Environment Essay Outlines

August 2, 2018 | Author: nasyrah | Category: Nuclear Power, Environmentalism, Global Warming, Radioactive Waste, Sustainability
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Environment Essay Outlines Man and the Environment

The Concept of Bearing Responsibility To what extent should rich nations bear responsibility for solving environmental problems? Generic: • bear responsibility responsibilit y • criteria (cause, ability, self-interest) Generic (command): • Extent question – requires stuent to ac!no"lege that responsibility is share Topical: • rich, e#elope nations • i$plie – e#eloping nations • sol#ing • cutting bac! - reucing consu$ption an prouction • acti#e $easures – reforestation, alternati#e energy, • $itigation%aaptation – coping "ith consequences hat environmental problems? • &part fro$ global "ar$ing, these proble$s inclue eforestation, • loss of bioi#ersity, air, "ater, an lan pollution' !ow to measure extent of responsibility? • () o" $uch of the a$age "ere their oing* • (+) o" able are they to sol#e the proble$s* • () o" $uch is at sta!e for the$*

Criteria C&./E

Caus Causee

Rich nations

0e#eloping nations

ist istor oric ical ally ly,, rich rich nati nation onss are are  pri$ary contributors contributo rs to global "ar$ing ue to past inustrial acti#ity'

Currently, so$e of the e#eloping nations "ho are the larger contributors to global "ar$ing'

4er capita consu$ption  patterns are highest high est in the e#elope "orl'

1n the future, it is the current rapily e#eloping nations that "ill be the pri$ary contributors to global

1nustries (23Cs, T3Cs) --5hile it $ay appear that so$e of the e#eloping nations are greater contributors to carbon e$issions toay, $uch of such e$issions are fro$ inustrial acti#ity fro$ co$panies o"ne  by rich nations' --4hysical location is thus not as i$portant as national o"nership'

"ar$ing' &bil &bilit ity y

1t is is the the rich rich nat natio ions ns "ho "ho 1t is the e#eloping  possess $ost of the nations "ho hol the technological !no"-ho" an !ey to sol#ing financial $eans to eal "ith en#iron$ental proble$s en#iron$ental catastrophe an  because they $a!e up to research possible alternati#e $ost of the "orl’s energy solutions'  population an control con trol $ost of the "orl’s resources' 1t is also the rich nations "ho are able to $ost help the e#eloping nations "hen it This $eans that they co$es to coping "ith the ha#e the potential ability consequences of global to help aress "ar$ing' en#iron$ental issues'

/elfinteres t

Rich nations are not spare fro$ the ill-effects of global "ar$ing' 2oreo#er, they ha#e significant interests in business e#elop$ent in the e#eloping "orl'

0e#eloping nations ha#e an ob#ious sta!e in resol#ing en#iron$ental issues because they suffer the brunt of global "ar$ing'

hile developed nations should bear more responsibility" developing nations should also play their part in solving the environmental problems# problems#

&ssu$ing rich nations ha#e () cause en#iron$ental proble$s, (+) the ability an () are self-interest, they shoul bear $ore responsibility to sol#e the en#iron$ental proble$s' <hough they ha#e a $oral obligation, it "oul be unfair for the$ to bear full responsibility' This is because e#eloping nations are increasingly () causing en#iron$ental proble$s, (+) gaining the ability an () are self-intereste to $a!e a$ens' .lti$ately for the en#iron$ental proble$s to be sol#e, this "oul require the co$$it$ent an cooperation of both nations' 6et, e#eloping nations are increasingly () causing en#iron$ental proble$s, (+) gaining the ability an () are self-intereste to $a!e a$ens' The $oncept of %ossibility

1s it possible to protect the en#iron$ent "hen $any countries require increasing a$ounts of energy to progress* Generic:

"ar$ing' &bil &bilit ity y

1t is is the the rich rich nat natio ions ns "ho "ho 1t is the e#eloping  possess $ost of the nations "ho hol the technological !no"-ho" an !ey to sol#ing financial $eans to eal "ith en#iron$ental proble$s en#iron$ental catastrophe an  because they $a!e up to research possible alternati#e $ost of the "orl’s energy solutions'  population an control con trol $ost of the "orl’s resources' 1t is also the rich nations "ho are able to $ost help the e#eloping nations "hen it This $eans that they co$es to coping "ith the ha#e the potential ability consequences of global to help aress "ar$ing' en#iron$ental issues'

/elfinteres t

Rich nations are not spare fro$ the ill-effects of global "ar$ing' 2oreo#er, they ha#e significant interests in business e#elop$ent in the e#eloping "orl'

0e#eloping nations ha#e an ob#ious sta!e in resol#ing en#iron$ental issues because they suffer the brunt of global "ar$ing'

hile developed nations should bear more responsibility" developing nations should also play their part in solving the environmental problems# problems#

&ssu$ing rich nations ha#e () cause en#iron$ental proble$s, (+) the ability an () are self-interest, they shoul bear $ore responsibility to sol#e the en#iron$ental proble$s' <hough they ha#e a $oral obligation, it "oul be unfair for the$ to bear full responsibility' This is because e#eloping nations are increasingly () causing en#iron$ental proble$s, (+) gaining the ability an () are self-intereste to $a!e a$ens' .lti$ately for the en#iron$ental proble$s to be sol#e, this "oul require the co$$it$ent an cooperation of both nations' 6et, e#eloping nations are increasingly () causing en#iron$ental proble$s, (+) gaining the ability an () are self-intereste to $a!e a$ens' The $oncept of %ossibility

1s it possible to protect the en#iron$ent "hen $any countries require increasing a$ounts of energy to progress* Generic:

 possible (realistic, (realistic , ifficult, long ter$ probability, probabilit y, short ter$ probability) – requires iscussion of i$pei$ents (ac!no"leging conition an trae-off increasing a$ounts of energy consu$ption ha#e an i$pact on the en#iron$ent, hu$an "ill an eter$ination, hu$an ingenuity, international cooperation) Topical:

 protect the en#iron$ent en#iron $ent (conser#ation, $itigating $itiga ting consequences of o f global "ar$ing, reforestation, alternati#e energy, etc), countries that require increasing a$ounts of energy to  progress (une#elope, (une# elope, e#eloping, e#elope) e #elope) &ssumptions

The increasing a$ount of energy that is require to progress has a a$aging effect on the en#iron$ent' 1n orer to protect the en#iron$ent, countries nee to cut bac! on the a$ount of energy use' &pproaches

1t is possible () the obstacles are $anageable (+) the solutions can be $aintaine an enforce 1t is not possible as () the obstacles are o#er"hel$ing (+) renering the solutions insignificant 1t is possible but extre$ely ifficult () ac!no"lege there are solutions (+) but the obstacles are o#er"hel$ing () renering the solutions ineffecti#e hy is it possible but extremely difficult?



The use of alternati#e energy sources has alreay been pro#en to be 0epenency of $any econo$ically #iable' (i'e', increasing energy use nee not be har$ful to countries on fossil the en#iron$ent) fuels that are highly  polluting to fuel

econo$ic gro"th &s the consequences of global "ar$ing beco$e $ore se#ere, go#ern$ents aroun the "orl "ill be uner pressure to "or! together an see! solutions to protect the en#iron$ent "hile at the sa$e ti$e ensure progress for their people' 7urther$ore, there appears to be a lot of “excess capacity”, i'e', there $ay not be a nee for rastic cuts or changes in lifestyles – "hat is neee are $erely $ore efficient "ays of energy prouction an use' (3ee not cut bac! on energy consu$ption)

8ac! of "ill 8ac! of cooperation

Base on current trens in science an technology, 2an is li!ely to 2an appears to ha#e in#ent $ore ingenuous "ays of protecting the en#iron$ent "hile at the reache the li$its of sa$e ti$e en9oying econo$ic progress' his intellectual abilities' 4rotecting the en#iron$ent can also be econo$ically #iable as e#ience by eco-touris$ an 9obs in the alternati#e energy $ar!et'

2an:s ;ree

1t is increasingly possible to protect the en#iron$ent because of the use of alternati#e energy resources, the increase pressure fro$ go#ern$ents to "or! together to see! solutions, the $ore ingenuous "ays of protecting the en#iron$ent an the econo$ically #iable pursuits' o"e#er, the o#er"hel$ing obstacles such as the hea#y reliance on fossil fuels, lac! of "ill an cooperation, 2an’s ;ree an the appearance that 2an has reache his intellectual li$its ''''''''''

ot %ossible


2any go#ern$ents are un"illing to aopt alternati#e sources of energy ue to the high costs associate an the hassle that co$es "ith changing existing infrastructures'

0epenency of $any countries on fossil fuels that are highly polluting to fuel econo$ic gro"th

4eople’s fears that such $oern for$s of technology $ay ha#e ill effects'

0epenency of $any countries on exploiting natural resources to fuel certain inustries

2an is inherently selfish an greey' Countries are li!ely to 8ac! of cooperation, lac! of  cooperate "hen there appears to be little incenti#e for the$ to ta!e "ill the first step' 2an appears to ha#e reache the li$its of his intellectual abilities' There is little alternati#e left except to cut bac! on energy use'

u$an ingenuity

Eco-touris$ is not as ‘en#iron$entally frienly’ as it see$s an $oney channele into such pro9ects coul ha#e been better use else"here' , 1taly announce that "ithin fi#e years it planne to resu$e  builing nuclear energy plants out of a gro"ing concern o#er the "ar$ing effects of carbon e$issions fro$ fossil fuels'

0espite aopting an alternati#e source of energy, i'e' nuclear energy, so$e go#ern$ents are uner$ining other solutions to cli$ate change by i#erting urgently neee resources a"ay fro$ the true rene"able an energyefficient solutions that go#ern$ents "ho are serious about cli$ate change nee to in#est in'

Big businesses are also $ore recepti#e to the call to loo! after the en#iron$ent' 1ncreasingly, there are co$panies "ho exercise corporate social responsibility (C/R) as they are rein#esting in their "or!force, co$$unities an the en#iron$ent' ?ne such co$pany is /tarbuc!s "ho is co$$itte to supporting  progra$$es that facilitate far$ers: access to carbon $ar!ets, allo"ing the$ to generate aitional inco$e "hile helping to pre#ent eforestation'

/o$e co$panies stray a"ay fro$ their responsibilities to the en#iron$ent as they falsely belie#e that e#eloping sustainably "oul reuce their profits'

Establishe outsie of political parties, (nongo#ern$ental organisations) 3;?s #oluntarily are responsible for a#ocating  public:s concerns an pressurising go#ern$ents to o a better 9ob' Conser#ation 1nternational has "or!e "ith the Ca$boian go#ern$ent to create a one-$illion acre  protecte area an sponsore scientific research of coral reefs off 1nonesia'

&s eicate as 3;?s are in protecting the en#iron$ent, a s$all $inority are $ore raical in their approach' &herents of raical en#iron$entalis$ an ecological anarchis$ are in#ol#e in irect action ca$paigns to  protect the en#iron$ent' /o$e ca$paigns ha#e e$ploye contro#ersial tactics incluing sabotage, bloc!aes an arson'


Concept/Issue: Responding to Global Warming

uestion: 0o the rich an pri#ilege hol a greater responsibility to tac!le en#iron$ental  proble$s* &nswer: &ccoring to 2aslo":s ierarchy of 3ees, protecting the en#iron$ent "oul  be a concern of the rich an pri#ilege because of their e$phasis on the quality of life' ;i#en this concern an their ability to affor the s!ills, technology an costs of protecting the en#iron$ent, the rich an pri#ilege are often place "ith greater responsibility to  protect the en#iron$ent' &part fro$ the afore$entione reasons, their influential position in the "orl reners the$ e#en $ore responsible' Therefore, "ith their econo$ic a#antage an political clout, the rich an pri#ilege o hol a greater responsibility to tac!le the en#iron$ental proble$s' &rguments

<ernative views

1t is the affluent an e#elope nations that are often to bla$e for the proble$s plaguing the en#iron$ent' 1t is the "ay the rich li#es, an in  particular the excesses of the #ery rich, that is oing $ost of the real a$age' The 5orl"atch 1nstitute in its annual report, tate of the "orld #$$%, aresse the e#astating toll on the Earth@s "ater supplies, natural resources, an ecosyste$s exacte by a  plethora of isposable ca$eras, plastic garbage  bags, an other cheaply $ae goos "ith built in prouct-obsolescence, an cheaply $ae

?ther e#eloping nations are fast beco$ing the $a9or contributors to en#iron$ental proble$s' 1ncreasingly, e#eloping countries are catching up rapily to the etri$ent of the en#iron$ent, health, an happiness' 7or years, the streets of China@s $a9or cities "ere characteriAe by a #irtual sea of people on bicycles, an + years ago there "ere barely any pri#ate cars in China' By +===,  $illion cars $o#e people an goos the nu$ber is expecte to reach +D $illion by the en of next year'

$anufacture goos that lea to a thro" a"ay $entality'

Rich nations ha#e the financial resources an the political clout in their o"n countries an in the international arena'

4oor countries also ha#e an i$portant responsibility to"ars the "orl' 2any en#iron$ental proble$s respect no national borers en#iron$ental proble$s in one country can easily cross physical borers an affect not only the country of origin'


Concept/Issue: Environment and Economy

uestion: 5ill econo$ic e#elop$ent al"ays be carrie out at the expense of the en#iron$ent* &nswer: /ince the F>=s, there has been a gro"ing boy of e#ience to suggest that inustrialisation is ha#ing an effect on the cli$ate of the planet' Till toay, inustrialisation "ith its countless ne" $achines an technologies continue to exacerbate the exploitation of the en#iron$ent' 1f this "ere to go on, econo$ic e#elop$ent "oul al"ays eclipse protection of the en#iron$ent' o"e#er the picture is not as blea! as it see$s' 1ncreasingly toay there is a gro"ing a"areness an effort on the part of  go#ern$ents to e#elop sustainably' &s long as go#ern$ents are $o#ing a"ay fro$ traitional $ethos of e#elop$ent an are e#eloping sustainably, econo$ic e#elop$ent "oul not al"ays be carrie out at the expense of the en#iron$ent' &rguments

<ernative views

0e#elope countries are un"illing to slo" o"n econo$ic gro"th for the en#iron$ent' Rich countries le by Russia, &ustralia an the E. ha#e been accuse of trying to cheat their "ay out of reucing their greenhouse gas e$issions by creating ishonest forestry accounting loopholes'

o"e#er, "hile econo$ic e#elop$ent has  brought about en#iron$ental egraation, it nee not al"ays be at the etri$ent of the en#iron$ent' 2any business corporations ha#e succeee an yet ha#e co$$itte to the en#iron$ental cause'

0e#elope an in particular e#eloping countries are still epenent on polluting energy sources li!e fossil fuels for its econo$ic gro"th'

<hough ecotouris$ is intene for s$all groups, e#en a $oest increase in population, ho"e#er te$porary, puts extra pressure on the local en#iron$ent an necessitates the e#elop$ent of aitional infrastructure an a$enities' The construction of "ater treat$ent  plants, sanitation facilities, an loges co$e "ith the exploitation of non-rene"able energy sources an the utiliAation of alreay li$ite local resources' The con#ersion of natural lan to such tourist infrastructure is i$plicate in eforestation an habitat eterioration of  butterflies in 2exico an squirrel $on!eys in Costa Rica'

Eco-touris$ channels resources a"ay fro$ other pro9ects that coul contribute $ore sustainable an realistic solutions to pressing en#iron$ental proble$s' 4acuare Eco 8oge, locate near Turrialba, in the heart of Costa Rica@s rainforest clai$s that they ha#e atte$pte to stic! to the highest stanars of sustainable construction' 3o trees "ere cut uring the builing of the property an the local 1nian co$$unity "as in#ol#e uring the construction' The staff has also been ra"n fro$ the local co$$unity' Electricity is not use an all fuel require$ents are fulfille using solar panels an a "ater-run generator'

/o$e countries aopt a "rong attitue,  belie#ing that the earth is resilient – it has al"ays an "ill al"ays be able to cope "ith our callous actions'Therefore, there is no urgency an effort to change an e#elop sustainably'

5ith the a"areness that en#iron$ental  proble$s are global proble$s, $ore countries an international organiAations li!e .3E4 "oul see the nee help people in e#eloping countries to fin alternati#e "or! "ithout ha#ing to rely on traitional acti#ities that enanger the earth' *# $oncept+,ssue: The 7allacy of ;lobal 5ar$ing uestion: 1s the threat of global "ar$ing exaggerate* &nswer: 1n his ne" boo!, The /tate of 7ear, 2ichael Crichton argues that the threat of  global "ar$ing has been exaggerate by en#iron$entalists' 5hile there are $any "ho question ho" unrealistically $agnifie global "ar$ing has been, the effects of cli$ate change $ay be increasingly palpable but $easures an solutions are in place to control this pheno$enon'


<ernative views

The threat pose by global "ar$ing is li!ely to  be exaggerate as the rise in the "orl te$perature an suppose rise in sea le#els is not unifor$ "orl"ie'

The threat pose by global "ar$ing is inee true as the rise in the "orl te$perature is foun to ha#e irect correlation "ith the rise in sea le#els, an this $ay 9eoparise the safety of  so$e places in the "orl'

The possible ris!s brought about by the surge in the Earth:s te$perature are ifficult to be #erifie, e#en "ith the use of supposely a#ance $ethos'

The possible i$pact cause by the increase in the "orl te$perature is li!ely to be true as scientists an cli$atologists use rather reliable an a#ance $ethos to pro#e their  hypothesis%stan'

The angers "hich are supposely brought about by the rise in "orl te$perature are not ne", as reflecte in the history of $an!in they are 9ust natural pheno$enon that happen especially "hen $an!in i not ta!e sufficient  precautionary $easures'

The potential angers brought about by the rise in te$perature across the globe are not at all exaggerate as they are #ery real' 0irect $anifestations of a "iesprea an long-ter$ tren to"ar "ar$er global te$peratures ha#e alreay surface, especially in the past  years'

The suppose harbingers of the negati#e consequences $ay also be brought about by other changes in our cli$ate, not 9ust global "ar$ing'

The threat pose by the rise in the Earth:s te$perature is not exaggerate as "e o ha#e quite a nu$ber of e#ents that ser#e as harbingers of the li!ely i$pact of continue "ar$ing'

The threat $ay ha#e been exaggerate because not all go#ern$ents across the "orl are ta!ing it #ery seriously if so$e of the$ can affor to  pay lip-ser#ice to this threat in their quest for  $ore econo$ic e#elop$ent an unpreceente or sustaine inustrialisation, the situation $ay not be all that "orrying'

The threat presente by the rise in global te$perature is efinitely not o#eresti$ate as it is on the agena of $any i$portant international an regional $eetings throughout the "orl, at the go#ern$ental an organisational le#el'


Concept/Issue: Energy Crisis—Nuclear vs Reneable !ources

uestion: 1s nuclear po"er the best "ay to $eet the e#er-increasing energy nees of 2other Earth* Answer: Nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have not swayed some countries from relying on nuclear energy to meet their energy needs. Despite the incidence of nuclear accidents, this gradual dependance on nuclear energy is dues to it being a more environmentally friendly alternative to the traditional sources such as coal and fossil fuel. However, given the riss involved with nuclear energy, it does not mae for the best way to meet the increasing energy needs of Manind. !part from nuclear energy, there are other e"ually or more environmentally friendly alternatives that are able to meet this increasing energy needs.


<ernative views

Co$pare to fossil fuels, nuclear energy is clean' .nli!e coal, natural gas, an petroleu$, it oes not release carbon ioxie into the at$osphere in the process of generating electricity' &t a ti$e "hen there is gro"ing concern about the lin! bet"een carbon ioxie an other greenhouses gases on the one han an the "ar$ing of our planet on the other, this a#antage of nuclear po"er has begun to loo$ larger'

 3uclear energy is econo$ical only uner a #ery restricte analysis - by the ti$e you ha#e factore in the costs of construction, insurance, "aste isposal an eco$$issioning, you nee huge subsiies'

 3uclear "aste can be safely store a"ay' The  best long-ter$ solution for the isposal of the .G@s nuclear "aste shoul be to bury it eep in the groun, The Co$$ittee on Raioacti#e 5aste 2anage$ent (CoR52), an a#isory

There is no secure, ris!-free "ay to store nuclear "aste' The Chernobyl isaster "as a nuclear accient of catastrophic proportions that occurre on +H &pril F>H, at the Chernobyl 3uclear 4o"er 4lant in .!raine' 1t

group has sai'The final isposal facility, or facilities, "oul be locate se#eral hunre $etres unergroun' The "aste "oul be encase in tough $aterials an "oul use the surrouning roc! as a barrier to pre#ent raioacti#e lea!age into the en#iron$ent'

is consiere the "orst nuclear po"er plant accient in history an is the only le#el I e#ent on the 1nternational 3uclear E#ent /cale'

 3uclear accients are a result of hu$an error, "hich can be a#oie'

 3uclear po"er expansion increases the ris! of  an accient'

1nternational organisations are pre#enting countries fro$ obtaining nuclear "eapons'

Expaning nuclear po"er internationally "oul hugely increase the ris!s fro$ terroris$ an nuclear "eapons proliferation'

5hile nuclear po"er reactors are expensi#e to  buil, they are relati#ely cheap to operate'

 3uclear energy is an expensi#e i#ersion fro$ the tas! of e#eloping an eploying rene"able energy an energy efficiency require for a lo" carbon future'

-ample paragraphs: uestion: J5e ha#e not been goo guarians of the Earth'K o" far o you agree "ith this state$ent*

&'() There are go#ern$ents "ho recognise the i$pact of traitional sources of energy an are turning to cleaner an greener alternati#es such as nuclear energy' 1n +==>, 1taly announce that "ithin fi#e years it planne to resu$e builing nuclear energy plants out of a gro"ing concern o#er the "ar$ing effects of carbon e$issions fro$ fossil fuels' aysayers suggest ¬e that the '( is clearly signposted as the '( and not your view) that so$e go#ern$ents are uner$ining other solutions to cli$ate change by i#erting urgently neee resources a"ay fro$ the true rene"able an energy-efficient solutions that go#ern$ents "ho are serious about cli$ate change nee to in#est in' &*ain view and rebuttal)  3e#ertheless, "e shoul note that the "orl is in a state of flux as increasingly, not only are the policy $a!ers reflecting greater a"areness an concern for the en#iron$ent but so are the 23Cs&'( is countered)' Toay, big businesses are also $ore recepti#e to the call to loo! after the en#iron$ent' 1ncreasingly, there are co$panies "ho exercise corporate social responsibility (C/R) as they are rein#esting in their "or!force, co$$unities an the en#iron$ent' ?ne such co$pany is /tarbuc!s "ho is co$$itte to supporting progra$$es that facilitate far$ers: access to carbon $ar!ets, allo"ing the$ to generate aitional inco$e "hile helping to pre#ent eforestation' 'r

&*ain view and rebuttal)  3e#ertheless, "e shoul note that the "orl is in a state of flux as increasingly, thepolicy $a!ers are reflecting greater a"areness an concern for the en#iron$ent by relying on rene"able an energy-efficient solutions &'( is countered)' Toay, go#ern$ents are pushing for the passage of a rene"able energy la" to regulate an ensure the e#elop$ent of alternati#e sources of energy' /ingapore:s green builing $o#e$ent is an

exa$ple of ho" a co$bination of legislation an go#ern$ent incenti#e helpe to spur the green builing inustry' 1n /cotlan, L>,=== fro$ the European /ocial 7un is pro#iing training courses that are to be eli#ere through /!ills 0e#elop$ent /cotlan, "hich "ill enable e$ployers, "ith fe"er than += staff to boost the s!ills of e$ployees in lo"-carbon technologies' These e#elop$ents reflect that "e are increasingly being protecti#e of the en#iron$ent'




Type of renewable resource that is produced from biomass, a recently living element such as animals, plantlife or wood. ne of the biggest  potential forms of biofuel is biodiesel, which lessens cars- dependence on  gasoline.


Carbo  footprit 

The tangible impact someone-s activities will have on the environment, measured in units of carbon dioide produced.


Carbo offset 

ne way to compensate for a carbon footprint, essentially by investing money in a project that will benefit the environment and cancel out the emission of carbon dioide from a certain activity.



 Form of transportation by which two or more people travel to the same destination together to reduce the emissions of travelling.


Cli!ate "ha#e

Term for a significant change from one climatic condition to another,  such as temperature of the 0arth over time. In some cases, it has been used synonymously with global warming.


The wise use of natural resources &nutrients, minerals, water, plants, animals, etc). Planned or non2action to preserve living and non2living resources.

 E$iro!etal  Prote"tio  A#e"%

4ommonly referred to as the 0P', a government agency founded in +53$ that protects human health and the environment through programs for consumers and businesses.


 &%oto Proto"ol   'n international agreement between +/6 &and growing) developed countries to work toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change. It was originally passes in +553 in 7yoto, 8apan and is  set to epire in #$+#. The 9nited tates has signed but not ratified the agreement, meaning it is non2binding in the 9. It is a document that delegates at the #$th session of the Conference of %arties &C'% #$( to the )nited Nations Copeha#e *ramewor Convention on Climate agreed to +tae note of+ at  A""ord  the nal plenary on #- December //0. The !ccord is not legally binding and does not commit countries to agree to a binding successor to the 1yoto %rotocol, whose present round ends in /#.


+$  'ustaiable de$elop!et 

++  Biodi$ersit%

+#  'ur$i$al  Iteratioal 



It is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two ey concepts2 • the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world3s poor, to which overriding priority should be given4 and • the idea of limitations  imposed by the state of technology and social organi5ation on the environment3s ability to meet present and future needs.6  The variety of life on 7arth, its biological diversity, is commonly referred to as biodiversity. The number of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms, the enormous diversity of genes in these species, the di8erent ecosystems on the planet, such as deserts, rainforests and coral reefs are all part of a biologically diverse 7arth. It is a human rights organisation formed in #090 that campaigns for the rights of indigenous tribal people and uncontacted people, which sees to help them to determine their own future. Its campaigns generally focus on tribal peoples3 ght to eep their ancestral lands, culture and their own way of living. This organisation wors for the people whom are called +some of the most vulnerable on earth+. ! part of its mission is to educate people from misconceptions that help :ustify violations of human rights against indigenous people, and the riss that they face from the advancement of corporations, governments and also good intentions based on an idea of +development+ that is forced upon them. It believes that in fact their alternative way of living is not lacing because they represent a model of sustainability in the environment that they are a part of and they possess a rich culture from which the rest of the world could learn. ;reenpeace organises public campaigns2 for preventing climate change by ending our addiction to polluting fuels and promoting clean, renewable and esupport from foundations. 

‘The Earth is doomed. There is nothing man can do about it.’ Comment ?  @  A ManBs actions environmental problems impending demise of 7arth ?  @  A ManBs solutions fails to solve problems 7arth still doomed 

This question could be dealt with as containing a single- or multi-part absolute proposition. Students could challenge ‘doomed’ and ‘nothing’. A balanced approach is needed. Note that “Earth” ≠ world!societ"# and “$an” limits students to en%ironmental problems caused b" man’s actions. Social problems and natural disasters are not rele%ant. •

See below.

&hile ‘$an’ re'ers to man(ind as a whole) students ought to pinpoint the parties crucial to alle%iating en%ironmental problems in general and speci'icall"* •

The indi%idual



Supranational organisations

N+,s operating at national and international le%els

7arth doomed Students ought to loo( at how recent e%ents seem to usti'" this pessimistic claim. &hile the" need to concede that Earth would 'ace its demise e%entuall" because o'  the 'ast deteriorating en%ironment problems) armageddon is not impending. The" need to loo( at the status quo in a reasonable manner. alance is necessar". Such is the transboundar" nature o' en%ironmental problems that while students can argue that some de%eloping countries are in worse!terrible states) other nations are in not reall" better o'' in the 'oreseeable 'uture. Earth as a whole su''ers the consequences. /redit is gi%en to essa"s that ran( the problems in terms o' se%erit" and usti'" the e%aluation.

Nothing can be done Students ought to loo( at how 'ailed measures seem to usti'" this pessimistic claim. The" need to ac(nowledge damage that is irre%ersible or will continue to hasten Earth towards its doom despite remedial action. 0owe%er) the" ought to argue 'or the speci'ic measures that can repair!slow down the de%astation caused b" each problem. alance is crucial to pre%ent downpla"ing the se%erit" o' the problems. Such is the transboundar" nature o' en%ironmental problems that students can argue 'or a''luent de%eloped countries to help sol%e other countries’ problems. ,therwise) Earth as a whole su''ers the consequences.

/redit is gi%en to essa"s that e%aluate the e''ecti%eness o' the measures in tac(ling each en%ironmental problem and the obstacles that obstruct their im plementation. /redit should be gi%en to essa"s that present specific and varied examples. 0owe%er) e1amples do not substitute 'or reasoning. Problem 2e'orestation) habitat loss due to de%elopment

Measures • 4egulations to control illegal logging

Effective? • 4egulations could be in place) but en'orcement is hampered b" corruption or di''icult" in monitoring such acti%ities e.g. 5ndonesia#

• 6enalties

• Some

3 impact on biodi%ersit" 'or industries 6ollution 7 discharging to1ic  Air!8and!&ater  'umes!water  • 9ehicles chec(ed to ma(e sure emissions meet acceptable standards • 5ntroduction o' cleaner 'uels

• Switch

to renewable resources!alternati%e sources o' energ". e.g.* h"dropower) wind energ") solar energ"# • 4educe the e1cess production o' greenhouse gases • 5mpose quota but allow countries to sell their unused units to those who need more

2epletion o' resources. e.g. 'ossil 'uels# +lobal warming 3 its related problems e.g. erratic climate< rising sea le%els#

people pre'er or can onl" a''ord cheaper 'uel which howe%er is less en%ironment 'riendl" • +o%ernments unwilling to en'orce stricter controls due to pressure 'rom industr" lobb" groups e.g. :SA not rati'"ing ;"oto 6rotocol# • Not cost-e''ecti%e in some cases or 'easible in others e.g. opportunit" costs o' building Three +orges 2am in /hina# • See abo%e notes on pollution.

Content Grading 

E =-># * 

2 ?-@# *

5rrele%ant or mostl" out o' point e.g. describes en%ironmental problems and!or measures#. $ore description than argument. 8ow# No re'erence to speci'ic problems or solutions 8ow# 8imited scope. ,ne problem and corresponding measures $id#. 8imited depth. $ore than one problem but super'icial solutions $id0igh# ,nl" one part o' the proposition addressed. $id-0igh#

/ @B-@C# * 

 @D-# * 

8imited scope and depth. Two or more problems and corresponding measures. 8ow-$id# 8imited scope and depth. $ore than two problems and corresponding measures. Some e1amples. $id-0igh# Se%eral problems and their measures presented with insight. E%aluation see outline# done. 4ele%ant illustration. alanced. 4e'er to standard descriptors.

 A >-B=# * 5. “Environmental degradation is inevitable. To !hat e"tent is this true? #e$!ord% 5ne%itable* impossible to a%oid or to pre%ent 'rom happening General &emar's% •

This is N,T a +eograph" essa". &e will N,T be impressed b" the mere regurgitation o' what "ou still remember o' "our , or A le%els e1am preparations.

This is N,T a “6roblem-Solution” essa") i.e. “&hat’s wrong with the en%ironment and how can we sol%e itF”.

This 5S a “/ause-E''ect” essa") i.e. “&hat are the causes o' en%ironmental degradation e''ect#) and are these causes so 'undamental that the" cannot be remo%ed ine%itable#F”

(iscussion of the )remise% •

8eading causes o' pollution 7 industrialisation) population growth

E1plain how these cause the earth’s pollution

Need to show that if industrialisation / population growth is inevitable, then pollution is inevitable) i.e. assuming that there are no technological ad%ances which would reduce pollution

*alance% • &h"

pollution ma" not be ine%itable) e.g. technological ad%ances) rising awareness o' people about pollution) international agreements to reduce emissions

• Need

to gi%e concrete e1amples o' where and when pollution has been ine%itable. 9ague descriptions o' ‘America’s air pollution’ or ‘de'orestation o' the 'orests’ will not do.

Good Essa$s @. Showed a good awareness o' the (e" words. A discussion o' the notion o'  “ine%itable” is mandator". The 'ocus cannot solel" rest on a discussion o' the %arious en%ironmental problems. . Answers that were well structured and organised and consistentl" reiterated the (e" words o' the question. Each paragraph clearl" de'ined around a single problem that shows how it ma(es en%ironmental degradation ine%itable. B. Answers that had a good range o' well elaborated e1amples that were not %ague i.e. some!most countries or more!less de%eloped nations#.

G. Able to argue competentl" that the notion o' en%ironmental degradation is actuall" largel" ine%itable because the direction most nations are ta(ing and the nature o'  human practices. Problematic Essa$s @. Essa"s that merel" 'ocused on listing en%ironmental problems and going into great depths o' e1plaining the processes o' en%ironmental degradation. . No discussion or re'lection o' the notion “ine%itable.” B. Essa"s that lac(ed concrete e1amples. :se o' generalised or h"pothetical e1amples was generall" seen as not ha%ing a good grasp o' the topic. G. 5nstances in essa"s that discussed wh" en%ironmental degradation ma" not be ine%itable were also problematic. Hou should not be highlighting proposals! measures that indicate how en%ironmental degradation /AN E slowed down or  made less ine%itable :T rather &0AT 0AS A/T:A88H EEN 2,NE to address the problem. . Tone o' the essa"* There were man" instances o' “tal(ing scripts” that highlights an inabilit" to handle writing in a 'ormal academic register. This is important as it also re'lects on "our command and sophistication o' language. 4emember* 2o N,T tal( to the mar(er-readerI >. ,ccasional instances o' blatant contradictions. Hour stand is toppled b" the rest o'  "our essa" which argues the opposite. ?. 6lanning is essential* E%idence o' abrupt endings. C. 6aragraph de%elopment must be clear. Each paragraph o'ten deals with di''erent things thus con'using mar(ers and the point that "ou aiming to get across. :sing a clear topic sentence would be quintessential in this respect but was howe%er) most lac(ing. .e have not been good guardians of the Earth#/ 0o you agree?

7ocus a#e "e been careless "ith the only ho$e "e !no" as "e carry out our  Econo$ic an leisure acti#ities* &re "e ta!ing $easures to loo! after our  Earth or are "e treating the earth as one giant super$ar!et that can supply for  ?ur enless nees* e have been good guardians1

e have not been good guardians1

-There are #arious earth su$$its to iscuss "ays to loo! after the earth – eg' The Gyoto 4rotocol that calls for the ban on the use of  substances, that har$s the en#iron$ent li!e C7C, to reuce green house gas e$issions' (possible counter point that stuents $ay bring up as e#aluation /o$e countries are not cooperati#e if it is against their econo$ic interest to o so')

-5e ha#e not balance our nee for "ealth "ith our exploitation of the resources' 5e ha#e regare the resources as if they are infinite'There is no #ision to see that enough is left for future generations – there is o#erhunting, o#er fishing, o#eruse or  exploitation of our fossil fuel, "ater etc' -5e pollute our lan, seas an s!y' 5e u$p iniscri$inately ("aste fro$

-There are en#iron$entalists an #arious $o#e$ents li!e the ;reen 4eace 2o#e$ent that act as "atchogs for the preser#ation of the en#iron$ent' (& counter-point that $ay be raise $any such $o#e$ents lac! creibility as they ha#e other agena besies protecting the en#iron$ent - $oti#ate possibly by politics')

o$estic an inustrial% agricultural acti#ities) on our lans an seas, ri#ers,  pons $a!ing the$ Mea:' -5e ha#e ta!en a"ay the habitat of our  fello" creatures that share the earth thus contributing to their enangere or extinct status'

-/cientists are "or!ing to repair the a$age one earlier li!e repairing the oAone layer or  -5e pollute the s!y "ith e$issions fro$ "or!ing "ith energy that is pollution free' inustries an #ehicles' 5e e#en pollute the air "ith air"a#es fro$ hanphones etc' -1nustries are also $ore recepti#e to the call to $a!ing it unsafe for all creatures' loo! after the en#iron$ent as they exploit resources' /o$e e#en pu$p $oney bac! into -5e ha#e cause ha#oc "ith the cli$ate li!e research to help the en#iron$ent' global "ar$ing by releasing green house gases an bringing about the ;reen house -There is also global effort to encourage people effect an global "ar$ing' El 3ino, long to recycle, reuse an to conser#e' roughts an "inter col spells to na$e a fe"' -5rong attitue that the earth is resilient – it has al"ays an "ill al"ays be able to cope "ith our callous actions' Therefore, there is no urgency an effort to change an help to $anage the earth better' 4ossible conclusion /tuents can touch on the fact that econo$ic gains "ill al"ays eclipse en#iron$ental issues poorer countries eager to get rich or those "ith no other alternati#es "ill continue to cut o"n trees to sell or for lan to buil inustries or poach rhino horns' There is $ore a"areness but "e are still apathetic an our acti#ities are still exerting tre$enous pressure on the en#iron$ent' /tuents $ay choose to ta!e the other stan' 1. Do you agree that it is the responsibility of richer nations to tackle global environmental problems? KEY TERM T! DE"#$E % &lobal environment problems eg global warming; pollution esp the discharge of toxic waste materials into the air, waterways; Tackle : resolve, eradicate, alleviate -> implies that the rich nations have the clout – political, financial, legal eg international summits in which they could lean on others to adopt certain policies eg yoto !rotocol, cancellation of debts of world"s poorest '!#()E T*$D % YE, it is the responsibility of richer nations because






eg financial


the political

clout $+ill in their own countries and in the international arena eg at the %&, %' (ummits ) the legal means  to implement ) enforce policies eg reducing tax for green cars eg the *( is a large consumer of oil -> !resident +ush could have pushed to raise fuel-efficiency standards for passenger cars when he signed the latest energy +ill ul .//012 This could have encouraged or 3forced" the car industry to develop the technology to burn cleaner fuels eg biofuels, hydrogen -> this would have gone a long way towards alleviating current environmental problems2 #ich nations -> main contributors of greenhouse gases ) pollutants eg *( 

responsible for about a 4uarter of global emissions ) but has persistently refused to ratify the yoto !rotocol; now the fear is that the !rotocol would not come into force if #ussia refuses to ratify it too2 $!, rich nations are not the only ones responsible for the global environmental problems; every country should also help tackle these global environmental problems because 5any environmental problems respect no national borders; an environmental problem in one country can easily cross p hysical borders and affect not only the country of origin but also its neighbours ) internationally eg latest 6ndonesian ha7e -> had affected 5alaysia for about 8 month esp 9 badly )  !enang – eg !(6 was above 8// for some days; fear economic loss eg 8& ha7e cost 5alaysia abt *('-8/ million in lost revenue as a result of closed workplaces, sick days and medical bills, lost tourism, crop damage and disrupted transport; hence countries need to co-operate with one another to protect the environment period between #0//s>present day, move from agriculture to manufacturing, coal as a fuel, pollution>the proliferation of cities, change in lifestyle, increased energy re"uirements, the evolution of transport& the combustion engine(, global warming

Etudents should not merely list or describe the various environmental problems that Man causes, but must show how these processes are not symbiotic in nature. 7g, in the taing of  fossil fuels, how does manind renew his environment The increase of carbon dio=ide in the atmosphere &leading to a greenhouse e8ect(, does manind do anything to reverse the process Can the earth catch up do anything to address the imbalance

Etudents could compare this with other organisms that inhabit the same space. !nimals &and plantsG( are part of natural cycle that leaves little to waste. 7verything is usedrecycledgoes bac into the earth and benets the environment around them. Can we say the same for manind

!gainst •

!pparent e=aggerations of environmental problems  our actions have not resulted in an ailing 7arth.

Man has addressed some of the problems he has inicted  eg. technology has reduced the impact of industrialismpollution.

Manind has learntis learning to control population  our growth is not uncontrolled.

". !#treme consumerism is the main cause of environmental degradation. Do you agree? !ssumption&s(2 • Consumerism contributes to environmental degradation. • There are other contributors to environmental degradation. Clarication of Terms2 • Extreme: degree of e=tremity is important ¬ only consumerism, but unnecessary consumerism to a very large e=tent( • Consumerism: consumption and buying of goods • Main: primary, contributes the most, cause of the most severe impact  also suggests that there are other factors that contribute to it &e.g. tourism, industrial, agriculture, overshing, oil spills, unforeseen human actions, DDT, ;M foods, genetic pollution, greenhouse gases, alternative fuels, dumping in poor countries as a cheaper alternative • Environmental degradation: destruction and reduction in the "uality of  the environment

%ossible interpretations  !pproaches • @es, e=treme consumerism is the main cause of environmental degradation. • No, e=treme consumerism is not the main cause of environmental degradation. %ossible %oints2  @es, e=treme consumerism is the main cause of environmental degradation.

No, e=treme consumerism is not the main cause of environment degradation.

!ny human activity will compromise the environment. 7=treme consumerism is an intensication of human activity as people consume more with higher standards of living and greater economic development.  The worldBs resources can eep up with our needs but not such e=treme and e=cessive consumerism.

Instead of e=treme consumerism, it is the inability of the earthBs resources to eep up with the basic needs of the growing population of the world &such as intense industriali5ation and economic activity( that has contributed to the deterioration of the environment.

7=treme consumerism leads to a Jthrow>awayB culture, or a neglected cause for thrift. ;oods are discarded with changing trends, there are higher demands for consumer goods, and even increased demands for limited resources.

7ven if the consumption of people has gone up, there is also a growing awareness of the deteriorating state of the environment, which has led to many green movements such as reusing, recycling and reducing. However, there are other unforeseen human actions that have led to environment degradation. 7=amples of such unforeseen human actions are genetic pollution, industrial chemical leas, oil spills, etc. It can be said that e=cessive consumerism &i.e. taing from the environment more than it can o8er( leads to environmental degradation. However, the impact of e=treme consumerism is insignicant compared to worse cases of environmental degradation such as bad disposal methods of chemicals and wastes and persistent production of poisonous products such as DDT and to=ic pesticides by corporations.

7=treme consumerism does not necessarily lead to environmental degradation such as the depletion of natural resources. Many products are now made by environmentally>friendly methods &e.g. using recycled materials, organic foodstu8(. $an we rely on science and technology to solve our environmental problems? Kerication of ey terms2 Jscience and technologyB Ecience2 The investigation of natural phenomena through observation, theoretical e=planation, and e=perimentation, or the nowledge produced by such investigation.  Technology2 The application of science, especially to industrial or commercial ob:ectives Lely 2 Depend trust Eolve2 *ind the solution to reduce entirely get rid of our problems 

!ssumptions2 • Ecience and technology can be used to solve environmental problems • It is difriendliness of  recycling can be seen in the success of recycling programmes in the )nited Etates. The country managed to save #.S million tons of iron ore, -. million trees and successfully reduced greenhouse gas emissions by two million metric tons in // due to the nationwide recycling programmes that the country implemented. Therefore, in my opinion, recycling is certainly a good answer to the problem of waste especially in todayBs




embraced by most countries.




Lecycling is certainly one of the viable answers to the problem of waste in countries with limited land. Lecycling as compared to landlls taes up less space and is therefore suitable for countries with a small land area. ! good e=ample to illustrate the inuence of physical factors on the choice of measures to the problem of waste is Eingapore. Eingapore has a limited land area but an escalating "uantity of waste. There was a ./0 million tonnes increase in the amount of waste from #0P/ to //$. To mae things worse, the lifespan of the %ulau Eemaau landll of Eingapore is e=pected to last till only /S/, and this is provided that the present generation does not generate more waste per capita. Hence the country implemented the National Lecycling %rogramme in //# to minimi5e the amount of waste disposed to the limited landlls, prolonging the lifespan of the landlls. Oy //, the rate of participation by households in this nationwide programme has more than tripled to $#U. Therefore from the e=ample of Eingapore, it is evident that recycling is indeed a feasible answer to the problem of waste since it occupies less space as compared to conventional measures lie landlls. Hence recycling is certainly one of  the solutions to the problem of waste in developed countries that has limited land area. !lthough recycling is one of the least ob:ectionable answers to the problem of waste, it has to be used in tandem with campaigns and laws that tacle the root of the problem  the e=cessive wastage of resources.  The over>consuming societies of the developed world will continue to waste more resources e=cessively if recycling is not encouraged, made more convenient or appealing as an option. In Eingapore for instance, the National 7nvironment !gency &N7!( organi5es road shows and puts up posters to encourage recycling. In addition, N7! together with the Eingapore 7nvironment Council implemented JOring @our 'wn Oag DayB to further strengthen their activities. !n additional #/ cents is charged on these days for every plastic bag used, and the money collected is used for environmental pro:ects. Eimilarly in China, the government has taen a step further to ban the use of disposable plastic bags nationwide due to the massive problem of accumulated unbiodegradable waste caused by plastic bags. In the )1, the Oritish government has passed a bill indicating that charges would be imposed on single>use carrier bags unless retailers

tae action voluntarily to cut down on the ballooning pollution caused by the use of plastic bags. These are :ust some e=amples to illustrate the idea that in order for recycling to be e8ective, consumers have to be educated and informed on the conse"uences of e=cessive wastage of  resources and how they can play a role to minimi5e the problem of waste. *urthermore, law and regulations should also be introduced and passed to prevent the problem of waste from intensifying. 'ther complementary measures would be to mae using reusable bags and the recycling of  materials more attractive, such as saving costs on bags or even maing recycling bins more accessible. Hence while I agree that recycling is one e8ective answer to the problem of waste, it has to be used simultaneously with educational campaigns and regulations as that would complement recycling and mitigate its limitations. Lecycling is certainly a good solution to the problem of waste. However, we must acnowledge that due to the high costs and advanced technology needed for recycling, developed countries are therefore in a better position to embrace recycling as compared to far less developed countries. !lthough recycling is suitable for small countries with small land area and is more environmentally friendly, it does not eliminate the underlying cause to the problem of waste. Hence recycling should be implemented together with educational campaigns and regulations for it to be most e8ective.


 The environment


7nvironment disasters  who is to blame


Michelle ong, C; //P



7nvironmental disasters  a phrase which commonly con:ures up images of the devastating e8ects of the wrath of Mother Nature upon human lies. However, upon further close scrutiny, one would reali5e that so much more is at stae than a few thousand lives lost. The e=istence of  everything around us is in :eopardy because of environmental disasters. 7specially when the diversity and "uality of life, with drastic climate

changes, rising water levels, and the many varieties of living organisms are wiped o8 the face of the earth, how much more hits can the planet 7arth tae from us hile the large ma:ority of the human population is to blame for wasting resources in the daily course of our lies, the main culprit would be the ruthless industrialists who put prot>maing on the top of  their priorities, regardless of its sacrices, and mainly world leaders &governments( who have the power and means to stop them. Drastic climate changes and temperature uctuations are one of the side e8ects from the e=cessive release of greenhouse gas emissions. Thirty years ago �P/s(, the earth e=perienced a cooling e8ect due to the introduction of aerosols chlorouorocarbon

into the



maret. breaing

Now, with refrigerators, down the



Consumers as well as irresponsible manufacturers are denitely to blame for this climate crisis. Despite nowing that aerosols and C*Cs are degrading the environment, educated consumers are still fuelling the maret for such products. !nother environmental disaster is a result of what the maret consumers have created  the e=tinction and endangerment of animals. hile poachers and private businesses clamour to meet the demands of  consumers, they have caused various species of tigers and fo=es to be reduced to being endangered species. hile polar bears are not yet under that, they might soon :oin them. ith polar caps melting due to the rise in temperature, there have been many reports of polar bears and other mammals drowning from e=haustion when they could not nd land to rest on. Instead of rising to protest against green house gas emissions, there are people who actually believe these are coincidences which should be ignored.






!l ;ore


petitioning to save the planet, there are many who moc them through forums and the Internet. ell>intentioned








incompetence and ine products can be stored underground without damage to the environment. 'ther forms of alternative energy also include that of wind and solar energy, where although some might seem prohibitive and capable of  providing only small amounts of energy, may actually allow entire towns to be powered if harnessed and distributed eburning crude oil today. This is because alternative energy sources are still, in general, not as cheap as drilling for oil and hence are not widely adopted. However, I believe that in the near future, with todayBs pace in the advancement of alternative energy technology and in order to circumvent the predicted disaster of oil running out by /$/, alternative energy will become cheaper and widely used to the point that it drives economic progress while protecting the environment at the same time  a very possible eventual outcome. !nother reason why I believe that protecting the environment and economic progress is possible and become ever less mutually e=clusive is the increase in environmental awareness and desire to protect the environment, whether for altruistic reasons or for self>interest. Today, S/ percent of paper and plastic waste in the )nited Etates of !merica &)E!(, as stated by the ).E. 7nvironmental !gency, is recycled. This is despite the fact that recycling is often a low prot margin business that re"uires government subsidies to operate. ! S/ percent recycling rate is an achievement that shows how a government can push for both progress and environmental protection at the same time with enough political will. !lso, air travel, the bloodlines of the world economic machine, is beginning to become cleaner with the foray of rms such as *ranceBs Climat Mundi, which encourages air travelers and gives them a medium to compensate for the carbon they had caused to be emitted during their ights. This is done by paying an e=tra but small sum over the air ticetBs price, which then goes to fund tree>planting events and to replace the dirty>burning wood stoves of poor Eub>Eaharan !fricans with cleaner electric or petroleum stoves. 'f course, dissenters would say that such schemes only apply to altruistic people and governments which are few and far between. However, I believe that such choices are increasingly becoming ones that are made based on self>interest as people are feeling the negative e8ects of environmental damage. *or instance, in 'ctober //-, well after the 'lympic and %aralympic ;ames concluded, Oei:ing re> imposed car "uotas because it was in its interest to reduce pollution levels to protect peopleBs health and to attract tourists and investors. Thus, I believe that self>interest and altruism are, more than ever, leading to

Fgreen6 decisions being made which protect the environment while not or insignicantly inhibiting economic progress.  The nal reason why I believe progress and environmental protection may go hand>in>hand is that of the system of Capitalism and the desire of  businesses








consciousness and the desire of consumers to purchase Fgreen6 products and cleaner cars have led to a paradigm shift in marets where companies are now incentivi5ed to produce green products or to sponsor green movements. Companies such as Toyota and Honda have taen advantage of such a change in driversB preferences by creating smaller, cleaner cars and hydroelectric cards, leading them to Fprogress6 and turn prots while protecting the environment at the same time, unlie *ord and ;eneral Motors, which gas>gu55ling cars have led them into business losses in the order of billions of ).E. dollars in //-. !ppearing green is also a trend for companies which are in the service sector. all Etreet research rm Etandard and %oors has concluded in //- that Fgreen6 corporate citi5enship adds prots to a companyBs balance sheet. This could e=plain why highly respected all Etreet rms ;oldman Eachs and the Oan of  !merica have been sponsoring environmental reform pro:ects in China, ensuring that they do not provide loans to illegal loggers and promoting themselves as Fgreen bans6. Thus, it is seen that capitalism and businessesB inherent desire for prots can and is increasingly leading to rms both progressing and protecting the environment at the same time.  The environmentally sustainable growth of businesses could "uite possibly be the wave of the near future. I believe that it is possible to protect the environment while striving for economic progress, notwithstanding the latter re"uiring increasingly more energy to accomplish. This, though, is contingent on the fact that the development









environmental consciousness among people, governments and businesses are sustained at the current pace. To do this, I would suggest that more weight be placed on the advice given by the )nited Nations &)N( and the Intergovernmental %anel on Climate Change &I%CC( to include the developing nations in !nne= I of the 1yoto %rotocol and for more countries

to adopt the 7uropean Climate 7=changeBs system of pollution permit trading. ith that, the possibility of economic progress and environmental protection will be increasingly close to being reali5ed. ‘Conquest without conscience.’ To what extent would you agree with this assessment of our relationship to the environment? Humans are the “masters of the !arth today. Clearly" it i s not due to our physical prowess that gave us such a title. #t is our intellect" innovation and creativity that have allowed the human race to rise in power against all the other animal species that are more physically advanced compared to us. #t is through innovation that has allowed us to win the conquest against the animal species"  $ending them over to our will and su$%ecting these animals to whatever we please. &ince cavemen conquered the animal species" humans have $ecome $older. !ven in today’s modern world" conquests are made" in the form of the uncounta$le inventions appearing daily" to improve the quality of life. However" the negative effects of the numerous ‘$attles’ we have held to $ecome more technologically advanced over the centuries is showing in the home we reside in" 'other !arth. These ‘$attles’" regretta$ly" are still fought daily" and we show almost no effort to stop. #n my opinion" # feel that ‘Conquest without conscience’ is an accurate description of the humans’ relationship to the environment. (umerous acts $y humans clearly %ustify my view. )irst" there is the act of pollution. 'any of the daily tas*s that we do in our everyday life involve polluting the environment. These tas*s ta*e up a ma%ority of our li ves and are often done without a second thought to spare for the environment. China" a country that has up to +., $illion people is one of the largest contri$utors to pollution. #t is not only due to the large num$er of people living in the country that causes the pollution to $e high. -ne of the main reasons that # have singled China out is due to their $urning of coal to generate electrical power for the masses. The usage of coal is highly polluting and the main reason on why China uses it is due to the cost effectiveness of coal. The more expensive $ut cleaner alternative of fossil fuels" however" is adopted in many countries around the world. The usage of coal to generate electrical power for so many people is significant to the glo$al emission levels of car$on monoxide gas. This selfish act of  rating cost effectiveness over the harm caused to the environment shows how the humans are involved with the notion of a conquest for advancement without conscience. 'other !arth is then made to inhale so much more of these toxic gases at the expense of coal $eing cheaper than fossil fuels. ollution is the result our never/ending need for cheaper energy to power o ur never/ending consumption of resources. &econd" deforestation too" leads to air pollution. 0eforestation is deemed as necessary for many countries as it is the only way for more land to $e developed for industrial purposes and for housing. 1s a result" large areas of woodland are cleared on a regular $asis to ensure that there is

more space for development to occur. #n many countries" there is a more eco/friendly approach in uprooting the trees such that another tree is planted in another region. However" in the case of #ndonesia" the deforestation technique is to $urn the forest $y large areas such that large areas of land can $e cleared at once. The usage of this slash/and/$urn technique to clear the land" more nota$ly $y poor farmers" causes mass pollution for the country of #ndonesia. The ha2e generated  $y the fire is then $lown $y the wind over to &outh !ast 1sian countries" causing an inconvenience to the locals living there and affecting the air quality in these countries. &uch acts  $y the #ndonesians further support the claim on how conquests $y the humans are made without conscience. The #ndonesians" in the conquest to clear more land" not only contri$utes to the pollution" $ut also seriously inconveniencing the locals in the &outheast 1sian countries. Hence" their selfish methods of clearing land for development illustrates the little conscience they have in the conquest for land for development purposes. !ven in the world of medicine" the statement is relevant. #n medicine" new drugs are formulated daily in order to $attle against the many sic*nesses and illnesses that cause harm to humans. However" due to the reluctance of humans in trying out the drug for fear of adverse side effects" the scientists turn to animals. #n la$oratories that deal with medicine" rats are $red" for the sole purpose of testing the drug on them. These rats are first in%ected with the virus" then with the drug and *ept under o$servation. #t is only when the rat is close to death that is it put to sleep. These animals form part of our environment" and yet are su$%ected to pain and misery due to our conquest against diseases. 3ittle thought is spared for how the animal may $e feeling during the process of $eing in%ected with the virus. Hence" in the conquest against illness and diseases" the humans are too" without conscience and do not mind doing the species that share the planet with us" harm. However" as our daily activities contri$ute increasingly to harming the environment" we too" have  $een trying to ma*e up for our wrong doings and lessening the impact of our rash conquests. )irst" countries are wor*ing together on a glo$al scale to scale down the effects of their glo$al emissions on a regular $asis. #n 4556" a summit was held at Copenhagen and it was attended $y almost every country in the world to discuss issues regarding glo$al emissions and what can $e done $y each and every country to scale down their car$on emissions. 1t the summit" many countries" nota$ly China" had each made an effort to reduce the impact of our conquests on the environment. &uch acts $y the leaders of the countries of the world then demonstrates that although pollution is not going to stop any time soon" the negative effects of pollution to the environment have $een recognised and something is $eing done a$out it. !ven in the upcoming  world expo that is going to $e held in &hanghai this year" exhi$its of the countries are to have a ‘green’ theme to them" raising awareness on the need to cut down pollution. Hence" there is a conscience present for the environmental damage caused and things are $eing done a$out it.

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