is otherwise present. For additional safety, it is advisable to have the bonding wire or one of the containers grounded. h. Bonding and grounding systems should be checked regularly for performance, especially electrically. Preferably before each fill, the exposed part of the bonding and grounding system should be inspected for parts which have deteriorated because of corrosion or have otherwise been damaged. Many companies specify that bonds and grounds be constructed of bare, braided, flexible wire because it facilitates inspection and prevents broken wires from being concealed. i. Figure 3-5 (next page) shows one method of bonding and grounding a metal receiving container. 3. Flammable Liquids a. Proper storage and use of flammable liquids can significantly reduce the possibility of accidental fires and injury to employees. The following are guidelines for handling flammable/combustible liquids. b. Definitions 1) Flammable Liquid—A liquid with a flashpoint below 100° F (38° C). a) Class IA—Flashpoint below 73° F (23° C) and boiling point below 100° F (38° C). b) Class IB—Flashpoint below 73° F (23° C) and boiling point above 100° F (38° C).
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c) Class IC—Flash at or above 73° F (23° C) and below 100° F (38° C). 2) Combustible Liquids—A liquid having a flash point at or above 100° F (38° C). 3) Class II Combustibles—Flashpoint above 100° F (38° C) and below 140° F (60° C).
4) Class III Combustibles—Flashpoint at or above 140° F (60° C).
Figure 3-5: Bonding and Grounding Metal Receiving Container
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a) Subclass IIIA—Flashpoint at or above 140° F (60° C) and below 200° F (93° C). b) Subclass IIIB—Flashpoint at or above 200° F (93° C). c. Responsibilities 1) Facility Management a) Provide proper storage for flammable liquids. b) Ensure proper training is provided to employees who work with flammable liquids. c) Ensure containers are properly labeled. 2) Supervisors a) Provide adequate training in the use and storage of flammable liquids. b) Monitor for proper use and storage. c) Keep only the minimum amount required on hand. d) Ensure MSDS are current for all flammable liquids. 3) Employees a) Follow all storage and use requirements. b) Report deficiencies in storage and use to supervisors. c) Immediately report spills to supervisors. d. Hazard Control 1) Engineering Controls a) Properly designed flammable storage areas.
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b) Ventilated storage areas. c) Grounding straps on drums and dispensing points. 2) Administrative Controls a) Designated storage areas.
b) Limited amount of flammable liquids in use and storage. c) Employee training. d) Limited and controlled access to bulk storage areas. e) Posted danger, warning and hazard signs. e. Substitution Flammable liquids sometimes may be substituted by relatively safe materials in order to reduce the risk of fires. Any substituted material should be stable and nontoxic and should either be nonflammable or have a high flashpoint. f. Storage and Usage of Flammable Liquids Flammable and combustible liquids require careful handling at all times. The proper storage of flammable liquids within a work area is very important in order to protect personnel from fire and other safety and health hazards. 1) Storage of Flammable liquids should be in NFPA approved flammable storage lockers. Do not store other combustible materials near flammable storage areas or lockers. 2) Bulk drums of flammable liquids must be grounded and bonded to containers during dispensing. (See Figures 3-6 and 3-7 following pages.)
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3) Portable containers of gasoline or diesel are not to exceed 5 gallons (19 liters). 4) Safety cans used for dispensing flammable or combustible liquids should be kept at points of use. 5) Appropriate fire extinguishers are to be mounted within 75 feet (22.86 meters) of outside areas containing flammable liquids, and within 10 feet (3 meters) of any inside storage area for such materials. 6) Storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids must have explosion-proof light fixtures. 7) Bulk storage of gasoline, diesel, or oil are kept in above ground tanks. Tank areas are diked to contain accidental spills. All tank areas must be designated no smoking, no hot work, no open flame areas. Figure 3-6: Examples of Bonded and Grounded Metal Receiving Containers
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Figure 3-7: Examples of Bonded and Grounded Metal Receiving Containers
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8) No flames, hotwork, or smoking is permitted in flammable or combustible liquid storage areas. 9) The maximum amount of flammable liquids that may be stored in a building are: a) 20 gallons (76 liters) of Class IA liquids in containers b) 100 gallons (378 liters) of Class IB, IC, II, or III liquids in containers c) 500 gallons (1,893 liters) of Class IB, IC, II, or III liquids in a single portable tank 10) Flammable liquid transfer areas are to be separated from other operations by distance or by construction having proper fire resistance. 11) When not in use, flammable liquids must be kept in covered containers. 12) Class I liquids must be used only where there are no open flames or other sources of ignition within the possible path of vapor travel. 13) Flammable or combustible liquids must be drawn from or transferred into vessels, containers, or portable tanks within a building only through a closed piping system, from safety cans, by means of a device drawing through the top, or from a container or portable tanks by gravity through an approved self-closing valve that is bonded and grounded. Transferring by means of air pressure on the container or portable tanks must be prohibited. 14) Maintenance and operating practices must be in accordance with established procedures which will tend to control leakage and prevent the accidental escape of flammable or combus-
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tible liquids. Spills must be cleaned up promptly. 15) Combustible waste material and residues in a building or unit operating area must be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal receptacles, and disposed of daily.
16) Rooms in which flammable or combustible liquids are stored or handled by pumps must have exit facilities arranged to prevent occupants from being trapped in the event of fire. 17) Inside areas in which Class I liquids are stored or handled must be heated only by means not constituting a source of ignition, such as steam or hot water. g. Cabinets Not more than 120 gallons (454 liters) of Class I, Class II, and Class IIIA liquids may be stored in a storage cabinet. Of this total, not more than 60 gallons (227 liters) may be Class I and II liquids. Not more than three such cabinets (120 gallons (454 liters) each) may be located in a single fire area except in an industrial area. (See Figure 3-8 next page.) h. Containers The capacity of flammable and combustible liquid containers will be in accordance with Table 3-2 on page 3-26. i. Storage Inside Buildings Where approved storage cabinets or rooms are not provided, inside storage will comply with the following basic conditions:
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1) The storage of any flammable or combustible liquid must not physically obstruct a means of egress from the building or area. 2) Containers of flammable or combustible liquids must remain tightly sealed except when transferred, poured or applied. Remove only that portion of liquid in the storage container required to accomplish a particular job. 3) If a flammable and combustible liquid storage building is used, it will be a one-story building Figure 3-8: Storage Cabinet
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devoted principally to the handling and storing of flammable or combustible liquids. The building will have 2-hour fire-rated exterior walls having no opening within 10 feet (3 meters) of such storage.
4) Flammable paints, oils, and varnishes in 1 or 5 gallon (3.8 or 19 liter) containers, used for building-maintenance purposes, may be stored temporarily in closed containers outside approved storage cabinets or room if kept at the job site for less than 10 calendar days. Table 3-2: Recommended Storage Containers
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j. Ventilation Every inside storage room will be provided with a continuous mechanical exhaust ventilation system. To prevent the accumulation of vapors, the location of both the makeup and exhaust air openings will be arranged to provide, as far as practical, air movement directly to the exterior of the building and, if ducts are used, they will not be used for any other purpose. (See figure 3-9 below.)
Figure 3-9: Storage Locker Ventilation Fans
4. Facilities and Maintenance A. General Work Environment 1. Housekeeping a. Each employee is responsible for good housekeeping practices. b. Work areas must be maintained in an orderly manner. c. Tools and equipment must be stored when not in use. d. Work areas, walkways, and stairways must be kept free of slipping/tripping hazards. e. All spills must be promptly cleaned up. f. Exits must be kept free of obstructions. g. Access to emergency equipment (air packs, fire extinguishers, etc.) must be kept free and open at all times. h. All places of employment must be kept clean to the extent that the nature of the work allows.
Figure 4-1: Cluttered Shop Floor
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i. The floor of every workroom must be maintained, so far as practicable, in a dry condition. Where wet processes are used, drainage must be maintained and false floors, platforms, mats, or other dry-standing places must be provided, where practicable, or appropriate waterproof footgear must be provided.
j. To facilitate cleaning, every floor, working place, and passageway must be kept free from protruding nails, splinters, loose boards, and unnecessary holes and openings. k. All aisles, emergency exits, fire extinguishers, eyewash/shower stations, etc., must be kept clear (a minimum of 3 feet (0.9144 meters) of either side) of product storage, material storage, fork trucks and pallet jacks (temporary and permanent) at all times. l. Storage areas are kept orderly at all times. m. Smoking is not permitted inside buildings and/or within 50 feet (15.24 meters) of material storage. This includes all offices, rest rooms, production floor, storage areas, coolers, etc. Smoking is permitted outside in designated areas. To prevent fires and keep the grounds neat and orderly, all cigarette/cigar ashes and butts are to be disposed in the provided butt cans or ashtrays only. 2. Floors and Walls a. A standard railing and toeboard must guard every floor opening. The railing must be provided on all exposed sides (except at entrance to stairway). For infrequently used stairways where traffic across the opening prevents the use of fixed standard railing (as when located in aisle spaces, etc.), the guard must consist of a hinged floor opening cover of
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standard strength and construction and removable standard railings on all exposed sides (except at entrance to stairway). b. Every wall opening from which there is a drop of more than 4 feet (1.22 meters) must be guarded. c. Every open-sided floor or platform 4 feet (1.22 meters) or more above adjacent floor or ground level must be guarded by a standard railing on all open sides except where there is entrance to a ramp, stairway, or fixed ladder. The railing must be provided with a toeboard if a person can pass beneath the open sides, if there is moving machinery, or there is equipment with which falling materials could create a hazard. d. Every flight of stairs having 4 or more risers must be equipped with standard stair railings or standard handrails. e. A standard railing must consist of top rail, intermediate rail, and posts, and must have a vertical height of 42 inches (106.68 centimeters) nominal from upper surface of top rail to floor, platform, runway, or ramp level. The top rail must be smooth-surfaced throughout the length of the railing. The intermediate rail must be approximately halfway between the top rail and the floor, platform, runway, or ramp. The ends of the rails must not overhang the terminal posts except where such overhang does not constitute a projection hazard. 3. Stairways and Elevated Work Surfaces a. Fixed stairs must be provided for access from one structure level to another where operations necessitate regular travel between levels, and for access to operating platforms at any equipment
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that requires attention routinely during operations. Fixed stairs must also be provided where access to elevations is daily or at each shift for such purposes as gauging, inspection, regular maintenance, etc., where such work may expose employees to acids, caustics, gases, or other harmful substances, or for which purposes the carrying of tools or equipment by hand is normally required. (It is not the intent of this section to preclude the use of fixed ladders for access to elevated tanks, towers, and similar structures, overhead traveling cranes, etc., where the use of fixed ladders is common practice.) Spiral stairways shall not be permitted except for special limited usage and secondary access situations where it is not practical to provide a conventional stairway. Winding stairways may be installed on tanks and similar round structures where the diameter of the structure is not less than 5 feet (1.52 meters). b. Fixed stairways shall be designed and constructed to carry a load of 5 times the normal live load anticipated but never of less strength than to carry safely a moving concentrated load of 1,000 pounds (373 kilograms). c. Fixed stairways must have a minimum width of 22 inches (56 centimeters). d. Fixed stairs must be installed at angles to the horizontal of between 30 degrees and 50 degrees. Any uniform combination of rise/tread dimensions may be used that will result in a stairway at an angle to the horizontal within the permissible range. e. All treads must be reasonably slip-resistant and the nosings must be of nonslip finish. Welded bar
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Figure 4-2: Runs and Risers for Stairs
Figure 4-3: Safe Angles for Ladders, Stairs and Ramps
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grating treads without nosings are acceptable, providing the leading edge can be readily identified by personnel descending the stairway and provided the tread is serrated or is of definite nonslip design. Rise height and tread width must be uniform throughout any flight of stairs including any foundation structure used as one or more treads of the stairs.
f. Stairway platforms must be no less than the width of a stairway and a minimum of 30 inches (76.2 centimeters) in length measured in the direction of travel. g. Standard railings must be provided on the open sides of all exposed stairways and stair platforms. Handrails must be provided on at least one side of closed stairways, preferably on the right side descending. h. Vertical clearance above any stair tread to an overhead obstruction must be at least 7 feet (2.134 meters) measured from the leading edge of the tread. i. Employees must not climb onto vessels, tank roofs, etc., without safeguards (planking, scaffolds, etc.). Working from any surface over 4 feet (1.22 meters) above adjacent floor or ground requires guardrails or that employees use safety belts. j. Where guardrails are installed, toe boards must be provided if a person can pass beneath the open sides or where falling materials can create a hazard. k. When on stairways or elevated work surfaces, employees must avoid carrying loads that extend above eye level or otherwise obstruct vision.
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4. Exits a. Every building or structure must be provided with exits of kinds, numbers, location, and capacity appropriate to the individual building or structure, with due regard to the character of the occupancy, the number of persons exposed, the fire protection available, and the height and type of construction of the building or structure, to afford all occupants convenient facilities for escape. b. In every building or structure exits must be so arranged and maintained as to provide free and unobstructed egress from all parts of the building or structure at all times when it is occupied. No lock or fastening to prevent free escape from the inside of any building must be installed. c. Every exit must be clearly visible and the route to reach it must be conspicuously indicated in such a manner that every occupant of every building or structure who is physically and mentally capable will readily know the direction of escape from any point, and each path of escape, in its entirety, must be so arranged or marked that the way to a place of safety outside is unmistakable. d. Any doorway or passageway not constituting an exit or way to reach an exit, but of such a character as to be subject to being mistaken for an exit, must be so arranged or marked as to minimize its possible confusion with an exit and the resultant danger of persons endeavoring to escape from fire finding themselves trapped in a dead-
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end space, such as a cellar or storeroom, from which there is no other way out. e. Adequate and reliable illumination must be provided for all exit facilities.
f. In every building or structure of such size, arrangement, or occupancy that a fire may not itself provide adequate warning to occupants, fire alarms must be provided where necessary to warn occupants of the existence of fire so that they may escape, or to facilitate the orderly conduct of fire exit drills. g. Every building or structure, section, or area thereof of such size, occupancy, and arrangement that the reasonable safety of numbers of occupants may be endangered by the blocking of any single means of egress due to fire or smoke, must have at least 2 means of egress remote from each other, so arranged as to minimize any possibility that both may be blocked by any one fire or other emergency conditions. h. Every required exit, way of approach, and way of travel from the exit into the street or open space, must be continuously maintained free of all obstructions or impediments to full immediate use in the case of fire or other emergency. i. Every automatic sprinkler system, fire detection and alarm system, exit lighting, fire door, and other item of equipment, where provided, must be continuously in proper operating condition.
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5. Illumination a. The purpose of industrial lighting is to provide illumination in quality and quantity sufficient for safety and to enhance visibility and productivity within the work environment. It is essential to investigate and to understand the task, the environment, the lighting and their interrelationships. b. Luminance is frequently the one controllable factor in task visibility. Luminance resulting from the light on the task and its surroundings may be controlled by varying the amount and distribution of light. Luminance needed to see well is usually many times what is necessary for mere discernment. Higher luminance may compensate for deficiencies in the other contributing factors. c. Example of Illuminance Selection 1) Suppose a machine shop is to be relighted. The supervisor, with consultation with the department, determines the following: a) Worker Age: Young (under 40). b) Demands: Workers are under pressure to maintain close tolerances on die production. Speed and accuracy are considered important, but not critical, to production. 2) The supervisor then follows this step-by-step procedure: a) STEP 1. Define the visual task. Here, the supervisor uses the information obtained in a) and b) above. b) STEP 2. Find an illuminance category. Here, the supervisor refers to Table 4-2
Table 4-1 A and B: Illuminance Values, Maintained, in Lux for a Combination of Illuminance Categories and User, Room and Task Characteristics
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(page 4-12) to find an illuminance category of “E” under “Machine Shops,” in the subhead “medium bench or machine work.” c) STEP 3. Determine the illuminance on task category by cross referencing “E” and the appropriate weighting category in Table 41B (above). d) STEP 4. Refer to Table 4-1A (General Lighting Throughout Room) (facing page).
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Table 4-2: Recommended Illuminance Categories for Industrial Interiors
Area/Activity ............................................. Illuminance Category Clothing Manufacture (see Sewn Products) Receiving, opening, storing, shipping .................................. D Examining (perching) ........................................................... I Sponging, decating, winding, measuring ............................. D Piling up and marking ......................................................... E Cutting ............................................................................... G Pattern making, preparation of trimming, piping, canvas and shoulder pads ...................................................................... E Fitting, bundling, shading, stitching .................................... D Shops .................................................................................. F Inspection ........................................................................... G Pressing ............................................................................... F Sewing ................................................................................ G Leather Manufacturing Cleaning, tanning and stretching, vats ................................. D Cutting, freshing and stuffing ............................................. D Finishing and scarfing ......................................................... E Leather Working Pressing, winding, glazing ................................................... F Grading, matching, cutting, scarfing, sewing ....................... G Machine Shops Rough bench or machine work ........................................... D Medium bench or machine work, ordinary automatic machines, rough grinding, medium buffing and polishing .. E Fine bench or machine work, fine automatic machines, medium grinding, fine buffing and polishing ...................... G Extra-fine bench or machine work, grinding, fine work ...... H Materials Handling Wrapping, packing, labeling ................................................ D Picking stock, classifying ..................................................... D Loading, inside truck bodies and freight cars ....................... C Sewn Products Receiving, packing, shipping ............................................... E Opening, raw goods storage ................................................ E Designing, pattern-drafting, pattern grading and markermaking ..................................................................... F Computerized designing, pattern-making and grading,
Facilities and Maintenance 4–13 digitizing, marker-making, and plotting .............................. B Cloth inspection and perching ............................................. I Spreading and cutting (includes computerized cutting) ....... F Fitting, sorting and blunding, shading, stitch marking ........ G Sewing ................................................................................ G Pressing ............................................................................... F In-process and final inspection ............................................ G Finished goods storage and picking orders ........................... F Trim preparation, piping, canvas and shoulder pads ............ F Machine repair shops .......................................................... G Knitting .............................................................................. F Sponging, decating, rewinding, measuring .......................... E Leather working (see Leather working) Shoe manufacturing (see Shoe manufacturing) Shoe Manufacturing—Leather Cutting and stitching cutting tables ..................................... G Marking, buttonholding, skiving, sorting, vamping, counting .............................................................................. G Stitching, dark materials ...................................................... G Making and finishing, nailers, sole layers, well beaters and scrafers, sluggers, randers, wheelers, treers, cleaning, spraying, buffing, polishing, embossing ............................... F Shoe Manufacturing—Rubber Washing, coating, mill run compounding ........................... D Varnishing, vulcanizing, calendering, upper and sole cutting ................................................................................ D Sole rolling, lining, making and finishing processes ............. E Textile Mills Finishing Fabric preparation (desizing, scouring, bleaching, singeing, and mercerization) ......................................... D Fabric dyeing (printing) ................................................ D Fabric finishing (calendering, sanforizing, sueding, chemical treatment) ..................................................... Ea Inspection .................................................................. Ga,b a Supplementary lighting should be provided in this space to produce the higher levels required for specific seeing tasks involved. b
Color temperature of the light source is important for color matching.
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B. Ventilation 1. Exhaust Ventilation a. Exhaust ventilation systems are classified in 2 generic groups: General Exhaust System and Local Exhaust System.
b. The general exhaust system can be used for heat control and/or removal of contaminants generated in a space by flushing out a given space with large quantities of air. When used for heat control, the air may be tempered and recycled. When used for contaminant control (the dilution system), enough outside air must be mixed with the contaminant to reduce the average concentration to a safe level. The contaminated air is then typically discharged to the atmosphere. A supply system is usually used with a general exhaust system to replace the exhausted air. c. Dilution ventilation systems are normally used for contaminant control only when local exhaust is impractical, as the large quantities of tempered Figure 4-4: Direction of Air Flow
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replacement air required to offset the air exhausted can lead to high operating costs. d. Local exhaust ventilation systems operate on the principle of capturing a contaminant at or near its source. It is the preferred method of control because it is more effective and the smaller exhaust flow rate results in lower heating costs compared to high flow rate general exhaust requirements. The present emphasis on air pollution control stresses the need for efficient air-cleaning devices on industrial ventilation systems, and the smaller flow rates of the local exhaust system result in lower costs for air-cleaning devices. e. Local exhaust systems are comprised of up to 4 basic elements: the hood(s), the duct system(including the exhaust stack and/or recirculation duct), the air-cleaning device and the fan. The purpose of the hood is to collect contaminants generated in the air stream directed toward the hood. A duct system must then Figure 4-5: Inlet and Exhaust Locations
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transport the contaminated air to the air cleaning device, if present, or to the fan. In the air cleaner, the contaminant is removed from the air stream. The fan must overcome all the losses due to friction, hood entry, and fittings in the system while producing the intended flow rate. Figure 46 below shows examples of good and poor branch entry designs. Table 4-3: Range of Capture Velocities
Figure 4-6: Branch Entry
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4 Figure 4-7: Exhaust Monitoring
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2. Fume Hoods a. Testing Fume Hoods 1) A performance test to determine the operating condition of a fume hood must be conducted periodically. The test procedure outlined here presumes a bench-type laboratory hood. If other types of hoods are used, some modification of the test procedure may be required. The
Figure 4-8: Fume Hoods
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performance test does not constitute an engineering investigation of what the causes may be for poor performance of the fume hood or of ways to improve performance. However, the performance test could be used as an aid to such an investigation. 2) Generally, the toxicity level of the work done within the hood will determine the hood face velocities and the total amount of the exhaust air. Materials of little or no toxicity need face velocities only sufficient to maintain control under normal operating conditions. As toxicity levels rise, the face velocity should be increased to assure control. The recommended velocities for different toxic levels range from 80 FPM (24.38 MPM) to 130 FPM (39.62 MPM). Generally, 100 FPM (30.48 MPM) is satisfactory for most applications [Note: a Class B laboratory fume hood with a minimum average face velocity of 100 feet per minute (FPM) (30.48 meters per minute) would have about 1000 to 1300 cubic feet per minute (CFM) (305 to 396 cubic meters per minute (CMM)) of air exhausted through the hood. The equation for this calculation is Q = AV, where Q is air volume in CFM; A is face in square feet; and V is face velocity in FPM]. The facility must specify what level of performance is required for each hood. The tests must be in agreement with the toxicity level of the work to be performed in the fume hood and the safety standards established by the facility. 3) General activity in the facility must be normal. Air currents in front of the hood must be reduced or eliminated if possible. Conduct the test with the normal hood apparatus in place
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and operating. The following list is typical of the test devices needed to perform smoke tests: a) Smoke candles, ½ minute b) Smoke tubes c) Titanium tetrachloride d) Cotton swabs b. Smoke Test Procedure
1) To determine that a positive air flow is entering the hood over the entire face, take a complete traverse of the hood face with either: a) Titanium tetrachloride on a cotton swab. b) A smoke candle. c) A smoke tube. 2) Use a smoke tube, a smoke candle, or swab a stripe of titanium tetrachloride on pieces of tape to produce the necessary amount of smoke at the following test locations: (1) along both sides, the top and the work surface of the hood about 6 inches (15 centimeters) behind and in parallel to the hood face, (2) along the back panel and the baffle of the hood, and (3) around any equipment in the hood. Verify that all smoke is carried to the back of the hood and exhausted. The hood fails the test if visible smoke flows out the front of the hood. Reverse air flows or dead air spaces are not permitted. 3) With the sash open, ignite a smoke candle within the hood enclosure to observe the exhaust capacity of the hood. All smoke should flow quickly and directly to the back of the hood and be exhausted. Set the candle on the
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work surface and close the sash. With the sash closed, the hood must have enough air to dilute and exhaust the smoke. The hood fails the test if visible smoke flows out the front of the hood. Reverse airflows or dead air spaces are not permitted. 4) Place a pan of hot water in the center of the work area and add enough chunks of dry ice to the hot water to form a large volume of heavy white smoke. All smoke should flow directly to the back of the hood and be exhausted. The hood fails the test if visible smoke flows out the front of the hood. Reverse airflows or dead air spaces are not permitted.
C. Accident Prevention Signs and Tags 1. Signal Word. The word or words that designate a degree or level of hazard seriousness. The signal words for product safety signs are DANGER, WARNING, and CAUTION. a. DANGER: Indicates an imminently hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. This signal word is to be limited to the most extreme situations. b. CAUTION: Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury. It may also be used to alert against unsafe practices. Note: DANGER or WARNING must not be considered for property-damage accidents, unless personal injury risk appropriate to these levels is also involved. CAUTION is permitted for property-damage-only accidents.
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Figure 4-9: ANSI Tag Warnings
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Table 4-4: Color Table
D. Machine Shop Safety 1. General Rules a. Keep shop areas clean and orderly. b. Place junk, scrap, and waste in containers or specialized areas for proper disposal. c. The shop area must be properly lighted. d. Fire protection equipment effective for the potential hazards must be readily accessible. Refer to Chapter 6, Emergency Preparedness & Response. e. Appropriate first aid equipment must be provided, stocked, and readily available. Employees must know the locations of this equipment. Refer to Chapter 6, Emergency Preparedness & Response. f. Personal protective equipment (PPE) must be provided as needed. Such equipment must be
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properly maintained. Refer to Chapter 7, Personal Protective Equipment. 2. Bench and Pedestal Grinders a. Use appropriate eye protection when using grinders. b. Grinders must be equipped with tool/work rests adjusted to clear the abrasive wheel by not more than 1/8 inch (3.17 millimeters).
c. Adjust the tongue guard so that clearance is no more than ¼ inch (6.35 millimeters). d. In addition, protective shield guards must be provided on grinders and the grinding wheel must be rated for at least the RPM of the motor. e. Powered Abrasive Wheel Tools 1) Powered abrasive grinding, cutting, polishing, and wire buffing wheels create special safety problems because they may throw off flying fragments. Figure 4-10: Bench/Pedestal Grinder
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2) Before an abrasive wheel is mounted, it must be inspected closely and sound- or ring-tested to be sure that it is free from cracks or defects. To test, wheels should be tapped gently with a light non-metallic instrument. If they sound cracked or dead, they could fly apart in operation and so must not be used. A sound and undamaged wheel will give a clear metallic tone or “ring.” (See Figure 4-12: Ring Test next page.) 3) To prevent the wheel from cracking, the user must be sure it fits freely on the spindle. The spindle nut must be tightened enough to hold the wheel in place, without distorting the flange. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations. Care must be taken to assure that the spindle wheel will not exceed the abrasive wheel specifications. 4) Due to the possibility of a wheel disintegrating (exploding) during start-up, the employee must never stand directly in front of the wheel as it accelerates to full operating speed. Figure 4-11: Grinder Hood Adjustment
The hood or gap adjustment must be kept ¼ inch (6.35 millimeters) from the wheel and must be adjusted for wear.
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5) Portable grinding tools need to be equipped with safety guards to protect workers not only from the moving wheel surface, but also from flying fragments in case of breakage. 6) Powered Grinder Safety Precautions a) Always use eye protection. b) Turn off the power when not in use. c) Never clamp a hand-held grinder in a vise.
3. Air Hoses, Tools, and Compressors a. Air hoses must be raised over aisles and work areas to prevent tripping hazards. b. Eye protection must be worn when using an air tool for cleaning. c. Do not use more than 30 psi (pounds per square inch) (11.2 ksi (kilograms per square inch)) when using an air tool for cleaning. A sign must be posted stating that 30 psi (11.2 ksi) is the maximum pressure allowed. d. Do not dust off clothing with compressed air. Figure 4-12: Ring Test
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e. Hoses must be kept clean and stored in a manner that protects them and maintains their good condition when not in use. f. Air compressor and air receiver tanks must be equipped with spring-loaded pressure relief valves. These valves must be tested. Block valves must not Figure 4-13: Air Nozzle with Dead-end Safety Tip
Figure 4-14: Acceptable Methods for Use of Compressed Air
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be placed between the air receiver tank and the pressure relief valve. g. Drain liquid accumulation from air tanks periodically. h. Automatic starting compressors must have a warning sign stating that the unit starts automatically. NOTE:
Pressure relieving valves and gauges must be rated and set at air receiver manufacturer’s specifications. 4. Fan Guards (Exposure of Blades) When the periphery of the blades of a fan is less than 7 feet (2.13 meters) above the floor or working level, the blades must be guarded. The guard should have openings no larger than ½ inch (1.27 centimeters). (See Figure 4-15 below.) 5. Portable Hand Tools and Powered Hand Tools a. Hand tools are non-powered. They include anything from sledges to wrenches. Appropriate Figure 4-15: Some Types of Fan Guards
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personal protective equipment (e.g., safety goggles, gloves, etc.) must be worn, due to hazards that may be encountered while in use. 1) Tools must be examined, kept clean and functional, and repaired (if necessary) prior to use. Unrepairable tools must be removed from service and destroyed. 2) Tools must be used only for the purpose for which they are designed. 3) An employee must assume a safe and stable position before applying pressure to a tool handle, to avoid losing balance or falling if the tool should slip. 4) Holders must be used when striking chisels, punches, rods, stakes, etc., to prevent hand injuries. Eye protection must be worn when striking tools are used. (See Figure 4-16 below.) 5) “Mushroomed” or expanded heads of impact tools such as chisels and sledgehammers must be dressed (filed off ) as needed. (See Figure 417 next page.) 6) A hammer must not be struck against another hammer.
Figure 4-16: A Striking Holder
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7) Adjustable crescent wrenches must not be used if a box or open-end wrench of the correct size is available. 8) Jaws on adjustable crescent wrenches must be tightened around fitting/nut and the force applied on the side with the stationary jaw. (See Figure 4-18 below.) 9) Wrenches must be pulled instead of pushed when possible.
10) Handles of sledges, hammers, mauls, and the like must be securely wedged into the heads. Wooden handles must not be painted because paint causes handles to be slick and hides cracks and other defects. Cracked or split handles must be replaced; they must not be taped. b. Power Tool Precautions 1) Power tools can be hazardous when improperly used. There are several types of power tools, based on the power source they use: electric, pneumatic, liquid fuel, hydraulic, and powderactuated.
Figure 4-17: Mushroomed Striking Tool
Figure 4-18: Crescent Wrench Direction of Force
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2) The following general precautions must be observed by power tool users: a) Never carry a tool by the cord or hose. b) Never yank the cord or the hose to disconnect it from the receptacle. c) Keep cords and hoses away from heat, oil, and sharp edges. d) Disconnect tools when not in use, before servicing, and when changing accessories such as blades, bits and cutters. e) All observers must be kept at a safe distance away from the work area. f ) Secure work with clamps or a vise, freeing both hands to operate the tool. g) Avoid accidental starting. The worker must not hold a finger on the switch button while carrying a plugged-in tool. h) Tools must be maintained with care. They must be kept sharp and clean for the best performance. Follow instructions in the user’s manual for lubricating and changing accessories. i) Be sure to keep good footing and maintain good balance. j) The proper apparel must be worn. Loose clothing, ties, or jewelry can become caught in moving parts. k) All portable electric tools that are damaged must be removed from use and tagged “Do Not Use.”
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6. Tool and Equipment Maintenance a. Guards 1) Hazardous moving parts of a power tool need to be safeguarded. For example, belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, drums, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating, or moving parts of equipment must be guarded.
2) Guards, as necessary, must be provided to protect the operator and others from the following: a) Point of operation b) In-running nip points c) Rotating parts d) Flying chips and sparks 3) Safety guards must never be removed when a tool is being used. For example, portable circular saws must be equipped with guards. An upper guard must cover the entire blade of the saw. A retractable lower guard must cover the teeth of the saw, except when it makes contact with the work material. The lower guard must automatically return to the covering position when the tool is withdrawn from the work. Figure 4-19: Retractable Safety Guard
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b. Pulleys 1) Exposed parts of pulleys 7 feet (2.13 meters) or less above the ground, floor or working platform must be guarded. (See Figure 4-20 below.) c. Shafting 1) All horizontal, vertical or inclined shafting 7 feet (2.13 meters) or less above the ground, floor or working platform must be guarded. Figure 4-20: Combination Belt and Pulley Guard
Figure 4-21: Shaft Guards
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2) Shafting under benches or tables must be completely enclosed. 3) Projecting shaft ends within 7 feet (2.13 meters) of the working surface must have smooth, rounded edges and must not project more than half the diameter of the shaft beyond the end of the bearing, unless the shaft end is guarded by a non-rotating casing.
4) Unused exposed keyways less than 7 feet (2.13 meters) above the working surface must be filled, covered or guarded. d. Couplings, Collars, and Clutches 1) Clutches, collars, cut-off couplings and clutch pulleys with projecting parts need guards if any part is 7 feet (2.13 meters) or less above the working surface. (See Figure 4-22 below.) e. Gears, Sprockets, Friction Drives 1) As a general rule, gears and sprockets should be completely enclosed. (See Figure 4-23 next page.) Exceptions are gears and sprockets in inaccessible places. They need not be guarded if they have extension lubrication fittings or
Figure 4-22: Coupling, Collar, Clutch Guards
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systems that can be serviced from the mesh point of gears and sprockets. 2) Sprockets, open-web gears and friction drives need guarding to prevent accidental contact. f. Band Saws 1) Band saw wheels must be completely enclosed or guarded, except the part between the guide roll and the table. 2) The down travel guard from the upper wheel to the guide must be made of heavy metal and adjusted so the blade will travel within the angle or channel. Figure 4-23: Gear, Sprocket, Friction Drive Guards
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3) The guard must come to within ½ inch (1.27 centimeters) of the stock being cut. 4) Band saws must have tension-control devices. g. Crosscut and Ripsaw.
1) The contractor/employer must provide each circular crosscut saw and ripsaw with a hood that covers the saw at all times at least to the depth of the teeth, and that adjusts itself automatically to the thickness of the material being cut. It is important that the hood remain in contact with the material at the point where the stock meets the saw. (See Figure 4-25 Figure 4-24: Band Saw Guarding
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below.) In addition, the exposed parts of the sawblade under the table must be guarded. 2) A spreader slightly thicker than the saw disk and slightly thinner than the saw set or kerf should be used on circular ripsaws, except when grooving, dadoing, or rabbetting. 3) Anti-kickback devices are recommended for circular ripsaws. A pusher stick must be provided and used. 4) The contractor/employer must provide a positive means of shutting off power to all Figure 4-25: Table Saw Guarding
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woodcutting machinery while repairs and adjustments are made. Power and operating controls must be within easy reach of the operator.
Figure 4-26: Overhead Circular Saw Guarding
Figure 4-27: Grinder Guarding
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h. Safety Switches 1) The following hand-held powered tools are to be equipped with a momentary contact “onoff ” control switch: drills, tappers, fastener drivers, horizontal, vertical and angle grinders with wheels larger than 2 inches (5 centimeters) in diameter, disc and belt sanders, reciprocating saws, saber saws, and other similar tools. These tools also may be equipped with a lock-on control provided that turnoff can be accomplished by a single motion of the same finger or fingers that turn it on. 2) The following hand-held powered tools may be equipped with only a positive “on-off ” control switch: platen sanders, disc sanders with discs 2 inches (5 centimeters) or less in diameter; grinders with wheels 2 inches (5 centimeters) or less in diameter; routers, planers, laminate trimmers, nibblers, shears, scroll saws and jigsaws with blade shanks ¼-inch (6.35 millimeters) wide or less. 3) Other hand-held powered tools such as circular saws having a blade diameter greater than 2 inches (5 centimeters), chain saws, and percussion tools without positive accessory holding means must be equipped with a constant pressure switch that will shut off the power when the pressure is released. i. Electrical Safety 1) To protect the user from shock, tools must either have a three-wire cord with ground and be grounded, be double insulated, or be powered by a low-voltage isolation transformer. Three-wire cords contain two current-carrying conductors and a grounding conductor. One
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end of the grounding conductor connects to the tool’s metal housing. The other end is grounded through a prong on the plug. Anytime an adapter is used to accommodate a two-hole receptacle, the adapter wire must be attached to a known ground. The third prong must never be removed from the plug.
2) Double insulation is more convenient. The user and the tools are protected in two ways: by normal insulation on the wires inside, and by a housing that cannot conduct electricity to the operator in the event of a malfunction. 3) Electric Power Tool General Safety Practices: a) Electric tools must be operated within their design limitations. b) Gloves and safety footwear are recommended during use of electric tools. c) When not in use, tools must be stored in a dry place. d) Electric tools must not be used in damp or wet locations. e) Work areas must be well lighted.
Figure 4-28: Typical 120 Volt Branch Circuit with Correct Wiring
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4) Unqualified and Qualified Persons a) Unqualified persons. Employees whose job assignments require them to be close to exposed parts of electrical circuits at 50 volts or more must be trained in and familiar with any electrically related safety practices not specifically addressed in this standard but which are necessary for their safety. b) Qualified persons. Employees permitted to work on or near exposed energized parts who perform electrical work must be trained to recognize the hazards associated with their work environment and use appropriate procedures and protective equipment to minimize the risk of an accident or injury. Work supervisors must verify the qualifications and training of all electrical workers before they are permitted to perform electrical work. Qualified employees must, at a minimum, be trained in and familiar with the following: • The skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts of electric equipment. • The skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts. • The clearance distances specified and the corresponding voltages. (See Table 4-5 next page.) • The safety-related work practices required by Nike’s Electrical Safety CLS. • Techniques necessary to de-energize electrical systems, identify live parts of
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equipment, and determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts and clearance distances. • Procedures for locking out and tagging energized electrical circuits and equipment safely. See Nike’s Control of Hazardous Energy CLS. • National Electrical Code (NFPA 70).
• National Electrical Safety Code (ANSI/ IEEE C2). • Use of personal protective grounds. • Use of testing and measuring equipment. Table 4-5: Minimum Depth of Clear Working Space at Electric Equipment
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• Safety plans and work-authorization documents. • Use and care of personal protective equipment. • Hazard categories and personnel requirements. j. Pneumatic Tools 1) Pneumatic tools are powered by compressed air and include chippers, drills, hammers, and sanders. There are several dangers encountered in the use of pneumatic tools. The main one is the danger of getting hit by one of the tool’s attachments or by some kind of fastener the worker is using with the tool. Eye protection is required and face protection is recommended for employees working with pneumatic tools. Working with noisy tools such as jackhammers requires proper, effective use of hearing protection. 2) When using pneumatic tools, employees are to check to see that they are fastened securely to the hose to prevent them from becoming disconnected. A short wire or positive locking device attaching the air hose to the tool will serve as an added safeguard. 3) A safety clip or retainer must be installed to prevent attachments, such as chisels on a chipping hammer, from being unintentionally shot from the barrel. 4) Screens must be set up to protect nearby workers from being struck by flying fragments around chippers, riveting guns, staplers, or air drills.
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5) Compressed air guns must never be pointed toward anyone. Users must never “dead-end” it against themselves or anyone else. k. Hydraulic Power Tools
1) The fluid used in hydraulic power tools must be an approved fire-resistant fluid and must retain its operating characteristics at the most extreme temperatures to which it will be exposed. The manufacturer’s recommended safe operating pressure for hoses, valves, pipes, filters, and other fittings must not be exceeded. l. Jacks 1) All jacks—lever and rachet jacks, screw jacks, and hydraulic jacks—must have a device that stops them from jacking up too high. Also, the manufacturer’s load limit must be permanently marked in a prominent place on the jack and must not be exceeded. 2) A jack must never be used to support a lifted load. Once the load has been lifted, it must immediately be blocked up. 3) Use wooden blocking under the base if necessary to make the jack level and secure. If the lift surface is metal, place a 1-inch (2.54 centimeter) thick hardwood block or equivalent between it and the metal jack head to reduce the danger of slippage. 4) To set up a jack, make certain of the following: a) The base rests on a firm level surface. b) The jack is correctly centered. c) The jack head bears against a level surface. d) The lift force is applied evenly.
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5) Proper maintenance of jacks is essential for safety. All jacks must be inspected before each use and lubricated regularly. If a jack is subjected to an abnormal load or shock, it must be thoroughly examined to make sure it has not been damaged. 6) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures must be filled with an adequate antifreeze liquid. 7. Ladder Safety a. General 1) Ladders must be examined for defects before each use. Defective ladders must be removed from service and reported to the appropriate supervisor. 2) Wooden ladders must not be painted. Paint hides cracks and other damage. 3) When climbing or descending a ladder, employees must face the ladder and have free use of both hands. Employees must grasp side rails and not rungs with their hands. 4) Employees must not carry objects or tools in their hands while ascending or descending ladders. Tools must be carried in a sack strapped over the shoulder or otherwise secured to the person or hoisted by an appropriate method. b. Portable Ladders 1) Employees must only use ladders that have labels showing that the ladders conform to appropriate ANSI or equivalent Standards. 2) Metal ladders must not be used for electrical
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work or where they may contact electrical conductors. Special nonconductive ladders (approved wooden, fiberglass, etc.) are available for electrical maintenance work.
3) Employees must not lean from a ladder to reach work; the ladder must be repositioned. 4) Straight and extension ladders must extend 3 feet (0.9 meters) beyond the top resting point when used for climbing onto
Figure 4-29: Proper Position of Straight and Extension Ladders
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a platform. The upper portion of an extension ladder must be secured (“lashed”) or the ladder held by another person. The base of the ladder must be placed away from the wall ¼ the working-height distance of the ladder. (See Figures 4-29 previous page and 4-30 below.) 5) A folding stepladder must not be used in a straight closed position. c. Fixed Ladders 1) Employees must not climb a permanently fixed ladder longer than 20 feet (6.1 meters) unless the ladder is equipped with a cage or the employee uses a fall protection device. Employees must report ladders that do not meet these conditions to the appropriate supervisor.
Figure 4-30: Proper Position of Straight and Extension Ladders
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8. Compressed Gas Cylinders a. Handling 1) When necessary to move compressed gas cylinders, a cart or other mechanical device especially designed for that purpose must be used. Cylinders may also be rolled on the bottom edge, but never dragged.
2) Cylinders handled by hoisting equipment must be carried in a cradle or similar device and care taken to prevent their being dropped. Slings, ropes, or an electromagnet must never be used to move cylinders. 3) Cylinders must never be dropped or allowed to strike each other violently. 4) Cylinders must never be used for any purpose other than to contain the gas for which the cylinder was designed. 5) Empty cylinders must be marked or labeled “EMPTY.” Valves must be tightly closed and the valve protection caps replaced. 6) Cylinders to be transported must be loaded and secured in an upright position, unless specifically designed for horizontal service. 7) Valve protection caps must never be used for lifting the cylinder. 8) Cylinder valves must be kept closed with the valve protection cap in place during handling. b. Use 1) Acetylene cylinders must be used in a secured and upright position. 2) Valve protector caps must be kept on cylinders
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except when the regulator is attached or the cylinder is connected to a manifold system. 3) Threads on a regulator or union must correspond to those on the cylinder valve outlet. Connections must not be forced. 4) A cylinder of compressed gas must never be used without a pressure-reducing regulator attached to the cylinder valve. 5) Regulators and pressure gauges must only be used with the gases for which they are designed and intended. 6) The cylinder valve must always be closed before attempting to stop leaks. 7) Sparks, molten metal, electrical currents, excessive heat, or flames must not be permitted to come in contact with the cylinder or attachments. This includes propane or acetylene torches and space heaters. 8) Oil or grease must never be used as a lubricant on valves or attachments to oxygen cylinders, since oil and oxygen under pressure can be a fire hazard. Also, oxygen regulators must not be handled with oily or greasy hands or gloves. 9) Cylinder contents must never be used for purposes other than those for which they were intended. c. Examination 1) Compressed gas cylinders must bear all markings and be hydrostatically tested as required. 2) Cylinders must be examined for signs of corrosion or other damage.
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3) Leaky or damaged cylinders must be reported and taken out of service immediately. They must be removed to a safe location and observed until safely depressurized. They must be marked or labeled “DAMAGED.” d. Storage 1) Oxygen cylinders must not be stored within 20 feet (6.1 meters) of fuel gas cylinders or combustible/flammable materials (especially oil or grease), unless protected by a noncombustible barrier at least 5 feet (1.52 meters) high having a fire resistance rating of at least ½ hour. 2) Cylinders, both empty and full, must be stored and secured in an upright position, unless designed for horizontal use. Cylinders must be secured with a chain or by some other acceptable means and kept in a safe, dry, wellFigure 4-32: Compromised and Normal Compressed Gas Cylinders
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ventilated place that is not exposed to heat or the direct rays of the sun. 3) Cylinders must be mounted and used in a fashion that will prevent the bottoms from becoming corroded or otherwise damaged. 4) Acetylene cylinders must not be placed in a horizontal position. 5) Cylinder valves must be kept closed during storage with the protective valve caps in place.
6) Compressed gas cylinders must not be accepted from the supplier unless they are properly labeled and have protective valve caps in place.
E. Contractor and Subcontractor Safety 1. Contractors/subcontractors are expected to: a) Inform their employees of the site emergency action plan and of the known potential fire, explosion, or toxic release hazards related to their work and the process. b) Conduct operations in such a manner that constitutes no potential hazard to employees, property, or the environment. c) Provide the designated contractor/subcontractor with reports of hazards presented by the contractor’s work or identified during the contractor’s work. d) Report to the contractor/subcontractor all accidents, injuries, and significant near-misses occurring at the worksite. e) Conduct investigations of incidents involving contractor/subcontractor employees, equipment, or processes.
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f ) Comply with all safety policies and procedures as well as those of their own organization. g) Satisfy all federal, state, local, and country regulations and have written safety programs and procedures, as required. h) Provide and maintain all required personal protective equipment (PPE), safety equipment, and instrumentation necessary to perform their work effectively, efficiently, and safely. i) Train their employees in the proper use of equipment and safe performance of their jobs. j) Conduct appropriate industrial hygiene monitoring and, if requested, provide copies of the results.
F. Confined Spaces Protection 1. Definition a. Confined spaces are spaces that: 1) Are large enough and configured such that an employee can bodily enter and perform work. 2) Have limited or restricted means for entry and exit. 3) Are not intended for continuous human occupancy. b. A permit-required confined space is a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics: 1) Contains or could contain a hazardous atmosphere. 2) Contains a material that could engulf an entrant.
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3) Has an internal configuration that could trap an entrant or cause asphyxiation. 4) Contains a recognized health/safety hazard.
2. Employees assigned to permit-required confined space operations must be trained in safe entry and emergency procedures and be periodically retrained as an entrant, entry supervisor, attendant, or rescue team member. They must have a thorough knowledge and understanding of their equipment and the potential hazards that exist. 3. The atmosphere in the confined space must be tested for oxygen deficiency, flammability, and toxicity before entry. The atmosphere must also be continuously monitored as feasible throughout the confined space operation. 4. No one must enter a permit-required confined space unless a Confined Space Entry Permit has been completed and posted. 5. Appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) must be used.
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Figure 4-33: Confined Spaces
G. Welding, Cutting, and Brazing 1. General Guidelines a. Welding must be performed by welders who are qualified in the type of welding they are to perform. b. Welders are responsible for the maintenance of their equipment and for the protection and safety of people in the immediate work area.
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c. The welder and the welder’s helper must use the proper protective clothing and eye protection as required by applicable regulations for the job being performed. d. Fire extinguishers must be available for fire control at all welding operations. e. All persons must stand to one side of any compressed gas cylinder regulator gauge when pressure is being applied to the regulator.
f. When a welder is cutting or welding on a pipe, no person must be in front of or near the open pipe end. g. Welding or cutting operations must not be performed in a confined space until the area has been tested for oxygen level, toxics, and flammables and the appropriate permits have been posted. Consult the facility’s local work permits requirements for further information. h. Ventilation or respiratory protection may be required while welding or burning under certain conditions, including, but not limited to: 1) On stainless steel, galvanized, or coated materials, such as, but not limited to, paints that contain lead or mercury. 2) With fluxes or other materials containing fluorides. 3) Inside a confined space. 4) Where ventilation is inadequate. 5) In an oxygen-deficient atmosphere. i. Steel drums, barrels, or other closed tanks or vessels that have contained volatile liquids or gases must be thoroughly steam cleaned, filled with
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water, or made safe by other approved methods before the cutting or welding torch is applied. (Mechanical drum cutters must be used whenever feasible.) j. A physical examination of the immediate work area must be completed prior to initiating hot work, to determine that no hazardous conditions exist. k. When welding in a hazardous area, the atmosphere must be continuously monitored to warn of any dangerous changes in the atmosphere. Figure 4-34: Oxyfuel Gas Welding Unit
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2. Oxyfuel Gas Welding a. Oxygen and fuel gas hoses must be protected from flying sparks and hot slag. They must be examined frequently for leaks, wear, and loose connections. Immediate action must be taken to replace damaged or worn hoses and to correct unsafe conditions.
b. The hose on oxyfuel welding units must be racked when not in use. Master valves on oxygen and fuel gas cylinders must be closed and the pressure bled from regulators and hoses after use. c. Torches must be examined frequently for leaky valves and damaged nozzles and tips. d. The cylinder valve must be closed immediately if a hose catches fire. e. Spark igniters must be used to light welding torches. Matches and cigarette lighters must not be used for this purpose. f. Flashback arrestors (check valves) must be provided to prevent the flame from passing down the hose into the fuel gas system. 3. Arc Welding a. Welders using arc welding equipment must provide a protective screen around the arc when practicable and advise persons in the surrounding area not to look at the arc without appropriate eye protection. Refer to Chapter 7, General (Eye & Face, Head, Foot and Hand Protection). b. Suitable precautions must be taken to avoid shock from arc welding equipment: 1) Do not stand in water while arc welding. 2) Use proper protective equipment, such as
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rubber boots and rubber pads, if performing arc welding in wet or high humidity conditions. 3) Do not dip energized (“hot”) electrode holders in water. c. Do not use cables with damaged insulation or exposed conductors. If it is necessary to repair damaged cable, the repaired section must have an insulating quality equal to that of the original cable. Never make splices within 10 feet (3 meters) of the electrode holder. d. Protect cables from vehicular traffic or other hazards that may subject them to being cut or pinched. e. Turn off arc welding equipment when not in use. Figure 4-35: Hot Work Warning Tag
5. Industrial Health A. Heat Stress Prevention 1. Probably the most elementary factor of environmental control is contol of the thermal environment in which people work. 2. In all cases, the objective is the prevention of heat stroke, which is life threatening and the most serious of the heat-related disorders. 3. The following charts are designed to assist in assessing and counteracting the affects of heat stress.
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B. Cold Stress Prevention 1. Fatal exposures to cold in the workplace have almost always resulted from accidental exposures involving failure to escape from low air temperatures or from immersion in low-temperature water. 2. The most important aspect of life-threatening hypothermia is a fall in the deep-core body temperature. The intent is to prevent the deep body temperature from falling below 36° C (96.8° F) and to prevent cold injury to body extremities.
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C. Occupational Noise Exposure 1. General Principles This section helps facilities identify noise hazards in the workplace and protect employees by means of engineering controls and hearing protection devices. 2. Terms a. Noise is measured in units of energy called “decibels” (dB). OSHA requires noise to be measured according to a weighted scale, “A.” Therefore, the noise levels discussed in this section will be expressed in “dBA.” b. Representative noise samples are expressed as an eight hour time-weighted average (“8 hr. TWA”). The general thresholds the facility must follow are the “Action Level” (AL) of 85 dBA over an 8 hr. TWA and the “Permissible Exposure Limit” (PEL) of 90 dBA over an 8 hr. TWA. Note: Because these thresholds are based upon an eight-hour exposure, the allowable dBA will decrease if the facility work shifts exceed eight hours (e.g., 10 hr. = PEL 88.39 and AL 83.39, 12 hr. = PEL 87.08 and AL 82.08). c. A loss of hearing of 25 dBA at certain frequencies (2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz) is termed a “standard threshold shift” (STS). 3. Scope This section applies if any of the facility employees are exposed to occupational noise levels equal to or greater than 85 dBA over an 8 hr. TWA. 4. Identification of Hazardous Noise a. The facility will arrange for representative noise monitoring to be performed of all workers
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suspected of being exposed above 85 dBA over an 8 hr. TWA. Regardless of who performs the monitoring, affected workers are allowed to observe the monitoring, if interested. b. Additional monitoring will be performed whenever there is a change in production processes, layout, or equipment which may significantly increase employees’ exposure to noise.
c. A sound level meter will be used to identify noisy areas in the facility. To determine worker TWA exposures, however, an audiodosimeter will be used. The results of that monitoring will determine who is included in the Hearing Conservation Program, what the attenuation factor of their hearing protectors must be, and whether the facility must investigate engineering controls. d. The sampling strategy must consider worker mobility, noise variations over time, and office personnel who enter the production areas routinely. e. The calibration of all noise monitoring instruments (sound level meters, audiodosimeters, etc.) should be verified for accuracy immediately before and after all readings. f. The facility will inform each worker who, as a result of the monitoring, is believed to be exposed at or above 85 dBA over an 8 hr. TWA. g. As mentioned previously, if employees work longer than eight hours (i.e., overtime, compressed work week, etc.), then the permissible exposure limit and the action level are lowered hours (e.g., 10 hr. = PEL 88.39 and AL 83.39, 12 hr. = PEL 87.08 and AL 82.08). The facility
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should refer to Table 5-1 below to estimate the permissible exposure limits to noise under such circumstances. h. In no event is a worker ever allowed to be exposed to a noise level equal to or greater than 115 dBA. (See Figure 5-1 below.) Table 5-1: Permissible Exposure Limits
Figure 5-1: Permissible Noise Exposure
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5. Provision of Hearing Protection a. The facility will provide hearing protectors for all workers exposed above the action level and require hearing protection use by all workers exposed above the permissible limit (see Chapter 7, Section 7). b. The facility will provide a variety of hearingprotection devices so that workers may select those that are most comfortable and easy to use. However, employees must not use protective devices that do not afford sufficient attenuation (see Chapter 7, Section 7). 6. Audiometric Testing
a. Because hearing loss is permanent, it is critical to detect it as soon as possible so corrective action can prevent further damage. To identify hearing loss in its early stages, the facility should require all workers who are exposed above the action level (85 dBA over 8 hr. TWA) to participate in audiometric testing. This test will be available at no cost to workers. b. The baseline audiometric exam must be given to workers as close as practicable to the time of hire, and in no event more than six months later. All workers will be given audiometric exams according to a regular annual schedule. c. For the test to be valid, it is important that workers avoid noise for at least 14 hours prior to the exam. Where that is not practicable, workers will be given redundant hearing protectors (i.e., plugs and muffs) to minimize the likelihood of a temporary hearing loss confounding the audiogram.
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d. The facility will arrange for each worker’s annual audiogram to be compared to the corresponding baseline audiogram. In this manner, hearing loss can be detected before it becomes severe. e. As mentioned previously, a loss of hearing of 25 dBA at certain frequencies (2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz) is termed a “standard threshold shift” (STS). If an STS is identified, the facility will notify the affected employee, in writing, within 21 days and may require that the worker be retested within 30 days (from the date the medical professional evaluated the audiogram) to verify the accuracy of the test. f. All workers who experience a persistent STS will be referred to a specialist to determine the cause of the hearing loss. If occupational exposure is identified as a contributing factor to the hearing loss, then the facility will evaluate the effectiveness of the current hearing protectors, and retrain the affected employee in the proper fit and use of the protectors. The facility will ask the examiner to determine if the most recent audiogram results should be used as a baseline for future hearing tests. g. If the STS is not persistent, then the facility will inform the affected employee of this fact. h. The facility must verify that any potential provider of audiometric testing follows all applicable standards. 7. Hearing Protector Effectiveness a. Two factors determine whether a hearingprotection device protects an individual’s hearing: 1) The device is appropriate for the level of exposure.
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2) The device is used properly. b. The facility will only provide hearing-protection devices which have a Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) readily available. This NRR will be used to estimate the effectiveness of the device. c. Maximum Noise Levels. The maximum amount of noise a person can be exposed to safely is measured by the duration of the exposure and the intensity of the noise. The Permissible Noise Exposure graph (Figure 5-1, page 5-9) shows permissible exposures (dBA) to continuous noise (workers should never to exposed to continuous noise at levels greater than 115 dBA).
d. The adequacy of hearing protection should be determined using the formula:
e. Typically, figure a 50% safety factor in calculating the field attentuation of hearing protection because many workers do not wear the protection properly:
f. When choosing hearing protection for workers, keep the above evaluation in mind and remember that hearing protection must be fitted and worn properly and conscientiously to be of value. g. For workers exposed above the PEL (Permissible Exposure Limit), hearing protection must attenuate noise to below 90 dBA. If an STS
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(Standard Threshold Shift) has been experienced, attenuation provided must be below 87 dBA. Double protection should be considered for any jobs where attenuation is not below 90 dBA, especially if audiograms indicate a hearing loss. Double protection offers an additional 5 decibel attenuation. As an example, if a worker uses plugs with an NRR of 29 and a muff with an NRR of 23, calculate using the highest NRR and applying the 50% factor, then add 5 dB for the protector with the lower NRR:
h. Because the effectiveness of the hearing-protection device is a function of the noise exposure level, it will be re-evaluated whenever the noise level increases substantially (i.e., increases 3 dBA or more). 8. Training a. The facility will conduct training at orientation, annually, and whenever the facility has reason to believe there have been deviations from the procedure. b. This general training will cover at least the following subjects: 1) This program and its requirements. 2) The effects of noise on hearing. 3) The purpose of hearing protectors. 4) The benefits and limitations of various models of hearing protectors. 5) How to select, fit, use, and care for hearing protectors. 6) The purpose of audiometric testing.
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c. All training should be documented. 9. Record Keeping a. If audiometric testing reveals a loss of hearing of 25 dBA or greater by comparing the baseline audiogram with the most recent test, the case will be listed on the ESH log of occupational injuries and illnesses as an “illness.” Notice that this threshold differs from the criterion for a standard threshold shift.
b. Cases of hearing loss need to be recorded only once for every time an additional 25 dBA loss is confirmed. That is, if a worker suffers a 25 dBA loss one year, then another loss the next year which is less than 25 dBA, the case needs to be recorded only in the first year. However, if at a later time, another 25 dBA loss is detected, a second entry should be made on the log. c. All audiometric tests for all workers will be maintained by the facility for at least the duration of the worker’s employment plus 30 years. d. All noise exposure measurements (i.e., sound-level surveys, audiodosimetry, etc.) will be retained for at least 30 years from the date they were conducted. 10. Program Availability This hearing conservation program and its training materials are available to the following parties: a. Employees of the facility. b. Contract employees on facility property and their employees.
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D. Ergonomics 1. Definition Ergonomics is an applied science that concentrates on the human factors involved in the design of a process or product. 2. General Principles a. The goal of ergonomics is to: 1) Reduce occupational injury and illness. 2) Improve productivity and work quality. 3) Reduce absenteeism. b. The objective of ergonomics is to design work tasks so they are within limitations. 3. Back Injury—Low Back Pain a. Most back injuries occur because the worker: 1) Uses his or her back muscles for something the muscles cannot tolerate. 2) Is not flexible enough to meet the required range of motion. 3) Had to compensate for a large mid-section. 4) Experiences inflammation caused by excessive use of the back muscles. b. To avoid back injury the employee should focus on: 1) Exercises to strengthen the muscles of the back. 2) Obtaining training on lifting techniques and proper use of back muscles. 3) Using stretching exercises for the upper legs and lower back prior to beginning work.
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4) Maintaining appropriate body weight. 5) Using back resting techniques and endurance training. 4. Lifting Procedures a. Planning 1) Plan the lift and identify the path to be taken to be sure it is clear of obstructions. 2) Examine the object for sharp corners, slippery spots, or other potential hazards.
3) Employees are not to lift an object they are not sure is within their physical ability. When unsure, use a lifting device (cart, hand truck, etc.) or get help. 4) If possible, do not set an item on the ground if it must be picked up again. 5) Avoid unnecessary bending or reaching. Do not reach over or around items blocking the object to be lifted. b. Lifting 1) Lift comfortably. Always use a material handling device whenever necessary. 2) Stand close to the load with your feet spread apart about shoulder width, with one foot slightly in front of the other for balance. 3) Squat down bending at the knees (not your waist). Tuck your chin
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while keeping your back as vertical as possible. 4) Place the lead hand (the hand on the side of the lead foot) to the front of the item. Placing the trailing hand to the rear, tilt the item forward and slide the trailing hand underneath. 5) Get a firm grasp of the object before beginning the lift. 6) Keep the load to the front, and bring it close to the body’s center of gravity (near the waist). 7) Begin slowly lifting with your legs by straightening them. Never twist your body during this step—pivot with your feet. 8) Once the lift is complete, keep the object as close to the body as possible. As the load’s center of gravity moves away from the body, there is dramatic increase in stress to the lumbar region of the back. 9) Be sure the view is not blocked by the item, then carry the load to the desired location carefully. 10) When placing an item on a desk top, counter, or shelf, place the lead or forward edge (the
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edge away from the body) on the surface and push the item into position. Be sure there is room for the item, with nothing to interfere with its placement. 11) When placing an item on the ground, bend at the knees. Place the forward edge down first. Slide both hands to the rear and clear of the bottom, then set the rear end down. c. Team lifting 1) When team lifting, establish a leader and follow his or her instructions and signals.
2) Make sure everyone understands the plan (where and how the object will be moved) and any signals to be used. Be sure all persons lift, lower, and carry the item at the same time. 3) Lower the object slowly. Place one end down first, then the other. Be sure all hands are out from underneath the item. 4) Back belts, if worn, are to be loosened when not engaged in lifting. 5. Computer Workstations a. Repetitive movements, such as keyboarding and using a mouse, combined with restrictive posture, can cause injuries commonly known as repetitive stress injuries. b. To help prevent repetitive stress injuries, clear enough room to work efficiently and place materials or supplies where they don’t interfere with your movements. Be sure to arrange your work area so that you can face the display and keyboard directly, without having to twist your body. (See VDT Selection and Set-up Checklist on pages 5-21 and 5-22.)
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c. If overhead lighting is uneven or insufficient, use task lighting to shed light on hard copy or highuse areas of your desk to minimize eyestrain. d. If you use the telephone often, don’t cradle it between your neck and shoulder. See if a headset can be adapted to your phone, or try a receiver shoulder rest. e. Making the right ergonomic adjustments to your chair, keyboard, and display are important too. If you find it uncomfortable or painful in any way, alter your position slightly. f. Breaks and Stretches 1) Remember to get up and move around periodically. If you type continuously, a good rule of thumb is to do other tasks for 10 minutes every 2 hours. 2) The following exercises can help you release muscle tension and reduce the risk of aches and pains. Do stretches gently. Don’t do any stretch that causes pain. Hold each stretch 15 to 20 seconds. a) Shoulder rolls—Gently roll shoulder forward, up and drop back. Do slowly and rhythmically 5 to 10 times. b) Finger Stretch—Gently open and close hand, stretching fingers while hand is in the open position. c) Trap Stretch—Sit on hands to help stabilize. Tip head down as if looking in your shirt pocket. Hold. d) Pyramid Stretch—Start with hands in pyramid position. Keeping shoulders relaxed, raise palms together overhead.
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Slowly bring arms down, staying together, until you feel a good stretch on the underside of your forearms. e) Side Bending—Lower ear toward shoulder. Repeat other side. f ) Shoulder Blade Pinch—Rotate arms to back, pinching shoulder blades together. Palms will naturally rotate back—let them. g) Hug Stretch—Grasp arm at elbow. Pull arm forward and across body as if you are hugging somebody.
h) Chin Tuck—Keeping head level, slide chin back making a double chin. Hold 2 seconds and release. i) Hand Stretch—Make gentle fist. Open hand at first joint keeping fingers bent. Open hand, straightening fingers all the way.
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E. Non-Ionizing Radiation (Ultraviolet (UV) and Radio Frequency (RF) Radiation) 1. UV Radiation a. UV has the highest photon energy range. Penetration is limited—target organs are the skin and cornea. UVA or Near UV are those UV frequencies “near” the visible frequencies and may also effect the lens. UVB or Actinic UV, the midfrequencies, are the most damaging. UVC, or “Far UV,” or “Vacuum UV” (i.e., UV wavelengths < 200 nm, which are “far” from the visible wavelengths), have photon energies in excess of 12 eV, but are quickly absorbed in air. (See Figure 5-2 below.) b. Protective measures (e.g., welding goggles) are needed. The ACGIH/TLV curve is most stringent at 270 nm, and limits near UV to 1 mW/cm2; based on protection against sunburn (erythema), actinic skin, and conjunctivitis and photokeratitis (welder’s flash). Also, concern for skin cancer; most cases caused by sun. UV also causes increased skin pigmentation (tanning). Intense acute exposures, and possibly less intense cumulative exposures can cause cataracts. c. UV is more hazardous because the symptoms are delayed (no immediate sensation of being over exposed). Effects are exaggerated for skin, which has been photosensitized by agent such as coal tar Figure 5-2: Electromagnetic Spectrum
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products, by photoallergens, or by certain diseases (e.g., erythropoietic porphyria). d. Common UV sources are the sun, mercury vapor and quartz lamps (black lights), welding arcs, and UV lasers. e. Measurement. Radiometer or light meter (photocell with a sensitive volt meter) with UV filters to select desired wavelengths provide irradiance readings in mW/cm2. f. UV Safety Precautions
1) Identify all UV light sources at the facility. These may include lights used in mercuryvapor lamps, etc. 2) Ensure that all UV lights are fully covered or enclosed. 3) Have warning signs posted in UV hazard areas. 4) Turn off UV lights whenever workers remove PPE or during maintenance activities. 5) Ensure workers are protected (i.e., eyes, skin) from indirect stray UV light. Equipment seals should be intact. 6) Ensure glasses and/or goggles are specifically designed to protect workers from UV light. 7) Ensure UV lamps are approved for the purpose and manufacturer’s guidelines are being followed. 2. RF Radiation (Heat Sealers) a. Radio Frequency (RF) radiation sealers generate, by means of electronic circuitry, oscillating fields of electric and magnetic energy. RF sealers generally operate within the band of frequencies
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from 10–70 MHz (a megahertz is one million cycles per second), although most of the sealers operate at normal frequencies from 10–40 MHz. A few used for plastics operate at frequencies as high as 300–400 MHz. RF electromagnetic energy emitted from an RF sealer is considered non-ionizing radiation by virtue of its frequency and energy. (See Figure 5-3 below.) b. Control of the emission of RF energy from RF sealers should rely on the application of properly designed and installed shielding material. The shielding should be placed on or around the equipment so as to minimize exposure due to emissions of stray RF energy. All shielding should be properly grounded. Shielding conductors Figure 5-3: RF Heat Sealer
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should be used for conveying RF current, and path impedence should be minimized by using good conductor materials. c. To minimize the risk of adverse health effects, radiofrequency (RF) fields as well as induced and contact currents must be in compliance with applicable guidelines (e.g., CNIRP, ANSI, ACGIH). Reduction in RF exposures can be accomplished through the implementation of appropriate administrative, work practice and engineering controls. The following outlines the principal elements of an RF Protection Program and examples of the RF measurements necessary to implement the program elements.
1) Element 1. Utilization of RF source equipment which meets applicable RF and other safety standards when new and during the time of use, including after any modifications. a) Manufacturers of RF source equipment are responsible for making equipment that complies with applicable standards, and for providing information on the hazards of operating and servicing equipment. The information must be sufficient to alert the end user of potential hazards and necessary controls applicable to using the equipment. Manufacturers are therefore required to make detailed RF emission measurements of their products. Appropriate RF survey results should be provided to the end user for comparison purposes. b) The users should conduct RF “screening” measurements of equipment emissions after installation, major maintenance, and any modifications that could affect RF emis-
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sions. Significant deviations from previous measurements should be resolved. 2) Element 2. RF hazard identification and periodic surveillance by a competent person who can effectively assess RF exposures. a) Screening measurements are normally sufficient to identify potentially hazardous RF areas that will require some control strategy, such as to determine where a fence should be located. More complex measurements are necessary if the employer intends to allow exposures to employees approaching RF standards. For example, detailed measurements are necessary if whole-body and/or time-weighted averaging of exposures are necessary to bring exposures into compliance. b) RF fields can induce currents in nearby conducting objects, such as a metal barrier or fence used to restrict access to RF hazard areas. These must be evaluated to ensure they do not constitute RF shock. 3) Element 3. Identification and control of RF hazard areas. a) Controlling exposure time and the distance between the RF source and the operator are important in maintaining workers' exposures below recommended levels. When necessary due to excessive leakage, “RF hazard areas” must be identified to alert workers of areas that are not to be occupied during RF application. The location of the hazard areas must be based on exposure measurements made during maximum field generation and duty factor (i.e., ratio of RF
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“on” time during any 6-minute period, assuming intermittent exposure). b) Access to RF hazard areas should be controlled with standard Lockout/ Tagout procedures (see Chapter 8, Section B) to ensure workers are not occupying these areas during the application of RF energy.
c) The RF hazard areas must be clearly marked with appropriate signs, barricades, floor markings, etc., such that any worker who has access to the facility will be alerted not to occupy the hazardous locations. Signs must be of standard design and shape (ref. ANSI C95.1), and of sufficient size to be recognizable and readable from a safe distance. d) Screening measurements can be used to determine where to locate signs to alert workers approaching an RF hazard area, including the appropriate warning message on the sign (e.g., Notice, Caution, Danger). e) Compliance with the evacuation of hazard areas prior to RF application must be strictly enforced. For example, workers may be reluctant to follow a procedure which requires an RF sealer operator to first load the sealer, step back 6.5 yards (2 meters) to get outside the RF hazard area prior to activating the RF energy, and then walk back to unload the sealer. 4) Element 4. Implementation of controls to reduce RF exposures to levels in compliance with applicable guidelines (e.g., ANSI, ICNIRP), including the establishment of safe work practice procedures.
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a) Reliance on averaging is normally not recommended when establishing basic control strategies because it obligates the facility to conduct “measurement” of employee activity to ensure the averaging is applicable, such as timing an employee's access inside an area which cannot be occupied for 6 minutes without exceeding Figure 5-4: Radio-Frequency Radiation Hazard Warning Symbol
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the allowable time-weighted exposure. Where possible, controls should be established under the assumption that standards are not time-weighted, i.e., assume the standards are ceiling limits which are not to be exceeded. b) Measurements are necessary during the development of work practices to ensure the practices are effective in preventing excessive exposures. Detailed measurements are required if exposures are approaching guideline limits as discussed above.
c) Appropriate work practices must be followed during the repair and maintenance of RF equipment. Occasionally, cabinet panels must be removed by service personnel to allow access for maintenance. Failure to replace a panel properly may result in excessive RF leakage. RF screening measurements can be used to determine which panels can be removed during operation (assuming other hazards, such as electrical shock, are controlled), and to ensure the shielding is reinstalled properly. d) Detailed measurements must be made by the manufacturers of RF personal protective equipment (PPE) to show its effectiveness and limitations. Limited measurements are necessary by the user to ensure the PPE is applicable and effective for the specific worksite conditions. 5) Element 5. RF safety and health training to ensure that all workers understand the RF hazards to which they may be exposed the means by which the hazards are controlled.
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a) Measurement of worker exposures is necessary so that this information can be provided as part of employee hazard training. b) The scope of training, including reviews of potential biological effects, will be dependent on measure exposure levels. 6) Element 6. Worker involvement in the structure and operation of the program and in decisions that affect their safety and health, to make full use of their insight and to encourage their understanding and commitment to the safe work practices established. RF screening measurements should be made in the presence of workers to facilitate understanding and confidence in the program. 7) Element 7. Implementation of an appropriate medical surveillance program. a) RF measurements are necessary to determine the need and scope of medical surveillance. For example, medical surveillance may consist of reporting the occurrence of RF burns or the sensation of nonroutine heating as a means of identifying potential problem areas. b) A medical exam may be appropriate for “accidental” exposures defined as an exposure above some measured trigger level. 8) Element 8. Periodic (e.g., annual) reviews of the effectiveness of the program so that deficiencies can be identified and resolved. Periodic RF screening measurements are necessary to ensure conditions have not
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changed and that the RF Protection Program continues to be effective in preventing excessive RF exposures. 9) Element 9. Assignment of responsibilities, including the necessary authority and resources to implement and enforce all aspects of the RF Protection Program. a) Although this element does not directly require RF measurements, it is included for completeness of the list of RF Program elements.
b) Without the commitment to the Program, as demonstrated by the assignment of necessary responsibility, authority and resources, the previous elements will not be effective. d. As described above, a variety of RF measurements are necessary for an effective RF Protection Program. Usually RF screening measurements are adequate unless control strategies allow exposures approaching RF limits. Detailed RF measurements are required of manufacturers of RF products to document their effectiveness and limitations. The effectiveness of the RF Protection Program depends primarily on a facility’s understanding and commitment to the listed program elements, rather than on sophisticated RF survey equipment or measurement procedures.
F. Bloodborne Pathogens 1. “Universal precautions,” as defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, are a set of precautions designed to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus
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(HBV), and other bloodborne pathogens when providing first aid or health care. Under universal precautions, blood and certain body fluids of all persons are considered potentially infectious for HIV, HBV and other bloodborne pathogens. 2. Each contractor/employer having employees who may have skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials as a result of performing their professional duties must establish a written exposure control plan designed to eliminate or minimize exposure. 3. Methods of Compliance a. Universal precautions must be observed to prevent contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials. All body fluids must be considered potentially infectious. b. Engineering and work practice controls. c. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). 4. Housekeeping a. Contractors/employers must ensure that the worksite is maintained in a clean and sanitary condition. The contractor/employer must determine and implement an appropriate written schedule for cleaning and method of decontamination based upon the location within the facility, type of surface to be cleaned, type of soil present, and tasks or procedures being performed in the area. b. All equipment, environmental and working surfaces must be cleaned and decontaminated after contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials.
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5. Persons trained in first aid/CPR must also be trained in avoiding exposure to bloodborne pathogens. Use universal precautions when there is a possibility of being exposed to other people’s body fluids. 6. First aid kits/body fluid barrier packs must be available for those providing first aid. These packs include, but are not limited to, CPR mouth barriers, disposable latex gloves, and eye protection.
7. Contractor/employer must provide proper means of disposal for materials that are considered regulated medical wastes (biohazards). Bags or containers marked with the biohazard symbol must be handled by designated employees only. 8. Sharps Disposal Containers a. Use the criteria below for evaluating the performance of containers for disposing of sharp objects (i.e., sewing needles, razor blades): 1) Functionality—Containers should remain functional during their entire usage (i.e., they should be durable, closable, leak resistant on their sides and bottom, and puncture resistant until final disposal). 2) Accessibility—Containers should be accessible to workers who use, maintain, or dispose of sharp devices. They should be conveniently located and portable within the workplace, if necessary.
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3) Visibility—The following should be plainly visible to the workers who use the containers: the container, the degree to which it is full, the proper warning labels, and the color coding of the container. b. Disposal of non-contaminated sewing needles, as an accepted practice in the United States, is to close the lid of the sharps container, wrap it in duct tape, and throw it into the trash. c. Syringes/hypodermic or other contaminated needles should be disposed of in the same type of container, but the method of disposal is different. A biowaste vendor may be used or, in some cases, hospitals accept needles and incinerate them onsite. Contact your local waste hauler for more details.
G. Asbestos Each facility should identify and manage asbestos materials in place. The facility should control the release of hazardous asbestos fibers through education, training, and communication to all personnel. The removal of asbestos containing material (ACM) should be done whenever feasible. 1. Definitions: The following definitions will be used throughout this section: a. Asbestos Containing Material (ACM): Any material containing more than 1% asbestos. b. Friable Asbestos Material: Any material containing more than 1% asbestos by weight that hand pressure can crumble, pulverize, or reduce to powder when dry. c. Presumed Asbestos Containing Material (PACM): Thermal system insulation and surfacing
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material found in buildings constructed no later than 1980. 2. Information and Training An awareness training course should be required for all facility employees and/or contractor supervisors who perform work within or adjacent to facilities where ACM/PACM are present. The contractor’s/ employer’s supervisor is responsible for passing the information on to his/her employees. The training will include the following: a. The health affects of asbestos.
b. Locations, signs of damage and deterioration of ACM/PACM. c. Proper response to fiber release episodes. Figure 5-5: Exposed Asbestos Pipe Wrap
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d. Housekeeping requirements. 3. Hazards Communication The facility should communicate the hazards of asbestos to personnel who work in or adjacent to areas containing asbestos: a. Identify the presence of ACM/PACM at the worksite. b. Notification should be in writing and personal communication, between facility employees/ contractors concerning the presence of PACM and ACM. c. All friable asbestos materials should be labeled. d. Any ACM/PACM that is disturbed should be reported immediately to the supervisor. Figure 5-6: Asbestos Warning Sign
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4. Removal of Asbestos There are two scenarios for the removal of ACM/ PACM: a. Planned removal—This ACM/PACM removal is required because of facility maintenance in the area or new construction requiring the removal of the material. The project engineer in charge of the asbestos removal contractor/employer must be contacted and the material must be moved. b. Minor emergency clean-up/removal—This ACM/ PACM is removed because a small amount of material has come loose or needs to be moved for immediate work.
1) If the minor emergency occurs during normal working hours, contact the engineer in charge of the asbestos removal contractor/employer. 2) If the minor emergency occurs after normal working hours, the facility supervisor should be contacted immediately. The facility supervisor will barricade the area to restrict access. The facility supervisor/foreman will contact the maintenance personnel on call, and the facility engineer in charge of the ACM/PACM removal contractor/employer. The ACM/ PACM removal contractor/employer will remove the ACM/PACM. 5. Disposal All ACM/PACM must be disposed of in an approved landfill. 6. Recordkeeping a. The information kept in the asbestos files is as follows:
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1) Asbestos abatement supervisor’s log sheet. 2) Verbal notification memo. 3) Government required reports. 4) Bulks sample reports. 5) Monthly contractor/employer reports on asbestos abatements performed. 6) Contractor/employer location monitoring results and list of personnel in area. 7) Tracking documents (for hauling ACMs to a landfill). b. These documents must be kept by the facility engineer in the engineering files until completion of the project.
H. Occupational Exposure Limits 1. Requirements: Exposure Limits a. Contractors/employers must abide by the more restrictive of the country legal requirements, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), or US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL). b. The occupational exposure limits, listed in Table 5-2 next page, are defined as guidelines for best management practices. These limits represent conditions to which employees can be exposed to on a regular basis without adverse health effects. c. Occupational exposure limits are the maximum average air concentration that most employees can be exposed to for an 8-hour work day, 40-hour
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work week for a working lifetime (40 years) without experiencing significant adverse health effects. A very small percentage of individuals experience some discomfort or adverse health effects at or below the exposure limit because of wide variation in individual sensitivities or preexisting conditions. When employees work a shift longer than 8 hours per day, the exposure limit Table 5-2: Occupational Exposure Limits
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must be adjusted (lowered) to prevent the employee from overexposure. d. Occupational Exposure Limits for hazardous air contaminants must be listed on the material safety data sheets (MSDS) for each product in use. e. In the absence of either quantitative legal or Nike requirements, quantitative guidelines will be set by Nike CRC, giving consideration to consensus guidelines and other relevant information. f. Exposure limits will be periodically evaluated. See the Indoor Air Quality Management Plan below for more information regarding when, where, and how to sample. 2. Indoor Air Quality Management Plan a. Contractors must develop and implement a written Indoor Air Quality Management Plan. This plan must include the following elements: 1) A description of the plan and a functional overview of the day-to-day operation. This section must contain a detailed description of the site, the location of buildings and what structures and organizations are covered by the plan. 2) A communications strategy that describes how the various departments within the factory will communicate, and the roles and responsibilities of each group. 3) A methodology for responding to factory/ building air quality complaints. 4) A building-by-building specific plan to manage air quality. Each building plan will contain the following components:
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a) A general description of the building and its function, including work activity, number of occupants, hours of operation, weekend use, tenant requirements, and known air contaminants released into the work environment. b) A single line schematic or as-built construction (blueprints) documents, which locate major building systems equipment and the areas they serve.
c) A written plan for maintenance of building systems that is preventive in scope and is based on the equipment manufacturers’ recommendations. It will describe the equipment to be maintained, who will maintain it and the schedule for maintenance. d) Methodology for the use of site-specific, area or spot air purification technology to manage air quality for sensitive individuals or problematic areas. 5) A building-specific baseline testing and evaluation plan. The evaluation plan or assessment must include: a) Identification of potentially hazardous materials encountered or in use. b) Establishment of how the substance could enter the body (i.e., inhalation, ingestion, etc.). c) Identification of the potential health effects. d) Examination of the work environment: • Review of available process flow charts.
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• Controls in place (ventilation, enclosures, personal protective equipment). • Observations and odors. • Assessment of worker complaints and clinic admissions data. • Past air sampling results. e) Identification of workers exposed and the degree of exposure. 6) Based upon the results of the evaluation/ assessment survey, air quality monitoring should be conducted to determine the level of exposure and potential health risk to employees. 7) Contractors must train employees on the following: a) Familiarize employees with the plan and the operational components therein. b) Notify employees of the potential airborne hazards and their sources in their workplace (see Chemical Hazard Communication CLS). c) The nature and extent of risks to health (both acute and chronic). d) Reasons for the control measures and their proper use. e) The correct use, maintenance and limitations of safety equipment and facilities. f ) The need for personal air sampling, biological monitoring and medical surveillance.
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g) The importance of good housekeeping and personal hygiene. h) The results of monitoring. i) Procedures for employee concerns and complaints. j) Procedures for emergency releases of toxic chemicals. 8) Recordkeeping a) Contractors must keep a suitable record of any monitoring carried out for the purpose of this standard.
b) Employee exposure records will be kept until the employee leaves the job and for 30 years thereafter. c) Area monitoring records must be kept for at least 5 years.
6. Emergency Preparedness & Response A. Emergency Action Contractors/employers must establish an action plan and procedures for the orderly and coordinated evacuation of, or sheltering within, all factory buildings in the response to all emergencies (i.e., fire, tornado, typhoon, tsunami, bomb threat, flood, earthquake, hurricane, gas leaks, power outages, water failures). 1. Contractors/employers must develop and implement a written emergency action plan, to include: a. Emergency escape procedures. b. Emergency escape route assignments. c. Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to operate critical plant operations before they evacuate. d. Procedures to account for all employees after emergency evacuation has been completed. e. Rescue and medical duties for those employees who are to perform them. f. The preferred means of reporting fires and other emergencies. g. Names or regular job titles of persons or departments who can be contacted for further information or explanation of duties under the plan. 2. The contractor/employer must establish an employee alarm system, to include: a. The employee alarm system must provide warning for necessary emergency action as called for in the
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emergency action plan, or for reaction time for safe escape of employees from the workplace or the immediate work area, or both. b. The employee alarm must be capable of being perceived above ambient noise or light levels by all employees in the affected portions of the workplace. Tactile devices may be used to alert those employees who would not otherwise be able to recognize the audibile or visual alarm. c. The employee alarm must be distinctive and recognizable as a signal to evacuate the work area or to perform actions designated under the emergency action plan.
d. The employer must explain to each employee the preferred means of reporting emergencies, such as manual pull box alarms, public address systems, radio or telephones. e. The contractor/employer must post emergency telephone numbers near telephones, employee notice boards, and other conspicuous locations when telephones serve as a means of reporting emergencies. Where a communication system also serves as the employee alarm system, all emergency messages must have priority over all non-emergency messages. f. The contractor/employer shall establish procedures for sounding emergency alarms in the workplace. g. Maintenance and testing 1) The contractor/employer must ensure that all employee alarm systems are maintained in operating condition except when undergoing repairs or maintenance.
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2) The contractor/employer must ensure that a test of the reliability and adequacy of nonsupervised employee alarm systems is made every 2 months. A different actuation device must be used in each test of a multi-actuation device system so that no individual device is used for two consecutive tests. 3) The contractor/employer must maintain or replace power supplies as often as is necessary to assure a fully operational condition. Back-up means of alarm, such as employee runners or telephones, shall be provided when systems are out of service. 4) The contractor/employer must ensure that the servicing, maintenance and testing of employee alarms are done by persons trained in the designed operation and functions necessary for reliable and safe operation of the system. h. Manual operation 1) The contractor/employer must ensure that manually operated actuation devices for use in conjunction with employee alarms are unobstructed, conspicuous, and readily accessible. 3. If the employee alarm system is used for alerting fire brigade members, or for other purposes, a distinctive signal for each purpose must be used. 4. The contractor/employer must establish in the emergency action plan the types of evacuation to be used in emergency circumstances (i.e., fire, explosion, and major hazardous material incident, bomb threats, etc.). A take-shelter procedure is required for severe weather.
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5. Training a. Before implementing the emergency action plan, the contractor/employer must designate and train a sufficient number of persons to assist in the safe and orderly emergency evacuation of employees. b. The contractor/employer must review the plan with each employee covered by the plan at the following times: 1) Initially when the plan is developed. 2) Whenever the employee’s responsibilities or designated actions under the plan change. 3) Whenever the plan is changed.
c. The contractor/employer must review with each employee upon initial assignment those parts of the plan which the employee must know to protect the employee in the event of an emergency. d. The written plan must be kept at the workplace and made available for employee review.
B. Fire Protection 1. Fire Protection Plan Should include the following: a. A list of the major workplace fire hazards and their proper handling and storage procedures. b. A list of potential ignition sources (such as welding, smoking and others) and their control procedures. c. The type of fire protection equipment or systems which can control a fire involving the potential ignition sources.
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d. Names or regular job titles of those personnel responsible for maintenance of equipment and systems installed to prevent or control ignitions or fires. e. Names or regular job titles of those personnel responsible for control of fuel source hazards. f. Procedures to control accumulations of flammable and combustible waste materials and residues so that they do not contribute to a fire emergency. g. Training requirements 1) Communication to employees of the fire hazards of the materials and processes to which they are exposed. 2) Review with each employee upon initial assignment those parts of the fire prevention plan which the employee must know to protect the employee in the event of an emergency. The written plan must be kept in the workplace and made available for employee review. h. Maintenance requirements Regularly and properly maintain, according to established procedures, equipment and systems installed on heat-producing equipment to prevent accidental ignition of combustible materials. i. General requirements 1) Contractors/employers must become familiar with the emergency response and evacuation plan. 2) Store materials to allow adequate access throughout the area and minimize the spread of fire.
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3) Do not store anything within 18 inches (46 centimeters) of ceiling fire sprinkler heads. 4) Collect and dispose of waste or scrap regularly to prevent their accumulation. Follow proper housekeeping procedures at all times. 5) Tobacco smoking rules are to be established and followed. 6) Storage and use of flammable materials: a) You must use approved (for example, UL) safety containers to transport gasoline or other flammable material. Such materials shall not be stored in vehicle passenger compartments or automobile trunks. Only in an emergency may such materials be transported in automobile trunks. (See Figure 6-1 below.)
b) Store flammable and combustible liquids only in designated cabinets and areas. c) Flammable liquids (for example, gasoline) shall not be used as cleaning agents.
Figure 6-1: Approved Safety Containers
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2. Fire Protection Measures a. A smoke detector’s battery shall not be removed unless it is replaced immediately with a fresh/ charged one. b. Fire doors 1) Each factory building must have at least two means of escape remote from each other. 2) Must not be left open unless equipped with self-closing mechanisms. 3) Must not be locked or chained closed. 4) Must be kept free of obstructions that would prevent the door from closing. 5) Exit routes from buildings must be clear and free of obstructions and properly marked with signs designating exits from the building. c. Fire alarm system(s) shall be periodically tested (at least monthly). 3. Fire Brigades The following requirements apply if the contractor/ employer has established a fire brigade: a. Contractors/employers must prepare and maintain a statement or written policy which establishes: 1) The existence of a fire brigade. 2) The basic organizational structure. 3) The type, amount, and frequency of training to be provided to fire brigade members. 4) The expected number of members in the fire brigade. 5) The functions that the fire brigade is to perform at the workplace.
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b. The organizational statement must be available for inspection. c. Contractors/employers must ensure that employees who are expected to do interior structural fire fighting are physically capable of performing duties that may be assigned to them during emergencies. Contractors/employers must not permit employees with known heart disease, epilepsy, or emphysema to participate in fire brigade emergency activities unless a physician’s certificate of the employees’ fitness to participate in such activities is provided. d. Training and education
1) Contractors/employers must provide training and education for all fire brigade members commensurate with those duties and functions that fire brigade members are expected to perform. Such training and education must be provided to fire brigade members before they perform fire brigade emergency activities. Fire brigade leaders and training instructors must be provided with training and education that is more comprehensive than that provided to the general membership of the fire brigade. 2) Contractors/employers must ensure that training and education is conducted frequently enough to ensure that each member of the fire brigade is able to perform the member’s assigned duties and functions satisfactorily and in a safe manner so as not to endanger fire brigade members or other employees. All fire brigade members must be provided with training at least annually. In addition, fire brigade members who are expected to perform interior structural fire fighting must be
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provided with an education session or training at least quarterly. 3) Contractors/employers must inform fire brigade members about special hazards—such as storage and use of flammable liquids and gases, toxic chemicals, radioactive sources, and water reactive substances—to which they may be exposed during fire and other emergencies. The fire brigade members must also be advised of any changes that occur in relation to the special hazards. The contractor/employer must develop and make available for inspection by fire brigade members written procedures that describe the actions to be taken in situations involving the special hazards and must include these in the training and education program. e. Fire fighting equipment 1) Contractors/employers must maintain and inspect, at least annually, fire-fighting equipment to ensure the safe operational condition of the equipment. Portable fire extinguishers and respirators must be inspected at least monthly. 2) Fire fighting equipment that is damaged or in unserviceable condition must be removed from service and replaced. f. Protective clothing The following requirements apply to those employees who perform interior structural fire fighting. The requirements do not apply to employees who use fire extinguishers or standpipe systems to control or extinguish fires only in the incipient stage.
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1) Contractors/employers must provide protective clothing at no cost to the employee. As the new equipment is provided, the employer must assure that all fire brigade members wear the equipment when performing interior structural fire fighting. 2) Contractors/employers must ensure that protective clothing protects the head, body, and extremities, and consists of at least the following components: foot and leg protection, hand protection, body protection, eye, face, and head protection. 4. Fire Extinguishers a. Portable Fire Extinguishers
1) Each factory building must have a full complement of the proper type of fire extinguisher for the fire hazards present, except when the contractor/employer has employees evacuate instead of fighting small fires. 2) Employees expected or anticipated to use fire extinguishers must be instructed on the hazards of fighting fire, how to properly operate the fire extinguishers available, and what procedures to follow in alerting others to the fire emergency. a) Contractors/employers must provide training upon initial hire and at least annually thereafter. b) Contractors/employers must provide employees who have been designated to use fire-fighting equipment as part of an emergency action plan with training in the use of the appropriate equipment. 3) Where the contractor/employer wishes to evacuate employees instead of having them
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fight small fires there must be written emergency action plans and employee training for proper evacuation. 4) The contractor/employer must mount, locate, and identify extinguishers so they are readily Figure 6-2: Wheeled Extinguisher
Figure 6-3: Hand-Held Portable Extinguisher (Dry Chemical Cartridge Type)
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accessible to employees without subjecting the employees to possible injury. 5) Extinguishers must be conspicuously located and readily accessible for immediate use. 6) Extinguishers must be clearly visible. In locations where visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, directional arrows must be provided to indicate the location of extinguishers and the arrows marked with the extinguisher classification. 7) Extinguishers must be marked/labeled to ensure that the proper class extinguisher selection is made at the time of a fire. Labels will be placed on the front of the shell.
8) Operating instructions must always face outward and the extinguisher must be placed so that it can be removed easily. 9) Markings/labels must be of a size and form to be legible from a distance of 3 feet (0.9 meters). 10) Extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (15 kilograms) must be installed so that the top of the extinguisher is not more than 5 feet (1.5 meters) above the floor. 11) Extinguishers with a gross weight greater than 40 pounds (15 kilograms), except wheeled types, must be installed so that the top of the extinguisher is not more than 3½ feet (1.3 meters) above the floor. 12) In no case can the clearance between the bottom of the extinguisher and the floor be less than 4 inches (10 centimeters).
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13) Extinguishers must be maintained in a fully charged and operable condition and kept in their designated places at all time except during use. 14) Portable fire extinguishers or hose must be visually inspected monthly. 15) Only approved fire extinguishers are permitted to be used in factories. a) Contractors/employers must provide portable fire extinguishers based on the classes of anticipated workplace fires and on the size and degree of hazard that would affect their use. b) Contractors/employers must distribute portable fire extinguishers for use by employees on Class A fires so that the travel distance for employees to any extinguisher is 75 feet (22.9 meters) or less. c) Contractors/employers may use uniformly spaced standpipe systems or hose stations connected to a sprinkler system installed for emergency use by employees instead of Class A portable fire extinguishers, provided that such systems have total coverage of the area to be protected, and that employees are trained at least annually in their use. d) Contractors/employers must distribute portable fire extinguishers for use by employees on Class B fires so that the travel distance from the Class B hazard area to any extinguisher is 50 feet (15.2 meters) or less. e) Contractors/employers must distribute portable fire extinguishers used for Class C
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hazards on the basis of the appropriate pattern for the existing Class A or Class B hazards. f ) Contractors/employers must distribute portable fire extinguishers or other containers of Class D extinguishing agent for use by employees so that the travel distance from the combustible metal working area to any extinguishing agent is 75 feet (22.9 meters) or less. Portable fire extinguishers for Class D hazards are required in those combustible metalworking areas where combustible metal powders, flakes, shavings, or similarly sized products are generated at least once every two weeks.
g) Contractors/employers will not provide or make available in the factory portable fire extinguishers using carbon tetrachloride or chlorobromomethane extinguishing agents. 16) Portable fire extinguishers must be given maintenance service at least once a year and a written record kept showing the maintenance or recharging date. 17) Contractor/employer must ensure that trained persons with suitable testing equipment and facilities perform hydrostatic testing. 18) Contractors/employers must ensure that portable fire extinguishers are hydrostatically tested at the intervals listed in Table 6-1 next page. 19) Extinguishers with the following conditions are not eligible for testing and recharging and should be removed from service:
Emergency Preparedness and Response 6–15
a) When the unit has been repaired by soldering, welding, brazing, or use of patching compounds. b) When the cylinder or shell threads are damaged. c) When there is corrosion that has caused pitting, including corrosion under removable name plate assemblies. d) When the extinguisher has been burned in a fire. e) When a calcium chloride extinguishing agent has been used in a stainless steel shell.
Table 6-1: Extinguisher Testing
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20) Contractors/employers must maintain and provide upon request evidence that the required hydrostatic testing of fire extinguishers has been performed at the time intervals shown in Table 6-1 previous page. Such evidence must be in the form of a certification record that includes the date of the test, the signature of the person who performed the test and the serial number, or other identifier, of the fire extinguisher that was tested. Such records shall be kept until the extinguisher is hydrostatically retested at the time interval specified in Table 6-1 or until the extinguisher is taken out of service, whichever comes first.
21) Portable fire extinguishers are to be used for extinguishing beginning-stage fires only. Beginning-stage fires are fires in early stages of development that, in the judgment of the employee, can be extinguished with portable equipment. 22) Extinguishers are to be located no more than 30 feet (9 meters) from fire hazards such as flammable storage areas, cleaning tanks, etc. 23) Fire extinguishers are to be selected to ensure that they are suited to the hazards in the area and the type of fire that is likely to occur: a) Class A—Fires involving ordinary combustibles such as paper, wood, rubber, and many plastics where the cooling effects of water solutions are most efficient.
Emergency Preparedness and Response 6–17
b) Class B—Fires involving flammable or combustible liquids, gases, and greases where air exclusion by blanketing is most effective. c) Class C—Fires involving energized electrical equipment where the extinguishing media must be nonconductive (unless the equipment is deenergized; then Class A or Class B extinguishers must be used). d) Class D—Fires involving combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, and potassium. e) Some fire extinguishers carry multiple classes. b. Inspection and Maintenance of Portable Equipment The ESH Committee must inspect fire extinguishers in their regular inspections. c. Fixed Fire Extinguishers Consult with your local Nike compliance manager for fixed suppression equipment requirements. d. Inspection and Maintenance of Fixed Systems
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Water spray, sprinkler, halon, CO2, dry chemical, and foam systems shall be inspected and tested as required by the manufacturer.
C. Medical Services and First Aid 1. General Requirements a. Contractors/employers must develop and implement a medical and first aid program specific to each factory. The program must include the following elements: 1) An evaluation/assessment of the workplace for medical and first aid requirements. Among the factors that must be considered are: a) Location and availability of medical facilities and emergency services.
b) Availability of medical personnel for consultation on occupational health issues. c) Types of accidents that could reasonably occur at the workplace. d) Response time for external emergency services. e) Number of employees at the plant and the locations of employees within the plant. f ) Use of corrosive materials at any place in the workplace. g) Applicable industry specific requirements or country requirements. h) What first aid supplies should be available. i) What level(s) of training employees should receive, and which employees should be trained.
Emergency Preparedness and Response 6–19
2) The availability of medical personnel for consultation regarding occupational health issues. Provide the names and telephone numbers for professionals with whom the contractor/employer has agreements. 3) At least one person, and preferably two or more, trained in first aid must be available at the worksite if either of these conditions exist: a) If life-threatening injuries can reasonably be expected, trained personnel must be available within 4 minutes. This generally means that community emergency medical services cannot be relied on since their response time is usually greater than 4 minutes. b) If serious injuries other than life threatening injuries can be expected, the response time for trained personnel is extended to 15 minutes. c) Multiple individuals must be trained in order to provide coverage when the primary responder is unavailable. 4) The trained first aid responder(s) must be designated and the other employees must know who they are and how to contact them so they can respond within the required time. The trained responder must have a current first aid certificate. 5) A first aid kit must be available at the worksite. The program must note the location of the first aid kit(s). The contractor/employer is responsible for determining the need for additional first-aid kits, quantities and the types of supplies at the factory.
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6) Emergency telephone numbers must be conspicuously located by each telephone. 7) Sufficient ambulance service must be available to handle any emergency. This requires advance contact with ambulance services to ensure they become familiar with plant location, access routes, and hospital locations. 8) If corrosive materials are used, eyewash and body flush facilities must be provided. 9) Records of first aid and medical treatments must be maintained. b. Contractors/employers must ensure the ready availability of medical personnel for advice and consultation on matters of occupational health.
c. Contractors/employers must train an employee or employees to render first aid when a medical facility/clinic/infirmary/hospital for treatment of injured employees is not available in proximity to the workplace. 2. First Aid and Kits First aid and CPR training is an integral part of a safety program. Employees must be trained in these skills. a. The basic procedures to follow in a serious or life threatening first aid incident are: 1) Protect yourself first. Do not put yourself at risk. 2) Notify. Get help. Summon emergency medical services to the scene.
Emergency Preparedness and Response 6–21
3) Stabilize. While waiting for medical help, an employee shall provide first aid and reassurance. Do not move the victim unless absolutely necessary. 4) Transport. The person in charge of the facility must ensure appropriate measures are taken to transport the sick or injured person to a suitable medical facility. b. Contractors/employers must ensure that adequate first aid supplies are readily available. Additional items must be added to the minimum requirements listed below, based upon specific workplace hazards. The selection of additional supplies must be made by consulting with a health care professional or a person competent in first aid who is knowledgeable of the hazards found in that specific factory. Figure 6-4: Proper and Improper Methods for Moving an Injured Person
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c. Basic Supplies: 1) Absorbent Compress, 32 square inches (206.5 square centimeters) (No side smaller than 4 inch (10 centimeters), Qty (1) 2) Adhesive bandages, 1 × 3 inch (2.54 × 7.62 centimeter), Qty (16) 3) Adhesive tape, 5 yards (4.57 meters), Qty (1) 4) Antiseptic, 0.5 gram application, Qty (10) 5) Burn Treatment, 0.5 gram application, Qty (6) 6) Medical exam gloves, Qty (2 pair) 7) Sterile pad, 3 × 3 inch (7.62 × 7.62 centimeter), Qty (4) 8) Triangular bandage, 40 × 40 × 56 inch (101.5 × 101.5 × 142.24 centimeter), Qty (1)
d. Each complete first aid kit must have a label on the back or outside of the kit listing its contents. e. First aid kits must be inspected on a weekly basis to ensure that they are full, in good condition and have not expired. The contents list for the first aid kits must be periodically reviewed to ensure that it meets the needs of the workplace hazards at all times. f. Over-the-counter medicine may be put in first aid kits if packaged in single dose, tamper-evident packaging and labeled. Over-the-counter drug products must not contain ingredients that are known to cause drowsiness. 3. Eyewash and Shower/Drenching Equipment a. Where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to injurious corrosive materials, suitable facilities for quick drenching or flushing of the
Emergency Preparedness and Response 6–23
eyes and body must be provided within the work area for immediate emergency use. b. General requirements for standard eyewash and body flushing stations: 1) The water in the eyewash station must be potable (drinkable). 2) A controlled flow of water must be provided to both eyes simultaneously at a velocity low enough to not injure the user. 3) There must be no sharp projections anywhere in the operating area of the unit. 4) Nozzles must be protected from airborne contaminants. The removal of such protection must not require a separate motion by the operator when activating the unit. 5) Eyewash equipment must be capable of delivering to the eyes a minimum of 0.4 gallons (1.5 liters) per minute for 15 minutes. Note: Medical and industrial experiences have shown that the initial first aid treatment for chemical splash must be to flush the eyes for 15 minutes prior to medical treatment. Most Material Safety Data Sheets recommend this, or state that eyes must be flushed with copious amounts of water. Data sheets must be consulted for additional recommendations. 6) There must be sufficient space around the eyewash equipment to allow eyelids to be held open with the hands while the eyes are being flushed.
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7) The control valve must be: a) Capable of being quickly located and operated, b) Capable of being fully activated in one second or less, and c) Designed to remain on until intentionally shut off. 8) The eyewash unit must be in an accessible location as close to the hazard as possible, but with a travel/distance no greater than 100 feet (30.5 meters) and must require no more than 10 seconds to reach.
9) The eyewash unit must be identified with a highly visible sign. The area around or behind, or both, must be painted a bright color, and must be well lit. 10) Water nozzles must be positioned between 33 inches (83.8 centimeters) and 45 inches (114.3 centimeters) from the floor. 11) Plumbed eyewash units must be activated weekly to flush the line and verify proper operation. Self-contained units must be inspected according to manufacturers' specification. 12) All employees who may be exposed to eye injury must be instructed in the proper use of emergency eyewash units. 13) Self-contained units containing a reservoir of flushing fluid must be constructed of materials that will not corrode. The flushing fluid must be protected from airborne contaminants.
Emergency Preparedness and Response 6–25
14) Outdoor units must be freeze protected. 15) Water temperature in units must be maintained at between 60 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit (15 and 35 degrees Celsius). c. Selection and Installation 1) Showers (Plumbed and Self-Contained) a) Plumbed Shower: An emergency shower permanently connected to a source of potable water. b) Self-Contained Shower: A shower that contains its own flushing fluid, and must be refilled or replaced after use. 2) Specifications (for plumbed showers) a) Heads • Positioned 82 inches to 96 inches (208 centimeters to 244 centimeters) from floor. • Spray pattern must have a minimum diameter of 20 inches (51 centimeters) at 60 inches (152 centimeters) above the floor. • Flow Rate=20 gallons (76 liters) per minute (GPM) at 30 pounds (11 kilograms) per square inch (PSI). • The center of the spray pattern must be located at least 16 inches (41 centimeters) from any obstruction. b) Valves • Activate in 1 second or less. • Stay-open valve (no use of hands).
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• Valve remains on until the user shuts it off. 3) Installation a) Shower must be located in an area that requires no more than 10 seconds to reach. Figure 6-5: Emergency Drenching and Eyewash Shower
Emergency Preparedness and Response 6–27
Note: Consult a medical professional to determine the appropriate distance for harsh acids and caustics (high hazard=closer distance). b) Shower location must be in a well-lit area and identified with a sign. c) Shower must be located on the same level as the hazard. 4) Maintenance and Training a) Plumbed showers will be activated weekly to verify correct operation. b) All employees who might be exposed to a chemical splash must be trained in the use of the equipment. c) All showers must be inspected annually. 5) Eyewashes (Plumbed and Gravity-Feed) a) Plumbed Eye Wash: An eye wash unit permanently connected to a source of potable water. b) Gravity-Feed Eye Wash: An eye wash device that contains its own flushing fluid and must be refilled or replaced after use. 6) Specifications a) Heads • Positioned 33 inches (83.8 centimeters) to 45 inches (114.3 centimeters) from floor. • Positioned 6 inches (15.24 centimeters) from wall or nearest obstruction. • Plumbed units must provide 0.4 gallons (1.5 liters) per minute (GPM) for 15 minutes flushing fluid at 30 PSI.
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• Gravity-feed units must provide 0.4 gallons (1.5 liters) per minute (GPM) for 15 minutes. b) Valves • Activate in 1 second or less. • Stay-open valve (leaving hands free). 7) Installation a) Eyewash equipment must be located in an area that requires no more than 10 seconds to reach. Note: Consult a medical professional to determine the appropriate distance for harsh acids and caustics (high hazard=closer distance).
b) The location of the eye wash unit must be in a well-lit area and identified with a sign. Figure 6-6: Pressurized and Nonpressurized Self-Contained Eyewash Units
Emergency Preparedness and Response 6–29
c) Eyewash equipment must be on the same level as the hazard. 8) Maintenance and Training a) Plumbed eye wash units must be activated weekly to verify proper operation. b) Gravity-feed units must be maintained according to the manufacturer’s instructions. c) All employees who might be exposed to a chemical splash must be trained in the use of the equipment. d) All eyewash equipment must be inspected annually. 9) Eye/Face Wash A device used to irrigate and flush both the face and the eyes. 10) Specifications a) Heads • Positioned 33 inches (83.8 centimeters) to 45 inches (114.3 centimeters) from floor. • Positioned 6 inches (15.24 centimeters) from wall or nearest obstruction. • Large heads to cover both eyes and face or regular size eye wash heads plus a face spray ring. • 3 gallons (11.4 liters) per minute (GPM) for 15 minutes. b) Valve Same as eye wash.
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11) Installation Same as eye wash. 12) Maintenance and Training Same as eye wash 13) Drench Hoses (Hand Held) A flexible hose connected to a water supply and used to irrigate and flush eyes, face and body areas. 14) Specifications a) Heads 3 gallons (11.4 liters) per minute (GPM). b) Valve Activate in 1 second or less.
15) Installation a) Assemble per the manufacturer’s instructions. b) The location of the drench hose must be in a well-lit area and identified with a sign. Figure 6-7: Hand-Held Drench Hose
Emergency Preparedness and Response 6–31
16) Maintenance and Training a) Activate weekly to verify proper operation. b) All employees who might be exposed to a chemical splash must be trained in the use of the equipment. c) All drench hose equipment must be inspected annually. Note: Hand-held drench hoses support shower and eyewash units but must not replace them. 17) Personal Eyewash A supplementary eyewash that supports plumbed units, gravity-feed units, or both by delivering immediate flushing fluid. Note: Personal eyewash units can provide immediate flushing when they are located near the workstations. Personal eyewash equipment does not meet the requirements of plumbed or gravity-feed eyewash equipment. Personal eyewash units can support plumbed or gravity-feed eyewash units, but cannot be a substitute.
7. Personal Protective Equipment Appropriate clothing and personal protective equipment (PPE) must be worn by all employees and visitors where designated or posted. PPE must meet standards established by recognized governmental and/or industry groups. Employees are responsible for the maintenance and care of their PPE. 1. Job Attire a. General Guidelines 1) Employees must be properly clothed at all times. 2) Loose clothing, neckties, and loose jewelry must not be worn when working around moving machinery. 3) Clothing that has been contaminated by a potentially hazardous (flammable or toxic) material must be removed as soon as possible and not worn until the clothing has been cleaned. Figure 7-1: Some Personal Protective Equipment
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4) Hair long enough to be potentially hazardous while working around moving machinery or rotating tools and equipment must be secured. 5) Facial hair that may present a potential hazard while working around moving or rotating machinery is not permitted. 2. Head Protection a. Hard hats must be worn by employees, visitors, and contract employees in all designated areas. b. Figure 7-2 below presents examples of hard hats. c. Electricians and other employees who could be exposed to electrical hazards should wear hard hats with dielectric properties. Nonmetallic accessories, such as liners and chinstraps, are also available for dielectric hard hats. d. Hard hats must not be altered.
Figure 7-2: Hard Hats
Personal Protective Equipment 7–3
3. Eye and Face Protection a. General Guidelines 1) Eye protection must be worn by employees whose duties indicate the need for protection. Safety glasses must meet ANSI Z87.1 (or equal) standards. 2) When required, safety glasses (nonprescription) with side shields must be furnished by the contractor/employer. 3) Contact lenses do not provide eye protection. On the contrary, they increase the need for eye protection since small foreign particles may become trapped under the lenses and damage the cornea. Contact lens wearers must inform their supervisor and co-workers of their use. b. Requirements 1) Goggles a) Impact-type goggles must be worn during activities involving flying or falling objects or particles, such as, but not limited to, chipping, scraping, buffing, grinding, and hammering. b) Splash-proof chemical goggles and face shields must be worn when handling potentially hazardous chemical liquids and solids or in any other operation where the eyes may be exposed to potentially hazardous chemicals in either liquid or solid form. c) Goggles are also required in areas that include, but are not limited to, the following hazards:
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d) Potential dust hazards. e) The use of compressed air to clean or blow out debris. f ) Cutting and tying of cable or wire rope. g) Operations where there may be danger from spraying of hot oils or chemicals. 2) Shaded Lenses a) Arc welding requires the use of a welding helmet fitted with the proper shaded lenses. b) Use Table 7-1 below to select the proper shaded lens for welding.
Table 7-1: Recommended Lens Shading
Personal Protective Equipment 7–5
Figure 7-3: Eye Protection
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4. Hand Protection a. Employees must wear hand protection appropriate for the activity and conditions. Examples of appropriate hand protection include but are not limited to: 1) Chemical resistant gloves when handling acids or caustic chemicals. 2) Insulated or heat-resistant gloves when performing duties requiring burn protection. 3) Hydrocarbon-resistant gloves when using hydrocarbon-based solvents, cleaning agents, or chemicals. 4) Mesh steel gloves when using fabric cutters. [See Glove Chart next pages.]
7 Figure 7-4: Protective Steel Mesh Glove
Table 7-2: Glove Chart—Compare Chemical Compatibility
Personal Protective Equipment 7–7
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Personal Protective Equipment 7–9
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Personal Protective Equipment 7–11
5. Foot Protection a. Employees must wear foot protection appropriate for the activity and conditions. b. Safety-toe footwear must meet ANSI Z41.1 requirements (or equivalent) and must be furnished by contractor/ employer. 6. Respiratory Protection a. Employees must wear respiratory protection appropriate for potential workplace atmospheric hazards.
Figure 7-5: Examples of Respiratory Protection
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b. Prior to being approved for the use of respiratory protection equipment, employees must: 1) Have medical clearance. 2) Receive required training in the selection, use, care, and limitations of the specific respirator model. 3) Be seal or fit-tested, as appropriate for the equipment.
Figure 7-6: Dust Filters No Substitute for Respirators
Personal Protective Equipment 7–13
c. If an employee has previous successful experience wearing contact lenses, the employee may wear soft or gas permeable lenses. d. Specially designed eyeglass adapters must be obtained and used if an employee requires prescription glasses when using a full-facepiece respirator. e. Nothing must pass between the wearer’s face and the facepiece, including but not limited to the following: 1) Glasses with temple pieces. 2) Facial hair such as stubble, mustaches, sideburns, and beards. 3) Bangs. f. Respirators must be examined prior to each use. g. Employees must clean, disinfect, and properly store respirators after each day’s use, unless this responsibility is assigned to others.
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Personal Protective Equipment 7–15
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Personal Protective Equipment 7–17
7. Hearing Protection a. Hearing protection must be worn in high-noise areas. This may require wearing a combination of hearing protection devices (for example, earplugs and earmuffs). b. Employees included in a hearing conservation program must comply with its requirements. Figure 7-7: Examples of Hearing Protection
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Personal Protective Equipment 7–19
8. Fall Protection a. Fall protection should be used when fall hazards equal or exceed 6 feet (1.83 meters). b. Fall protection devices include, but are not limited to, safety belts/harnesses, lanyards, lifelines, ladder climbing devices, and safety nets. 1) Personal Fall Arrest Systems: a) The system must withstand a minimum force of 5,000 pounds (1,866 kilograms). b) Free-fall distance generally ranges between 4–6 feet (1.22–1.83 meters). 2) Anchor Systems: a) Must withstand a minimum force (breaking strength) of 5,000 pounds (1,866 kilograms). b) Many manufacturers require 5,400 pounds (2,015 kilograms) minimum anchorage strength for their equipment. c) No knots shall be tied in anchorage connectors. 3) Snap-hooks and Carabiners: Figure 7-6: Examples of Anchor Systems
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a) Minimum strength 5,000 pounds (1,866 kilograms); must be selflocking type. b) Must withstand a side loading force of 350 pounds (130 kilograms); the gate must withstand a force of 220 pounds (82 kilograms). 4) Lanyards: a) Strength of 5,000 pounds (1,866 kilograms). b) Length varies from 2–6 feet (0.6–1.83 meters).
Table 7-3: Visual Indications of Equipment Damage
Personal Protective Equipment 7–21
c) Synthetic rope lanyard minimum diameter is 0.5 inch (1.25 centimeters). b. Fall protection devices must be examined before each use for excessive wear or damage. Worn or damaged equipment must be immediately removed from service and destroyed. NOTE: It is important that the belt/ harness is properly worn, and that the wearer allows no more slack in the secured safety line than is necessary. Tie-off points should be above waist height. Consider the potential for a “swing fall” whenever you use a self-retracting lifeline. You increase the risk of a “swing fall” by moving away from the anchorage point and increasing the lifeline length. You will swing back under the anchorage during a fall. A “swing fall” increases your risk of striking an object or lower level during the pendulum motion. c. Calculating Total Fall Distances To calculate total fall distance for worker exposed to a fall, determine the location where the tie-off point is, including lanyard length, deceleration distance, which is not more than 42 inches (107 centimeters), height of the worker, and clearance distance from foot of the worker to the ground below. If the tie-off point location is below the D-
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ring of the harness, this will increase the total fall distance. d. Elevated Working Surfaces 1) Fall protection must be used in certain situations. These include but are not limited to: a) Open-sided floors, floor openings, catwalks, or platforms elevated 4 feet (1.22 meters) or higher where handrails or barricades are not provided; b) Working above potential hazards. e. Fixed Ladders 1) Employees must use fall protection devices where they are installed. Figure 7-8: Calculating Total Fall Distance
Personal Protective Equipment 7–23
2) Where cage protection is not provided on ladders over 20 feet (6.1 meters) in unbroken length, employees must use appropriate fall protection devices.
8. Machine and Equipment Safety A. Motor Vehicle Operation and Forklifts 1. Safe driving policy a. Employees operating vehicles must: 1) Have in their possession a valid driver’s license appropriate for the vehicle and its use. 2) Operate vehicles in a proper manner and observe traffic regulations. 3) Use vehicles only for authorized purposes. 4) Wear seat belts in all vehicles. The vehicle operator is responsible to see that passengers fasten their seat belts. b. Operating a vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating beverages or drugs is prohibited. 2. General guidelines a. Vehicle operators must practice defensive driving at all times. Defensive driving means being alert for potential accident-producing situations and being prepared to take evasive action. b. Vehicles must be maintained in proper operating condition. A vehicle operator who detects a mechanical defect or a potential safety hazard in a vehicle must make arrangements for prompt repairs or report the mechanical defect or potential safety hazard to his/her supervisor or the designated person responsible for vehicle maintenance. c. Speed must be consistent with road and weather conditions and posted limits.
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d. Vehicles must be parked so as not to roll out of control. e. When practical, vehicles must be parked so they can be driven forward when next moved. f. The vehicle operator must check for potential hazards behind the vehicle before backing. This may require the operator to walk around the vehicle. g. When operators are out of their vehicles, the engine must be shut off and the parking brake set. h. Gasoline or other flammable material must be transported only in approved (for example, UL) safety containers. Such materials must not be stored in vehicle passenger compartments or automobile trunks. i. Portable safety containers must be removed from vehicles while being filled with flammable liquids. j. Employees must not ride in the rear area (truck bed) of trucks or pickups.
k. Cargo or heavy tools must not be transported in the passenger compartment of vehicles at the same time as passengers. l. Loose objects must not be stored in the rear window tray or the front dashboard of vehicles. m. Operators of the contractor-/employer-owned or rented/leased vehicles, and operators of personal vehicles on an allowance basis in contractor/ employer service must report accidents in which they are involved to their supervisor as soon as possible. The supervisor must coordinate a review to determine the facts and complete the required reports.
Machine and Equipment Safety 8–3
3. Forklift Safety a. These procedures are set forth to insure operator safety and the safety and health of all employees, and to reduce equipment “down time.” b. Required training 1) Before operating powered equipment, you must complete the forklift safety training program. 2) Never attempt to operate a piece of equipment unless you are trained and authorized to operate it. c. Inspection and repairs 1) Inspect equipment daily before use. 2) Report any “unsafe condition” immediately. 3) Do not make repairs to equipment without prior authorization. Your supervisor must approve any repairs, alterations, or modifications to equipment. 4) Never drive a lift with a DO NOT OPERATE tag on it. 5) Battery chargers must be used only by authorized personnel. d. Operating powered equipment 1) All operators are expected to conduct their daily functions in an orderly and business-like manner. All operators are responsible for maintaining a safe and clean work area.
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2) All machines must be operated from the designated operating position. Never have arms, legs, fingers, etc., protruding from the operator compartment. 3) All operators must pay particular attention to sprinkler heads when operating with the lift mechanism raised. 4) Any damage to equipment and/or building must be reported immediately to your supervisor. Abuse of equipment will not be tolerated. 5) Always yield right of way to pedestrians. Use EXTREME CAUTION when traveling through highly traveled pedestrian areas, especially during breaks and lunch hour. 6) Do not allow anyone to stand or pass under lift equipment. 7) Start, stop, change direction, travel, and brake smoothly. Slow down for turns or when on uneven or slippery surfaces that could cause truck to slide or tip.
8) Before any powered equipment is driven in or out of a trailer, the lift operator must make sure the trailer wheels are chocked. 9) You must use mirrors and slow down at all intersections, particularly when entering a main aisle from a secondary aisle. 10) Use the horn when: a) Starting the machine from a stopped position. b) At all intersections. c) Changing directions, i.e., turning or changing from forward to reverse.
Machine and Equipment Safety 8–5
d) Approaching a pedestrian from behind. 11) During a fire drill or evacuation, stop your machine immediately and exit building via nearest fire exit. 12) Do not eat or drink while on equipment. 13) No horseplay on equipment.
Figure 8-1: The Stability Triangle
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e. Battery charging DANGER! RISK OF BATTERY EXPLOSION FROM HYDROGEN GAS. MAY RESULT IN BLINDNESS, SERIOUS INJURY, PERMANENT DISFIGUREMENT AND SCARRING. 1) Safety a) Batteries generate explosive hydrogen gas, even during normal operation. People have been injured by battery parts flying in an explosion. They can explode under normal operating conditions, such as starting your car. They can explode under abnormal conditions, such as jump starting, or if short-circuited by a tool. They can explode in a parked car or sitting on a table. b) To help reduce the risk of these dangers and injury, it is of the utmost importance that each time before using your charger, you Figure 8-2: Wear Safety Goggles!
Machine and Equipment Safety 8–7
read and understand this manual and any warnings and instructions by the battery manufacturer. Follow these instructions exactly. c) Wear personal protective equipment. Always wear complete eye protection (that protects eyes from all angles). d) Avoid flames or sparks near battery and fuel. • Always keep flames, matches, lighters, cigarettes, or other ignition sources away from battery. • Do not put flammable material on or under charger. Do not use near gasoline vapors. • Make sure charger clips make good contact by twisting or rocking them back and forth several times. The second clip connection must always be made away from the battery. Always plug the charger into an electrical outlet after all connections have been made. See operating instructions. • If necessary to remove battery from vehicle to charge, always turn off all accessories in the vehicle. Then always remove grounded terminal (connected to vehicle frame) from battery first. • A tool touching both battery posts or battery post and vehicle metal parts is a short circuit and will spark. Be careful when using metal tools on or near battery. Do not drop a tool on battery.
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e) Reduce explosive gas (hydrogen) • Before connecting charger, always add water to each cell until battery acid covers plates to help purge extra gas from cells. Do not overfill. Battery acid expands during charge. After charging, fill to level specified by battery manufacturer. For a battery without removable caps (i.e., maintenance-free battery), carefully follow manufacturer’s instructions on charging. • Some sealed maintenance-free batteries have a battery-condition indicator. A light or bright colored dot indicates low water. Such a battery needs to be replaced, not charged or jump started. • Charge battery with caps in place. Most US batteries are made with flame-arresting caps. Do not pry caps off sealed batteries. Place wet cloth on batteries with nonflame arresting caps.
• Be sure area around battery is well ventilated before and during charging process. Never charge in a closed or restricted area. f ) Stay away from battery when possible. • Never put face near battery. • Always locate charger as far from battery as DC cables permit. • Always have plenty of fresh water and soap nearby in case battery acid contacts eyes, skin, or clothing. If battery acid contacts skin or clothing, wash immediately with soap and water. If acid enters eye, immedi-
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ately flood eye with cold running water for at least 15 minutes and get medical help immediately. f. Battery charger instructions Connecting the charger to the battery 1) If charger has switch with off position, it must be set to off. 2) AC power cord must be unplugged. 3) Charging battery in vehicle: a) If vehicle has negative ground (most vehicles do; if you are not sure, have it checked), connect positive (red) charger clip to positive post of battery. Some newer vehicles have a remote positive terminal located away from the battery. Use this remote terminal for charging connections. See your vehicle owner’s manual. b) Connect negative (black) charger clip to car frame or engine block away from battery. CAUTION: DO NOT CONNECT CLIP TO CARBURETOR, FUEL LINES, OR SHEET METAL BODY PARTS. CONNECT TO HEAVY GAUGE Figure 8-3: Charging Typical Negative-Ground Battery Inside Vehicle
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METAL PART OF THE FRAME OR ENGINE BLOCK. DO NOT FACE BATTERY WHEN MAKING FINAL CONNECTION. c) If vehicle has positive ground (most vehicles do not; be sure to check), connect the negative (black) charger clip to the negative ungrounded post of battery. d) Connect positive (red) charger clip to vehicle frame or engine block away from battery.
B. Energy Control (Lockout/Tagout) 1. General a. Energy control is required while employees are servicing and/or maintaining machines and equipment if an unexpected start-up or release of energy or substances could cause injury.
b. Only an authorized employee (one who has been trained and is authorized to both lock out the equipment and to work on it) shall implement lockout/tagout. c. The supervisor or authorized employee must notify affected employees in the work area of the type and duration of the work to be performed, and of the application and/or removal of lockout and/or tagout devices. Notification must be
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given before the controls are applied and after they are removed from the machine or equipment. d. A tag, identifying who placed the lock, the date, and the area/lease, must be attached to each lock. (See Figure 8-4 below.) e. Locks and tags must remain in place until the work is completed. Employees must follow the procedures outlined in the facility’s lockout/tagout to remove locks and tags other than their own. f. Employees must use only lockout/tagout devices specified by the facility and issued by the facility. g. Locks used for lockout must not be used for other purposes. h. Employees must position themselves outside the path of potential energy releases when equipment is being opened or returned to service. These releases can include pressurized gases and liquids, falling objects, electrical energy. Figure 8-4: Lockout/Tagout Tags
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i. All isolation and lockout/tagout operations must be performed according to the requirements of the facility’s Lockout/Tagout programs/policy. 2. Procedures a. Energy-control procedures must clearly identify the sources of energy and describe how workers will: 1) Secure energy-isolating devices 2) Use and remove locks and tags 3) Test the effectiveness of energy-isolating devices b. Energy-control procedures will vary depending on equipment design and types of energy involved. However, the procedures do need to meet certain minimum requirements and the procedures must be done in the proper sequence. Here is a checklist that covers the minimum requirements. 1) Prepare to shut down the equipment a) Each authorized employee who shuts down equipment must know the type and magnitude of the energy, its hazards, and how to control the energy.
b) All affected employees must know that the equipment is being serviced or maintained and that it will be shut down and locked out for the duration of the service or maintenance work. 2) Shut down the equipment a) If the equipment is operating, shut it down by the normal stopping procedures. b) Shutdown may be as simple as pressing the stop switch.
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3) Isolate the equipment from the energy source a) Locate every energy-isolating device that controls energy to the equipment. b) Position the energy-isolating device(s) so that the equipment is isolated from the energy source(s). c) Keep in mind that when two or more authorized employees are working together, each must apply his or her own lock. 4) Lock out or tag out the energy-isolating device a) Locks: Lock out the energy-isolating devices with designated locks. The person who does the service or maintenance work must place the locks and a personal identification tag. Secured locks must hold the energy-isolating devices in a “safe” or “off ” position. b) Tags: The authorized employee who will be doing the service or maintenance work must place tags on the energy-isolating devices. Tags must clearly state that changing the energy-isolating devices from the “safe” or “off” position is prohibited. Because tags don’t eliminate the hazard, you must use additional methods such as blocking a control switch or opening an extra disconnect. If you can’t place a tag on the energyisolating device, you must place it as close as possible to the device. 5) Eliminate potentially hazardous stored energy a) Capacitors, coiled springs, elevated machine members, rotating flywheels, air, gas, steam, chemical, and water systems are sources of stored energy.
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b) If stored energy can return to a hazardous level, you must make sure that the energy remains isolated from the equipment until all service or maintenance work is completed. 6) Remove the lockout or tagout device a) The person who applied the device also must remove it. b) If the person who applied the device is not available to remove it, the employer may authorize another employee to remove the device. However: • The employer must be trained and follow the appropriate procedures. • The employer must verify that the person who applied the device is not available to remove it. • The employer must attempt to contact and inform the person that the lockout/ tagout device has been removed.
• The employer must make sure the person knows about the removal before he or she returns to work. c) Be sure to have a documented procedure for removing another person’s lock. 7) Documentation a) You need to document procedures for each particular machine or piece of equipment. b) You can use a single procedure for more than one piece of equipment if the energy sources and control methods are identical.
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3. Blinding Piping and Equipment a. Purpose 1) A blind is a metal plate inserted on the end of a pipe or between gasketed pipe flanges to prevent the flow of gas or liquid in either direction. 2) A blind must be of sufficient strength to withstand the pressure it could reasonably be expected to encounter. b. Blinding Procedure 1) The decision to install and/or remove a blind must be made by or at the direction of facility supervision or a designated representative. 2) Blinds must be installed on or in all piping connected to tanks or vessels or equipment scheduled for maintenance, entry, or hot work. Blinds must be near the tank or vessel, preferably on the first flange from the tank or vessel shell. 3) In some instances a valve, spool piece, or other device must be removed from the line and a blind flange installed on the line and the tank or vessel. 4) A blind must be installed with three major considerations in mind: Figure 8-5: Blinds and Spacers
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a) Will the blind effectively accomplish its purpose in the location selected? b) Can the blind be safely removed? c) Is there access to the selected location? 5) A list must be maintained of the blinds used in a specific job. This list includes the size, location, and date of installation and removal of any blind.
C. Machine Guarding 1. Guarding a. Power transmission points must be guarded. This includes, but is not limited to, counterweights on pumping units, flywheels, rotating shafts, inrunning pinch points, V-belt drives, gears, moving parts, etc. The guarding can take many forms but must be effective in preventing employee contact with the hazard. Forms of guarding include, but are not limited to, enclosures, barriers, fences, and interlock systems. b. Machinery guards must be in place before starting and during operation of the equipment.
c. Damaged machine guards must be repaired before returning the equipment to service. d. Follow lockout/tagout procedures when removing machine guards. Guards removed during repair operations must be replaced upon completion of the repairs. 2. Machinery in Motion Whenever feasible, equipment must be shut down when servicing. When operations must be performed around engines or equipment while they are running, proper precautions must be taken.
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3. Rotating Machinery a. General Rotating machinery is dangerous because of the high speeds and pressures used in its operation. Repairs must not be initiated until the fuel supply is shut off and the starting circuits disconnected, locked out, and tagged. Figure 8-6: Examples of Guard Construction
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b. Pumps 1) Prior to initiating repairs or maintenance, the pump must be shut down, isolated, and the internal pressure bled down. 2) Main electrical disconnects and valves must be locked out and tagged prior to initiating work. 4. General Rules To prevent accidents, the following guidelines must be followed: a. Read and comply with the instruction supplied with the machine. b. Check whether safety devices are working properly. c. Immediately report any trouble to the appropriate person and warn any person likely to work with the machine of the trouble. d. Refuse to work with the machine when any safety device is not working properly. e. Make sure the work area around the machine and the machine itself is kept clean and neat.
Figure 8-7: Guard Location Guide
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f. Do not clean the machine while it is running. 5. Machine Guarding and Safety Devices Wear and tear of the machine’s parts may have an impact on the proper function of safety devices and guards. For this reason, a qualified and specifically designated person must regularly check the safety devices and guards with regard to the machine manufacturer documentation. 6. Safety Guards On every safety guard, the following must be checked: a. The guards must be complete and in good condition. b. The guards and their electrical contacts must be kept clean. c. All machine components must STOP as soon as a single interlock is open. 7. Push-button for Emergency Stops Check the following items on every mushroomshaped emergency stop push-button: a. Press each emergency stop push-button and make sure that all machine components stop immediately. b. Make sure that each emergency stop push-button remains in its pushed in and locked position by itself and that in this position, the machine cannot be restarted. c. Button must be red color. (See Figures 8-8 through 8-10 next pages for examples of machine guards.)
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Figure 8-8: Types of Machine Guards
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Figure 8-9: Types of Machine Guards
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Figure 8-10: Types of Machine Guards
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Figure 8-11: Methods of Guarding Actions and Motions: Enclosure Guards
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Figure 8-12: Methods of Guarding Actions and Motions: Interlocking Guards
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Figure 8-13: Methods of Guarding Actions and Motions: Automatic Guards
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Figure 8-14: Methods of Guarding Actions and Motions: Remote, Placement, Feeding, Ejecting
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D. Mills and Calenders 1. Mill Roll Heights a. All new mill installations must be installed so that the top of the operating rolls is not less than 50 inches (127 centimeters) above the level on which the operator stands, irrespective of the size of the mill. b. This distance must apply to the actual working level, whether it be at the general floor level, in a pit, or on a platform. 2. Mill Safety Controls A safety trip control must be provided in front and in back of each mill. It must be accessible and must operate readily on contact. The safety trip control must be one of the following types or a combination thereof: a. Pressure-sensitive body bars. Installed at front and back of each mill having a 46-inch (117centimeter) roll height or over. These bars must operate readily by pressure of the mill operator’s body. b. Safety triprod. Installed in the front and in the back of each mill and located within 2 inches (5 centimeters) of a vertical plane tangent to the front and rear rolls. The top rods must be not more than 72 inches (183 centimeters) above the level on which the operator stands. The triprods must be accessible and must operate readily, whether the rods are pushed or pulled. c. Safety tripwire cable or wire center cord. Installed in the front and in the back of each mill and located within 2 inches (5 centimers) of a vertical plane tangent to the front and rear rolls. The
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cables must not be more than 72 inches (183 centimeters) above the level on which the operator stands. The tripwire cable or wire center cord must operate readily, whether cable or cord is pushed or pulled. d. Auxiliary equipment. All auxiliary equipment such as mill divider, support bars, spray pipes, feed conveyors, strip knives, etc., must be located in such a manner as to avoid interference with access to and operation of safety devices. 3. Calender Safety Controls a. Safety trip, face. A safety triprod, cable, or wire cord must be provided across each pair of inrunning rolls extending the length of the face of the rolls. It must be readily accessible and operate Figure 8-15: Pressure-Sensitive Body Bar
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whether pushed or pulled. The safety tripping devices must be located within reach of the operator and the bite. b. Safety trip, side. On both sides of the calender and near each end of the face of the roll, there must be a cable or wire center cord connected to the safety trip. They must operate readily when pushed or pulled. 4. Trip and Emergency Switches All trip and emergency switches must not be of the automatically resetting type, but must require manual resetting. 5. Stopping Limits a. Determination of distance of travel. All measurements on mills and calenders must be taken with the rolls running empty at maximum operating speed. Stopping distances must be expressed in inches of surface travel of the roll from the instant the emergency stopping device is actuated. b. Stopping limits for mills. All mills, irrespective of size of the rolls or their arrangement (individually or group-driven) must be stopped within a distance, as measured in inches of surface travel, not greater than 1.5 percent of the peripheral noload surface speeds of the respective rolls as determined in feet per minute. c. Example: Using 100 feet (30.5 meters) per minute, we would calculate stopping distances as follows: 100 FPM × 1.5% = 1.5 = 18 inches stopping distance d. The stopping distance is obtained by multiplying the running speed in feet by the 1.5% constant
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permitted for stopping. This results in a figure showing feet which must be multiplied by 12 to obtain inches for permissible stopping distance. 6. Stopping Limits for Calenders a. All calenders, irrespective of size of the rolls or their configuration, must be stopped within a distance as measured in inches of surface travel, not greater than 1.75 percent of the peripheral noload surface speeds of the respective calender rolls as determined in feet per minute. Table 8-1: Mill and Calender Safety Stopping Equipment Inspection Form
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b. Where speeds above 250 feet (76 meters) per minute as measured on the surface of the drive roll are used, stopping distances of more than 1.75 percent are permissible. Such stopping distances must be subject to engineering determination.
E. Electrical Safety 1. General a. Only authorized personnel, licensed for electrical work, are permitted to repair, adjust, test, or service electrical equipment. Follow federal, state, and local codes and regulations at all times. b. Live electrical equipment or electrical component parts must be grounded, isolated or provided with some other means of protection to prevent potential exposure to employees. c. Wiring must be fully closed in metal conduits. 2. Using Electrical Equipment a. All electrical equipment must be in safe condition before using. If you have questions regarding the safety and health impacts of equipment, notify a supervisor immediately. Remove defective equipment from service until it is repaired or replaced. Figure 8-16: 120 Volt Branch Circuit Wiring
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Figure 8-17: Correctly Wired 110-Volt Circuit
Figure 8-18: Duplex Receptacle Correctly Wired to Designated Terminals
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b. Personal portable electrical equipment, such as heaters, etc., must be approved prior to use. c. All electrical office equipment and appliances must be certified by Underwriters Laboratory (UL). Avoid using electrical equipment/appliances in wet or moist locations. d. Do not overload electrical equipment or electrical outlets. Only use approved extension cords and outlets. e. Only use extension cords that are intended for the equipment and conditions associated with the operation. Cords must be grounded and inspected prior to use to assure proper grounding. f. Power strips must be used, whenever possible, instead of extension cords. 3. Inspecting Equipment Inspect electrical equipment prior to its use, including: a. Check for evidence of loose or visibly damaged parts, switches, shielding devices, nuts, bolts, etc. b. Examine the electrical cord outer insulation for cuts and abrasions. c. Examine the plug for loose or missing prongs. d. Inspect the outlet receptacle for burn marks, cracks, broken insulation, missing cover plates, or other noticeable defects. e. If the receptacle is discovered to be loose when you insert the plug, immediately disconnect the plug. f. Immediately report the above defects. Do not use any electrical equipment or outlets with identified defects.
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4. Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters a. General 1) Insulation and grounding are used to prevent injury from electrical-wiring systems or equipment. However, there are instances when these recognized methods do not provide the degree of protection required. 2) A few instances where ground-fault circuit interrupters would provide additional protection:
a) Many portable hand tools, such as electric drills, are now manufactured with nonmetallic cases, sometimes referred to as “double-insulated.” Although this design method assists in reducing the risk from grounding deficiencies, a shock hazard can still exist. In many cases, employees must use such electrical equipment where there is considerable moisture or wetness. Although the employee is insulated from the electrical wiring and components, there is still the possibility that water can enter the tool housing. Ordinary water is a conductor of electricity. Therefore, if the water contacts energized parts, a path will be provided from inside the housing to the outside, bypassing the double insulation. When an
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employee holding a hand tool under these conditions touches another conductive surface in their work environment, an electric shock will result. b) Double-insulated equipment or equipment with non-metallic housings that does not require grounding under the National Electrical Code (NEC) is frequently used around sinks or in situations where the equipment could be dropped into water. Frequently, the initial human response is to grab for the equipment. If an employee’s hand is placed in the water and another portion of his or her body is in contact with a conductive surface, a serious or deadly electric shock can occur. c) In construction work and regular factorymaintenance work, if is frequently necessary to use extension-cord sets with portable equipment. These cords are regularly exposed to physical damage. Although safe work procedures require adequate protection, it is not possible to prevent all damage. Frequently, the damage is only to the insulation, exposing energized conductors. It is not unusual for an employee to handle the cord often with the possibility of contacting the exposed wires while holding a metal case tool or while in contact with other conductive surfaces. 3) Since neither double insulation nor grounding can provide protection under these conditions, it is necessary to use other protective measures. One acceptable method is a ground-fault circuit interrupter, commonly referred to as a GFCI.
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b. How a Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter Works 1) A ground-fault circuit interrupter is not an overcurrent device like a fuse or circuit breaker. GFCIs are designed to sense an imbalance in current flow over the normal path. 2) The GFCI contains a special sensor that monitors the strength of the magnetic field around each wire in the circuit when current is flowing. The magnetic field around a wire is directly proportional to the amount of current flow. Thus, the circuitry can accurately translate the magnetic information into current flow. 3) If the current flowing in the black (ungrounded) wire is within 5 (plus or minus 1) milliamperes (mA) of the current flowing in the white (grounded) wire at any given instant, the circuitry considers that situation normal. All the current is flowing in the normal path.
Figure 8-19: How the GFCI Protects
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4) If, however, the current flow in the two wires differs by more than 5mA, the GFCI will quickly open the circuit. (See Figure 8-19 previous page.) 5) Note that the GFCI will open the circuit if 5mA or more of current returns to the service entrance by any path other than the intended white (grounded) conductor. If the equipment grounding conductor is properly installed and maintained, this will happen as soon as the faulty tool is plugged in. If by chance this grounding conductor is not intact and of lowimpedance, the GFCI may not trip out until an employee provides a path. In this case, the employee will receive a shock, but the GFCI should trip out so quickly that the shock will not be harmful. c. Types of Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters There are several types of GFCIs available, with some variations within each type. Although all types will provide ground-fault protection, the specific application may dictate one type over another. 1) Circuit-Breaker Type—The circuit-breaker type includes the functions of a standard circuit breaker with the additional functions of a GFCI. It is installed in a panelboard and can protect an entire branch circuit with multiple outlets. It is a direct replacement for a standard circuit breaker of the same rating. 2) Receptacle Type—The receptacle style GFCI incorporates within one device one or more receptacle outlets, protected by the GFCI. Such devices are becoming very popular because of their low cost. Most are of the duplex-recep-
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tacle configuration and can provide GFCI protection for additional non-GFCI type receptacles connected “downstream” from the GFCI unit. 3) Permanently Mounted Type—The permanently mounted types are mounted in an enclosure and designed to be permanently wired to the supply. Frequently, they are used around large commercial swimming pools or similar wet locations.
4) Portable Type—Several styles of portable GFCIs are available that are designed to be easily transported from one location to another. They usually contain one or more integral receptacle outlets protected by the GFCI module. Some models are designed to plug into existing non-GFCI protected outlets or, in some cases, are connected with a cord and plug arrangement. The portable type also incorporates a no-voltage release device which will disconnect power to the outlets if any supply conductor is open. Units approved for use outdoors will be in enclosures suitable for the environment. If exposed to rain, they must be listed as rainproof. 5) Cord Connected Type—The power supply cord type GFCI consists of an attachment plug that incorporates the GFCI module. It provides protection for the cord and any equipment attached to the cord. The attachment plug has a non-standard appearance and is equipped with test and reset buttons. Like the portable type, it incorporates a no-voltage release device which will disconnect power to the load if any supply conductor is open.
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d. Classes of Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters are divided into two classes: 1) Class A devices are designed to trip when current flow, in other than the normal path, is 6 milliamperes or greater. The specification is 5mA plus or minus 1mA. 2) Class B devices will trip when current flow, in other than the normal path, is 20mA or greater. Class B devices are approved for use on underwater swimming pool lighting installed prior to the adoption of the 1965 National Electrical Code. e. Testing Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters 1) Due to the complexity of a GFCI, it is necessary to test the device on a regular basis. 2) For permanently wired devices, a monthly test is recommended. 3) Portable type GFCIs must be tested each time before use. 4) GFCIs have a built-in test circuit which imposes an artificial ground fault on the load circuit to assure that the ground fault protection is still functioning. 5) Test and reset buttons are provided for testing. 5. Circuit Breakers and Electrical Panels a. Electrical panels, switch boxes, and other electrical control devices must; 1) Have an access clearance of three feet in front.
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2) Be provided with a lock or other means to restrict access at the housing box when necessary. 3) Be labeled to indicate the circuits or equipment they affect. b. All openings in switch boxes, circuit breaker panels, etc., are to be covered. c. Damaged or missing electrical fixtures must be replaced. d. Adapters which increase the number of outlets are not allowed. 6. Cabinets, Boxes and Fittings 1) Conductors Entering Boxes, Cabinets, or Fittings
a) Conductors can be damaged if they rub against the sharp edges of cabinets, boxes, or fittings; they must be protected from damage where they enter. To protect the conductors, some type of clamp or rubber grommet must be used. The device used must close the hole through which the conductor passes as well as provide protection from abrasion. If the conductor is in a conduit and the conduit fits tightly in the opening, additional sealing is not required. b) The knockouts in cabinets, boxes, and fittings should be removed only if conductors are to be run through them. However, if a knockout is missing or if there is another hole in the box, the hole or opening must be closed. 2) Covers and Canopies a) All pull boxes, junction boxes, and fittings must be provided with covers approved for the
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purpose. If metal covers are used, they must be grounded. b) In completed installations, each outlet box must have a cover, faceplate, or fixture canopy. c) Covers of outlet boxes having holes through which flexible cord pendants pass must be provided with bushings designed for the purpose or must have smooth, well-rounded surfaces on which the cords may bear. 7. Flexible Cords and Cables a) There is a definite need and place for cords, but there is also a temptation to misuse them because they seem to offer a quick and easy way to carry electricity to where it is needed. The basic problem is that flexible cords in general are more vulnerable than the fixed wiring of the building. Therefore, cords must not be used if one of the recognized wiring methods can be used instead. b) Use of Flexible Cords and Cables 1) Flexible cords and cables must be approved and suitable for conditions of use and location. The standard lists specific situations in which flexible cords may be used. Flexible cords and cables must be used only for: a) Pendants (a lampholder or cord-connector body suspended by a length of cord properly secured and terminated directly above the suspended device). b) Wiring of fixtures. c) Connection of portable lamps or appliances. d) Elevator cables.
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e) Wiring of cranes and hoists (where flexibility is necessary). f ) Connection of stationary equipment to facilitate their frequent interchange (equipment which is not normally moved from place to place, but might be on occasion). g) Prevention of the transmission of noise or vibration. (In some cases vibration might fatigue fixed wiring and result in a situation more hazardous than flexible cord.) h) Appliances where the fastening means and mechanical connections are designed to permit removal for maintenance and repair (e.g. water coolers, exhaust fans). i) Data processing cables approved as a part of a data processing system. 2) Note that all of the above situations involve conditions where flexibility is necessary. Unless specifically permitted by one of these situations, flexible cords and cables may not be used:
a) As a substitute for the fixed wiring of the structure. b) Where run through holes in walls, ceilings, or floors. c) Where run through doorways, windows, or similar openings. d) Where attached to building surfaces. e) Where concealed behind building walls, ceilings, or floors.
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3) There is usually not much question about use of the short length of cord which is furnished as part of an approved appliance or tool; there is usually no question about an extension cord used temporarily to permit use of the appliance or tool in its intended manner at some distance from a fixed outlet; but there are questions when the usage is not obviously temporary, and when the cord is extended to some distant outlet in order to avoid providing a fixed outlet where needed. 8. Identification, Splices and Terminations a. Flexible cords must be used only in continuous lengths without splice or tap. Hard service flexible cords, No. 12 or larger, may be repaired if spliced so that the splice retains the insulation, outer sheath properties, and usage characteristics of the cord being spliced. b. Flexible cords must be connected to devices and fittings so that strain relief is provided which will prevent pull from being directly transmitted to joints or terminal screws.
F. Cranes, Hoists, Chains & Slings 1. General Safety Rules a. All crane and hoist hooks must have safety latches. b. Hooks must not be painted (or re-painted) if the paint previously applied by the manufacturer is worn. c. Crane pendants must have an electrical disconnect switch or button to open the main-line control circuit.
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d. Cranes and hoists must have a main electrical disconnect switch. This switch must be in a separate box that is labeled with lockout capability. e. Crane bridges and hoist monorails must be labeled on both sides with the maximum capacity. f. Each hoist-hook block must be labeled with the maximum hook capacity. g. All newly installed cranes and hoists, or those that have been extensively repaired or rebuilt structurally, must be load tested at 125% capacity prior to being placed into service. h. If an overload device is installed, a load test to the adjusted setting is required. i. Do not engage in any practice that will divert your attention while operating the crane. Figure 8-20: Gantry Crane
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j. Respond to signals only from the person who is directing the lift, or any appointed signal person. Obey a stop signal at all times, no matter who gives it. k. Do not move a load over people. People must not be placed in jeopardy by being under a suspended load. Also, do not work under a suspended load unless the load is supported by blocks, jacks, or a solid footing that will safely support the entire weight. Have a crane or hoist operator remain at the controls or lock open and tag the main electrical disconnect switch. l. Ensure that the rated load capacity of a crane’s bridge, individual hoist, or any sling or fitting is not exceeded. Know the weight of the object being lifted or use a dynamometer or load cell to determine the weight. m. Check that all controls are in the OFF position before closing the main-line disconnect switch. n. If spring-loaded reels are provided to lift pendants clear off the work area, ease the pendant up into the stop to prevent damaging the wire. Figure 8-21: Overhead Traveling Crane
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o. Avoid side pulls. These can cause the hoist rope to slip out of the drum groove, damaging the rope or destabilizing the crane or hoist. p. To prevent shock loading, avoid sudden stops or starts. Shock loading can occur when a suspended load is accelerated or decelerated, and can overload the crane or hoist. When completing an upward or downward motion, ease the load slowly to a stop. 2. Rigging a. General Rigging Safety Requirements 1) Use only rigging equipment that is in good condition. All rigging equipment must be inspected annually; defective equipment is to be removed from service and destroyed to prevent inadvertent re-use. The load capacity limits must be stamped or affixed to all rigging components. 2) Facility policy requires a minimum safety factor of 5 to be maintained for wire rope slings. The following types of slings must be rejected or destroyed:
a) Nylon slings with: • Abnormal wear. • Torn stitching. • Broken or cut fibers. • Discoloration or deterioration. b) Wire-rope slings with: • Kinking, crushing, bird-caging, or other distortions. • Evidence of heat damage.
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• Cracks, deformation, or worn end attachments. • Six randomly broken wires in a single rope lay. • Three broken wires in one strand of rope. • Hooks opened more than 15% at the throat. • Hooks twisted sideways more than 10 degrees from the plane of the unbent hook. c) Alloy steel chain slings with: • Cracked, bent, or elongated links or components. • Cracked hooks. d) Shackles, eye bolts, turnbuckles, or other components that are damaged or deformed. b. Rigging a Load Do the following when rigging a load: 1) Determine the weight of the load. Do not guess. 2) Determine the proper size for slings and components. 3) Do not use manila rope for rigging. 4) Make sure that shackle pins and shouldered eye bolts are installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. 5) Make sure that ordinary (shoulderless) eye bolts are threaded in at least 1.5 times the bolt diameter.
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6) Use safety hoist rings (swivel eyes) as a preferred substitute for eye bolts wherever possible. 7) Pad sharp edges to protect slings. Remember that machinery foundations or angle-iron edges may not feel sharp to the touch but could cut into rigging when under several tons of load. Wood, tire rubber, or other pliable materials may be suitable for padding. 8) Do not use slings, eye bolts, shackles, or hooks that have been cut, welded, or brazed. 9) Install wire-rope clips with the base only on the live end and the U-bolt only on the dead end. Follow the manufacturer's recommendations for the spacing for each specific wire size. 10) Determine the center of gravity and balance the load before moving it. 11) Initially lift the load only a few inches to test the rigging and balance. 3. Hand Signals
Signals to the operator must be in accordance with the standard hand signals unless voice communications equipment (telephone, radio, or equivalent) is used. Signals must be discernible or audible at all times. Some special operations may require addition to or modification of the basic signals. For all such cases, these special signals must be agreed upon and thoroughly understood by both the person giving the signals and the operator, and must not be in conflict with the standard signals. (See Figure 8-22 next pages.)
Machine and Equipment Safety 8–49
Figure 8-22: Hand Signals
8–50 ESH Handbook
Machine and Equipment Safety 8–51
4. Inspection, Maintenance, and Testing All tests and inspections must be conducted in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. a. Monthly Tests and Inspections 1) All in-service cranes and hoists must be inspected monthly and the results documented. 2) Defective cranes and hoists must be locked and tagged “out of service” until all defects are corrected. The inspector must initiate corrective action by notifying the manager. b. Annual Inspections A qualified contractor (Crane Maintenance Contractor and/or Manufacturer) must schedule and supervise annual preventive maintenance (PM) and annual inspections of all cranes and hoists. The annual PM and inspection must cover: 1) Hoisting and lowering mechanisms. 2) Trolley travel or monorail travel. 3) Bridge travel. 4) Limit switches and locking and safety devices. 5) Structural members. 6) Bolts or rivets. 7) Sheaves and drums. 8) Parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, locking devices, and clamping devices. 9) Brake system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets. 10) Load, wind, and other indicators over their full range. 11) Gasoline, diesel, electric, or other power plants.
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12) Chain-drive sprockets. 13) Crane and hoist hooks. 14) Electrical apparatus such as controller contractors, limit switches, and push button stations. 15) Wire rope. 16) Hoist chains. c. Load Testing 1) Newly installed cranes and hoists must be load tested at 125% of the rated capacity by designated personnel. 2) Slings must have appropriate test data when purchased. It is the responsibility of the purchaser to ensure that the appropriate test data are obtained and maintained. 3) Re-rated cranes and hoists must be load tested to 125% of the new capacity if the new rating is greater than the previous rated capacity. 4) Fixed cranes or hoists that have had major modifications or repair must be load tested to 125% of the rated capacity.
5) Cranes and hoists that have been overloaded must be inspected prior to being returned to service. 6) Personnel platforms, baskets, and rigging suspended from a crane or hoist hook must be load tested initially, then re-tested annually thereafter or at each new job site. 7) All cranes and hoists with a capacity greater than 3 tons (2722 kilograms) must be load tested every four years to 125% of the rated capacity. Cranes and hoists with a lesser
Machine and Equipment Safety 8–53
capacity must be load tested every eight years to 125% of the rated capacity. 8) All mobile hoists must be load tested at intervals to be determined by the manufacturer. d. Records The Facility must maintain records for all cranes, hoist and rigging equipment. 5. Alloy Chain Slings Alloy chain slings are made by bending, electric welding, and heat treating alloy steel rods into chain links. Alloy chain slings are more rugged and flexible, but less shock resistant than wire rope, manila rope, or braided slings. The size is measured by the diameter of the link stock. 6. Safe Practices a. Alloy chain slings must be protected against chemicals, rust and corrosion. Extremely low temperatures (below zero) may cause brittle fractures, and it is advisable to reduce safe load rating under those conditions by about 50%. b. Knots weaken alloy chain slings and may cause chain links to bend or
8–54 ESH Handbook
otherwise fail. Knots must not be used. c. Alloy chain slings may be shortened by hooking back into the chain, into the master link, or with grab hooks. A chain must never be shortened by twisting, knotting, or by use of bolts. d. Alloy chain slings must be protected from sharp corners which might bend the links. Lagging, corner irons, etc., should be used for this purpose.
e. When making choker hitches with alloy chain slings, always face the hook opening out and away from the pull of the sling so the hooks will not slip out when slack is taken out of the sling. f. Alloy chain slings must be checked for: 1) Nicks, cracks, gouges, and wear. 2) Bent links, lifted weld fins, opened hooks, and stretch. 3) Rust and corrosion.
Machine and Equipment Safety 8–55
4) Uneven lengths when sling legs are handing free. g. If all the legs of an alloy steel chain sling are hooked back into the master link, the safe load capacity of the whole sling may be increased 50 percent. h. Finished surfaces may be protected from alloy chain slings by bagging, lagging, etc. i. Sling hooks must not be point loaded unless designated and rated for that use. j. The larger end of pear-shaped links must be used on the crane hook so as to prevent the master links from binding. The smaller end is used for the alloy sling chain. k. Interlink wear, not accompanied by stretch in excess of 5 percent, must be noted and the chain removed from service when maximum allowable wear at any point of link, as indicated in table below, has been reached. l. Chain slings must be removed from service when, due to stretch, the increase in length of a measured section exceeds 5 percent; when a link is
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bent, twisted or otherwise damaged, or when raised scarfs or defective welds appear. m. All sling chains, including end fastenings, must be given a visual inspection before being used on the job. A thorough inspection of all chains in use must be made every three months. Each chain must bear an indication of the month in which it is thoroughly inspected. The thorough inspection must include inspection for wear, defective welds, deformation and increase in length or stretch. n. All repairs to chains must be made under qualified supervision. Links or portions of the chain found to be defective as described in subparagraph l of this section must be replaced by links having proper dimensions and made of material similar to that of the chain. Before repaired chains are returned for service, they must be proof tested to the proof-test load recommended by the manufacturer. Figure 8-23: Maximum Allowable Wear at Any Point of Link
Machine and Equipment Safety 8–57
7. Applying Wire Rope Clips a. A correct method of attaching U-bolt wire rope clips to rope ends is shown in Figure 8-24 below. The base of the clip bears against the live end of the rope, while the “U” of the bolt presses against the dead end. b. The clips are usually spaced about six rope diameters apart, to give adequate holding power. c. Before ropes are placed under tension, the nuts on the clips must be tightened. It is advisable to tighten them again after the load is on the rope to take care of any reduction in the rope’s diameter caused by the weight or tension of the load. d. A wire-rope thimble must be used in the loop eye to prevent kinking when wire-rope clips are used. e. The correct number of clips for safe application, and spacing distances, are shown in Table 8-2 next page.
Figure 8-24: Wire Rope Clips
8 The right way to clip wire rope
The wrong way to clip wire rope
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Table 8-2: Number of Clips and Spacing for Safe Application
9. General Health A. Dormitories 1. Housing a. Housing must be structurally sound, in good repair, in a sanitary condition, and must provide protection to the occupants against the elements. b. Housing must have flooring constructed of rigid materials, smooth finished, and readily cleaned. c. In dormitory accommodations using double bunk beds only, not less than 40 square feet (12.2 square meters) per occupant must be provided. d. Separate sleeping accommodations must be provided for each gender. e. Adequate and separate arrangements for hanging clothing and storing personal effects for each person must be provided. f. Each habitable room (not including partitioned areas) must have at least one window or skylight opening directly to the out-of-doors. g. All outside openings must be protected with screening of not less than 16 mesh. h. All screen doors must be tight fitting, in good repair, and equipped with self-closing devices. i. Sleeping facilities must be provided for each person, and must consist of comfortable beds, cots, or bunks. j. Any bedding that is provided by the housing operator must be clean and sanitary. k. Triple-deck bunks are prohibited.
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l. Beds used for double occupancy may be provided only in family accommodations. 2. Toilets a. Toilets must be constructed, located, and maintained so as to prevent any nuisance or public health hazard. b. Toilets or privy seats for each gender must be in the ratio of not less than one such unit for each 15 occupants, with a minimum of one unit for each gender in common-use facilities. c. Urinals, constructed of nonabsorbent materials, may be substituted for men’s toilet on the basis of one urinal or 24 inches (61 centimeters) of trough-type urinal for one toilet. d. Except in individual family units, separate toilet accommodations for men and women must be provided. e. If toilet facilities for men and women are in the same building, they must be separated by a solid wall from floor to ceiling. f. Toilets must be distinctly marked “men” and “women” in the native language of the persons expected to occupy the housing.
g. Common-use toilets must be well lighted and ventilated and must be clean and sanitary. h. Toilet facilities must be located within 200 feet (61 meters) of each living unit. i. All toilet facilities must be cleaned at least daily with anti-bacterial soap and water. 3. Bathing a. Bathing and hand-washing facilities, supplied with hot and cold water under pressure, must be
General Health 9–3
provided for the use of all occupants. These facilities must be clean and sanitary and located within 200 feet (61 meters) of each living unit. b. There must be a minimum of 1 showerhead per 15 persons. c. Showerheads must be spaced at least 3 feet (0.914 meters) apart. d. Shower floors must be constructed of nonabsorbent, nonskid materials and sloped to properly constructed floor drains. e. Separate shower facilities must be provided for each gender, and must be plainly designated “men” or “women” in the native language of the persons expected to occupy the housing. f. When common-use shower facilities for both genders are in the same building, a solid, nonabsorbent wall extending from the floor to ceiling must separate them. g. Adequate, dry dressing space must be provided in common-use facilities. 4. Safety a. Any stoves or other sources of heat utilizing combustible fuel must be installed and vented in such a manner as to prevent fire hazards and a dangerous concentration of gases. b. Any wall or ceiling within 18 inches (46 centimeters) of a solid- or liquid-fuel stove or a stovepipe must be of fireproof material. A vented metal collar must be installed around a stovepipe, or vent passing through a wall, ceiling, floor or roof.
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c. All buildings, in which people sleep or eat, must be constructed and maintained in accordance with applicable state or local fire and safety laws. d. In family housing and housing units for less than 10 persons, of one story construction, two means of escape must be provided. e. All sleeping quarters intended for use by 10 or more persons, central dining facilities, and common assembly rooms must have at least two doors remotely separated so as to provide alternate means of escape to the outside or to an interior hall. f. Sleeping quarters and common areas on the second story and above must have a stairway, and a permanent, affixed exterior ladder or a second stairway. g. Fire-extinguishing equipment must be provided in a readily accessible place located not more than 100 feet (30 meters) from each housing unit. h. There must be at least 2 clearly marked exits on each floor, and emergency lighting installed in halls, stairwells, and above each exit. i. Halls and exits must be kept clear of obstructions to allow for a safe and rapid evacuation in case of fire or other emergencies.
j. Directions for evacuation in case of fire or other emergencies must be posted in all sleeping quarters. k. Fire drills must be conducted at least quarterly. l. No flammable or volatile liquids or materials must be stored in or adjacent to rooms used for living purposes, except for those needed for current household use.
General Health 9–5
m. Agricultural pesticides and toxic chemicals must not be stored in the housing area. n. First-aid kits must be provided and readily accessible for use at all times, in a ratio of 1 per every 50 persons. 5. Electrical a. All dormitories must be provided with electric service. b. Each habitable room, all common-use rooms, and areas such as halls and stairways must contain adequate ceiling or wall-type light fixtures. c. At least one wall-type electrical outlet must be provided in each individual living room. d. All wiring and lighting fixtures must be installed and maintained in a safe condition. e. Adequate lighting must be provided for the yard area, and pathways to common-use facilities. 6. Sanitation a. Housing and facilities must be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin. b. Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition must be provided adjacent to each housing unit for the storage of garbage and other refuse. c. Provisions must be made for collection of refuse at least twice a week, or more often if necessary. d. The disposal of refuse must be in accordance with state and local law.
9–6 ESH Handbook
B. Clinics and Occupational Health Programs 1. Clinics a. All health care staff must be trained in the practice of Occupational and Emergency Medicine. b. All health care staff should be licensed and registered for the level of care that they are providing. c. Guidelines should be established for triage of patients to allow for better access to the healthcare system. d. Guidelines should be established for the admission, treatment, transport and discharge of patients. e. Infection control procedures should be implemented, and appropriate equipment onhand (e.g., sterile gloves, CPR barrier mask, autoclave, disposable needles, and suture kits).
Figure 9-1: Clinic
General Health 9–7
f. Protocols for the use, testing, maintenance and calibration of medical and surveillance instruments should be developed and implemented. g. All health-care facilities should have equipment available to provide an advanced level of trauma life support (e.g., Ambu-bag, EKG, AED, oxygen tanks, airways, IV capability). h. Protocols should be established for the return to work of employees who have been absent from work as a result of infectious or contagious diseases. i. The contractor should establish procedures to ensure that all employees have access to health surveillance that is appropriate to the health and safety risks they incur at work. j. The contractor/employer should provide a minimum of 1 private bed for every 1,000 employees. k. The contractor/employer should equip the clinic facility with a mechanical ventilation system that is capable of maintaining the temperature between 70 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit (21– 27 degrees Celsius) at all times. l. The contractor/employer should establish clinical guidelines for the treatment of all infectious diseases and have them available in the health care facility at all times. m. Strict adherence to sanitation standards should be in place at all times. 2. Health Risk Assessment a. The contractor/employer should measure existing exposure levels to include: noise, temperature, UV
9–8 ESH Handbook
rays, VOC vapor, dust, exhaust ventilation, and repetitive trauma. b. The contractor/employer should review all onhand Material Safety Data Sheets for the purpose of establishing or verifying PPE requirements. c. The contractor/employer should establish a procedure to insure compliance with PPE requirements. d. The contractor/employer should periodically review the PPE program for effectiveness. e. The contractor/employer should implement standards to control the exposure to identified risks (e.g., Hearing Conservation Program, Heat Stress Reduction, VOC reduction, Eye Protection, Foot Protection, Bloodborne Pathogens program, Hazard Communication, Infectious Diseases, etc.). 3. Health Surveillance a. The contractor/employer should establish a structured health-surveillance program based on the results of the Risk Assessment. b. A system should be established to analyze the results of the surveillance programs, and provide guidance for corrective action and medical treatment.
c. A procedure should be developed to insure that confidentiality of medical information is maintained. d. A procedure should be established to evaluate the general health of employees at all stages of the employment continuum (pre-employment, baseline testing, pre-assignment, post sickness).
General Health 9–9
4. First Aid and Emergency Medical Response a. The contractor/employer should develop, post, implement and test a Medical Emergency Response Plan. b. The contractor/employer should develop the capability of handling a medical emergency through training of the workforce in basic first aid, CPR, and First Response. c. The number of employees trained should be sufficient to insure that there is adequate coverage available at all times. Names of these employees should be posted in each work area.
Figure 9-2: First Aid Station
9–10 ESH Handbook
d. The contractor/employer should insure that all employees who provide first aid or other emergency care are trained in and adhere to the Bloodborne Pathogens standard. e. Protocols should be established for the transport of injured workers via ambulance to off-site medical treatment centers. f. All transport vehicles should be equipped with Advanced Life Support apparatus (oxygen tanks, emergency air ways, back boards, cervical collars, EKG, AED, etc.). g. The contractor/employer should hold mock emergency drills on a regular basis to insure that the process is effective. 5. Recordkeeping a. The contractor/employer should establish a procedure to insure that the confidentiality of all medical records is maintained at all times. b. Occupational health records should be maintained for a period of 30 years. c. Health Assessment and Surveillance data should be included as part of the medical record, and maintained as such.
d. The contractor/employer should establish a computerized system for the tracking of occupational health records and data. e. Summary surveillance data should be forwarded to supervisors for corrective action, in a confidential manner. f. Occupational health data should be analyzed regularly for the purposes of trend identification, corrective action, and health promotion activity planning.
General Health 9–11
6. Health Promotion a. The contractor/employer should utilize health risk assessment data to target high-risk occupational, environmental and lifestyle diseases for the development of health promotion activities. b. Heath-promotion activities should be multi-media and culturally relevant whenever possible. c. Preventative measures should be instituted as a means of reducing the overall health risk of the workforce (e.g., smoking cessation, AIDS training, family planning, tetanus vaccinations, Hepatitis B vaccinations, etc.). d. The contractor/employer should establish a process to monitor and measure the effectiveness of health promotion activities. e. All health promotion activities should be documented.
C. Canteens 1. General Principles a. When central food service facilities are provided, the kitchen and dining hall must be in proper proportion to the capacity of the housing, and be separate from the sleeping quarters. b. All food service facilities must be maintained clean, clear of refuse and garbage, and free of rodent and insect infestations. c. All floors, walls, ceilings, studs, joints, rafters, and pipes must be constructed to provide easy access for cleaning. d. Adequate light must be provided to all surfaces and equipment in food service spaces.
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e. All rooms must be adequately ventilated and airintake ducts and interiors of ventilation ducting cleaned at least quarterly to prevent accumulation of dirt and grease. f. Ventilation hoods and grease filters must be cleaned weekly to prevent fires. g. Garbage and refuse must be kept in leak-proof, nonabsorbent containers. h. Sufficient numbers of garbage and refuse containers are required to prevent overfilling. They must be provided with tight-fitting covers and emptied as necessary during operation hours and at a minimum of each working day. i. Garbage and refuse on the premises must be stored in a location inaccessible to insects and rodents. When garbage or refuse rooms are used, they should not be located within 100 feet of the food-service facility. j. Garbage containers must be cleaned inside and out after they are emptied at the end of the day. k. Effective measures to eliminate or control the presence of rodents, flies, cockroaches, and other pests must be maintained. l. The food-service facility and its adjacent grounds must be kept free of litter and debris.
m. Floors must be of nonabsorbent, easily cleaned materials. n. Floors must be cleaned and disinfected daily. o. All floor drains must be cleaned and disinfected daily. p. Wall surface adjacent to all food preparation and cooking areas must be of nonabsorbent, easily
General Health 9–13
cleaned material. In addition, the wall surface adjacent to cooking areas must be of fire-resistant material. q. Tables and chairs or equivalent seating must be provided, and must be adequate in number to accommodate the workers that will be served. 2. Food Preparation/Handling a. All food-service workers must undergo medical examinations at a minimum of twice annually, and certified as being free from communicable diseases. b. Certification must be posted in the service area. c. Food-service workers must wear hairnets, gloves, and aprons while preparing and serving food. d. Food-service workers must thoroughly wash and disinfect hands after using toilet facilities or engaging in any other activities that could contaminate the hands. Signs must be posted in the toilet areas clearly stating this requirement. e. Food-service workers must thoroughly wash and disinfect hands when switching between working with raw food and food that is ready to eat. f. Food-service workers who contract a disease that is transmissible through food must be removed from all food-handling activities until they are certified as being disease free by a medical doctor. g. Mechanical refrigeration that is capable of maintaining a temperature of not more than 41° Fahrenheit (5° Celcius) must be provided for the storage of potentially hazardous food. h. Sinks with hot and cold water under pressure must be provided.
9–14 ESH Handbook
i. All cooking, serving, and eating utensils must be constructed of stainless steel, and must be thoroughly washed and disinfected after every use. j. All tabletops and counters must be thoroughly washed and disinfected after each use. k. Countertops that are used for food preparation must be constructed of stainless steel. l. All food must be cooked and served or discarded within 4 hours after being removed from refrigeration. Figure 9-3: Proper Hand Washing
General Health 9–15
m. All potentially hazardous food must be cooked to a temperature of 140° Fahrenheit (60° Celcius), or above. n. Food must be stored off of the floor, and covered. o. All food-service facilities should be maintained clean, clear of refuse and garbage, and free of rodent and insect infestations. p. All food-service facilities must be provided with adequate food-storage shelves.
D. Sanitation 1. General a. The floor of every workroom must be maintained in a dry condition to the extent that is possible considering the work being performed. b. Where wet processes are used, drainage must be maintained and platforms, mats or other dry standing places must be provided. If that is not possible, appropriate waterproof footwear must be provided at no cost to the employee. c. To facilitate cleaning, every floor, working place and passageway must be kept free of protruding nails, splinters, loose boards, and unnecessary holes or floor openings. 2. Waste Disposal (Non-Hazardous) a. Any receptacle used for solid or liquid waste or refuse with the potential to decay must be constructed so that it does not leak and may be thoroughly cleaned and maintained in a sanitary condition. These receptacles should also be equipped with a solid, tight fitting cover.
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b. All solid or liquid wastes, garbage or refuse must be removed as often as necessary to maintain the sanitary condition of the work place. 3. Vermin/Pest Control a. Every enclosed workplace must be constructed, equipped and maintained in such a way as to prevent the entrance or harborage of rodents, insects or other vermin to the extent possible. b. Where the presence of pests is detected, a continuous and effective extermination program must be instituted. 4. Toilet Facilities a. Toilet rooms must be provided that are separated by gender, and clearly marked as such. Where physical space does not allow for separate toilet rooms, gender signs must be posted outside of each individual toilet facility/compartment. b. The number of toilet facilities that are necessary must be determined by the number of employees Figure 9-4: Lavatory
General Health 9–17
of each gender that will utilize the facilities, based on the following chart: Number of Employees .................................... Min. No. Toilets1 1–15 ....................................................................................... 1 16–35 ...................................................................................... 2 36–55 ...................................................................................... 3 56–80 ...................................................................................... 4 81–110 ..................................................................................... 5 111–150 .................................................................................... 6 Over 150 ..................................................................................... 2 1
Where toilet facilities will not be used by women, urinals may be provided instead of toilets, except that the number of toilets in such cases must not be reduced to less than twothirds of the minimum specified. 2 Additional fixture for each additional 40 employees. c. Each toilet must occupy a separate compartment with a door and walls, or partitions between fixtures that are sufficiently high to assure privacy. d. Covered trash receptacles must be provided in each compartment. e. Trash receptacles must be emptied and disinfected at least daily. f. All toilet facilities must be maintained in a sanitary condition, with floors and fixtures cleaned using soap and disinfectant at least daily. g. All toilet facilities must be adequately ventilated and have enclosed pipes and drains. h. Deodorant tablets must be used in all urinals. i. No chemicals other than cleaning products may be stored in a toilet room.
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5. Washing Facilities a. Lavatories (washing basins or sinks) must be made available in all work places. b. Each lavatory must be provided with hot and cold running water, to the extent possible. Where hot water is not available, cold or tepid running water must be available. c. Hand soap or similar cleansing agent must be provided. d. Individual paper hand towels, warm air blowers, clean individual sections, or continuous cloth toweling must be provided convenient to the lavatories. e. All washing facilities must be maintained in a sanitary condition, with floors and fixtures cleaned using soap and disinfectant at least daily. 6. Eating and Drinking Areas a. No employee must be allowed to consume food or beverages in a toilet facility, or in any other area that is exposed to toxic material. b. Receptacles with a tight-fitting cover must be provided for the disposal of waste food, and must be emptied and disinfected at least daily.
c. No food or beverages must be stored in a toilet room or in any other area that is exposed to toxic material.
E. Drinking Water 1. General Principles a. Potable water must be provided in all work areas.
General Health 9–19
b. Drinking water dispensers must be designed, constructed, and serviced in such a way that sanitary conditions are maintained. c. Drinking water dispensers must be capable of being closed to the work environment. Figure 9-5: Methods of Providing Drinking Water
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d. Individual drinking cups or other containers must be available for each employee’s use. Common drinking cups or utensils are prohibited. e. Outlets for non-potable water, such as that used for firefighting or other industrial purposes must be marked in a manner that clearly indicates that the water is not fit for human consumption. f. All non-potable water systems must be constructed in such a way that back flow or siphonage into a potable water system is prevented. g. Non-potable water must be boiled or otherwise decontaminated prior to being used for food preparation or cooking. h. Non-potable water may be used to clean the general work premises, provided that it does not contain chemicals or other substances that could be harmful to employees or the environment. i. Contractors/employers must establish a water sampling program. Sampling frequency for a water system is based on user population. Population Served .......................... Minimum Samples/Month
25–1,000 .............................................................................. 1 8,501–12,900 ......................................................................... 10 17,201–21,500 ........................................................................ 20 41,001–50,000 ........................................................................ 50
j. A water system is considered to be in compliance if the following bacteria and disinfection levels are met: 1) Fecal coliforms = 0; however, if the samples per month are less than 40, then 1 failure per month is acceptable.
General Health 9–21
2) 99.9 percent inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts, 99.99 percent inactivation of viruses; however, 1 failure per month is acceptable. 3) Residual disinfectant concentration in the water entering the system cannot be less than 0.2 milligrams/liter. 4) The residual disinfectant concentration in the distribution system measured as total chlorine, combined chlorine or chlorine dioxide must be detectable in 95 percent of the samples each month.
F. Childcare Facility Management 1. General Principles a. Each childcare center must have a program director that is employed full time. b. When mobile classroom units are used, they must be securely anchored to the ground and must meet all requirements for permanent structures. c. All stairs that have more than two steps must be provided with sturdy handrails. When balusters are more than 4 inches (10 centimeters) apart, provisions must be made to prevent a child’s head or body from falling through. d. Landings or gates must be provided beyond each exterior door, and any door opening onto a fulllength stairway. e. Each window and glass door must be screened or guarded. f. Floors must be smooth and not slippery, free from cracks, clean and in good condition. A floor covering is required over concrete.
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g. Walls must be clean and free of cracks. h. All surfaces must be free of toxic materials. i. Electrical outlets within the reach of children must be provided with receptacle covers when not in use. j. Extension cords must not be used. k. Each room occupied by children must have adequate lighting in all parts of the room. l. The premises must be maintained in good condition and must be clean at all times, free from accumulated dirt and trash, and any evidence of vermin or rodent infestation. Each outdoor trash and garbage container must be covered, and the contents must be removed at least weekly. m. Each room occupied by the children must be heated, ventilated and cooled. The temperature in each room must be not be less than 65° Fahrenheit (18° Celcius) nor more than 90° Fahrenheit (32° Celcius). n. Each electric fan, if used, must be mounted high on the wall or must be guarded. o. When a gas heater is used, it must be approved by a fire inspector before use. Open-faced heaters are prohibited.
p. All heating elements, including hot water pipes, must be insulated or installed in such a way that children cannot come in contact with them. Asbestos insulation must not be used. Fireplaces must not be used when children are present. q. Medicines, poisons, and other dangerous substances and instruments must be in locked storage.
General Health 9–23
r. Storage of firearms in any area used for children’s activities is prohibited. Firearms stored in any other area of the premises must be in locked storage, or must be equipped with trigger locks. s. Carpeting must be clean and in good repair. Newly installed carpeting must meet fire safety requirements of the local fire authorities. 2. Fire Safety a. The building must meet the legal requirements of the community as to fire protection, water supply, and sewage disposal. b. The building must have two exits approved by a fire inspector. One exit must lead directly to the outside. c. Second floors approved by a fire inspector may be used for children 2½ years or over. Second-floor windows must be guarded. d. Fire evacuation drills must be conducted at least once a month for all children and adults present using at least 2 means of exit. e. Drills must be conducted according to procedures which are posted in each room utilized by children. f. A record of drills must be available for inspection by the local authorities. 3. Play Area a. A fenced outdoor play area must be provided for children 6 weeks to kindergarten age. b. The outdoor play area must be able to accommodate at least 25 percent of the capacity at one time.
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c. The fence for the outdoor play area must be at least 3 feet (1 meter) high, free from sharp, hazardous edges, and of sufficient construction to keep animals and intruders out. d. There must be no farm animals or fowl in the play area. Pets, if present, must be physically controlled or restrained. e. The grounds must be kept neat and clean and safe, and must be properly sloped or drained to prevent stagnant water collection. f. Hazards, such as flammable materials, deep pools, or farm equipment, must be inaccessible; potential hazards, such as uncovered wells, broken glass, boards containing nails, and other debris must be eliminated. 4. Water Supply a. The water supply must be from a source approved by a local health authority. b. Sanitary drinking facilities must be available to children while indoors or outdoors. One of the following methods must be used: 1) Individual disposable cups and a water dispenser.
2) Individually-marked glasses or cups which must be washed daily. 3) A fountain designed so that a child can get a drink of water without assistance. c. Drinking fountains must not be plumbed to sinks. d. Cold water and hot water not exceeding 110° Fahrenheit (43° Celcius) must be supplied to lavatory fixtures accessible to children.
General Health 9–25
5. Sanitation a. All plumbing fixtures and building sewers must be connected to public sewers where available. b. When a public sewer is not available, a private sewage disposal system meeting requirements of the local health and environmental authorities must be installed and connected to all plumbing fixtures. 6. Bathroom Facilities a. Plumbing must be installed and maintained according to local plumbing codes. b. Bathroom facilities must be readily accessible to the children, and must be placed low or be provided with safety steps. c. There must be 1 toilet and 1washbasin for each 15 children. d. Bathroom facilities must be planned to assure privacy for staff. e. Soap, individual cloth towels or paper towels, and toilet paper must be provided. The use of common towels and wash cloths is prohibited. f. When cloth towels and wash cloths are used, they must be labeled with the child’s name and laundered at least weekly. 7. Sleeping Accommodations a. Individual cribs, cots, or mats (suitable to the child’s age and level of development) and a cover must be provided for each child. b. For evening care, each child must be provided with a cot with a firm, waterproof mattress.
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c. At least 3 feet (0.914 meters) of space must separate the cribs, cots, and mats. d. Cots, cribs, and mats must be disinfected daily or marked for individual use and disinfected weekly or more often when needed. e. Stacked cribs must not be used for infant sleeping/ napping. f. Smoking is prohibited in the center or preschool. g. Alcohol or non-prescribed controlled substances (drugs) must not be consumed on the premises during hours of operation, nor while children are present. h. Each child’s hands must be washed with soap and water before and after eating and after toileting. i. Children must be allowed to go to the bathroom individually as needed. 8. Illness a. When a child is absent due to a communicable disease, staff must inform other parents of the nature of the illness. b. Communicable diseases (anthrax, influenza, Hepatitis A, B, or C, etc.) must be reported to the relevant local authorities.
c. Symptoms of illness must be reported immediately to parents. d. A quiet area must be provided for sick children, who must be supervised by an adult. e. Non-prescription medications must not be administered to any child except on written order of the parent or guardian. f. Orders must be renewed yearly.
General Health 9–27
g. A designated staff member must administer medication. h. One designated staff member, per session, per unit must administer prescription medication from a pharmacy container labeled with the child’s name, the name of the medication, dosage, dosage intervals, the name of the physician, and the date the prescription was filled. The label must be considered the order from the physician. i. A record must be kept in the child’s file as to who gave the medication and of the date and time it was given.
10. Sampling Equipment/Device Guidelines A. 3M Organic Vapor Monitors (OVM) These diffusion monitors are a sampling device designed to measure average concentrations over a measured time interval. Sampling times will vary according to contaminant concentrations and environmental conditions such as humidity. For complete details on sampling times refer to the last page of this document. This monitor can be used as either a personal or area monitor. As a personal monitor, it is worn near the breathing zone of individuals exposed to potentially hazardous environments. When used as an area monitor, hang it away from walls, corners, table tops, or other regions where the air movement in the room may be limited.
10–2 ESH Handbook
1. Preparation of Blanks Good industrial hygiene practice indicates that a blank monitor be included with each set of samples to check for any contamination of the samples. The blank is a monitor which has been handled in the same manner as the sample monitors, but has not been exposed to the atmosphere in the area being monitored. For every ten samples submit at least one blank. 2. Sampling Instructions a. Remove monitor from its container and record the time on both the monitor back section and on the corresponding data sheet. Keep the container. b. Before monitoring, record the following information in your data sheet: 1) monitor serial number (each monitor has a four digit number and letter), 2) sampling date, 3) employee or area I.D., 4) temperature and relative humidity (if known), and 5) compounds to be analyzed. c. Record the date, employee or area I.D. and sampling start time on the monitor label (Diagram 1). DO NOT REMOVE WHITE FILM AND PLASTIC RING.
d. Monitor can be used as an area or personal monitor. For personal sampler attach the monitor near employee breathing zone (Diagram 2). Place the monitor on the worker by affixing the alligator clip to the shirt collar with the white membrane side exposed (on the outside). When used as an area monitor, hang it away from walls, corners, table tops, or other regions where the air movement in the room may be limited. e. When removing the monitor record the end time on both the monitor and data sheet. Calculate the
Sampling Equipment/Device Guidelines 10–3
total time of sampling on the data sheet. If the sampling period spans the lunch hour, subtract the lunchtime from the total time between monitor placement and removal. f. After sampling period is ended, remove plastic ring and white film from the monitor (Diagram 3). Snap the elution cap (with plugs) onto the top of the primary body. Separate the primary body and secondary body sections (Diagram 4). Snap the bottom cup (no plugs) into the bottom of the primary section (Diagram 5). Snap elution cap on the secondary body. You may wish to secure them with scotch tape before placing them back in cans. Monitor is now ready for shipment. Note: The primary and secondary sections should have the same identification numbers. g. Return monitor to can and close with plastic lid provided. Pack monitors securely into a box and, where possible, with a cool pack to further ensure sample preservation. h. Send samples “Next Day Air” to an accredited laboratory for analysis. Note: Certain compounds (e.g., acetone, MEK, vinyl acetate, etc.) may show a decreased recovery when sampled in high relative humidity. Refrigerate and/or expedite for analysis to help ensure accurate results. The placement of any sampling material or equipment on workers should be voluntary. Workers should be instructed to go about their normal duties and not alter their routines in any way. Monitors can be kept on during lunch if the sampling period requires it. It is important to periodically check the monitors during the sampling period to make sure they are still properly placed and not damaged or covered with material or clothing.
10–4 ESH Handbook
For many situations passive sampling, Organic Vapor Monitors (OVM), is preferred over comparable active methods. This section is based upon guidelines for the 3M organic vapor monitors. Desorbing Solvents are listed for each compound in the following table. The desorbing solvent allows an individual to determine what other compounds if any may be sampled on the same organic vapor monitor at the same time. Two or more compounds with the same desorbing solvent can be sampled concurrently on the same OVM. It is essential that the minimum and maximum exposure times be adhered to for the compounds being sampled. The following table specifies this information. *Shading denotes the most typical chemicals sampled in footwear, apparel, and equipment factories.
Table 10-1: Desorbing Solvents
Sampling Equipment/Device Guidelines 10–5
B. Sound Level Meter Guidelines 1. Monitoring Equipment a. The Quest™ 2400 Type 2 sound-level meter will primarily be used to quantify continuous or intermittent noise exposure surveys. The operator must record the measured sound level. The sound level meter kit will include a calibrator, calibration tool, wind guard, wrist strap and two 9-volt alkaline batteries. Calibration must occur prior to sampling and after sampling each day. Do not substitute with another type of calibrator. The Quest™ 2400 and calibrator must be sent back to an authorized maintenance and calibration vendor each year. It is recommended that the user read the Quest instructions and this guide and becomes familiar with the equipment prior to use. b. The Quest™ 2400 sound level meter must not be used in flammable atmospheres or near open containers of flammable materials. c. Calibrating the Quest™ 2400 sound level meter: 1) Slide the frequency weightings switch to “A.” 2) Slide the range switch to high (70–140 dBA). 3) Slide the response switch to “Slow.” 4) Slide the display mode to “Run.” 5) Tun on the power to the meter. The LCD (liquid crystal display) should indicate the status of the batteries and the current sound level. 6) If low battery status is indicated, turn off the power. Open the batteries door and discard the old batteries. Slide two new 9-volt alkaline batteries into the space as shown by the label in
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the battery door. New batteries should provide approximately 25 hours of continuous use. Recording the date on each battery is recommended. 7) Turn on the power. The display should indicate sufficient battery power for the planned survey and the current sound levels. 8) Slide the calibrator onto the silver microphone until fully inserted. The current sound level reading should be lower. (The calibration date by the authorized vendor must be on the calibrator and be current within one year.) 9) Turn on the calibrator. The sound level should rise to the calibrator source level. Note on the calibrator label the appropriate sound level. 10) If the sound level meter reads the same as the calibrator source level label, the meter is properly calibrated. 11) If the sound level meter is not calibrated, use the calibrator tool to adjust the calibration screw on the sound level meter until it matches the calibrator source level label. If the sound level meter will not calibrate, install a new battery in the calibrator. Start at Step 8) to complete the calibration. If the sound level meter will not calibrate, return it to an authorized maintenance and calibration vendor.
12) Turn off the calibrator and remove it from the microphone. The sound level meter is calibrated. Record in your notes that calibration was conducted including, date, time and name. 13) After monitoring is complete for the day, follow calibration Steps 7) through 12).
Sampling Equipment/Device Guidelines 10–7
d. Using the Quest™ 2400 sound level meter: 1) Assure that proper calibration was conducted before use. 2) Attach the wrist strap to the meter and your wrist to prevent damage if dropped. 3) Do not talk or create noises while monitoring. All sound levels measured should be from the typical work environment. 4) Wind or high air velocities can create whistles or distortions around the microphone that can cause sampling data errors. Where high airvelocities are present during sampling, the wind guard should be installed over the microphone. Note in the documentation if the wind guard was used. 5) The meter should be held with your arm extended away from your body approximately at the employee’s ear level. Areas with seated employees should be sampled at seated employee ear level and standing employee ear level. If no employee is present, hold the meter approximately 5 feet (1.5 meters) above the floor. Similar to the employee’s ear, the microphone should point sideways approximately perpendicular to the direction the employee is standing. Record the sampling height and location. 6) Monitor and record the sound levels from different task specific areas around a noise source. (Example, for a product grinder, monitor near the loading area, control panel and discharge area.) 7) Each different employee task that involves a noise source should be monitored and re-
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corded. (For example, for a product grinder, the product loader, operator and maintenance person may have different noise exposures.) 8) Some sound level fluctuations are common. After 10 seconds, record the estimated average or center tendency sound level for each position. If the fluctuation is greater than 3 dBA, record the minimum, maximum and estimated average levels. 9) Maximum levels can also be determined by sliding the display switch to “Max Hold” mode. Reset to “Run” mode before continuing the sample. 10) Record the time, date, exact location, equipment in operation and rate. Record operation, name of task or operation, sine of room or area, number of employees present, duration of the task or exposure to the noise source, identity of sound level meter, sound levels measured, name of person conducting the survey and other applicable information.
11) Noise dosimeters may be worn by an employee to document the various noise exposures throughout a work period. The dosimeter records and calculates the daily noise dose for the workday. Dosimeters must be calibrated and all settings set for A weighting, slow response, threshold at 80 dBA, exchange rate of 5 dBA and criterion at 90 dBA. The microphone should be attached to the collar approximately 6 inches (15.2 centimeters) from the ear and pointing up toward the ear. e. Exposure Monitoring All facilities should be systematically assessed for high noise sources and work areas. All areas
Sampling Equipment/Device Guidelines 10–9
believed or known to be higher than 85 dBA should be identified and monitored. Any work area that requires the employees to shout to be heard or understood from a distance of approximately 1 meter should be evaluated. The sound level meter can survey specific operations, machines or work areas. Adjacent equipment can be turned off to determine the noise caused by a single machine. A simple plan should include the following issues: 1) A person experienced with the facility should conduct an initial walk through of all work and maintenance areas identifying potential high noise locations. Develop a detailed listing and diagram of noise sources and areas of high noise. Different shift operations and scheduled maintenance activities should be listed. 2) Locate employee work areas near all of the noise sources. Record how long they work with specific equipment and the duration of work in a high noise area. 3) Conduct sound level measurements for each identified work area or noise source. Record the sound levels and status (on or off, full or half speed, production rate) of each adjacent piece of equipment. 4) All equipment with employee exposure to sound levels above a time weighted average of 90 dBA should be evaluated for engineering controls, enclosures, adding sound absorbing materials, replacement with quieter equipment, etc. 5) If available, a dosimeter can be worn by an employee to record the duration of exposure and exposure levels. Compare the dosimeter
10–10 ESH Handbook
record with the measured sound levels and estimated time of exposures. All significant differences (>3 dBA) should be monitored again. 6) Summarize all noise source areas greater than 85 dBA and all employee work areas. Writing the sound levels on a floor plan, blue print, photo or a simple sketch of the work area may be helpful. 7) All employees with an 8-hour time weighted average of 85 dBA will be included in the hearing conservation program. See Calculations section. f. Calculations A maximum time weighted average of 90 dBA or 1.0 (100%) for noise exposures are based on the 8-hour workday. Employees exposed above this level will be included in the hearing conservation program. The dBA scale is logarithmic and can not be simply added or subtracted. A worker who works a full 8 hours in one location with continuous noise exposure will average that exposure. Maximum exposures are listed in the Table 10-2 next page.
Sampling Equipment/Device Guidelines 10–11
Table 10-2: Maximum Exposure Levels Duration Per Day ......................................... Sound Level dBA 8 ........................................................................ 90 6 ........................................................................ 92 4 ........................................................................ 95 3 ........................................................................ 97 2 ...................................................................... 100 1.5 ................................................................... 102 1 ...................................................................... 105 0.5 ................................................................... 110 0.25 ................................................................. 115
Shorter duration or mixtures of exposures must be calculated. C1 D = ---T1
With: D = the total noise dose C = employee’s duration of exposure at a specific noise level T = total duration of exposure allowed at that noise level
A dose of 1.0 (100%) is the same as an 8-hour time weighted average of 90 dBA.
TWA = 16.61 times log10 (D) + 90 dBA
11. General Information, Weights and Measures
11–2 ESH Handbook
General Information, Weights & Measures 11–3