ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION.ppt _Compatibility Mode_
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Lecture - 11
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION from PROCESS INDUSTRIES
In this lecture • • • •
Pollution and Pollutants Types of Pollution Effects of Pollution Managing Pollution
Pollution Introduction by man, waste matter or surplus energy into the environment, which directly or indirectly causes damage to man and his environment
The Issue Pollutant -
A substance or effect which adversely alters the environment by changing the growth rate of species, interferes with the food chain, is toxic, or interferes with health, comfort amenities or property values of people
• We use
and then are NOT responsible for • The Consequences !!!
Aral Sea Man made environmental disaster
EFFECTS ON BIOSPHERE 1. Damage to human health by specific chemical substances present in the air, food, water and radioactive material 2. Damage to natural environment affecting vegetation, animals, crops, soil and water 3. Damage to visual quality by smoke, fumes, dust, noise and waste 4. Damage by carcinogens, radioactive materials and excessive noise
Learning from the Past … Japan • Fueling consumerism …. Doubling income …… three basic consumer items …..
Pollution and effects Minamata Disease (Jinzu river, Japan)
Bioaccumulation e.g DDT water
zooplankton 0.04 ppm
small fish 0.5 ppm
large fish 2 ppm
birds 25 ppm
Story of Bold eagle In USA
Toxicity is Quantity related from Paracelsus ...... Anything and Everything is toxic if the dose is made so !! Paracelsus (1493-1541)
Drinking water and death ! ..
Waste takes many forms
• Woman dies after waterdrinking contest SACRAMENTO, Calif. – A woman who competed in a radio station’s contest to see how much water she could drink without going to the bathroom died of water intoxication, the coroner’s office said Saturday.
TYPES OF POLLUTION • • • • • • •
Water Pollution Air Pollution Land Pollution Noise Pollution Thermal Pollution Electro Pollution Visual Pollution
Water Pollution – with what? • • • • • • •
Water ( about 99%) Solids Carbohydrates Proteins These are referred to as Fats ‘organic material’ Nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) Microorganisms. (On average there are about 10 million per ml of wastewater. Many are pathogens)
Water Pollution Inorganic materials -
alkalis, acids, inorganic salts, ammonia, phosphates, etc. Heavy metals chromium, mercury, nickel, copper, cadmium etc. Disinfection byproducts - trihalomethanes Other harmful substances - organochlorides etc. Physical factors turbidity, colour, temperature etc.
Industrial Sources Responsible for Organic Pollution Organic Pollutants
Distillery Inorganic Pollutants
Canning Heavy metal Pollutants
Depletion of DO
Industrial Sources Responsible for Inorganic Pollution Dissolved Oxygen
Fertilizer Soap and detergent ammonia Rubber and latex phosphates
Problems algal blooms reduced light penetration and re-aeration (eutrophication)
Fertiliser Application Eutrophication
Industrial Sources Responsible for Heavy Metal Pollution Sources Paper and pulp Tanneries Textile Coke-oven Metal plating
Sources Discharging Pathogenic Organisms Sources
Sewage Bacteria Farm slurry Hospital waste
Viruses Protozoa Medical laboratory (Giardia, Cryptosporidium) Food processing Helminths
Diseases Cholera, typhoid, dysentery, gastroenteritis diarrhea, salmonellosis polio, hepatitis, Diarrhea, dysentery, amebiasis Roundworm infestation, pinworm, beef tapeworm, pork tapeworm
Effluent Mercury Chromium Iron Nickel Lead Zinc Arsenic Cadmium Copper Silver
Problems Minamata disease toxic to aquatic life and self purifying organisms Toxic to humans Itai-itai disease Bio accumulate
b) Air Pollution Air is considered safe when it contains no harmful dust and gases.
Polluted air affects: Humans Animals Vegetation Materials
Effects from Air Pollution
Air Pollution has No Boundaries
• Global warming • Ozone depletion (Ozone hole) • Acid Rain • Various respiratory illnesses
Metal foundry refining in early industrial Germany, 1870s
Pollution of air Particulate Matter PM10 (