Epoch of Gilgamesh-Tablet II
I have compiled, from 18 ancient sources, the Story of Gilgamesh-Tablet II. These collections of stories, may be the fou...
The Epoch of Gilgamesh Portions of this document can be found in all of the following; Qur’an, Bible, Torah
Tablet I He who has seen it all, I will make him known to the world. I will shed light on his life’s story. He who likewise came across all sorts of deeds, Anu had bestowed on him all the knowledge about every single thing. He grasped the Enigma; he found out the Unexplained. He brought information about the time of the Flood. Pushing himself to the end of his strength, He went on a far-away journey. But then he was brought to peace. About all of his toils, he carved on a stone display case. And built the wall of Uruk-Haven — The wall of the sacred Eanna Temple, the Holy Sanctuary. Take a look at its wall, that gleams like copper. Look at its inner wall. It is a wall that no other wall can be. Get hold of the threshold’ stone — It’s lasting since ancient times. Go close to the Eanna Temple— The house of Ishtar it is. To equal it, No later king or man has ever built such a temple.
Climb up the wall of Uruk and walk around. Look at its foundation. Check thoroughly its brickwork. Is it not —even the foundation— the brick building, made of kiln-fired bricks? And did not the Seven Sages themselves lay out its drawing? The City spans one league. The palms gardens span one league. One-league span the lowlands. The open area of the Ishtar’s Temple spans three leagues — Plus the open area of Uruk that the wall encloses— Find the copper tablet box, open the... bronze lock. Undo the strap of its secret notch. Take out and read from the lapis lazuli tablet. It tells how Gilgamesh went through hard times. Top king over other kings, Noble in looks — he is the hero. Born in Uruk, the powerful guy— he is like a wild bull. He walks at the front — the leader — And walks at the rear too. His travel buddies have faith in him. He is like a mighty mesh. He is protector of his people. He is a raging flood-wave that washes away, even stonewalls. The child of Lugalbanda, Gilgamesh is strong to perfection. He is the son of the august cow, Rimat-Ninsun... Gilgamesh is fine to perfection. He was the one who had opened the mountain passes. He was the one who dug wells on the side of the mountain. He was the one who crossed the ocean — the vast seas, to the rising sun. He was the one who explored the world regions in search of life. He was the one who by his own sheer strength reached Utanapishtim, the Faraway. He was the one who restored the sanctuaries and cities That the Flood had washed away... from the crowded mankind. Who can measure up to him in being a king? Who can say like Gilgamesh says: I am King! Who else’s name, from the day of his birth, was Gilgamesh? He is two-thirds god and one-third man. The Great Goddess Aruru Set up the model for his body, she put together his shape...
...He is gorgeous. He is the best looking of men. He is perfect... He walks all over the place in the Uruk’s neighborhood. Like a wild bull he makes himself mighty with his head raised higher than others. There is no rival who can raise a weapon against him. His buddies stand alert. They listen carefully to his commands. And the men of Uruk become worried that... Gilgamesh does not leave behind a son to his father, day and night he proudly...
The following lines translated as rhetorical, are spoken perhaps by the oppressed citizens of Uruk. Is Gilgamesh the shepherd of Uruk-Haven? Is he the shepherd... bold, well known, mindful, and wise? Gilgamesh does not leave a girl to her mother? such as The daughter of the warrior, the bride of a young man. The gods kept hearing the folks’ complaints. So the gods of the heavens implored the Lord Anu of Uruk: You have indeed brought into being a mighty guy like a wild bull, with his head up! There is no foe that can raise a weapon against him. His team buddies stand at a short notice. They pay attention to his orders. Gilgamesh does not leave a son to his father. Day and night he proudly... Is he the shepherd of Uruk-Haven, is he their guide... Bold, well known, alert, and wise ? Gilgamesh does not leave a daughter to her mother — Be her the daughter of the warrior or the bride of a young man. Anu listened to their complaints, and the gods called out to Aruru. Aruru, you were the one that created mankind. Now, please create a zikru for him. Let him be a match for Gilgamesh's stormy heart. Let them be a match for each other so that Uruk may find peace! When Aruru heard this she created within herself the zikru of Anu. Aruru washed her hands. She squeezed some clay. She threw it into the wilderness. Breaking the rules, she shaped the brave Enkidu. He was born from silence and endowed with strength by Ninurta. His entire body was bushy with hair.
He had a full head of hair like a woman. His locks billowed in profusion like Ashnan. He didn’t know about folks or about settled life. He wore a garment like Sumukan. He ate grasses with the gazelles. He crowded at the watering hole with the animals. As animals do, he quenched his thirst with plain water. On the other side of the watering hole, a well-known trapper Came head to head with him. A first, a second, and a third day, He came head to head with him on the other side of the watering hole. On seeing him, the trapper's face went purple with fear. And Enkidu and his animals went back home. He was throbbing with fear, though motionless, his heart pounded. And his face was drained of color. In his heart, he was fed-up. And his face Looked like the face of a man who had made a long journey. The trapper spoke to his father saying: Father, a certain guy has come from the mountains. He is the mightiest in the land. His strength is as powerful as an Anu’s stone from the sky. He goes on and on over the mountains. On and on, he crowds at the watering hole with the animals. On and on, he positions his feet opposite the watering hole. I was scared, so I did not go up to him. He filled in, the pits that I had dug. He pulled out the traps that I had put. He had let loose the wild animals from my grip. He does not let me make my rounds in the wilds! The trapper's father spoke to him saying: My son, there lives in Uruk someone called Gilgamesh. There is no one stronger than him. He is as strong as the Anu’s stone from the sky. Go. Get going to Uruk. Tell Gilgamesh about this Mighty Man. He will give you Shamhat — the courtesan. Take her with you. She will conquer this guy, like if she were sturdy.
When the animals drink at the water hole, Tell her to take off her clothes and expose her body. When he sees her he will come nearer to her. And he will forget about his animals that are from in his wilds. He listened to his father's point of view. The trapper left for Uruk. He made the journey. He stopped in Uruk and said to ... Gilgamesh: There is a certain guy who has come from the mountains. He is the mightiest in the land. His strength is as mighty as Anu’s stone from the sky. He goes over the mountains all the time. He crowds at the water hole with the animals all the time. He goes opposite the water hole all the time. I was afraid. So I did not go up to him. He filled in, the pits that I had dug. He pulled out my traps that I had put. He let loose the wild animals from my grip. He does not let me make my rounds in the wilds! Gilgamesh said to the trapper: Go and bring Shamhat the courtesan with you. When his animals drink at the water hole, Tell her to take off her clothes and expose her body. When he sees her he will come closer to her. And he will forget about his animals that he reared in the wilds. The trapper went and brought with him Shamhat the courtesan. They began the journey, going straight there. On the third day they arrived at the chosen place. The trapper and the courtesan sat down at their assigned posts. In the first day and the second day, they sat on the other side of the water hole. The animals arrived and drank at the water hole. The wild beasts got there and quenched their thirst. Then Enkidu — offspring of the mountains, Who eats grasses with the gazelles— Came to drink at the water hole with the animals. With the wild beasts he quenched his thirst with water.
Then Shamhat saw him — a primitive, And a savage man from the depths of the wilds! That is the guy, Shamhat! Open your arms. Expose your body so he can see your beauty. Do not hold back — drain his strength! When he sees you he will get closer to you. Spread your robe so he can lie upon you. Do for this primitive man, what any woman would do! He will forget about his animals that were reared in the wilds. And in his lust he will moan on top of you. Shamhat bared her bosom, undressed, and he made love to her. She would not just lie down there. She drained out all his vigor. She spread out her robe and he would lie down on top of her. She has done for the primitive man, the job any woman would do. His desire has moaned on top of her. For six days and seven nights Enkidu stayed aroused. And had sex with the courtesan until he was pleased with her lure. But when he turned his attention to his animals, The gazelles saw Enkidu and sprinted away. The wild animals had moved away from him. Enkidu’s entirely tired body, his knees, that wanted to go with his animals, went stiff. Now Enkidu was weak. He could not run as before. But then he got out of this mess, for his insight had broadened. He turned around and sat down at the courtesan's feet. He gazed at her face and listened as the courtesan spoke. The courtesan said to Enkidu: You are handsome. You become more like a god. Why do you run around the wilds with the wild beasts? Come, let me bring you into Uruk-Haven, to the Holy Temple, The home of Anu and Ishtar, the place of Gilgamesh, who is wise to perfection, But who displays his power over the people like a wild bull. What she said found consent from him. He became aware. He wanted a friend. Enkidu spoke to the courtesan: Come, Shamhat, take me away with you. Take me to the sacred Holy Temple ? the home of Anu and Ishtar. Take me to the place of Gilgamesh ? who is wise to perfection. Take me to Gilgamesh ? who displays his power over the people like a wild bull.
I will confront him... Let me shout from the rooftops in Uruk: I am the mighty one! Lead me in and I will change the order of things. He whose strength is the mightiest is the one born in the wilds! Shamhat said: Come! Let us go so he may see your face. I will lead you to Gilgamesh. I know where he is. Look around inside Uruk-Haven. There, the folks Show off in skirted finery. There, every day is a day for some celebration. There, the lyre and drum play all the time. There, courtesans are charming. They exude voluptuousness. They are full of laughter. And on the night’ sofa the sheets are spread! Enkidu, you do not know how to live. I will show you Gilgamesh. He is a man with intense feeling! Look at him. Gaze at his face. He is a handsome young man. He is cool. His entire body exudes attraction. He has more strength than you, without sleeping day or night! Enkidu, it is your mistaken thoughts you must change! It is Gilgamesh whom Shamhat loves. And Anu, Enlil, and La have broadened his mind. Even before you came down from the mountain, In Uruk, Gilgamesh had dreams about you. Gilgamesh got up and revealed his dream, saying to his mother: Mother, last night I had a dream. Stars of the sky appeared. And some kind of Anu’s stone from the sky fell next to me. I tried to lift it but it was too heavy for me. I tried to turn it over. But I could not move it. The Land of Uruk was standing around it. The whole land had assembled around it. The folks had crowded around it. The men clustered around it. And they kissed its base as if it were a newborn. I loved it and hugged it as I would hug my wife. I laid it down at your feet, And you made it fight with me. The mother of Gilgamesh the astute and sharp-witted said to her Lord: Rimat-Ninsun, the wise, all-knowing...
And she said to Gilgamesh: As for the stars of the sky that came up And Anu’s stone from the sky that fell next to you and you tried to lift it But it was too heavy for you... You tried to turn it over but you were unable to move it. You laid it down at my feet, and I made it fight with you. And you loved and hugged it as you would hug your wife. There will come to you a strong man — a buddy who saves his friend. He is the mightiest in this land. He is the strongest. His strength is as unusual as is Anu’s stone from the sky. You loved it and hugged it as you would hug your wife. And it is he who will again and again save you. Your dream is good and bodes well! Next, Gilgamesh said to his mother: Mother, I have had another dream: At my marital room’s door was an axe. And folks had gathered around it. The Kingdom of Uruk was standing around it. The whole land had come together around it. The folks have crowded around it. I laid it down at your feet. I loved it. And I hugged it as I would hug my wife. And you made it to fight with me. The mother of Gilgamesh, the wise, all knowing, said to her son: Rimat-Ninsun, the wise, all knowing... She said to Gilgamesh: The axe that you dreamed of is a man. ... And you will love him and hug him as you would hug your wife. But you dreamed that I provoked it to fight with you. There will come to you a strong man — a buddy who saves his friend. He is the mightiest in the land. He is the strongest. He is as strong as Anu’s stone from the sky. Gilgamesh spoke to his mother saying: Enlil, the Great Counsellor, decrees it, so it may come to pass. I think I have a friend and guru. I think I have a friend and one who gives me advice. You have explained for me the dreams I had about him. After the courtesan told Gilgamesh’s dreams to Enkidu, they made love.
Enkidu sits in front of her.
The next 30 lines are missing; some of the fragmentary lines From line 35 on, the lines are restored from parallels in the Old Babylonian. Why...? His own counsel... At his instruction... Who knows his heart? ...Shamhat took off her clothes. She clothed him with one piece of clothing. She clothed herself with a second piece of clothing. She took hold of him as the gods do. And she brought him along to the sheepfold. The shepherds would get together all-around him. They are amazed how this young man looks like Gilgamesh. Tall in stature, towering up to the fortifications of the wall, For sure he was born in the mountains. His strength is as powerful as Anu’s stone from the sky. They placed food in front of him. They placed beer in front of him. Enkidu knew nothing about having bread for food Or about drinking beer — he wasn’t taught these things. The courtesan spoke to Enkidu. She said: Eat the food, Enkidu. It is the way one lives. Drink the beer, as is the habit of the folks of this land. Enkidu ate the food until he was full. He drank the beer —seven jugs — and became outgoing and sang with joy. He was delighted and he had a glow on his face. He would splash water on his hairy body. He would rub oil on his body, and turn into a man. He put on some clothes and he looked like a warrior. He took up his weapon to chase lions. This way the shepherds could take time off for dinner. He routed the wolves, and chased the lions. With Enkidu as their guard, the herders could take a break. An alert man, an outstanding young man, He was twice as tall as any other guy.
The next 33 lines are missing in the Standard Version; lines 57-86 are taken from the Old Babylonian. Then he looked and saw a man. He said to the courtesan: Shamhat, send that man away. Why has he come? I will call out his name — she said. The courtesan called the man. She went to him and spoke with him. Young man, where do you go in such a hurry? Why do you walk at such tiring pace? The young man said to Enkidu: As is the custom of the people They have invited me to a wedding. ...The selection of brides... For the King of The Selected Trade of Uruk, for the wedding, And for the ceremonial platter, tasty delights I have brought. A guy’s eye is wide open when he chooses a young bride. For Gilgamesh, the King of The Selected Patrons of Uruk! Open are the eyes of the folks when choosing brides. He will have sex with the intended bride. Gilgamesh will have sex with her at the outset. And her husband will have sex with her after that. This is set by the guidance of Anu. From the time of the cutting of her umbilical cord she has been meant for him. At the young man's speech, Enkidu's face had flushed with anger.
Several lines are missing. ...Enkidu walked in front, and Shamhat after him. The Standard Version
resumes. Enkidu walked down the street of Uruk-Haven... an impressive man... He blocked the way through the Uruk’s Sheepfold. The kingdom of Uruk stood around him. The whole realm rallied around him. The folks would crowd around him. The men rallied around him. And they kissed his feet as if he were a little baby. All of a sudden a handsome young man... For Ishara, the night’s bed of wedding is ready. For Gilgamesh as for a god, an equal was chosen.
Enkidu stood in the way at the entry to the marital chamber. He would not let Gilgamesh to go in. They wrestled with each other at the entry to the marital chamber. In the street, in the land’s public square, they wrestle each other. The door’s pillars would vibrate and the wall shook.
About 42 lines are missing from the Standard Version; lines 103-129 are taken from The Old Babylonian version. Gilgamesh bent his knees, with his other foot on the ground. His anger subsided and he turned his chest away. After he turned his chest, Enkidu said to Gilgamesh: Your mother —the Wild Cow of the Field, Ninsun— Gave birth to you only one of a kind. Your head is high over other men. Enlil has meant for you to be the king over your folks.
19 lines are missing here. They kissed each other and became friends.
The Old Babylonian becomes fragmentary. The Standard Version resumes His strength is the mightiest in the land! His strength is as mighty as the Anu’s stone from the sky. Gilgamesh’s mother spoke to him. Rimat-Ninsun said to her son: I, Rimat-Ninsun... My son... From the bottom of my heart... She went up to the Sun's door. She implored in a sad voice... Enkidu has no father or mother, No one cuts his thick hair. He was born in the wilds. No one raised him. Enkidu was standing there, and heard the speech. He... and sat down and wept. His eyes filled with tears. His arms felt limp, his strength weakened. They took each other by the hand. And... their hands like...
Enkidu made a speech to Gilgamesh. 32 lines are missing here. In order to protect the Cedar Forest Enlil has chosen Humbaba to fright the men. Humbaba's roar is an overflow. His mouth is Fire and his breath is Death. He can hear hundred leagues away any rustle in his woods.
Who would go down into his woods? Enlil had chosen him as a fright to men. And whoever goes down into his neck of the woods will be numbed. Gilgamesh spoke to Enkidu: What do you say?
About 42 lines are missing here in the Standard Version; lines 228-249 are taken from The Old Babylonian. Tell me, my friend, who can go up to heaven? Only the gods can dwell forever with the Sun. As for the human beings, their days are numbered. And it is no more than blustery weather, No matter what they try to achieve. Now, you are afraid of death. What has become of your forthright strength? I will go ahead of you. And you can call out: Go on, closer. Do not be afraid. If I should fall, I would then have launched my fame. They shall say: It was Gilgamesh who locked in Battle with Humbaba the Terrible! You were born and raised in the wilds. A lion leaped over you, so you have been through it all.
5 lines are fragmentary I will take this challenge and I will cut down the Cedar tree. And I will be the one who shall prove his fame for ever and ever. Come, my friend, I will go to the forge. And I shall ask them to make the weapons in our presence. Holding each other by the hand they went to the forge.
The Standard Version resumes at this point. The craftsmen sat down and talked to each other. We should mold the axe... The hatchet should be one talant in weight... Their swords should be one talant... Their shield should be one talant, their body armor... Gilgamesh said to the men of Uruk: Listen to me, men...
5 lines are missing here. You, men of Uruk, who know... I want to make myself mightier. And will go on a far-away trip. I will face a fight as I have never have known.
I will embark on a road I have never traveled. Give me your blessings! I will go through the Uruk’s city gate... I will give myself to the New Year's Festival. I will carry out the New Year's rites in... The New Year's Festival will take place. At the party... They will keep shouting hurrah. In... Enkidu spoke to the Elders: What have the men of Uruk... Say to him that he must not go to the Cedar Forest. His journey must not take place. A man who... The Guardian of the Cedar Forest... The Noble Counselors of Uruk stood up And delivered their advice to Gilgamesh: You are young, Gilgamesh, your heart carries you away. You do not know what you are talking about. ...Gave birth to you. Humbaba's roar is an overflow. His mouth is Fire. His breath is Death! He can hear any rustling in his forest a hundred leagues away. Who would go down into his woods? Who amongst even the Igigi’s gods can face up to him? In order to keep the Cedar tree safe, Enlil chose him to be the men’s fright. Gilgamesh would listen to the report of his Noble Counselors.
About 5 lines are missing to the end of Tablet II. The Elders spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: Do not put your trust only in your sheer strength. Keep your eye on the lookout. Make each blow strike at the mark. The one who goes ahead, he saves his buddy. The one who knows the route, he protects his friend. Let Enkidu go ahead of you. He knows the road to the Cedar Woods. He has seen fight. He came across battle. Enkidu will protect his friend. He will keep his buddy safe. Let his instinct urge him back to his wife.
In our Parliament’s session we have entrusted the King to you Enkidu. And on your coming back, you must deliver the King back to us. Gilgamesh spoke to Enkidu, saying: Come on, my friend; let us go to Egalmah’s Temple, To Ninsun, the Great Queen. Ninsun is wise and all-knowing. She will put the best route at our feet. Taking each other by the hand, Gilgamesh and Enkidu walked to the Egalmah (Great Palace) To Ninsun, the Great Queen. Gilgamesh stood up and went to her. Ninsun, although I am amazingly strong... I must now go a long way to where Humbaba is. I must face a fight that I have not faced before. And I must go on a road that I do not know. Until the time I go and come back, Until I reach the Cedar Woods, Until I kill Humbaba the Terrible And get rid of a pest from this kingdom, A pest that the Sun can't stand, Please, ask the Sun on my behalf. If I kill Humbaba and cut down his Cedar tree, Let there be joy all over the land. And in your presence, I shall make a shrine to your win. Many times, the words of Gilgamesh, her grief-stricken son, Queen Ninsun had heard. Ninsun went into her home. She washed her body with the hygiene plant. She dressed in a robe worthy of her body. She wore jewels worthy of her chest. She put on her power sign. She put on her crown. She sprinkled water from a bowl on the ground. She... and went up to the roof of the house. She went up to the roof and placed incense before the Sun. I she offered fragrant cuttings, and raised her arms to the Sun. Why have you imposed on my son, Gilgamesh, Why have you inflicted on him a restless heart?
Now you have touched him so that He wants to go a long way to where Humbaba is. He will face combat that as he has not known. And he will go on a way that he doesn’t know, Until he goes away and returns, until he reaches the Cedar Woods, Until he kills Humbaba the Terrible And from this land he gets rid of a pest that you can’t stand. On the day that you see him on the road May Aja — the Bride — without fear remind you And command also the Watchmen of the Night, The stars, and at night your father, Sin, She shall place the incense and shall utter the ritual words. She called Enkidu and gave him orders: Mighty Enkidu, you are not of my womb. But along with the sacred supporters of Gilgamesh — The high priestesses, the holy women that serve the temple — Now I speak to you. She laid a pendant on Enkidu's neck. The high-priestesses took...and the daughters of the gods... I have taken ... Enkidu... Enkidu to... Gilgamesh I have taken. Until he goes and returns, Until he reaches the Cedar Woods, Be it a month ...Be it a year...
About 11 lines are missing here, and the placement of the following fragment is uncertain. ... The gate of cedar... Enkidu ... in the Temple of The Sun God, And Gilgamesh in the Egalmah. He made an offering of cuttings... ...The sons of the king...
Perhaps some 60 lines are missing here. Enkidu will protect his friend. He will keep his buddy safe. Let his instincts urge him back to his wife. In our Congress we have entrusted the King to you. And on your return you must entrust the King back to us. Enkidu spoke to Gilgamesh saying: My Friend, turn back... The road...
The last lines are missing.
At twenty leagues they had a break and ate some food. At thirty leagues they halted for the night. Walking fifty leagues in an entire day, They walked for a month and a half. On the third day they drew near the Lebanon. They dug a well facing the setting Sun. Gilgamesh climbed up a mountain peak. He made a libation of flour, and said: Mountain, bring me a dream — a good message from the Sun. Enkidu prepared a place for him to sleep for the night. A strong wind was blowing, so he put on a blanket. This made him lie down, and in a circle, They... like grain from the mountain...While Gilgamesh Would lean his chin on his knees, he fell asleep. It was a sleep that pours over people. In the middle of the night his sleep came to an end. So he got up and said to his friend: My friend, did you not call out to me? Why did I wake up? Did you not touch me? Why am I so disturbed? Did a god pass by? Why do I have spasms in my muscles? Enkidu, my friend, I had a dream. And the dream I had, it was in fact disturbing. In the mountain gorges... The mountain fell down on me... Wet... like flies... He who was born in the wilds, Enkidu, He would interpret the dream for his friend. My friend, your dream is lucky. Your dream is handy. My friend, The mountain that you saw in your dream is Humbaba. It means we will catch Humbaba and kill him. And we will throw his dead body into the wilds. In the morning there will be a promising exposé from the Sun. At twenty leagues they had a break and ate some food. At thirty leagues they halted for the night.
They would walk fifty leagues in an entire day. They walked for a month and a half. They dug a well facing the Sun. Gilgamesh would go up a mountain’ peak. He made a libation of flour, and said: Mountain, Bring me a dream — a favorable message from the Sun. Enkidu got ready for him a spot to sleep for the night. A strong wind was blowing so he put an extra cover. This made him lie down, and in a circle They... like grain from the mountain... While Gilgamesh rested his chin on his knees, Sleep that pours over mankind would take over him. ...In the middle of the night his sleep came to an end. So he got up and said to his friend: My friend, did you call me? Why did I wake up? Did you touch me? Why am I so ill at ease? Did a god pass by? Why do my muscles go through a spasm? Enkidu, my friend, as well as my first dream, I had a dream — a second dream. And the dream I had, it was so odd, so...so disturbing... I was fighting with a wild bull of the wilds. With his bellow he split the ground, Towards the sky it stirred a cloud of dust... I fell on my knees in front of it. The bull holds... that would enfold my arm. My tongue hung out... My temples throbbed... The bull gave me water to drink from it’s water skin. My friend, isn’t the wild bull, the god we seek? Is he another, from top to bottom? The wild bull that you saw is The Sun God — the minder. When we are in trouble he holds our hand. The one that gave you water to drink from his water skin He is your own god — the one that brings honor to you, Lugalbanda. We should join together and do one thing: A deed such as has never been done before on this land. At twenty leagues they take a break for lunch. At thirty leagues they halt for the night.
Walking fifty leagues in an entire day, They walk for a month and a half. They dug a well facing the Sun. Gilgamesh would climb up a mountain peak. He made a libation of flour, and said: Mountain, Bring me a dream, a good message from the Sun. Enkidu set a sleeping spot for him for the night. A strong wind blew, so he put on a blanket. This made him lie down, and... in a circle. They... like grain from the mountain... Gilgamesh leaned his chin on his knees. Sleep that pours over mankind got hold of him. In the middle of the night his sleep came to an end. So he got up and said to his friend: My friend, did you call me? Why did I wake up? Did you touch me? Why am I so disturbed? Did a god pass by? Why are my muscles in spasm? Enkidu, my friend, I have had a third dream. And the dream I had was deeply disturbing. The heavens roared and the Earth rumbled. Then it turned out to be deadly still. And it turned into darkness. A bolt of lightning cracked, and a fire broke out. And where the clouds would build up, there would rain death. Then the white-hot name dimmed, and the fire went out. And everything that had been falling around Have turned into ash. Let us go down on the plain so we can talk it over. ...Enkidu heard the dream that he had described. And said to Gilgamesh:
About 40 lines are missing here. At twenty leagues they take a break for lunch. At thirty leagues they halt for the night. They walk fifty leagues in an entire day. They walk for a month and a half. They dug a well facing the Sun.
Gilgamesh climbed up on a mountain’ peak. He made a libation of flour, and said: Mountain, bring me a dream, a favorable message from the Sun. Enkidu set a spot for him to sleep for the night. A strong wind blew, so he put on a blanket. This made him lie down, and... in a circle. They... like grain from the mountain... Gilgamesh leaned his chin on his knees. Sleep that pours over mankind would get hold of him. In the middle of the night his sleep came to an end. So he got up and said to his friend: My friend, did you call me? Why did I wake up? Did you touch me? Why am I so disturbed? Did a god pass by? Why are my muscles in spasm? Enkidu, my friend, I have had a fourth dream. And the dream I had, it was deeply disturbing.
About 11 lines are missing He was... cubits tall... ...Gilgamesh Enkidu listened to his dream The dream that you had is good. It is extremely important. My friend, this...Humbaba... Endiku... Before the crack of dawn... We will achieve victory over him. Humbaba, against whom we rage, We will... and triumph over him. In the morning there will be a favorable message from The Sun God. At twenty leagues they would stop for lunch. At thirty leagues they halted for the night. They walk fifty leagues in an entire day. They walk for a month and a half. They dug a well facing the Sun. Gilgamesh climbed up on a mountain peak. He made a libation of flour, and said: Mountain, bring me a dream. Bring me a good message from the Sun. Enkidu got ready for him a spot to sleep for the night.
A strong wind blew so he put on a blanket. This made him lie down. And ...in a circle... They... like specks from the mountain... While Gilgamerh leaned his chin on his knees, Sleep that pours over mankind seized him. In the middle of the night his sleep came to an end. So he got up and said to his friend: My friend, did you call me? Why did I wake up? Did you touch me? Why am I so disturbed? Did a god pass by? Why are my muscles trembling? Enkidu, my friend, I had a fifth dream. And the dream I had was deeply disturbing. ...His tears were running in the presence of The Sun God. What you said in Uruk... Be mindful of it, stand by me... Gilgamesh, the offspring of Uruk-Haven, The Sun God heard what came out of his mouth. And suddenly there resounded a warning sound from the sky. Hurry, stand by him so that Humbaba does nor enter the woods And does not go in the thickets and hide. He has not put on his seven coats of armor. He is wearing only one. And he has taken off six. Gilgamesh and Enkidu... They grab each other like raging wild bulls... One name he bellowed full of... The Guardian of the Forest bellowed... Humbaha like... One alone cannot... Strangers... A slippery trail is not feared by two guys that help each other. Twice three times... A three-ply rope cannot be cut. The mighty cubs of a lioness can roll him over. Enkidu spoke to Gilgamesh. He said: As soon as we have gone down into the Cedar Forest, Let us split open the tree and strip off its branches. Gilgamesh spoke to Enkidu, saying: Why, my friend, we...so sadly...
You and I have crossed all the mountains before us. We have cut down the Cedar tree. My friend, you are so experienced in battle. Who... fighting... You... and need not fear death. Let your voice yell like the kettle drum. Let the stiffness in your arms go. Let go the paralysis in your legs. Take my hand, my friend. We will go on together. Your heart should stir you up to go to battle. Pay no heed to death. Do not lose heart. The one who watches from the side is a shrewd man. But the guy that walks ahead protects himself and saves his buddy. And through their struggle they decide their fame. As the two of them reached the evergreen forest They stopped talking, and stood still.
... They stood at the forest's edge and gazed at the top of the Cedar Tree. They gazed at the edge to the woods. There Humbaba would walk. There was a trail, the roads led straight on. The trail was first class. Then, the Cedar Mountain, the Dwelling of the Gods, the Throne’ raised area of Imini, they saw. Across the face of the mountain, the Cedar tree would yield lush undergrowth. It’s shade was good and very nice. The thorn-bushes were entwined. The woods were joined in a thicket. ... Among the Cedars... the boxwood, the woods was encircled by a ravine two leagues long. ... And again for two-thirds of that span... ...Suddenly the swords... and after the sheaths... the axes were smeared... Dagger and sword... alone ... Humbaba spoke to Gilgamesh saying: He does not come... Enlil... Enkidu spoke to Humbaba, saying: Humbaba... One alone... Strangers... Two guys that help each other do not fear a slippery track. Twice three times... A three-ply rope cannot be cut. The mighty lion — two cubs can roll him over. Humbaba spoke to Gilgamesh. He said: ...An unwise guy and a hasty guy should not give each other advice. But you, Gilgamesh, why have you come to me? Enkidu, you son of a bitch, who do not even know you own father, To the large and small turtles that do not suck their mother's milk, give advice. When you were still young I saw you but did not grace with your presence. ... You... in my belly.... you have brought Gilgamesh into my presence... ... You stand... an enemy, a stranger. ...Gilgamesh, throat and neck, I would serve your flesh to the screeching vulture — the eagle, and the vulture! Gilgamerh spoke to Enkidu, saying: My friend, Humbaba's stance keeps changing. Enkidu spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: My friend, Why, are you whining so sadly? Why do you hide behind your tears?
Now there, my friend... in the coppersmith’s channel... Again to bawl the bellows for an hour, the glowing metal... for an hour, To send the Flood. To crack the whip. Do not snatch your feet away. Do not turn your back. ... Strike even harder... may they be expelled.... Head fell ... and he confronted him... As they whirled around Mt. Hermon in circles, The ground split open at the heels of their feet. And Lebanon cracked. The white clouds darkened. Death rained down on them like fog. The Sun raise up against Humbaba mighty tempests— South-wind, North-wind, East-wind, West-wind, Whistling Wind, Piercing Wind, Blizzard, Bad Wind, Wind of Simurru, Demon Wind, Ice Wind, Storm, and Sandstorm— thirteen winds Would rise against him and cover Humbaba’s face. He could not butt through the front. And he could not scramble out the back. So Gilgamesh'a arms would touch Humbaba. Humbaba begged for his life. He said to Gilgamesh: You are yet young, Gilgamesh. Your mother gave birth to you. And you are the offspring of Rimnt-Ninsun... It was at the word of The Sun God, Lord of the Mountain, That you were motivated to go on this trip— O scion of the heart of Uruk, King Gilgamesh! ...Gilgamesh... Gilgamesh let me go. I will be your servant. As many trees as you tell me to I will cut down for you. I will guard for you the myrtle wood — wood fine enough for your palace. Enkidu said to Gilgamesh: My friend, do not listen to Humbaba...
10 lines are missing. In fact Humbaba sees that Gilgamesh is influenced by Enkidu, And he moves to talk Enkidu out of it. You know the rules of my woods.
The set of laws... Further, You are aware of all the things Enlil had ordered. At the very entrance to the edge of my woods, I could have carried you up, and killed you. And to the screeching vulture — the eagle and the vulture I could have fed it your flesh. So now, Enkidu, pity is up to you. Speak to Gilgamesh to spare my life. Enkidu said to Gilgamesh: My friend, kill Humbaba, the Guardian of the Cedar Forest. Grind him up. Pulverize him. Wipe him out. Before the Greatest God Enlil hears... And the gods will be filled with rage against us. Enlil is in Nippur. The Sun is in Sippar. Build an eternal tombstone and say in public... How Gilgamesh had killed Humbaba. When Humbaba had heard this...
About 10 lines are missing. May he not live longer than his buddy! May Enkidu not have any share more than his pal, Gilgamesh! Enkidu spoke to Gilgamesh. He said: My friend, I have been talking to you. But you would not listen to me. You have been listening to Humbaba’ curse. ...His friend...by his side ...They pulled out his insides including his tongue. ...He jumped. ...Abundance oozed down the mountain. They cut through the Cedar Woods. While Gilgamesh Cut down the trees, Enkidu searched through the urmazallu. Enkidu said to Gilgamesh: My friend, the towering Cedar whose Top scrapes the sky we have cut it down.
Make from it a door: seventy cubits high, twenty cubits wide and one cubit thick. Its sketch: its lower and upper hinges will be made of one piece. Let them carry it to Nippur, the Euphrates will carry it down, Nippur will rejoice. Together they built a raft... Enkidu steered it down the river...while Gilgamesh held Humbaba’s head.
He washed his mud-covered hair. And he cleaned his gear. He shook his long hair down over his back. He threw away his dirty clothes and he put on clean clothes. He wrapped himself in royal garments and fastened the sash. When Gilgamesh placed the crown on his head, Princess Ishtar raised her eyes to Gilgamesh’s good looks. Gilgamesh, join me and be my man. Give me your love. Be my man and I shall be your other half. With wheels of gold and horns of electrum, I will have harnessed for you a chariot of lapis lazuli and gold. Famous mountain mules — like a storm — will be harnessed at it. Come into our palace, with the scent of cedar wood. And when You come into our palace the door pillar and throne platform will kiss your feet. Kings, lords, and princes will bow to you. The Lullubu people Will bring you as tax, the harvest of the mountains and the valleys. Your she-goats will bear triplets. Your ewes will have twins. Your donkey of burden will surpass your mule. Your steed at the chariot will dash ahead. Your ox at the yoke will have no match. Gilgamesh addressed Princess Ishtar saying: What would I have to give you if I would marry you? Do you need oil or garments for your body? Do you lack anything for food or drink? I would gladly serve you food fit for a god. I would gladly offer you wine fit for a king. ...May the street be your home. May you be clothed in one piece of clothing. And may a man full of lust, marry you! ...An oven that... ice... A half-opened door that doesn’t keep out the breeze or blast... A palace that crushes down valiant warriors... An elephant that devours its own skin...
Dye that blackens the hands of its bearer... A water-skin that soaks through the one that carries it... Limestone that cave in the stone wall... A hard-hitting ram that charms your foe’s land... A shoe that hurts its wearer's foot... Where are your grooms that you keep forever? Where is your Little Shepherd’s bird that flew over you? Now, listen here. I will recite the list of your lovers. Of the shoulder ...his hand... Tammuz was your lover in your early life. For him you have ordered laments year on year! You loved the colorful Little Shepherd’s bird, And then hit it, breaking it’s wing. Now it goes on in the woods crying: my wing. You loved the mighty lion —the one beyond compare. Yet you dug for it seven pits and seven pits once more. You loved the horse — the one famous in battle. Yet you made for it the whip, the goad, and the lash. You meant it to gallop for seven and seven hours. You destined for it to drink from muddy water. Its mother Silili you fated that should wail on and on. The Shepherd, the Master Herder —that all the time Brought for you bread baked in embers, And slaughtered a baby goat for you every day— You loved. Yet you struck him, and turned him into a wolf. His own shepherds now chase him. And his own dogs snap at his shins. You loved Ishullanu, your father’s date trees gardener. He brought you baskets of dates all the time. And he cheered up your dining table every day. You raised your eyes to him, and you said to him: Oh my Ishullanu, let us feel your strength. Stretch out your hand to me, and touch my vulva. Ishullanu said to you: Me? What is it you want from me?
Has my mother not baked, and have I not eaten? Should I now eat food in contempt and curses? And should alfalfa sprouts be my only protection against cold? As you listened to these his very words, You struck him, turning him into a dwarf. And you made him live in the middle of his hard work’s garden. There the mihhu do not grow, nor would a bucket of dates be picked. And now I! It is me you love. And you will order for me as you ordered for them. When Ishtar heard this, in a fury she went up to the sky. Weeping, she went to her mother Anrum. She went crying to her father Anu. Father, Gilgamesh... He has insulted me time and again. Gilgamesh... He has said in detail dreadful deeds that he alleged I’ve done. Shameful deeds and curses! Anu spoke to Princess Ishtar: What is the matter? Was it not you who provoked King Gilgamesh? So he would tell appalling things about you. Loathsome things and curses! Ishtar spoke to her father, Anu, saying: Father, give me the Bull of Heaven. So it can kill Gilgamesh in his home. If you do not give me the Bull of Heaven, I will knock down the Gates of the Netherworld. I will smash the door posts, and leave the doors flat down, And will let the dead go up to eat the living! And the dead will outnumber the living! Anu addressed princess Ishtar, saying: If you demand the Bull of Heaven from me, There will be seven years of empty husks for the land of Uruk. Have you gathered grain for the people? Have you made the grasses grow for the animals? Ishtar addressed Anu, her father, saying: I have heaped grain and put it in granaries for people. I made grasses grow for the animals, in order that The animals might eat it in the seven years of drought.
I have put in storage grain for the people. The growth of grass for the animals I have enhanced. When Anu heard her words, He placed the nose-rope of the Bull of Heaven in her hand. Ishtar led the Bull of Heaven down on Earth. When the bull reached Uruk it would go down to the Euphrates... At the Bull of Heaven’s puff, a huge pit opened up. And a hundred young men of Uruk fell in. At his second breath a huge pit opened up. And two hundred young men of Uruk fell in. At his third puff a huge pit opened up. And Enkidu fell in up to his waist. Then Enkidu jumped out and held the Bull of Heaven by the horns. The Bull spewed it’s spit in front of him. With it’s thick tail he flung his dung behind it. Enkidu addressed Gilgamesh, saying: My friend, we can be bold... How shall we take action? My friend, I saw... And my strength... I will rip out...You and I, we must share... I shall hold the Bull...I will fill my hands...In front... Between the nape, the horns... ...thrust your sword. Enkidu followed and captured the Bull of Heaven. He grabbed it by the thick of its tail. And he held the bull with both his hands. While Gilgamesh, like an expert butcher, Boldly and with poise approached the Bull of Heaven. Between the nape, the horns, and... He thrust his sword. After they had killed the Bull of Heaven, They ripped out its heart and presented it to the Sun God. They left humbly bowing down to the Sun God. Then like brothers, they sat down together. Ishtar went up onto the top of the Wall of Uruk-Haven, Cast herself into the pose of mourning, And hurled her woeful curse: Woe unto Gilgamesh who slandered me And killed the Bull of Heaven! When Enkidu heard Ishtar’s claim, He pulled out the Bull's hindquarter
And flung it in her face. If I could only reach you I would do the same to you. I would wrap it’s guts over your arms. Ishtar rallied the religious group of women with lovely-locks, joy-girls and courtesans. And she put them to mourn over the hindquarter of the Bull. Gilgamesh sent for all the artisans and craftsmen. All the artisans admired the thickness of the bull’s horns. Each fashioned about thirty minas of lapis lazuli. Two fingers thick is their casing. Six vats of oil were the contents. He gave as ointment to his own god Lugalbanda. He brought the horns in and hung them in the bedroom of the head of his family. They washed their hands in the Euphrates, And proceeded hand in hand and walked through the streets of Uruk. The men of Uruk would gather round, staring at them. Gilgamesh said to the palace defenders: Who is the bravest of the men? Who is the boldest of the males? Gilgamesh is the bravest of the men, the boldest of the males! The one at whom we flung the hindquarter of the Bull of Heaven in anger, Ishtar has no one that pleases her... in the street. Gilgamesh held a party in his palace. The young men dozed off. They would sleep on the night couches. Enkidu slept too. And he had a dream. He woke up and revealed his dream to his friend.
My friend, why are the Great Gods in session? In my dream Anu, Enlil, and The Sun God held a council, And Anu spoke to Enlil: Because they killed the Bull of Heaven And have also slain Humbaba, the one of them who pulled up The Cedar tree of the Mountain must die. Enlil said: Let Enkidu die, but Gilgamesh must not die. But the Sun God of Heaven replied to valiant Enlil: Was it not at my order that they killed the Bull of Heaven and Humbaba? Should now the not guilty Enkidu die? Then Enlil got angry with the Sun God. It is you who are to blame. Since you, went every day with them as their friend. In front of Gilgamesh, Enkidu would rest. He was sick. His tears would flow like water on the channel. Gilgamesh said: O brother, dear brother, Why do they pardon me instead of my brother? Then Enkidu said: So now, I shall sit with the ghosts of the dead. I shall see my dear brother no more. Must I become a ghost? In the Cedar Woods where the Great Gods dwell, I did not cut the Cedar tree. Enkidu addressed Gilgamesh, —his friend: Come, friend... The door... Enkidu raised his eye... and spoke to the door as if it were human being. You thick wooden door, without gift to know a thing... Already at ten leagues away I had chosen the wood for you. Until I saw the towering Cedar tree... In my eye, your wood was beyond compare. Seventy-two cubits was your height, fourteen cubits your width, One cubit your thickness, your upright support, a stone pivot, and post cap... I shaped you, and I carried you to Nippur... Had I known, o door, that this would be your gratitude And this would be your thanks... I would have taken an axe and chopped you up. And I would have lashed your planks into... in it’s ... I built the... And in Uruk...they heard But yet, o door, I shaped you, and I carried you to Nippur.
May a king who comes after me reject you, may the god... May he do away with my name and put his own name there. He ripped out... threw down. Gilgamesh listened to his words, and answered back angrily. Gilgamesh listened to the words of his friend Enkidu, and his tears flowed. Gilgamesh addressed Enkidu, saying: Friend, the gods have given you a clear mind. Though it seems that you to are levelheaded You keep uttering wrong things. My friend, why does your mouth utter wrong things? The dream is crucial but very scary. Your lips buzz like flies. Though there is much fear, one’s dream is crucial. The gods leave sorrow to the folks. To the living one’s dream leaves pain. I will pray, and beseech the Great Gods. I will seek... and appeal to your god. ... Enlil, the Father of the Gods... ...Enlil the Counselor...you... Without charge I will shape a gold statue of you. Do nor worry... gold... What Enlil says is not... What he has said cannot be rendered null and void. It cannot... What... he has planned... You cannot go back to your old ways. You cannot... My friend... Just as dawn begins to glow All sort of fate is sent to mankind. Enkidu raised his head and cried out to the Sun God. At the first gleam of the sun his tears gushed. O Sun God, because of that notorious trapper I appeal to you, on behalf of my precious life That did not let me achieve the same, as my friend. May the trapper not get enough food for himself! May his profit be slashed, and his wages decrease. May... his share... before you. May he not go in! But go out of it like mist. After he had cursed the trapper To his liking, his heart impelled him to curse the Courtesan.
Come now, Courtesan, I am going to deliver a verdict on your fate. A fate that will never come to an end for eternity! I will curse you with a Great Curse. May my curses overwhelm you all of a sudden, at once! May you not be able to have a family! And not be able to love a child of your own! May you not dwell in the... of girls. May beer that overflows the jugs, stain your beautiful lap! May a drunk soil your festivity robe with vomit! ... The beautiful... of the potter. May you never acquire anything of bright alabaster! May the judge...may silver’ shine — man's delight — Not shine in your home. May a city square, be where you gather all your pleasure! May a roads crossing be your home! May a desolate tract be the place where you sleep! May the shadow of the city wall be the place where you stay! May the thorns and briars bruise your feet! May both the drunk guy and the sober guy slap you on the cheek! ...In your city's streets... May owls, nest in the cracks of your walls! May no parties take place... be present... And your filthy lap... may... be his... Because of me... While I, blameless, you have... against me. The Sun God heard what his mouth had uttered. Suddenly The Sun God called out to him from the sky. Enkidu, why do you curse the courtesan, Shamhat? Wasn’t she the one who fed you with bread fit for a god? Wasn’t she the one who gave you wine fit for a king? Wasn’t she the one who dressed you in splendid garments? The one who helped you to make friends with the handsome Gilgamesh, Wasn’t she the one? Now Gilgamesh is your beloved brother-friend! He will have you lie down on a grand couch.
He will have you lie down on a couch of honor. He will seat you in the seat of ease, the seat at his left hand side. So that the world’ s princes kiss your feet. He will have the people of Uruk go into mourning and morn over you. He will fill the happy people with woe over you. And following you, he will cover his body with a filthy hair mat. He will wear the skin of a lion and roam the wilds. As soon as Enkidu heard the words of the valiant Sun God, His restless heart became calm and his anger would diminish. Enkidu spoke to the courtesan, saying: Come, Shamhat, I will decree your fate for you. Let my mouth that has cursed you now turn to bless you! May the chiefs and nobles love you! May he who is one league away bite his lip in anticipation of you! May he who is two leagues away, shake his head with anticipation! May the soldier not refuse you, but undo his buckle for you! May he give you rock crystal, lapis lazuli, and gold! May his gift to you be earrings of filigree! May... his supplies heap up! May he bring you into the ... of the gods! May a wife, or a mother of seven, May she be left by her husband for you! Enkidu’s feelings were being stirred. While resting there so lonely He spoke all he felt. Listen, my friend, to the dream that I had last night. The heavens cried out and the Earth answered back. And I was standing between them. There appeared a man of dark face. His face looked a lot like Anzu’s face. His hands were the paws of a lion. His nails were the talons of an eagle! He grubbed me by my hair and overpowered me. I struck him a blow, but he skipped about like a jumping rope. And then he struck me and turned me over — like a raft. And he trampled on me like a wild bull.
He squeezed my whole body like in a clamp. Help me, my friend I cried. But you did not rescue me. You were afraid and did nothing... Then... my arms grew feathers like a bird. He turned me into a dove. Grabbing me, he led me down to the House of Darkness. —The home of Irkalla — To the house where those who enter do not come out —Along the road of no return — To the house, where those who dwell in it do it without light. There dirt is their drink, their food is of clay. There like birds, They wear garments of feathers. And light cannot be seen, since they dwell in the dark. And on the door and bolt, there is dust to be found. On entering the House of Dust, everywhere I would look there Were gathered plenty of royal crowns. Everywhere I would listen, There were the bearers of crowns — those that in the past had ruled the land. But now they served cooked meats to Anu and Enlil. They served sweets, and poured cool water from water skins. In the House of Dust that I entered, sat the high priest and acolyte. The purification priest and ecstatic sat there. The anointed priests of the Great Gods sat there. Etana sat there. Sumukan sat there. Ereshkigal — The Queen of the Netherworld sat there. Beletseri, the Scribe of the Netherworld, knelt before her. She was holding the tablet. She was reading it out to her Ereshkigal. She raised her head when she saw me. She said: Who has taken this man?
50 lines are missing here ...I who went through every trouble, remember me And forget not all that I went through with you. My friend, did you have a dream that bodes not well? The day he had the dream ... he came to an end. Enkidu lies down the first day, the second day, that Enkidu...in his bed...
The third day and the fourth day, that Enkidu... in his bed... The fifth, the sixth, and the seventh day, that Enkidu... in his bed... The eighth, the ninth, the tenth day, that Enkidu... in his bed... Enkidu's illness grew ever worse. Enkidu drew up from his bed, and called out to Gilgamesh: My friend hates me... While he talked with me in Uruk As I was afraid of the battle he encouraged me. My friend who saved me in battle has now abandoned me! I and you...
About 20 lines are missing. At his noises Gilgamesh woke up... Like a dove he moaned... May he not be held, in death! O, top amongst men... To my friend ...I will mourn him. I, at his side...
Just as a new day began to dawn, Gilgamesh said to his friend: Enkidu, your mother, the gazelle, and your father, The wild donkey had brought you on this world. Four wild asses raised you on their milk. And the herds taught you about all the grazing lands. May the Roads of Enkidu to the Cedar Forest Mourn you and not fall silent day or night. May the Elders of the large City of Uruk-Haven Mourn you. May the people who gave us their blessing, mourn you! May the men of the mountains and hills mourn you! May the... May the pasture lands shout in mourning as if these were like your mother! May the.... the cypress, and the cedar tree that we cut in our anger mourn you! May the bear, hyena, panther, tiger, water buffalo, jackal, lion, Wild bull, stag, ibex, all the creatures of the plains mourn you. May the holy River Ulaja, that along it’s banks we used to stroll, mourn you! May the pure Euphrates, to which we would libate water From our water-skins, mourn you. May the men of Uruk-Haven, whom we saw in our battle when We killed the Bull of Heaven, mourn you. May the farmer who extols your name in his sweet work’ song, mourn you. May the ... of the big city, who ... exalted your name, mourn you. May the herder... who prepared butter And light beer for your mouth, Mourn you. May the one who put ointments on your back, mourn you. May the one who prepared fine beer for you to drink, mourn you. May the courtesan that rubbed you with oil and it felt good, mourn you. May... of the wife who placed a ring on you... mourn you! May the brothers go into mourning over you, like your sisters. ...The lamentation priests, may their hair be cut on your behalf. Enkidu, your mother and your father are in the wilds. I mourn you... Hear me, O Elders of Uruk, hear me, O men!
I mourn for Enkidu, my friend. I shout in anguish like a mourner. You, axe at my side, so reliable at my hand. My sword, you, I have you at my waist as a shield. My festivity garment, you are a sash over my loins. An evil demon came out and took him away from me! My friend, the swift mule, swift wild ass of the mountain, Panther of the wilds, you were. Enkidu, my friend, swift mule you, swift wild ass of the mountain, Panther of the wilderness, you, Once we would join together we went up in the mountain. We fought the Bull of Heaven and killed it. And we would overwhelm Humbaba, who lived in the Cedar Woods. Now, what is this sleep that has got hold of you? You skin tone turned purple and you do not hear me! But Enkidu's eyes do not move, He touched his heart, but it throbbed no longer. He He He He He
covered his friend’s face, like would a bride cover her face. would pounce at him like an eagle; or like a lioness without her cubs. keeps pacing to and fro. cuts off his curls and pile the hair on the ground. rips off his finery. And he throws it away as it would be appalling things.
Just as day began to dawn, Gilgamesh... ...and issued a call to the land: Blacksmith you! Lapidary you! Coppersmith you! Goldsmith you! Jeweler you! Put together a semblance of my pal. Mold a statue of him. ... He molded a statue of his friend. His facial appearance ... ...his chest will be of lapis lazuli. His skin will be of gold.
10 lines are missing here. I let you recline on the great sofa. Indeed, on the sofa of honor I let you stretch out. I let you sit on the position of ease, the seat at my left side. So the princes of the world kissed your feet. I had the people of Uruk mourn and moan for you. I filled happy people with woe over you. And after you died I let a filthy coat of hair grow over my body. And I got into the skin of a lion and roamed the wilds. Just as day began to dawn,
He undid his straps ... I... carnelian...
85 lines are missing here. ...To my friend... your dagger to Bibbi...
40 lines are missing here. The judge of the Anunnaki...When Gilgamesh heard this zikru About the river he created... Just as day began to dawn Gilgamesh opened... And brought out a big table of sissoo wood. He filled with honey a carnelian bowl. He filled with butter a lapis lazuli bowl. He offered it... and put on show it before The Sun God.
The entire last column, some 40-50 lines, is missing.
Over his friend Enkidu, Gilgamesh cried bitterly, roaming the wilds. I am going to die! Am I not like Enkidu? Deep sadness goes through my heart. I fear death, and now I roam the wilds. I will set out to the region of Utanapishtim — son of Ubartutu — And will take with me a vital message! When I came to the mountains’ pass it was nightfall. I saw lions, and I was frightened! I raised my head in prayer to the Sun. To ... the Great Lady of the gods My prayers poured forth. Save me from... He was sleeping at night, but he awoke with a start with a dream. A warrior likes his life. He held his axe in his hand. He drew the dagger from his sheath. And he fell into their midst like an arrow. He struck ... and he scattered them. The name of the former ... The name of the second...
26 lines are missing here, telling of the beginning of his quest. The Scorpion-Beings lived in the mountain that is called Mashu. Then he reached Mount Mashu that every day guards the rising And setting of the Sun. Above it reaches only the dome of the sky. And it’s flanks reach as far as the Netherworld below. There, Scorpion-beings keep an eye on it’s gate. They stir up perilous fear. Their sighting brings death. Their fearsome appearance sweeps over the mountains. At the sunrise and sunset they keep an eye on the Sun. When Gilgamesh saw them, terrifying fear showed on his face. But he calmed down and came near them. The scorpion-being, called out to his female: That guy that comes to us, his body is the flesh of gods. The female scorpion-being, answered him: Only two-thirds of him is a god, one-third is human. The male scorpion-being called out, saying to the offspring of the gods:
Why have you taken a trip so far-away? You crossed rivers that are treacherous to cross. Why have you come here to me? I want to study you ... I want to learn...
16 lines are missing here. When the text resumes Gilgamesh is speaking. I have come on account of my ancestor Utanapishtim, That joined the Council of the Gods. And he was given eternal life. About Death and Life I must ask him. The scorpion-being spoke to Gilgamesh... saying: Never has there been a mortal man who could do that. No one has crossed through the mountains. For twelve leagues it is darkness throughout. Dense is the darkness, and light there is none. To the rising of the sun... To the setting of the sun... They caused to go out...
67 lines are missing, in which Gilgamesh convinces the scorpion-being to allow him passage. Though it be in deep sadness and pain, in cold or heat... Gasping after breath ... I will go on! Now! Open the Gate!" The scorpion-being spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: Go on Gilgamesh do not fear the Mashu mountains. I give to you the mountains, the ranges, so you may cross without restraint... May your feet carry you in one piece! The gate of the mountain... To the rising of the sun... To the setting of the sun... To the setting of the sun... They caused to go out...
67 lines are missing, in which Gilgamesh convinces the scorpion-being to allow him passage. Though it be in deep sadness and pain, in cold or heat... I gasp for air... I will go on! Now! Open the Gate! The scorpion-being spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: Go on, Gilgamesh. Fear not the Mashu mountains. I let you cross the mountains without restraint.
May your feet take you in one piece! The gate of the mountain... As soon as Gilgamesh heard this He would listen to the words of the scorpion-being. Along the Road of the Sun he trekked — one league trek. Dense was the darkness. There was no light. Neither what lies ahead or behind, allows him to see. Two leagues he trekked... Dense was the darkness. There was no light. Neither what lay ahead or behind Allows him to see.
22 lines are missing here. Four leagues he trekked...dense was the darkness. Light there was none. Neither what lies ahead or behind, allows him to see. Five leagues he trekked...dense was the darkness. Light there was none. Neither what lies ahead or behind, allows him to see. Six leagues he trekked... Dense was the darkness. Light there was none. Neither what lies ahead or behind, allows him to see. Seven leagues he trekked... Dense was the darkness. Light there was none. Neither what lies ahead or behind, allows him to see. Eight leagues he trekked and cried out. Dense was the darkness, Light there was none. Neither what lies ahead or behind Allows him to see. Nine leagues he trekked... The North Wind, Blew in his face. Dense was the darkness. Light there was none. Neither what lies ahead or behind allows him to see. Four leagues...Ten leagues he trekked...he is near... Eleven leagues he trekked and came out before the sunrise. Twelve leagues he trekked and all around became bright. ...It has lapis lazuli as foliage. It yields fruit. It is a delight to look at it.
25 lines are missing here, describing the garden in detail. ...Cedar trees... agate... of the sea... lapis lazuli, Like thorns and briars... carnelian, Rubies, hematite... I like... emeralds... He [rais]... Of the sea, Gilgamesh... on walking past…opened his eyes and saw…
The inn-keeper Siduri who lives by the seashore, she lives... The pot-stand was made for her. The golden fermenting vat was made for her. She is covered with a veil... Gilgamesh would wander around... Wearing a lion’s skin... he had the flesh of the gods in his body. But deep down he was sad. He looked like one who has traveled a long way. The inn-keeper would gaze in the distance, at a total loss. She said, wondering to herself: That guy is a murderer for sure. Where is he heading for? As soon as the inn-keeper saw him, She bolted her gate, closed the lock and locked her door. But at her noise, Gilgamesh would listen carefully. He lifted his chin to look around and then zoomed his eye on her. Gilgamesh spoke to the inn-keeper, saying: Inn-keeper, what have you seen That made you bolt your gate, bolt your door and close the lock? If you do not let me in I will break your door, And smash the lock! ...The wilderness. ...Gilgamesh. The inn-keeper Siduri, who lives by the seashore, She lives...the pot-stand was made for her. The golden fermenting vat was made for her. She is covered with a veil... Gilgamesh roved around... He wears a skin... He has the flesh of the gods in him, but deep down he is sad. He looked like one who traveled a long way. The inn-keeper gazed in the distance. Puzzled, she said wondering: That guy is a murderer for sure. Where is he heading? As soon as the inn-keeper saw him, she bolted her gate. She bolted her door. She closed the lock. But at her noise Gilgamesh pitched his ears. He lifted his chin to look around and then laid his eyes on her. Gilgamesh spoke to the inn-keeper, saying: Inn-keeper, what have you seen that compelled you To bolt your door bolt your gate and bolt your lock! If you do not let me in I will break your door.
And I will smash the lock! ...The wilds. ... Gilgamesh ... gate... Gilgamesh said to the inn-keeper: I am Gilgamesh. I killed the Guardian! I destroyed Humbaba, who lived in the Cedar Forest. I slew lions in the mountain passes. I fought with the Bull That came down from heaven, and I killed it. The inn-keeper spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: If you are Gilgamesh, the one that killed the Guardian, if you are The one that killed Humbaba — the monster that lived in the Cedar Forest — If you are the one that slew lions in the mountain passes, if you are the one That fought with the Bull that came down from heaven and killed it, Then why are your cheeks shrunken and your look gloomy? Why is your heart so wretched, your skin tone so pale? Why is there such sadness deep within you? Why do you look like one who traveled a long distance? Has ice and heat scorched your face while you roamed the wilds? Gilgamesh spoke to the inn-keeper. He said: Inn-keeper, should not my cheeks be dried up? Should my heart not be wretched? Should my facial appearance not look tired? Should there not be sadness deep within me? Should I not look like one who traveled a long distance? And should ice and heat not have scorched my face? Should I not roam the wilds? My friend, The wild ass that chased the wild donkey and panther of the wilds, Enkidu, the wild ass who chased the wild donkey, panther of the wilds, We joined together, and went up into the mountain. We fought and slaughtered the Bull of Heaven, We killed Humbaba that lived in the Cedar Forest, We slew lions in the mountain passes. My friend, whom I love deeply And who went through every hardship with me, Enkidu, whom I love so much, The man that went through every hardship with me, The fate of mankind took him by surprise. Six days and seven nights I mourned over him. And until a maggot fell out his nose I did not allow that him should be buried.
I was terrified by his looks. I began to fear death, and so I roamed the wilds. The issue of my friend oppresses me. So I roamed long trails through the wilds. The issue of Enkidu, my friend, oppresses me. So I roamed long trails through the wilds. How can I stay silent, how can I be still! My friend whom I love has turned into clay. Am I not like him? Will I lie down, never to get up again? Gilgamesh spoke to the inn-keeper, saying: So now, inn-keeper, what is the way to Overseas? What are its maps? Give the maps to me. Give me the maps. If possible, I will cross the sea. If not, I will roam through the wilds. The inn-keeper spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: There has never been any crossing at all. No one crossed the sea since the days of yore. The only one that crosses the sea is the valiant Sun. Except for him who else can cross the sea? The crossing is difficult, its ways are treacherous. And in between are the Waters of Death that hinder one’s tactics. And even if you could cross the sea, When you reach the Waters of Death what would you do? Over there is Urshanabi, the ferryman of the far away. The stone things are with him. He is in the woods picking mint. Go on let him see your face. If possible, cross the sea with him. If not, you can turn back. When Gilgamesh heard all this, He raised the axe in his hand, drew the dagger from his belt, And slipped stealthily away. He followed the stone things. Like an arrow he fell among the stone things. From the middle of the woods their noise could be heard. Urshanabi, the sharp-eyed, saw... When he heard the axe, he ran towards it. He struck his head ... Gilgamesh.
He clapped his hands and ... his chest,
While the stone things... the boat ... Waters of Death ... broad sea In the Waters of Death... To the river... the boat... on the shore... Gilgamesh spoke to Urshanabi, the ferryman. ...you. Urshanabi spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: Why are your cheeks shrunken and your look gloomy? Why is your heart so wretched, your facial appearance so tired? Why is there such sadness deep within you? Why do you look like one who traveled far away? Has the ice and heat scorched your face? Why do you roam the wilds? Gilgamesh spoke to Urshanabi, saying: Should my cheeks not be shrunken and my look gloomy? Should my heart not be wretched, my facial appearance not tired? Should there not be sadness deep within me? Should I not look like one who traveled a long distance? And should ice and heat not scorch my face? Should I not roam the wilds? My friend who chased wild asses in the mountain — The panther of the wilds — Enkidu, my friend, who chased wild asses in the mountain — The panther of the wilds — We joined together and went up into the mountain. We fought and slaughtered the Bull of Heaven. We killed Humbaba that lived in the Cedar Forest. We slew lions in the mountain passes! My friend, whom I love deeply, he went through every hardship with me. Enkidu, my friend that I love deeply, he went through every hardship with me. The fate of mankind took him by surprise. Six days and seven nights I mourned over him And I would not allow to burry his body until a maggot fell out of his nose. I was terrified by his appearance. I began to fear death, and so I roamed the wilds. The issue of my friend oppresses me. So I roamed on long trails through the wilds. The issue of Enkidu, my friend, oppresses me.
So I have been roaming long roads through the wilds. How can I stay silent? How can I stay still? My friend that I love has turned into clay. Enkidu, my friend that I love, has turned into clay. Am I not like him? Will I lie down too, never to get up again? Gilgamesh spoke to Urshanabi, saying: Now, Urshanabi! Which one is the way to Utanapishtim? Which ones are its maps? Give the maps to me. Give me the maps. If possible, I will cross the sea. If not, I will roam through the wilds! Urshanabi spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: It is your hands that prevent the crossing. You have smashed the stone things. You have pulled out their holding ropes. The stone things have been smashed. Their retaining ropes have been pulled out. Take the axe in your hand and go down into the woods. Cut down three hundred punting poles each sixty cubits in length. Strip them, attach caps and bring them to the boat! When Gilgamesh heard this he took up the axe in his hand, He drew the dagger from his belt, and went down into the woods. He cut three hundred punting poles, each sixty cubits in length. He stripped them and affixed caps. And he brought them to the boat. Gilgamesh and Urshanabi boarded the boat. Gilgamesh launched the magillu-boat and they sailed away. By the third day they had trekked a stretch that normally Takes of a month and a half. Urshanabi came to the Waters of Death. Urshanabi said to Gilgamesh: Hold back, Gilgamesh, take a punting pole, But your hand must not get into the Waters of Death... Gilgamesh, take a second, a third, and a fourth pole. Take a fifth, a sixth, and a seventh pole. Take an eighth, a ninth, and a tenth pole. Take an eleventh, and a twelfth pole! Double sixty rods, Gilgamesh had used up all punting poles.
Then he loosened his waist-cloth for... Gilgamesh removed his garment. He held it up on the mast with his arms. Utanapishtim looked into the distance. Puzzled, he said wondering: Why are the stone things on the boat smashed to pieces! And why someone who is not its master sails on it? The one who is coming is not one of my men... I keep looking but not... I keep looking but not... I keep looking...
Some lines are missing here. Utanapishtim said to Gilgamesh: "Why are your cheeks shrunken, And your face gloomy! Why is your heart so wretched? And your facial appearance so tired! Why is there such sadness deep within you! Why do you look like one who has traveled a long distance? So that ice and heat have scorched your face! ...You roam the wilderness! Gilgamesh spoke to Utanapishtim saying: Should not my cheeks be shrunken And my expression gloomy! Should my heart not be wretched, my features not tired! Should there not be sadness deep within me! Should I not look like one who traveled a long way? And should ice and heat not have scorched my face! ...Should I not roam the wilds. My friend that chased wild asses on the mountain, the panther Of the wilderness, Enkidu, my friend, that chased wild asses in the mountain The panther of the wilderness — We joined together, and went up into the mountain. We fought and slaughtered the Bull of Heaven. We killed Humbaba that lived in the Cedar Forest. We slew lions in the mountain passes! My friend, whom I love deeply, who went through every hardship with me, Enkidu, my friend, whom I love deeply, who went through Every hardship with me, the fate of mankind has overtaken him. Six days and seven nights I mourned over him And until a maggot fell out of his nose I would not allow him to be buried. I was terrified by his appearance.
I began to fear death, and so I roamed the wilds. The issue of my friend oppresses me. So I have been roaming long trails through the wilds. The issue of Enkidu, my friend, oppresses me. So, I roamed on long trails through the wilds. How can I keep quiet? How can I stay still? My friend whom I love has turned into clay. Enkidu, my friend whom I love, has turned into clay! Am I not like him? Will I lie down never to get up again? Gilgamesh spoke to Utanapishtim, saying: That is why I must go on, to see Utanapishtim whom they call The Faraway. I moved in circles through all the mountains. I crossed treacherous mountains. I crossed all the seas. That is why sweet sleep has not mellowed my face. I make every effort. I miss sleep. I am tense. My muscles are filled with pain. I had not yet reached the inn-keeper's area before my clothes would tear up. Bears, hyenas, lions, panthers, tigers, stags, red-stags, And many beasts of the wilds I killed. I ate their meat and wrapped their skins around me. The gate of grief must be bolted shut, sealed with pitch and bitumen. As for me, dancing... For me unfortunately it will root out... Utanapishtim spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: Why, Gilgamesh, do you... sadness? You were born from the flesh of gods and mankind. Who made ... like your father and mother? Have you ever... Gilgamesh ... to the fool... They placed a chair in the Council... But to the fool they gave beer dregs instead of butter, Bran and cheap flour that like...Clothed with a loincloth like... And in place of a sash, because he does not have... Does not have words of counsel ... Take care about it, Gilgamesh, ... Their master... ... the Sun hides the moon from view... The gods are sleepless... They are troubled, restless... Long ago it has been established... You trouble yourself... ... your help ... If Gilgamesh ... the temple of the gods ... The temple of the holy gods... ... The gods ... ... mankind, they took ... for his
fate. You have toiled without cease, and what have you got! Through toil you wear yourself out, you fill your body with grief. You bring your long life to an untimely end. Mankind, whose end result is snapped off like a reed in a cane’ split. The fine young man and the lovely girl... ...Death. No one can see death. No one can see the face of death. No one can hear the voice of death. Yet there is the savage death that snaps off mankind. For how long do we build a house? For how long do we seal a document? For how long do brothers share the inheritance? For how long is there to be envy in the land? So that dragon flies could drift down the river, For how long has the river spilled over its banks and brought the floods? The eye that could gaze in the eye of the Sun could never ever stay alive. How alike are the sleeping people and the dead. The image of death cannot be described. Yes, you are a human being, a man. After Enlil had pronounced the blessing, The Anunnaki the Great Gods, assembled. Mammetum, she who works out people’s destinies, decide with them people’s destinies. They established Death and Life, but they did not make known the time of death.
The Story of the Flood Gilgamesh spoke to Utanapishtim, the Faraway: I have been looking at you, but your appearance is not strange. You are like me! You yourself are not different. You are like me! My mind was determined to fight with you. But instead my arm lies useless over you. Tell me, how is it that you stand in the Council of the Gods? And you have found life! Utanapishtim spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: I will reveal to you, Gilgamesh, a thing that is hidden. A secret of the gods I will tell you! Shuruppak is a city that you know for sure. It is situated on the banks of the Euphrates. That city was very old, and gods lived there. The hearts of the Great Gods Moved them to inflict the Flood. Their Father Anu uttered the oath of secrecy. Valiant Enlil was their Adviser. Ninurta was their Chamberlain. Ennugi was their Minister of Canals. Ea, the Clever Prince was under oath with them. So she would repeat the discussion in the Gods’ Council, at the reed house:
Reed house, reed house! Wall, wall! O man of Shuruppak, son of Ubartutu: Tear down your house and build a boat! Abandon wealth and seek living beings! Spurn possessions and keep alive living beings! Make all living beings go up into the boat. The boat that you are to build: Its dimensions must measure equal to each other. Its length must correspond to its width. Roof it over like the Apsu. I understood and I spoke to my lord, Ea. My lord, along these lines is the command you have uttered. I will pay attention to it and I will do it. But what shall I tell the city, the public, and the Elders? Ea spoke, and demanded from me, his servant: Well then, this is what you must say to them: It appears that Enlil throws me out so I cannot live in your city. Nor can I set foot on Enlil's Earth. I will go down to the Apsu to live with my lord, Ea. And a glut of fowl and countless fish Upon you he will rain down plenty. He will bring to you a harvest of prosperity. In the morning he will let loaves of bread shower down. And in the evening will bucket down wheat! Just as dawn began to glow The land assembled around me. The carpenter carried his hatchet. The reed worker carried his flattening stone... the men... The child carried the set of connections. The weak brought whatever Else was needed. On the fifth day I laid out its exterior. It was in a field. Its walls were each ten times twelve cubits in height, The sides of its top were of equal length ten times it’s cubits each. I laid out its interior structure and drew a sketch of it. I provided it with six decks, thus dividing it into seven levels. I split the central part into nine parts. I put plugs to keep out water in its middle part. I placed the punting poles. I wrapped up with what was essential. Three times three thousand six hundred units of raw bitumen. I poured into the bitumen kiln, three times Three thousand six hundred units of pitch... into it, there were three times
Three thousand six hundred porters of casks who carried vegetable oil, Apart from the three thousand six hundred units of oil which they consumed! And two times three thousand six hundred units of oil, which the boatmen stored away. I butchered oxen for the meat and day upon day I slaughtered sheep. I gave the workmen ale beer, oil, and wine, as if it were water from the river. So they could make a party like the New Year's Festival. ...And I set my hand to the oiling... The boat was finished by sunset. The launching was very difficult. They had to keep carrying a landing strip of poles front to back, Until two-thirds of it had gone into the water. How much I had loaded on it. How much silver I had I loaded on it. How much gold I had I loaded on it. All the living beings that I had I loaded on it. I had all my nearest and dearest go up in the boat. All the beasts and animals of the field and the craftsmen I had them go on board. The Sun God had set at the likely time. In the morning I will let loaves of bread shower down. And in the evening I will bucket down with wheat! Go inside the boat. Seal the entry! The prophesized time had come. In the morning he let loaves of bread shower down, And in the evening bucketed down with wheat. I watched how the weather looked like. The weather was frightening to look at. I went into the boat and sealed the entry. For the caulking of the boat, to Puzuramurri, the boatman, I gave my palace together with its contents. Just as dawn began to glow There cropped up at the horizon a black cloud. Adad rumbled inside of it. Before him went Shullat and Hanish. Heralds were going over mountain and land. Erragal pulled out the mooring poles. Forth went Ninurta and made the dikes overflow. The Anunnaki lifted up the torches, Setting the land ablaze with their flare.
Shock waves spread out on Adad's deeds and took over the sky. And all that had been light had turned into darkness. The... land shattered like a... pot. All day long the south wind blew... Blowing fast, submerging the mountain in water, Overwhelming the people like in an attack. No one could see his buddy. They could not recognize each other in the downpour. The gods were frightened by the Flood, And retreated, ascending to the heaven of Anu. The gods would retreat like dogs, ducking by the outer wall. Ishtar screamed like a woman in childbirth. The sweet-voiced Mistress of the Gods cried: Alas, the olden days have turned into dust. Because I said evil things in the Council of the Gods! How could I say evil things in the Council of the Gods? Ordering a catastrophe to destroy my people! No sooner have I given birth to my dear people Than they fill the sea like schools of fish! The gods — those of the Anunnaki — were weeping with her. The gods humbly sat weeping, sobbing with grief. Their lips were burning, being scorched by thirst. For six days and seven nights came The wind, the flood and the storm flattened the land. When the seventh day arrived, the storm was pounding. The flood was like a war — struggling with itself like a woman in labor. The sea had turned calm and became still. The twister and the flood stopped. I looked around all day long — calm had set in. And all the human beings had turn into clay! The terrain was as flat as a roof. I opened a vent and fresh air and daylight fell upon the side of my nose. I fell on my knees and sat weeping. Tears would stream down the side of my nose. I looked around for coastlines on the expanse of the sea. And at twelve leagues there emerged an area of land. On Mt. Nimush the boat lodged firm. Mt. Nimush held the boat, allowing no sway.
One day and a second Mt. Nimush held the boat, allowing no sway. A third day, a fourth, Mt. Nimush held the boat, allowing no sway. A fifth day, a sixth, Mt. Nimush held the boat, allowing no sway. When a seventh day arrived I set free a dove. The dove went off, but came back to me. No perch was visible so it circled back to me. I set free a swallow. The swallow went off, but came back to me. No perch could be seen so it flew in a circle back to me. I sent forth a raven and released it. The raven went off, and saw the waters drop. It eats. It scratches. It moves up and down. But does not circle back to me. Then I sent out everything in all directions and sacrificed a sheep. I offered incense in front of the mountain-ziggurat. Seven and seven offering bowls I put in place. And into the fire underneath or into their bowls Reeds, cedar, and myrtle I poured. The gods smelled the aroma. The gods smelled the sweet aroma. They gathered like flies on a sheep sacrifice. Just then Beletili arrived. She lifted up the large soaring Beads that Anu had made for his enjoyment. You gods, as this lapis lazuli around my neck, I shall not forget for sure. May I be mindful of these days, and never forget them! The gods may come to the incense offering. But Enlil may not come to the incense offering. Since, without fully considering it, he has caused the Flood. And he sent to my people the total destruction. Just then Enlil got there. He saw the boat and I became angry. He was filled with rage at the Igigi gods: Where did a living being escape? No man was to survive the annihilation! Ninurta spoke to Valiant Enlil. He said: Who else but Ea could devise such a thing? It is Ea who knows every machination!
La spoke to Valiant Enlil, saying: It is you, O Valiant One — the Sage of the Gods. How, how could you bring about a Flood, without consideration? Charge the violation to the violator. Charge the offense to the offender. But at lest be compassionate, let mankind be kept apart. Be patient lest they be killed. Instead of your bringing on the Flood, Would it not be easier for a lion to come and lessen the number of men? Instead of your bringing on the Flood, Would it not be easier for a wolf to come out and to lessen the number of men? Instead of your bringing on the Flood, Would it not be easier for famine to happen and to wipe out the realms? Instead of your bringing on the Flood, Would it not be easier that Pestilent Erra to appear and to ravage the land? I wasn’t the one who revealed the secret of the Great Gods! I only made a dream appear to Atrahasis, and so He heard the secret of the gods. Now then! The deliberation should be about him! Enlil went up inside the boat. And, holding my hand, he made me go up. He had my wife go up and kneel by my side. He touched our forehead and, standing between us, He blessed us. Previously Utanapishtim was a human being. But now let Utanapishtim and his wife become gods like us. Let Utanapishtim reside far away, at the Mouth of the Rivers. They took us far away and settled us at the Mouth of the Rivers. Now then, that you may find the life that you are seeking Who will summon the gods on your behalf? Wait! You must not lie down for six days and seven nights. Soon as he sat down with his head between his legs Sleep like a fog fell upon him. Utanapishtim said to his wife: Look there! The man, the young man who wanted eternal life! Sleep, like a fog, came upon him. His wife said to Utanapishtim the Faraway: Touch him. Let the man wake up.
Let him return safely by the way he came. Let him return to his land by the gate through which he left. Utanapishtim said to his wife: Mankind is deceptive, and will deceive you. Come, bake leaves for him and put them on his head. And write on the wall each day that he lay down. She baked his leaves and placed it by his head And marked on the wall the days that he lay down. The first loaf was dry. The second loaf was stale. The third loaf was moist. The fourth loaf turned white. Its... The fifth loaf grew gray mold. The sixth loaf is still fresh. The seventh loaf... Suddenly he touched him and the man awoke. Gilgamesh said to Utanapishtim: The very moment sleep fell over me You touched me and put me on alert. Utanapishtim spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: Look over here. Count your loaves! You should be aware of what is marked on the wall! Your first loaf was dry. The second loaf was stale. The third loaf was moist. Your fourth loaf turned white. Its... The fifth loaf grew gray mold on it. The sixth loaf is still fresh. The seventh loaf... Suddenly he touched him and the man awoke. Gilgamesh said to Utanapishtim: The very moment sleep was pouring over me You touched me and put me on alert. Utanapishtim spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: Look over here, Gilgamesh, count your leaves! You should be aware of what is marked on the wall! Your first loaf was dry. The second was stale. The third was moist. Your fourth turned white. Its... The fifth grew gray mold on it. The sixth is still fresh. The seventh loaf... At that instant you awoke! Gilgamesh said to Utanapishtim the Faraway: O woe! What shall I do? Utanapishtim, where shall I go? The Snatcher has taken hold of my flesh, In my bedroom Death dwells.
And wherever I set foot there too is Death! Home Empty-Handed Utanapishtim said to Urshanabi, the ferryman: May the harbor reject you, may the ferry landing reject you! May you who used to walk its shores be denied its shores! The man in front of whom you walk, full of hair, chains his body. Animal skins have ruined his beautiful skin. Take him away, Urshanabi, bring him to the washing place. Let Let Let Let Let
him wash his knotted hair in water like Ellu. him cast away his animal skin and have the sea carry it off. his body be moistened with fine oil. the wrap around his head be made new. him wear royal robes worthy of him!
Until he goes off to his city, until he sets off on his way, Let his royal robe not get stained. Let it be new without a flaw Urshanabi took him away and brought him to the washing place. He washed his knotted hair with water like Ellu. He cast off his animal skin and the sea carried it on. He moistened his body with fine oil, And made a new wrap for his head. He put on a royal robe worthy of him. Until he went away to his city, Until he set off on his way, His royal robe remained spotless. It was clean from top to bottom. Gilgamesh and Urshanabi boarded the boat. They discarded the magillu-boat, and sailed away. The wife of Utanapishtim the Faraway said to him: Gilgamesh came here tired and worn out. What can you give him so that he can return to his land with honor? Then Gilgamesh raised a punting pole and drew the boat to shore. Utanapishtim spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: Gilgamesh, you came here exhausted and worn out. What can I give you so you can go back to your land? I will disclose to you a thing that is hidden, Gilgamesh. A... I will tell you. There is a plant... like a boxthorn whose Thorns will prick your hand like a rose. If your hands reach that plant
You will become a young man again. Hearing this, Gilgamesh Opened a conduit to Apsu and attached heavy stones to his feet. They dragged him down. To the Apsu they pulled him. He took the plant, though it pricked his hand, And he cut the heavy stones from his feet. He let the waves throw him on the shore. Gilgamesh spoke to Urshanabi, the ferryman, saying: Urshanabi, this plant fights decay. With it, a man can get a never ending life. I will bring it to Uruk-Haven And have an old man eat the plant to test it. Then I will eat it and return to the condition of my youth. At twenty leagues they stopped for lunch. At thirty leagues they halted for the night. Seeing a spring and how cool its waters were, Gilgamesh went down in the water and had a bath. A snake smelled the fragrance of the plant, Without a sound it came up and carried off the plant. While going back it cut the plant’s outside layer. At that point Gilgamesh sat down, weeping, His tears would stream over the side of his nose. Counsel me, O ferryman Urshanabi! For whom have my arms labored, Urshanabi? For whom has my heart's blood boiled? I have not secured any good deed for myself. But done a good deed for the ‘lion of the land’! Now the high waters are flowing twenty leagues away. As I opened the channel I turned my equipment over to it. What can I find to serve as a map for me! I will turn back from the journey by sea And leave the boat by the shore! At twenty leagues they took a stopped for lunch. At thirty leagues they halted for the night. They arrived in Uruk-Haven. Gilgamesh said to Urshanabi, the ferryman: Go up, Urshanabi, onto the wall of Uruk and walk around.
Examine its foundation. Inspect its brickwork thoroughly. Is not, even the core of the brick structure, of kiln-fired brick? And did not the Seven Sages themselves laid out its plan? One-league city, one league palm gardens, one league lowlands, The open area of the Ishtar Temple, Three leagues and the open area of Uruk it encloses. From many sources, on the Internet, I collected only the best, and most thorough and well documented scholars of ancient manuscripts, their enlightened translations of the Epoch of Gilgamesh. Some translations, on the Internet, are quite brief in their translations; I suspect these unfinished works may be due to the fragmentary and scattered pieces of the original scrolls, est., we may never know, I selected this translation as it best represents the true meaning of the very old languages it was written in, more than one, but more for the overall care the author(s) took to maintaining the True meaning of words alone, but in relation of one another, and even more so because the authors kept to the Spiritual meaning of the entire text, which must have cause many scribed to welter in the depths of despair. I cite no authors, I simply want you not to be bothered with the academics of the text, I assure the readers of the sincerity of the Truth of that Question…I want you to read in a quiet, religious, and spiritual state so you can acquire all of the spirituality imparted. Read Well and Be a Holy and Happy Spiritual Person, no matter to whom it is you pray.
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PLM-Right Rolled Thumb Print from Police Authorities in Idaho.
Digitally signed by Padraig MacSeain DN: cn=Padraig MacSeain, o=PCS Centers, ou=Founde r, c=US Date: 2010.01.17 08:05:20 -07'00'