ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 by Edward R. Rosset
Written by / Escrito por: Edward R. Rosset Member of the Bachelor of Arts Association of Euskadi. Miembro del Colegio de Licenciados de Filosofia y Letras de Euskadi Published by / Editado por: Editorial Stanley Layout / Diseno y Maquetacion: Angela Gomez Martin Front page design / Diseno portada: Diseno Irunes
© Editorial Stanley Apdo. 207-20302IRUN-SPAIN Telf. (943) 64 0412 - Fax. (943) 64 38 63 [email protected]
www.gentedellibro.com ISBN: 84-7873-282-9 Dep. Leg.: Bl- 8804-03 First edition / Primera edicion 1992 Second edition / Segunda edicion 1995 Reprinted / Reimpresion 1998 Reprinted / Reimpresion 2000 Third edition /Tercera edicion 2003 Printers / Imprime: Imprenta Berekintza
INDEX 1 The present of BE
30 What a/an - what - how
2 The present of HAVE
31 Can - could - to be able
3 There is - there are
32 Be with ages and measurements _ _ 78
4 A/an -the
33 Comparative and superlative adjectives: comparison
5 The, an, a - Omission of articles
34 Good at, look like, what is ... like? _ 82
6 School/the school - Hospital /the hospital
7 Some, any
35 Present perfect tense: for and since
36 Verbs with two objects
8 To Have (Past tense) - To Be (Past tense)
37 Question words as subjects
9 The plural of nouns
38 Reported or Indirect Speech
10 Personal pronouns as subjects and objects 20
39 So am I - So do I - Neither/nor am I 92
11 Possessives: possessive 's and s' _ 24
40 Some and something in offers and requests
12 Adjectives: Attributes - predicatives
41 Infinitive of Purpose
13 Interrogative and negative sentences in present
42 Conditional Structures
14 Prepositions of place: on, in, at
15 Prepositions of time: on, in, at
16 Prepositions of time: for, during, since, from
17 Prepositions of distance and descriptions
18 The present continuous
19 The simple present tense
20 "Going to" form
21 The future simple
22 The imperative
23 Adverbs of frequency and degree _ 54 24 The past simple tense
25 Like - would you like?
26 When - clauses
27 Demonstratives: this/these, that/those
28 Both and all
29 Say and tell
43 Structures with get
44 Still, yet, already, since, for, during 104 45 Questions tags
46 Passive voice
47 Interrogative pronouns
48 Relative pronouns
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ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 by Edward R. Rosset
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
The present of Be Affirmative
I am/I'm You are/you're He is/he's She is/she's It is/it's We are/we're You are/you're They are/they're
I am not/I'm not You are not/you're not/you aren't He is not/he's not/he isn't She is not/she's not/she isn't It is not/it's not/it isn't We are not/we're not/we aren't You are not/you're not/you aren't They are not/they're not/they aren't
Am I? Are you? Is he? Is she? Is it? Are we? Are you? Are they?
Saludos Hello/Hallo Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Good night Goodbye How are you? Very well, thank you How do you do?
Hola Buenos dfas Buenas tardes Buenas tardes (a partir de las seis) Buenas noches (se usa para despedirse) Adios ^Como estas? ^Como esta usted? Muy bien, gracias Tanto gusto (solo para presentarse) Recuerde El pronombre "I" siempre se escribe con mayuscula. Los objetos y los animates son, por regla general, neutros. En ingles hay que poner siempre el sujeto en todas ias frases (pero solo un sujeto, no dos).
Recuerde You se puede traducir por tu o usted (en singular). You tambien signified vosotros, vosotras y ustedes (en plural).
1. En este ejercicio hay que poner el verbo be en la forma correcta. Example: The house is very nice, It is a nice house. The boys are tall. They are tall boys 1. This dog
2. The houses
a white dog.
these books interesting? Yes, they
4. Mr Brown
5. The tables
a very tall man.
not small. They
very big tables.
the gardens nice? Yes, they
7. The door
very nice gardens. a very big door.
the house very big? No, it
not very big.
those people doing?
10. The dog
eating the meat.
11. The dog and the cat 12. " kitchen."
in the garden.
David and Jane in the sitting-room?" "No, they
13. "Boys, where
in the garden."
2. Rellene las frases con el saludo apropiado. Example: How are you? Very well, thank you. 1. "This is Mr Jones." "How
you do, Mr Jones?"
2. At breakfast: "Good 3.
, John. How are you?
4. Hello, Peter. I
fine, and how are
5. It is 3 o'clock. Good 6. Good 7. I am going home,
, Mr Johnson. It is 7pm. .
8. It is 11 p.m. "Are you going home, Mr Jones?" "Yes,
3. Escriba estas frases con el verbo contraido. Example: You are a man. You're a man. 1. They are here. 2. They are not here. 3. She is not a girl. 4. You are not at home.
here. here. a girl. at home
here. a girl. at home.
The present of Have Affirmative
I have/I've You have/you've He has/he's She has/she's It has/it's We have/we've You have/you've They have/they've
I have not/haven't/don't have You have not/haven't/don't have He has not/hasn't/doesn't have She has not/hasn't/doesn't have It has not/hasn't/doesn't have We have not/haven't/ don't have You have not/haven't/don't have They have not/haven't/don't have
Have l?/Do I have? Have you?/Do you have? Has he?/Does he have? Has she?/Does she have? Has it?/Does it have? Have we?/Do we have? Have you?/Do you have? Have they?/Do they have?
• A veces se dice "I have got" o "I've got", etc. Es decir, se anade la palabra "got" sin que por ello se altere el significado.
• Se suele ahadir got al verbo have en presente. Es completamente opcional, aunque muy comun. Sin embargo, no se anade en respuestas cortas o en las "coletillas":
• El verbo TO HAVE puede ir seguido de un com"Have you got an ice-cream?" 'Yes, I plemento para referirse a un gran numero de have." actividades diferentes. El significado depende de la expresion: en algunos cases have se pue- • Sin embargo, cuando el verbo have se puede de reemplazar por eat o drink, en otros por reemplazar por otro verbo: eat, drink, take, etc. entonces la forma negativa e interrogativa solo take, receive, spend, etc: I have tea at five o'clock. se puede hacer de una manera: He has coffee for breakfast. She has a shower every day. The boys have a swim every day in summer. Have a look at this book! Jim, have a wash!
• Cuando el verbo have significa "tener" la interrogacion y negation se pueden hacer de dos formas: Do you have many brothers? / Have you got many brothers? - Does he have a car? / Has he got a car?
"Do you have breakfast in the morning?" "No, I don't usually have anything to eat in the morning." "Does she have a holiday?" "No, she doesn't have a holiday."
• En estos cases no se puede usar haven't got. • Notese tambien que en la forma afirmativa no se anade "got". I have breakfast / lunch / dinner. You have a bath / a shower / a nap.
1. En este ejercicio tiene que poner las frases en la otra forma de interrogacion o negacion. Example: Have you got a dog? Do you have a dog? 1. Does Mr Smith have a large house? 2. Has Jimmy got a cat? 3. We haven't got a new car 4. The dog hasn't got a little house in the garden. 5. Have you got a sister in New York? 6. She hasn't got a friend at school. 7. The children don't have time to play.
2. Ponga estas frases en forma negativa. Example: They have dinner at 7. They don't have dinner at seven. 1. We have coffee after lunch. 2. They have a house in the country. 3. She often has a glass of wine. 4. We have trouble understanding him. 5. She has a bath in the evening. 6. We have a good time on Saturday nights. 7. She has a good husband.
8. We have a meal in a restaurant. 9. They have a day off very often. 10. I have an intelligent dog.
11. We have a quarrel every day. 12. Have a rest!
13. He has a glass of wine with his dinner. 14. I have a shower every day. 15. My father has a cup of coffee after lunch every day. 16. We have many difficulties.
17. Have a look at this book! 18. They have dinner early.
19. We have a walk every evening.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
There is - there are • En ingles, el presente del verbo impersonal "haber", es decir, "hay", tiene dos formas: there is, cuando la frase es singular; there are cuando la frases es plural: There is a man. There is a woman. There is a sandwich. • There is se puede contraer a There's siempre que la frase continue: There's a tall man in the sitting-room. There's a little dog in the garden.
Ejemplos de frases en singular "Is there any tea in the teapot?" "Yes, there is!" "Is there anybody in the house?" "No, there is not" (isn't) "Is there any water in the glass?" "Yes, there is!" "Is there any time?" "No, there is not!" (isn't)
• Pero no se puede contraer cuando la frase termina ahf. Is there a dog? Yes, there is.
• Usamos there are cuando la frase es plural: There are many houses in this street. There are some children playing in the park.
• Por regla general, usamos esta estructura cuando nos referimos a algo que no conocemos todavfa:
• En la forma interrogativa se cambia el orden: Are there many flowers in this park? Are there any glasses in the kitchen?
• En forma interrogativa se cambia el orden. Is there?
• En cuanto a la forma negativa, la negacion se pone en tercer lugar: There are not many people at the concert today. There are not many things to do in this place.
• La negacion se pone en tercer lugar. There is not.
Ejemplos de frases en plural "Are there many trees in the park?" "Yes, there are." "Are there any lamps on the wall?" "Yes, there are." "Are there many cats in the house?" "No, there are not." (aren't) "Are there any glasses on the table?" "No, there are not." (aren't)
1. En este ejercicio tiene que poner there is o there are. Example: There is a man in the room. There are two women in the garden. 1. Robert, there much coffee in the coffee-pot? No, there very much. I'm going to make some. 2. There Brown's garden.
a lot of grass in this garden, but there
3. "Constable James, there
there much traffic today along Elm Avenue?" "Yes, many cars using this road today."
4. In my school there classrooms. However, there
many teachers. There few students.
something I want to do today.
a group of girls talking in the playground.
many boys playing football.
there many girls in your class?" "There
much in Mr
only one girl."
there many people at the concert today?
10. "Do we have much time?" "No, there
any time left, I'm afraid."
2. En este ejercicio hay que poner there's siempre que se pueda. Example: There's a lot of water in the jar 1.
a lot of whisky in the bottle.
any tea in the tea-pot? Yes,
3. Let's go Peter, 4. "
a lot of noise in this place. I don't like it. many chairs in the dining-room?" "Yes,
time to play another game?" "Yes,
any windows open?""
any free time left?" "Yes,
." plenty of time." only one window, and it's closed." ."
3. Ahora va a poner las frases siguientes en plural. Example: There is a man. There are two men. 1. There"s a tall woman. 2. There"s a big house. 3. Is there a telephone in this place? 4. There is not a good country road. 5. There is a hill over there. 6. Is there a good magazine? 7. There is not a good restaurant in this town. 8. Is there a window in this room? 9. There is a big tree in this street. 7 STANLEY
A/an - the • Usamos a o an cuando es la primera vez que hablamos de un objeto: He had an apple in his bag. She had a very nice dog. • Sin embargo, si los oyentes saben a que nos referimos usamos el articulo determinado: I left the books on the table, and the apples in the fridge. • Asumimos que los que nos escuchan saben a que libros y manzanas nos referimos: • Otros ejemplos: There was a boy holding hands with a girl in the park. The boy had short dark hair, and the girl had long fair hair. I saw a play last night. The play was about a man who loved a woman but the woman didn't love the man. There are a carpet and a lamp in this room. The carpet is new but the lamp is old. 2. Usamos the cuando esta clara la situation de la persona o cosa a que nos referimos: The doctor came this morning to see Grandpa, (su medico de cabecera) The light was on all night, (la luz de esta habitation) The bank opens at nine, (este banco en particular) I took the train at the station, (este tren en particular en la estacion de esta ciudad): •Tambien con: the navy the army - the police the post office, etc. 8 STANLEY
3. Usamos a/an cuando nuestro interlocutor no sabe a que nos referimos: I am looking for a book, (no nos dice que libro) He bought a car. (no sabemos que coche) Mary sat on a chair, (no sabemos cual) We stayed at a nice hotel in Benidorm. I had a meal in a restaurant. 4. Usamos el artfculo the con radio, cinema, theatre... tambien con sun, earth, moon, universe, etc: I often listen to the radio. I never go to the theatre. A spaceship is going to the moon. The earth goes round the sun. 5. No solemos usar el artfculo the con las comidas: What time is dinner? What are you going to have for breakfast? Are we going to have lunch? •Tampoco usamos the con watch, television: She never watches television. We always watch the news on TV.
1. Conteste estas preguntas segun el ejemplo. Example: "Was it a good restaurant?" "Yes, it was the best restaurant in town." 1. "Is it
expensive picture?" "Yes, it is
2. "Was it
most expensive in the gallery."
long trip?" "Yes, it is
longest trip I have ever made.
3. "Was it
large house?" "Yes, it was
largest house in the village."
4. "Is she
beautiful girl?" "Yes, she is
most beautiful girl in town."
5. "Was it
good hotel?" "Yes, it was
best hotel in London."
2. En este ejercicio hay que poner a/an o the. Si no hacen falta, ponga un guion. Examples: She always goes to the best restaurant in town. He spends the afternoon watching — television. We had a nice meal in a good restaurant. 1. He lives in
small village in
2. I don't like going to 3. After
theatre, I prefer going to dinner they went for
4. I don't like watching 5. Malta is
8. Where did you see 9. "Have you got
12. What is
island in the Mediterranean. top of
capital is Valetta. page, on
sun is shining in
television or at
radio?" "No, I don't like listening to
10. The U.S.A. was 11.1 had
6. She wrote her name at 7. It is
first country to send a man to
big breakfast and I'm not hungry now. longest river in
13. Why don't you invite your boyfriend to
14. He is a seaman. He spends most of his life at 15. When I was a boy I used to live near
3. Estas son algunas de las cosas que hizo ayer. Escriba una frase para cada una de ellas. Morning: 8.30 breakfast afternoon: 1.00 lunch evening: 7.00 dinner Example: I had breakfast at
9.00-9.30 radio 3.00-4.30 television 8.00-10.30 cinema half past eight.
1. From 9.00 until 9.30 I listened
2. From 10.00 till 12.00 I was walking by
3. At 1.00 I
4. From 3.00-to 4.30
5. At 7.00
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
The, an, a - Omission of articles 1. Solemos omitir el uso de the antes de un sustantivo cuando nos referimos a alguien o algo en general: Children are nice. She is afraid of dogs. Crime doesn't pay. I love collecting stamps. - She likes music. Life is very difficult nowadays. Doctors are very well paid. • Tambien suprimimos el articulo con most: Most people like pop music. Most dogs are faithful to their owners. 2. Generalmente ponemos an en vez de a cuando la palabra siguiente empieza por vocal: - an elephant - an idea an airfield
•Tambien nos referimos a los instrumentos musicales de esta manera: I like playing the guitar. He will play the trumpet tonight.
• Usamos the con algunos adjetivos para refe• Sin embargo, depende de la pronunciation de rirnos a clases de personas: the rich las palabras que siguen a los artfculos: the dying a uniform the blind a university the English an hour anMP an honest man an heir a unique vase • El articulo indefinido a/an se usa siempre con sustantivos en singular, pero no con plurales: - I have a cat I have some cats /1 have cats • No se debe omitir el articulo delante de profesiones: My daughter is studying to be a doctor. • Usamos el articulo the con ciencia y tecnologia: I like the telephone. Galileo invented the telescope. The dolphin is a mammal. - The whale is the biggest animal on earth.
1. En este ejercicio tiene que elegir la forma correcta, con o sin the. Examples: I love animals /the animal 1. Women / The women are more sensitive than men. 2. Most / The most people hate violence / the violence. 3. Don't go to that restaurant. Meals / The meals are terrible. 4. All pictures / All the pictures on that wall belong to my father. 5. My sister is very interested in the art/ art. 6. The hunting / Hunting is very cruel sometimes. 7. Do you like the skiing / skiing? 8. They got married last year but the marriage / marriage wasn't successful. 9. Fruit / The fruit is good for you. 10. Look at the fruit / fruit on that stand. How nice it looks! 11. In this country the coffee / coffee is cheaper than the tea / tea. 12. The cheese/ cheese we had after the meal was delicious.
2. iComo se llama la gente que vive en los pai'ses que se mencionan a continuacion? Example:
Britain The British.
3. Complete las frases usando the con estos adjetivos. dying - dead - injured - poor - needy - rich - blind - wounded Example: This is a traffic control system for the blind. 1. They say that Dick Turpin robbed 2. After the plane crash, hospital.
to give the money to were buried and
3. This old house is going to be used as a shelter for 4. After the battle, the cries of
. were taken to
. filled the night air.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
School/the school - Hospital/the hospital 1. Algunas palabras de uso frecuente suelen suprimir el artfculo cuando se usan para lo que han sido disehadas. • Estudiemos esta situation: - Mr Carter had an accident yesterday, and he was taken to hospital. - At the moment he is still in hospital. - Mrs Carter went to the hospital to visit him, and she is at the hospital now.
• En otras palabras, si ingresas en el hospital como paciente: you go to hospital o are taken to hospital.
3. sea, home, work, town. • Se dice: go to sea as sailors. To be at sea. They are joining the navy and soon will go to sea. They've been at sea for a week / I was on my way to work. These people are hard at work.
• Se suele omitir el the con town cuando se trata de la ciudad del que habla: We often go to town to do some shopping. We were in town last Wednesday.
• Si vas de visita: you go to the hospital o you • La palabra home no lleva preposition con verbos de movimiento: are at the hospital visiting somebody. 2. church, court, school, prison, university, college, bed. • Suprimimos el artfculo delante de todos estos sustantivos cuando les damos un sentido de uso: - I go to church on Sundays. / I am going to bed, I'm tired. She takes her children to school every day. He was sent to prison for robbery. I'll take you to court if you don't pay.
• De igual forma decimos: The injured are in hospital. My children are at school now. The whole family were in/at church. - He is studying at Bristol University. He is in bed resting.
• Usamos todas estas palabras con el artfculo the cuando se visitan o se usan por otras razones: I went to the church to see the new altar. He often goes to the prison to give lectures. Mr Kent went to the school to speak to the maths teacher.
Let's go home. They arrived home late.
• Con los verbos be, stay, etc. se usa at: The children are at home. Let's stay at home.
1. Complete estas frases usando las palabras siguientes: hospital, prison, church, school, college, university, bed, home, work, sea. Example: Children, drink your milk and go to bed. 1. Jim has joined the Navy and within two months he will be 2. When my daughter leaves school, she wants to study medicine 3. Our neighbour had an accident and is still 4. There's a lot of traffic this morning. Everybody seems to be going same time. 5. All these children go 6. My wife and I always go 7. All those students are still
only in the morning. on Sundays. college.
8. Are you going out? No, I'm staying 9. That man robbed a bank, but was caught and sent
2. En este ejercicio hay que elegir la forma correcta con o sin the. Tache la que este mal. Example: The children are already in bed In the bed. 1 . I'm going to church / to the church. I want to talk to the priest. 2. After work / the work. I always go home / to home. 3. My wife likes to read in bed / in the bed before going to sleep. 4. My husband never goes to church / to the church. 5. Little Jimmy doesn't like school / the school. 6. Old Mc Donald is still ill in hospital / in the hospital. 7. My son left university / the university without taking his final exams. 8. The lawyer had to go to prison / to the prison to see his client. 9. At the end of the course parents are invited to school / to the school to meet the teachers.
3. Responda con respuestas cortas a las siguientes preguntas. Example:
If you wanted to see the priest about a wedding, where would you go? To the church.
1. If your friend had an accident, where would you go to see him? 2. If your son's teacher wanted to see you, where would you go to speak to him? 3. If a thief was arrested and you wanted to speak to him, where would you go? 13 STANLEY
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Some, any • Los artfculos partitives some y any se traducen por algo de, algun, un poco, unos, algunos, nada de, etc. • En general some se usa para frases afirmativas mientras que any se usa para frases interrogativas y negativas. Frases afirmativas There are some girls in the park. I've got some books to read. There is some beer in my glass. He's got some papers to read. I've got something to tell you. He's got some interesting ideas. My sister has got some coffee. There is something on your plate.
Frases negativas They haven't got any children. She hasn't got any tea. There isn't any milk in the glass. He hasn't got any paper. You haven't got any good ideas. We haven't got any beer. I haven't got any books to read. My sister hasn't got any friends. There aren't any trees in this garden. haven't got anything to do.
Have you got any wine? Has she got any champagne? Is there any tea in the tea-pot? Are there any books on the table? Have we got any coffee? Have you got anything to tell me? Have they got anything to do?
Importante * A veces usamos some en preguntas cuando nos referimos a algo rnuy concreto. Do you want some wine? - Can I have some sugar? - Can you give me some water? Can you cook some rice? * Any a veces tiene el sentido de cualquiera. Any dictionary will give you the meaning of this. - Anybody can tetl you that. Despues de if/whether signified alguna, alguien. If there is any doubt let me know. +1 don't know whether anybody will come or not. 14 STANLEY
1. Complete estas frases con: some/any/something/anything. Example: I have bought some new books. He didn't want to tell me anything. 1. I haven't seen
of these pictures, but she has seen of them.
2. Please, give me
information about this place.
3. You can cash this cheque at
4. Have you got
more coffee? No, sorry, I don't have more.
5. Have the Browns got
children? Yes, they have four.
6. Have you got
money on you? Sorry, I haven't got
7. Would you like
to eat? No, thanks, I don't want
8. There is hardly
9. Have you got
animals in the farm? Yes, there are
10. Have they got
aspirins in the bar? No, they haven't got
1 1 . 1 can give you
help if you want.
12. There is
on the table. What is it?
2. Complete estas frases usando: somebody/nobody/anybody/anyone/someone. 1. Can go with you to the party? No, can come with me. 2. Peter, 3. Is 4. Has 5.
came to see you this morning. interested in buying that piano? No,
any questions to ask? I'll be pleased to answer them. can see that that is wrong!
6. You left the car door unlocked. 7. Darling,
could have taken the car.
wants to see you. He's at the door.
3. Complete estas frases con: something/anything. 1. We are not going to do
2. I've got 3. She didn't say
in my eye. when she came home.
4. I've got
to tell you. It's important.
5. Is there
I can do for you?
in the river. Can you see it?
7. I can't see 8. You can take
in the water. Where's it? you want from here. lt"s all yours. 15 STANLEY
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
The past of Have and Be Past tense of Have (tener) Affirmative I had You had He had She had It had We had You had They had
Negative I hadn't/I did not have You hadn't/You did not have He hadn't/He did not have She hadn't/She did not have It hadn't/It did not have We hadn't/We did not have You hadn't/You did not have They hadn't/They did not have
Interrogative Had l?/Did I have? Had you?/Did you have? Had he?/Did he have? Had she?/Did she have? Had it?/Did it have? Had we?/Did we have? Had you?/Did you have? Had they?/Did they have?
Recuerde El past tense ingles equivale al imperfecto y tambien al indefinido, asf pues: lhad=Yotenia/tuve. We had a house in the country many years ago. I had a dog when I was a child. Did you have to do that yesterday? La forma interrogativa y negativa del have tambien se puede formar con la particula did. "Did you have a storm last night?" "No, we didn't have a storm."
TO BE (past tense) SER o ESTAR Affirmative I was You were He was She was It was We were You were They were
Negative I was not (wasn't) You were not (weren't) He was not (wasn't) She was not (wasn't) It was not (wasn't) We were not (weren't) You were not (weren't) They were not (weren't)
Interrogative Was I? Were you? Was he? Was she? Was it? Were we? Were you? Were they?
• El past tense equivale al imperfecto y tambien al indefinido, asi pues: I was = yo era / estaba / fui / estuve. I was in London yesterday. Little Jim was very good last week. "Were you at the concert last night?" "No, I wasn't." "Where were you yesterday afternoon?" "I was at the cinema." 16 STANLEY
1. Rellene los huecos con: have, had, did, didn't. 1. " time!"
the students have any time to play?" "No, they
2. "Did you
anything to do last night?" "No, I didn't."
3. "Did they have anything to eat?" "No, they 4. They didn't
anything to eat!"
much time, did they?
5. What did you 6.
in your pocket last night? James have time to do it last Sunday?
7. "Did you coffee."
any coffee after lunch?" "Yes, I
8. "Did the runners nothing to drink."
a cup of
anything to drink during the marathon?" "No, they
2. Complete las frases con was o were. 1. "Where
the children yesterday?" "They
you at the concert last night?" "Yes, I
it very cold last winter?" "No, it
4. "Where day." 5. "
at the cinema." ." not a very cold winter."
Mrs. Evans last Wednesday?" "She the tea hot enough?" "Yes, it
you going to do it?
8. How many women
working at the factory?
9. The children
doing their homework when I arrived. waiting for you all night.
she so angry with me?
shopping all morning.
quite hot, thank you."
the students doing when the teacher arrived?
7. What time
at home all
it raining when you left?" "No, it
you reading?" "I
raining." reading a very interesting book."
3. Elija la forma correcta. Example: Where was /were Peter's mother all day yesterday? 1. Sandra and Jill was/were in bed until ten o'clock. 2. Why was/were Mrs Smith's daughters out so late? 3. When was/were the school master going to give us the diplomas? 4. Why was/were the police asking for our papers?
The plural of nouns 1. Generalmente se forma el plural de los sustantivos ahadiendo una s al singular: day, days cat, cats house, houses
2. Los nombres que terminen en o, ch, sh, ss, o x forman el plural ahadiendo es: potato brush box
potatoes brushes boxes
kiss kisses pouch - pouches
• Sin embargo, las palabras de origen extranjero que terminan en o solamente ahaden una s: kilo kimono piano photo soprano solo
ladies cities country
toys - boys - monkeys
4. Hay doce sustantivos que terminan en f o fe, cuyo plural cambia en ves. Estos sustantivos son: wolf wife thief
shelf sheaf self
shelf - shelves calf calves wife wives 18 STANLEY
5. Algunos sustantivos forman el plural de forma distinta al singular: man men child children foot - feet goose geese
cod salmon duck
• Sin embargo, los sustantivos que terminan en y despues de una vocal forman el plural anadiendo una s: toy boy monkey
woman ox tooth mouse
women oxen teeth mice
6. Algunos animales no cambian en plural: sheep deer trout
kilos kimonos pianos photos sopranos solos
3. Los sustantivos que terminan en y siguiendo a una consonante forman el plural cambiando la y por ies: lady city
• Las demas palabras que terminan en f o fe ahaden una s:
loaf life leaf
knife half calf
squid carp partridge.
• El plural de fish puede ser fishes, cuando se trata de peces vivos, pero no es muy corriente. There are a lot of fish in the sea.
7. Algunas otras palabras tampoco cambian: quid aircraft counsel hundredweight o stone (con significado de peso).
8. Los nombres colectivos, police, crew, family, team, etc., pueden llevar el verbo en singular o en plural, segun el sentido que le demos a la frase: Our police is very efficient. Our team is the best. The police are looking for the thief. «> Our team are wearing the new shorts.
1. Rellene con la palabra apropiada en plural: dynamo, tomato, fly, loaf, donkey, handkerchief, mouse, squid, quid, goose, louse, tooth, sheep, deer. 1. My mother bought two
of bread for dinner.
2. The hunter could see several
in the distance.
3. The shepherd's dog was rounding up all the 4. The hospital had two
for the night.
5. She cut up three large
for the salad.
6. Jimmy, you must clean your
three times a day, after meals.
7. The little girl was dirty and her hair was full of
8. The goose-boy was looking after the 9. He gave me a couple of 10. Several
by the river. for the job.
attacked the frogman squirting their black ink on him.
11. I'm sure there are
in the attic. I can hear them squeaking.
12. I have a very bad cold so I've taken a couple of
13. It was hot and there were a lot of
14. Two men approached us riding on two incredibly old
2. Estos sustantivos colectivos pueden llevar el verbo en singular o en plural segun el sentido que les demos. Tache el verbo que crea que esta mal, o subraye el que este bien. Example: The average family (which only consists of four member nowadays) is / are a great deal smaller than in the old days. 1. The police is/are looking for the two fugitives. 2. The team is/are at the bottom of the second division. 3. Our team has/have played one of their best games this season. 4. My family is/are wonderful. They are all helping me.
3. Todos estos sustantivos terminan en f o fe. Algunos cambian en plural por ves, otros no: brief, leaf, cliff, loaf, safe, life, grief, knife, wolf. Example: The Pope has published two new briefs. The leaves are falling from the trees. It's autumn. 1. There are many
in the mountains this winter.
2. The hooligans were brandishing
as they approached him.
3. It's very easy to be compassionate with other people's 4. The two soldiers dropped their rifles and ran for their 5. He needed a safe to keep money and documents in. In the shop they had two models of and he chose the bigger one. 6. She bought three 7. The white
of bread for tea. of Dover are famous all over the world. 19 STANLEY
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Personal pronouns as subjects aand objects FORMA (sing.)
• It y you tienen la misma forma como sujetos que como complementos: "Did you see the bird?" "Yes, I saw it." "Did it see you?" "Yes, it saw me."
• Los pronombres personales I, he, she, we, they son siempre sujetos de oracion: I went to London. He knows Mary. They live in Bristol.
• 0 complementos indirectos: Jim gave me a book. John found her a job.
• Pueden ser complementos circunstanciales: with her for him without us
LA POSICION • El complemento indirecto se pone delante del directo: I sent her/Mary the letters. She made him/John a cake.
• Sin embargo, si el complemento directo es un pronombre personal es mas usual colocarlo directamente detras del verbo seguido de to o for: I sent them to her. She made it for him.
• Excepto I que puede ser complemento del ver• Esta regla no es aplicable a one, some, any, bo to be: "Who is it?" "It is I." none, etc.: • Aunque es mas corriente usar el complemento: "Who is it?" "It's me." "Where's Jim?" 'That's him over there."
• Si el pronombre va seguido de una oracion, usamos el sujeto he: Who, John? But it was he who told me that!
• Me, him, her, us, them, pueden ser complementos directos de un verbo: I saw her. Henry likes them. 20 STANLEY
He brought one for Mary/He brought Mary one.
• Con las expresiones it was me/I hay dos posibilidades: objeto directo + that (muy informal): It was me that posted the letter.
1. Rellene los espacios en bianco con los pronombres personales que crea conveniente. Example: That's Mary's baby. It is very small. 1. "Where did you leave the book?"" hall."
2. "Did Jane come with you two?" "Yes,
on the table in the came with
3. "She likes sugar, not you." "Exactly, it's
that likes sugar, not
4. I think you're prettier than these girls. Yes,
are prettier than
5. Let's go for a walk. Just you and 6. Help
, the poor girl has fainted.
7. Nobody could do it except
, and I didn't want to.
8. We are much better than
9. They knew all about my friend and
10. "Did you come with SUsan?" "Yes, I came with Jeff and 11. "Did he give you a sweet?" "Yes, he gave Peter and 12. An old man asked my friend and
." a sweet each.
what time it was.
2. Reemplace las palabras subrayadas por pronombres personales. Example: Go with John and Mary to visit Frank and Mark, (her/them) 1. It was very kind of you to give Peter and me a hand. 2. Bill found Peter a job. 3. Mary went with Henry to the theatre. 4. "Did Janet tell Bob and Jim about the accident?" "Yes, Mary told Bob and Jim." 5. It was Peter who lent John and me the money. 6. It never occurred to Fred that perhaps Tony was lying. 7. It struck both men that everyone was unusually silent. 8. Did the boys give you something for Sandra?
• Sujeto + who (muy formal). It was I who posted the letter. • Se puede evitar el uso de cualquiera de estas dos formas cambiando la estructura: - I was the one (or the person) who posted the letter. • Cuando as y than van seguidos de pronombres personales, se pueden usar tanto la forma de sujeto como la de complemento: He is not as clever as I/me. She understands the question better than I/me. • En ingles coloquial se usan mucho mas los complementos (me, him, etc.). • Sin embargo, si despues del pronombre ponemos un verbo, entonces el pronombre debe ser sujeto, por supuesto: She's not as good as I am. I'm not as bad as he is.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Usos de IT • It se usa generalmente para cosas, o un animal cuyo sexo no conocemos, tambien para bebes: Where's my book? I left It on the chair. Look at that snake. It frightens me. This is my baby. It is only two days old. • Al telefono se dice asi: "Who is that/it?" "It is me, Robert / This is Robert." * "Is that Jerry?" "No, It's Frank." • It puede introducir frases: It was Jim who came to see you. It is today that she's coming, not tomorrow.
1. Elija entre el pronombre personal en nominative (sujeto) y el acusativo (objeto). Example: Jim, can you ring / me tonight? 1. "Who's that speaking?" "It's I/me, Pauline. How are you, Janet?" 2. The books? Oh, I/me sent they/them to he/him by post last week. 3. This letter is for she/her and these are for we/us. 4. Silly Bill! It was he/him who chose the wallpaper. 5. I/Me haven't seen he/him for three years. 6. It's two months since I/me last saw he/him. 7. I made it for she/her. She/Her sent it to he/him. 8. "Where's Tim?" "That's he/him, over there." 9. She/Her gave it to he/him. 10. He/Him bought it for us/we. 11. They/Them sent the letter to him /he. 12. "Who is speaking" "Oh, this is Robert. lt"s me/I, Robert!" 2. Estas frases se pueden poner con dos complementos cambiados como en el ejemplo. Example: She is not as pretty as I am. She is not as pretty as me.
1. I am not as bad as he is. 2. She is not as clever as I am.
3. I am not as fast as they are.
4. We aren't as tall as they are. 5. He is not as good as she is.
6. She eats as much as I do.
7. Peter is not as stupid as we are.
8. We are not as clever as they are. 9. Pauline is not as pretty as I am.
Possessives: possessive ('s) and (') • Cuando un ser viviente (persona o animal) posee algo, se usa lo que se llama el genitive sajon o caso posesivo: La manzana de Pedro (the apple of Peter) se convierte en: Peter's apple.
A) Primero se traduce el poseedor: Peter, B) despues la preposicion de bajo el aspecto de's, C) por ultimo la cosa posefda sin artfculo: apple. The house of Mary. se convierte en - Mary's house. - The legs of the dog. se convierte en - The dog's legs. - The kitchen of my mother. se convierte en - My mother's kitchen. This is Mary's house and that one is Jane's, (la de Jane) The dog's legs are black, and the cat's are white, (las del gato)
I Recuerde * Si el poseedor es plural y termina en s, se aftade solamente el apostrofo: The apples of the girls. se convierte en * The girls' apples.
The house of the boys. se convierte en
The boys' house.
The legs of the cats. se convierte en • The cats' legs.
The hobby of those families. se convierte en - Those families' hobby.
• Sin embargo, en caso de nombres propios o apellidos que terminen es s hay dos opciones: I live in St. James's Square; St James' Square. The Jones's dog is very noisy; - The Jones' dog. That is the Evans's house, on the corner; the Evans' house. 24 STANLEY
• Si son extranjeros o clasicos, solo se anade el apostrofo: Cervantes' works are interesting. This is Pythagoras' Theorem.
• Con nombres compuestos o largos el apostrofo se pone al final: My brother-in-law's guitar. The Prince of Wales's country house.
• Tambien se puede poner 's despues de iniciales: The MP's secretary. The VIP's bodyguard.
• Con expresiones de tiempo tambien es admisible el uso del genitive sajon: today's paper a month's holiday tomorrow's weather twenty minutes' break o two hours' delay o in two months' time
• Es muy corriente usar el genitivo sajon con tiendas (la palabra shop se sobreentiende): My wife is at the hairdresser's. Is there a butcher's near here?
• Tambien hospitales, iglesias, catedrales y firmas comerciales se escriben con's: Barclays' (bank) St. John's (College) St. Paul's (Cathedral)
• Cuando hablamos con algun conocido a veces omitimos la palabra house: We are going to Peter's. She's staying at the Brown's.
1. En este ejercicio hay que unir dos sustantivos. A veces hay que usar el apostrofo, con o sin s, otras veces la preposition of. Examples: The window / the room / The window of the room The mother / Peter / Peter's mother 1. The house / Tom 2. The eyes / the dog 3. The door/ the room 4. The name / this town 5. The name / my husband 6. The toys / the children 7. The newspaper / today 8. The daughter / Bernard 9. The country house / my uncle and aunt 10. The birthday / my father 2. Lea la frase y escriba otra usando el genitivo sajon. Example: The room of the children is upstairs. The children's room is upstairs. 1. The house of Mr and Mrs Carter is new. 2. The tail of our cat is black and white. 3. The husband of my friend is very tall 4.1 received the letter of Uncle George last night 5. The mother of my cousin is my aunt. 6. The head of that bird is black. 7. The friends of my sister are very pretty. 8.1 didn't see the wife of your brother last night. 3. Ahora vamos a usar el genitivo sajon con expresiones de tiempo, medida, distancia, peso; con tiendas, etc. Example: The weather / yesterday / was very good Yesterday's weather was very good. 1. The coference / last year / was terrible 2. The house is / two hours / walk / from here 3. How heavy is it? About two pounds / weight 4. This river is / 20 miles / long 5. They went to the Hospital of St. Peter. 6. We went to visit the Cathedral of St. Paul. 7. We went to the shop of Woolworth to do some shopping.
Adjectives: Attributes - predicatives • Los adjetivos que se colocan delante de los sustantivos se llaman atributos: a beautiful song - a tired expression a typical meal
• Con ciertos verbos, tales como: be, seem, appear, look, sound, taste, feel, smell, a menudo ponemos un adjetivo detras. Estos verbos se llaman verbos copulatives, y los adjetivos en esta posicion se llaman predicatives: she is nice - you look beautiful he feels strong
• Los verbos look, taste, feel, and smell pueden ir seguidos de un adjetivo predicative o de un adverbio: She looks angry, (adj.) She is looking at you angrily, (adv.) You must be careful, (adj.) The doctor felt my leg carefully, (adv.) She looked calm, (adj.) She looked calmly at the two men. (adv.)
• Algunos verbos como sit, lie, stand, pueden ir seguidos de adjetivos predicativos. • Algunos verbos se usan para mostrar como el sujeto de la frase cambia: People go pale, red, white with anger; blue with cold; green with envy.
• Turn se puede usar tambien con todas estas expresiones: She turned purple with rage.
• Go tambien se usa con adjetivos en muchos casos cuando las personas o las cosas cambian a peor: & People go crazy, mad, deaf, bald, blind. (Sin embargo go no se suele usar con ill, tired y old). - Meat goes bad, milk goes off, horses go lame, bread goes stale, machines go wrong, iron goes rusty. The leaves of the book go yellow with age. 26 STANLEY
• El verbo come se suele usar con expresiones que tienen un final feliz: All my dreams have come true. Everything will come out all right in the end.
• Los adjetivos principal, sheer, chief, main son atributos que se ponen delante de los sustantivos a los que califican: The main road of the town is closed to the traffic. • Sin embargo, afraid, upset, alive, alone, asleep van siempre siguiendo al verbo, por lo que son predicados: She is still alive. • El significado de late y early depende de su posicion. We caught an early train. The train arrived/was early.
• Cuando poor significa "sin dinero" puede ser atributo o predicado: - He is a poor man. This man is poor.
• Cuando poor significa "desgraciado" debe ser atributo: The poor child had an accident.
1. En las frases que vienen a continuacion tiene que ahadir, bien un adjetivo predicative, o un adverbio. Example: The food tasted horrible, (horrible/horribly) 1. He tasted the soup
2. This exercise looks
to me. (terrible/terribly)
3. She looked (nervous/nervously)
. She didn't seem to be
4. She looked 5. He turned
at the angry mob. (calm/calmly) on the man behind him. (angry/angrily)
6. That music sounds 7. Mary grew
I can't stand it! (terrible/terribly) as time passed, (impatient/impatiently)
8. Something smells
in the kitchen, (good/well)
9. He made her 10. She sings
. (happy/happily) . (beautiful/beautifully)
2. En este ejercicio tiene unas parejas de frases, en una frase usamos el adjetivo como atributo, en la otra como predicado. Una de las dos frases no tiene sentido. Tachela. Example: He is the chief engineer. This engineer is the chief.
1. This is the main street. / This street is the main. 2. This is an alive man. / This man is alive. 3. This client is our principal. / This is our principal client. 4. This is an afraid girl. /This girl is afraid. 5. That is my upset mother. / My mother is upset. 6. That is an alone man. / That man is alone. 7. She is an ashamed girl. / She is ashamed of it. 8. These are alike girls. / These girls are alike.
3. tAdjetivos o adyerbios? Algunas palabras pueden ser las dos cosas. Incluso algunos adverbios se pueden escribir de dos formas diferentes. This is a slow train (adj.) Go slow! (adv.) She was driving slowly, (adv.) Example: Please, be careful and drive slowlyl (slow) 1. A 2. Please, cut 3. She is a 4. This train is a
from one place to another, (straight)
all the explanations. We'll be there singer. She sings very
. (short) . (well/good)
train. It goes very
5. Go to the station and take the train that goes London, (direct/directly) 6. I haven't been to the theatre very much 7. I hate arriving 8. You can eat 9. He can jump very
. (late/lately) in my restaurant if you want, (free/freely) . (high/highly) 27 STANLEY
Interrogative and negative sentences in the present Affirmative I play golf You play golf He/she/it plays golf We play golf You play golf They play golf
I do not play golf You do not play golf He/she/it does not play golf We do not play golf You do not play golf They do not play golf
Do I play golf? Do you play golf? Does he/she/it play golf? Do we play golf? Do you play golf? Do they play golf?
I Recuerde que para interrogar y negar, es decir, para formar frases interrogativas y negativas en presente de indicative con la mayoria de los verbos (exceptuando to be y los defectives can, could, may, might, must, ought to, should) se usan las particulas do y does, que tambien se llaman auxiliary verbs. • Estas particulas no se traducen. Solo se usan para indicar que la frase esta, o bien en forma interrogativa o bien en forma negativa. • En forma negativa el do not se suele contraer en don't, y el does not en doesn't. • Does, o doesn't, solo se utiliza para la tercera persona singular. • Cuando se usa la particula does, el verbo se pone en infinitive, es decir, sin s. • No se debe confundir el verbo to do (hacer) con la particula do.
Ejemplos: Do you come here every day? No, I don't come every day. Does he drink wine? No, he doesn't drink wine. What do you do on Sundays? I don't do anything. Does your brother work very hard? No, my brother doesn't work very much. Yes, he works quite a lot. Do your children read many books? No, they don't read books. Yes, they read a lot of books. 28 STANLEY
Respuestas cortas • Es muy corriente en ingles usar respuestas cortas usando las particulas do y does: Do you go to the cinema very often? Yes, I do. No, I don't. Does Peter go swimming every day? Yes, he does. No, he doesn't. Do the children go to school by bus? Yes, they do. No, they don't.
1. Rellene los huecos con las particulas do, does, don't o doesn't. Example: Do you go to the beach every day? Yes, I do. 1. What
you friend do in the mornings?
come here very often.
3. Fred's friend 4.
do his homework every day. Mr Smith's wife do the shopping in this supermarket?
5. These people 6.
your friend's mother cook well?
7. When 8.
go to many concerts, do they?
you do your homework? these people go to the beach every day in summer?
9. That old woman, Mrs Brent, 10. My teacher, old Mr Rock,
hear very well, does she? speak to us.
2. Responda estas preguntas usando respuestas cortas. Example: Do you go to school every day? Yes, I do. No, I don't. 1. Does your brother's friend like swimming? 2. Do you go to see the doctor when you have a cold? 3. Does Peter's uncle come to see him often? 4. Do the children drink water with their meals? 5. Do they cut the grass very often? 6. Does Mr Smith like playing golf? 7. Do you listen to the news on the radio? 8. Does Mrs Evans go shopping every morning?
3. Aqui tienes unas respuestas. Tu tienes que hacer las preguntas. Example: No, I don't go every day. Do you go every day? 1. Yes, Mr Smith goes to work by bus. 2. No, they don't do their homework. 3. Yes, my friends like dancing. 4. No, I don't speak French. 5. Yes, my friends like running. 6. No, my father doesn't smoke. 7. Yes, my friend's mother cooks very well. 8. No, we don't play tennis very often. 9. The headmaster? Yes, he teaches very well.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Prepositions of place: on, in, at At • Cuando consideramos un sitio como un punto (sin tamano real), usamos at: I live in Linster. (es importante para mf) The trains don't stop at Linster. (es solo un punto en el viaje) At the two-mile mark, he was leading the other runners. We stopped for an hour at Orly airport.
• A menudo usamos at con el nombre de un lugar cuando estamos interesados en la actividad que se desarrolla alii, no en la forma exacta o dimensiones del lugar. Nos encontramos con alguien at the station, no estamos interesados en el hecho de que sea fuera o dentro, sino que consideramos a la estacion como un sitio de encuentro. A menudo usamos at cuando hablamos de cafes, restaurantes, o sitios donde se estudia o trabaja: I'll be at the club at 8. We'll eat at MacDonald's, in High Street. He had a beer at that little pub round the corner. I was at the theatre last night. I was at school from 1960 to 1971, and at university from 1971 to 1974; after that I worked at Barnard's Enterprises.
• Tambien usamos at con nombres de actividades de grupo: at a meeting/at the theatre/at a concert/ at a lecture/at a match/at the cinema
• Fi'jese en la diferencia entre in Oxford (en la ciudad) y at Oxford (en la universidad); y entre in the corner (rincon) y at/ on the corner (esquina).
On (lines) • Usamos on para decir que algo esta tocando o cercano a una Ifnea, o algo parecido a una li'nea. (no, frontera, carretera): We have a house on the river. Tijuana is on the frontier between Mexico and the U.S.A. Bath is on the road to Bristol.
On (surfaces) • Usamos on cuando algo esta tocando una superficie: The book is on the table. They spend the morning in a boat on the lake. Put the picture on the other wall. There's something on the sole of my shoe. There's a stain on the ceiling.
I. Complete estas frases usando in, on, or at con una de las frases dadas a continuation: the second floor London the east coast the Pyrenees the window the back of the envelope my way to work the right the back of the class the traffic lights the shelf the back of the cinema Example: The main office of the company is in London. 1. On the continent people drive 2. She was
looking at the passers-by.
3. Jimmy was sitting 4. Write your name and address 5. It's a little fishing village 6. I stopped there 7. We have a little house 8. She lives above us, 9. The car was stopped 10. The book was II. The young couple was watching the film sitting
2. Complete estas frases con in, on, at. Examples: The policeman was standing on the corner of the street. 1. There was no name
the door, so we knocked.
2. The man had a scar
his left cheek.
3. They lived
a small island off the coast of Florida.
4. Don't use the front entrance. There's another entrance 5. My office is
the ground floor. The second door
6. Shakespeare was born
7. They got married
Boston twenty years ago.
8. The sports results are
the back page of the newspaper.
9. I have a friend who lives
a small village
10. There were many cars parked 11. I'll meet her
the right. Avon.
the corner of the street.
12. I was stuck in a traffic jam
my way here.
13. There was an accident
the crossroads last night.
14. There is a herd of sheep
15. I can't see you
16. There is a path
the end of this street.
17. I don't like spending the day sitting
a desk. 31 STANLEY
In • Se usa cuando los alrededores son tridimensionales: The table is in the room/in the shop/in the kitchen. The boys are in the garden/in the park/ in the building. The money is in your bag/in your purse/ in your drawer. She's swimming in the water/in the sea/ in the river. She's in a field/in the car park, (pero on the beach)
• Con grandes superficies (pafses, regiones, islas grandes) decimos in: She lives in Yorkshire/ in the Sahara/in the British Isles, (pero on a desert island)
Parts of the body • Generalmente decimos on cuando se trata de la superficie del cuerpo: He had blood on his forehead/his cheeks.
• Usamos in en las cavidades: He hit me in the eye/mouth/ribs/ stomach.
• Hablando de heridas decimos in: He was wounded in the shoulder/in his head.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Means of transport • Usamos on con transportes publicos, caballos, motos y bicicletas: I saw her on the plane/on the train/on the bus.
• Usamos in con coches, taxis, avionetas, etc.: I saw him in a new Mercedes.
1. Complete estas frases. Utilice in, at, on con una de las palabras de esta lista. sea
the station the cinema
the airport school
My plane lands at 3.00. Please, meet me at the airport.
1. Our train was delayed. We had to wait
for half an hour.
2. It was a long voyage. They were
for two months.
3. She hasn't gone to university yet. She's still 4. Has Jim got up yet? No, he is still 5. There is a nice play
6. They always go to the Sunday Service, they are still 7. I was brought up in the country, 8. He was jailed for ten years. He's still 9. I'll be
until 6 in my office.
10. He had a bad accident last month and he's still 11. Where were you last night? I was
watching a film.
2. Complete estas frases con in y at. Example: There were a lot of young people at the concert. 1. We had a party
Frank's house last night.
2. Don't come to see me tomorrow. I won't be I'll be
3. Mary and Jean are students
4. I haven't seen Jane for a long time. I last saw her 5. There's a concert
the Albert Festival Hall tonight.
6. Freddy's parents live
7. He speaks good Spanish. He studied 8. It was a slow train. It stopped 9. You weren't
Madrid for a year. every little station.
the party, were you?
10. My secretary wasn't home ill
work today. She was bed.
UNIT 14 (Cont.)
At church, in hospital, etc.
• Hay algunas expresiones que no usan artfculo, algunas con in, otras con at:
• At se usa con el numero de la calle: She lives at number 27, pero... She lives in Boston Road.
in bed in hospital in court in church/at church in prison in American English in school in college in university at school at university at work at college
• Si usamos el numero y el nombre de la calle decimos at: She lives at 27 London Avenue.
• Con los pisos siempre decimos on: I live on the third floor/on the ground floor.
Recuerde Decimos arrive in con pai'ses y ciudades: When did you arrive in England/in London?
• Decimos arrived at con iugares comunes: He arrived late at school. at work at the hotel at the park • No usamos preposicidn con verbos de movimiento y home: He arrived home.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
1. Complete estas frases con una preposicion cuando sea necesario. Example: At what time did you arrive at the airport? 1. My husband always arrives
home very early.
2. I had a strange feeling when I first arrived 3. When the two boys arrived
this country. the cinema they joined the queue.
4. They arrived
London early in the morning.
5. What time do you usually arrive
the office in the morning?
6. What time do the boys arrive
home from school?
7. What time are we expected to arrive 8. This train arrives
9. When did she arrive 10. He arrived
New York? work early for once.
11. They arrived late
12. The plane arrived
the airport 2 hours late.
13. We arrive
Majorca 7 hours late.
14. Darling, I'll be arriving
home late today.
2. Use estas palabras con una preposicion (cuando sea necesario) para completar las frases: prison, church, hospital, school, bed, work, university Example: The convict is in prison. 1. The children are already
2. My son is studying medicine
3. Mr Brown had an accident. He is
4. It's late. Take the children
in your car.
5. We are getting married and we have to go 6. My mother is coming 7. Let's go 8. The lawyer went
to speak to the vicar. to speak to the headmaster.
. I want to go to the Sunday Service. to speak to the convict.
9. Mr Smith is in his office. He is 10. My father has gone to his office. He is on his way
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Prepositions of time: on, in, at In
At • Usamos at con:
• Expresiones de tiempo: at six at the weekend at present at Christmas at about/around
at the age of at lunch time
• Tambien empleamos at con las siguientes expresiones: at the beginning at first
Usamos in para: Partes del dfa:
at the end at last
On • Usamos on con: Dfas de la semana:
on Monday on Sundays on Monday morning Partes del dfa: on Saturday nights on Christmas Day Festividades: on New Year's Day on his birthday Aniversarios: on her wedding day Ocasiones especiales: on that day on that evening Dfa + fecha: on Tuesday, June 2nd Fechas: on June 16th, on 21st April
in the morning in the afternoon in the evening in April in October in 1992, in 1912, in 1885
in (the) spring in (the) winter) Siglos: in the 17th century in the 19th century Perfodos de tiempo: in that era, in the Middle Ages
In • Usamos in en expresiones como: I'll be there in ten minutes. The book will be ready in ten days' time. I can run a mile in five minutes.
• No usamos ninguna preposition delante de last y next: - I went to Spain last year. - I'll see you next Sunday.
• On + gerundio (on arriving, on hearing, etc.) se traduce por al llegar, al oi'r, etc. On hearing that, she was suddenly afraid.
On time, in time • Usamos on time cuando nos referimos a la puntualidad, a menudo con horarios de trenes: In this country trains always arrive on time.
• Decimos in time o in time for cuando se llega con un margen razonable de tiempo: All passengers arrived in time for the train.
1. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases. Usa at, on, o in con cada una de las frases siguientes.
1492 - the 20's - the moment - the same time - 12th April 1912 - night - Sundays about ten minutes - the 19th century - the age of 18 Example: Many things were invented in the 19th century.
1. She got married 2. I'll be there 3. I can't sleep 4. We usually go for a walk 5. The Titanic sank 6. America was discovered 7. The "Charleston" was a very popular dance 8. It's impossible for me to go 9. If everybody speaks
nobody will understand.
2. Pon la preposicion correcta: at, on, in. Example: The match begins at 4.30. 1. My father is 59. He'll probably retire
a few years" time.
2. I always take my wife out
our wedding anniversary.
3. Both horses arrived
the same time.
4. It was a short story and I wrote it
a couple of hours.
5. I work hard during the week, and relax
6. Little Jimmy started school
5, a couple of years ago.
7. Wait for me, I'll be there
ten minutes. 10th June.
8. They are going to get married 9. He always comes home
Christmas, and sometimes
10. Would you like to come to the cinema 11.1 like going for a walk
Saturday night? night, under the moonlight.
12. We always have a party 13.
New Year's day.
Sunday mornings I usually cut the grass in the garden.
14. Petrol is going up
15. There's very little work in the area 16. The old man died 17. I'll probably be busy afternoon? 18. I'll come to see you 19. Come on! The train is leaving 20. This course begins 21. She went to bed morning. 22. Shakespeare was born
the moment. 1990,
the age of 91.
the morning. Can you come
two minutes. 8th March and ends midnight and got up Stratford
30th June. 5.30 the next 1564. 37 STANLEY
Prepositions of time: for, during, since, from During + sustantivo • Usamos esta formula para decir cuando sucede algo: It must have rained during the night. The ground is wet. We came out for a drink during the interval. We met many people during our stay in Paris. He didn't feel well during the examination. Production stopped during the strike.
• (Generalmente during va seguido del artfculo the o algun adjetivo posesivo.) For • Tambien puede significar durante cuando va seguido de un periodo de tiempo: We have already been in Miami for a week. I haven't been home for a year. He has worked here for six months. We watched television for two hours.
From • Puede ser preposicion de lugar: Where do you come from?
• Pero tambien puede ser preposicion de tiempo: Many people work from nine to five. Opening hours are from 9 to 1 and from 3 to 7. The course goes on from June to September. Mother will be away from Monday to Friday. He studied the piano from the age of five.
Since • Se usa siempre como preposicion de tiempo, nunca como preposicion de lugar: She has been here since Monday. I haven't seen her since we quarrelled. It has been raining since two o'clock. - I haven't been feeling well since last Saturday. We've lived in four different places since last year.
1. En este ejercicio tiene que poner for o during. Example: It has been raining for three days. But it didn't rain during the night. 1. We never go out
the week. We only go out at weekends.
2. My brother has been out of work
3. My wife hasn't spoken to me
4. She waited for you
half an hour in the rain.
5. He lived in South America
6. The production of the factory stopped
7. When I was ill I couldn't eat anything
8. I fell asleep
9. I have been waiting
ages. Where have you been?
2. Complete con for o since. Example: I was studying for two hours. It has been raining since four o'clock. 1. We watched television
two hours last night.
2. We have been watching television 3. I haven't eaten anything
5 o'clock. breakfast.
4. We haven't seen each other
a long time.
5. That house has been empty
6. That house has been empty
7. I've known her
a long time.
8. I haven't seen her
9. We are going away
a week. We'll be back on 8th September.
3. Complete con from o since. Example:
I was there from three to four but nobody came. I've been here since three o'clock but nobody's come.
1. What have you been doing 2. My lunch time is
nine o'clock this morning? one to three.
3. I've been waiting
4. I like watching TV
nine to ten.
5. I haven't seen you
we met in Paris a year ago.
6. Most people work
nine to five.
7. It is two years 8. I haven't seen Jim 9. I waited
I last saw Jim. June 1990. two to four but she didn't come.
Prepositions of direction and manner From • Indica procedencia: The train is coming from Paris. When are they coming back from South America? They are coming all the way from Chicago. It's 200 miles from London to Bristol.
• Indica direction a o estado en: I've been to Paris five times. She's never been to a football match. We are going to fly to New York. Let's go to a concert tonight.
Into • Usamos into en vez de to cuando entramos dentro de algun sitio: They went into the room. The dog ran into the house. The old man walked into the shop. A bird flew into the room.
By • Usamos by para decir como viajamos: by train by car by rail by bus
by road by sea by underground by bicycle
by plane by air by ship by land
I always go to Paris by plane. He sometimes goes to work by bicycle. We never go by air. We prefer to go by train.
• Si usamos by no podemos decir my car / the bus / a taxi, etc. Decimos in my car, on the train.
On • Usamos on para ir a pie y en transposes publicos: on the bus - on the 5.30 train - on a plane - on foot Get on the bus, quick! Let's get on the train. • Usamos in para coches y taxis: - in my car - in a car - in a taxi
1. Complete con from, to, o into. Example: The plane has arrived from Paris. 1. They have cycled
2. He got
the car and drove off.
3. Your mother is coming back
4. That man is going to be sent
5. He travels every day
6. I can run
7. He ran away
Washington. the church in five minutes.
home at 15.
8. She walked quietly
the room and sat down.
9. Is that the train coming
2. Complete con by, on, o in. Example: They are coming by train. On the 6 o'clock train. 1. Quick! Get
the train. It's leaving.
2. I'll take you to the station
3. We'll go to the station
4. I've come to work
taxi this morning.
5. He often goes to work 6. Get 7. He got
bicycle in summer.
the bus, hurry up! his motorcycle and rode off.
8. They're arriving
the 7.30 train from Manchester.
9. The passengers were already seated 10. I don't like travelling 11. "Are you going
the plane. underground.
12. "We'll probably go on holiday
sea. your father's car."
3. Haga preguntas como en el ejemplo. Example: No, I have never been to Africa. Have you been to Africa? 1. No, I have never been to the United States. 2. No, my daughter has never been to Rome. 3. No, they have never been to Swede. 4. No, they have never been to Australia. 5. No, I've never been to Portugal. 41 STANLEY
The present continuous • El presente continue se forma con el presente del verbo auxiliar to be + el gerundio: Affirmative
I am working You are working He is working We are working You are working They are working
I am not working You are not working He is not working We are not working You are not working They are not working
Am I working? Are you working? Is he working? Are we working? Are you working? Are they working?
Usos del presente continuo 1. Para una accion que esta sucediendo actualmente: It is raining. We are sitting at the table for dinner. What are you doing? I'm watching TV.
2. Para una accion actual pero que no necesariamente esta sucediendo en el momento en que se habla: I'm reading a very interesting book. He's learning French. The Smiths are building their own house.
3. Una forma corriente de expresar las ideas de future planeado: He is taking me to the cinema tonight. I'm meeting John at seven this evening. "Are you doing anything tomorrow morning?" "I'm playing tennis with Janet." I'm having dinner with your sister on Saturday. He's going to the doctor on Monday.
4. A menudo usamos el presente continuo cuando hablamos acerca de un perfodo presente, por ejemplo: today, this season, this term, etc.: She is working very hard these days. We are not studying maths this term. Robert is not playing tennis this season.
5. Tambien usamos el presente continuo para hablar sobre situaciones cambiantes: The standard of living is rising in this country. Your French is definitely getting better.
1. Ponga el verbo en la forma correcta. Example:
Keep quiet, / am listening to the radio, (listen) Let's go to play football. It is not raining now. (not rain)
1. I have to drive after the party. I
anything tonight, (drink)
this month. We are on holiday, (not work)
your raincoat? It is not raining, (wear)
4. Look at those boys! They 5.
stones at people again, (throw)
the play, darling? It was written by Shakespeare, (enjoy)
6. Don't make a noise. I 7. Look! It
to concentrate, (try) again, (rain)
8. Excuse me, I
for the station. Can you tell me the way? (look)
9. Children, you
a lot of noise. Go to play in the garden, (make)
10. What language
? I can't understand a word, (speak)
2. Complete estas frases usando uno de estos verbos. change / wear / rise / fall / get / lose / work Example: Things are changing very fast in this country. 1. The standard of living 2. Why
fast in some European countries. you
a coat? It's very hot today.
3. The level of the water 4. Things 5. We 6. They
since the rain stopped three days ago. very expensive. Life is impossible!
a lot of money in this business! very hard these days.
3. Complete las frases con "presente continue con proyeccion al future". Example: I am driving after the party so I'm not drinking, (drive/drink). 1. I 2. We 3. They
the baby at seven o'clock.(bathe) tennis on Sunday morning, (play) their anniversary dinner on Friday, (have)
4. What time 5. They
after lunch, I think, (arrive)
6. "Are you coming tomorrow?" "No, 7. Your friend 8. Where 9. "What home." (do/stay)
, sorry." (work)
married next month, isn't she? (get) your boyfriend? (meet) you
this evening?" "Nothing, I
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
The present simple • La forma afirmativa del presente de indicative tiene la misma forma que el infinitive, excepto que normalmente la tercera persona ahade una s. I work you work he/she/it works we work you work they work
I play you play he/she/it plays we play you play they play
Los verbos que terminan en ss, sh, ch, x, o ahaden es en la tercera persona del singular: I kiss, he kisses I watch, he watches I rush, he rushes I box, he boxes I go, he goes I do, he does I fish, he fishes
• Cuando un verbo termina en y detras de una consonante, cambiamos la y en i, y ahadimos es: I copy, he copies I try, he tries
• Sin embargo, los verbos que terminan en y detras de una vocal siguen la regla general: I play, he plays I obey, he obeys I say, he says
• El present simple se usa para expresar una accion habitual. For regla general se suele usar con adverbios o f rases adverbiales tales como: always, never, often, occasionally, every day, usually, on Sundays, in winter. & I always go to Miami in summer. She never tells me what to do. We play football every day. I often speak to her on the phone. On Sunday afternoons we stay at home. 44 STANLEY
I watch you watch he/she/it watches we watch you watch they watch
• Con algunos verbos siempre se usa la forma habitual, pues no admiten la continua: I love you. She likes me. I believe you. She feels very well. I hear noises at night. He hates you. I want a little more. She adores him. He admires her.
• Con verbos de actividad mental se suele usar tambien la forma habitual: know mean expect assume agree feel realize suppose recognize remember see understand think
1. Complete las frases con el verbo en la forma correcta. Example: Children often go to school by bus. 1. Jonathan never
to work late, (go)
2. My father sometimes
television in the mornings, (watch)
3. It occasionally
in summer, but not very often.(rain)
4. We always
English in the English class, (speak)
5. My parents
out to dinner on Saturdays, (go)
6. Mrs Green usually
her children good night, (kiss)
7. This soldier never
8. Mr Brown
to New York about two or three times a year, (go)
9. These people
to this place every week, (come)
2. Complete las frases usando uno de los verbos que damos a continuacion: feel, look, smell, hate, love, like, want, agree, remember, see. Example: I see Mr Evans every morning on his way to work. 1. She has good memory. She 2. I
with you about that. You are right.
3. My daughter
to study at Oxford next year.
getting up early on Monday mornings.
very lonely when I am alone.
6. A mother
her children very much.
7. That young girl 8. This cake
very beautiful. very good.
going for a walk in the country in spring.
3. Elija entre la forma habitual y la forma continua. Example:
Peter and David are playing tennis at five. Peter and David play tennis every Saturday.
1. My father
early every day. (get up)
lunch early today, (have)
Shakespeare at school, (read)
one of Shakespeare's plays at school every day. (read)
5. She never
what to do. (know)
6. My grandparents
in Manchester, (live)
7. I don't understand these people. (understand)
8. The water
I'll make the tea. (boil)
9. The moon
round the earth, and the earth
round the sun.
(go) 45 STANLEY
Going to • La forma going to se usa:
2. El going to para prediction.
1. Cuando se tiene intention de hacer algo, y
• Podemos expresar un sentimiento de seguridad del que habla.
2. Para predecir algo. 1. El going to expresa la intention del sujeto para llevar a cabo una accion en el future. Esta intention es siempre premeditada e indica una cierta preparation. Una posibilidad de que se lleve a cabo la accion aunque no de una forma tan definitiva como el presente continue: - I'm meeting Janet at the airport at five. I'm going to meet Janet at the airport at five.
• I'm meeting Janet signified que ya ha hecho los arreglos necesarios y ha quedado con ella. Mientras que I'm going to meet significa que no ha hecho ningun arreglo. Quiza Janet se lleve una sorpresa. • Going to se puede usar con expresiones de tiempo: I'm going to be a doctor when I grow up. When are you going to get married? I'm going to think about your proposal. I'm sure she is going to like it.
• El tiempo generalmente no se menciona, pero la accion se espera que suceda en el future inmediato: I think it is going to rain tonight. We are going to have a nice trip. I am afraid she is going to faint. Be careful! You're going to fall into that hole.
I. En este ejercicio debe decir cuando vas a hacer algo. Example: Have you read the letter? No, I'm going to read it now. 1. "Have you washed your hands?" "No, I 2. "Has she made the tea?" "No, she 3. "Have you done your homework?" "No, I 4. "Has Sue washed the dishes?" "No, she 5. "Have you bought the book?" "No, I 6. "Has Tony posted the letter?" "No, he 7. "Have you typed the letters?" "No, 8. "Have the boys washed the car?" "No, 9. "Have the Browns painted the house?" "No, 10. "Has little Jimmy gone to school?" "No, 11. "Have you done the ironing?" "No, 12. "Has she spoken to the teacher?" "No, 13. "Have you cooked the meat?" "No, 14. "Have you bought the drinks?" "No, 15. "Have you had breakfast?" "No,
2. En este ejercicio tiene que hacer preguntas con going to. Example: "She's won the football pools." "What is she going to do with the money? 1. "I have bought a pullover." "When ?" (wear) 2. "We have bought a little table." "Where :
3. "I have painted a new picture." "Where ?"(hang) 4. "I have been invited to a party tonight." "Who
?" (go) 5. "I have written a letter." "When ?" (post) 6. "He has written a book." "When ?" (publish) 7. "They have sold the house." "Where ?" (live) 8. "She has divorced Frank." "Who ?" (marry) 47 STANLEY
UNIT 20 (Cont.)
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
I Recuerde * Comparemos ei going to (prediction) con will usado para probable futuro. • Will es una manera comun de expresar lo que piensa, cree, espera, etc. ei que habla: it will probably be hot tomorrow. Cereals will be expensive this year.
• Will y going to son muy parecidos en este tipo de frases y cualquiera de los dos se puede usar: It will take us a long time to get there. - It is going to take us a long time to get there.
Diferencias • 1. Going to implica que hay sehales que sucedera algo. Will implica que el que habla cree que sucedera. • 2. Going to se usa con un futuro relativamente inmediato; will no implica ningun tiempo en particular y podrfa referirse a un futuro remoto. * This old car is going to break down,
• significa que hace ruidos raros y que nos va a dejar tirades en el camino.
This old car will break down,
• significa que sucedera en algun tiempo en el futuro (quiza tarde mucho en averiarse.) De forma parecida: • My father is going to get better
• significa que esta dando senates de mejorar. My father will get better.
• indica confianza y quiza una eventual recuperation, pero no da idea de que vaya a mejorar en el proximo futuro.
1. Ahora tiene que decir lo que piensa que va a suceder en estas situaciones. Example: A man reading the paper is walking near a hole, (fall) He is going to fall into the hole. 1. Jim is taking his exams. He is very clever and works hard, (pass)
He 2. The sky is full of dark clouds, (rain)
It 3. Frank is running in a race. He is very good. He trains a lot. (win)
He 4. The car is making strange noises, (break down)
It 5. Mary is still in bed. It is nine o'clock, (late for work) She
6. Little Jim is playing with the fire, (burn) He
7. The little girl is playing with the scissors. She
8. We are working very hard to succeed.
2. Tiene que elegir entre going to y will. Example: "I haven't got my calculating machine, and I'm going to take an exam in five minutes." "Don't worry, I'll lend you mine." 1. "I haven't got any more paint. I can't finish painting the room." "Don't worry, I get you some." 2. "What colo(u)r I
paint the kitchen?" "I don't know, I think paint it blue."
3. "Dad, my bike is broken." "Is it? All right. I
have a look at it this evening."
4. "Dad, the TV doesn't work." "Yes, I know. I
repair it in a minute."
5. "I don't know her address!" "Okay, I 6. "How 7. "When month."
down for you!"
to London?" "I don't know, I think I to write that story?" "I don't know. I think I
by train." next
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
The future simple Affirmative
I shall/will play You will play He will play We shall/will play You will play They will play
I shall/will not play You will not play He will not play We shall/will not play You will not play They will not play
Shall/will I play? Will you play? Will he play? Shall we play? Will you play? Will they play?
• El shall tiene poco uso en practica. Solo se usa para ofrecerse a hacer algo, o sugerir alguna cosa: Shall we go for a picnic tomorrow? (sugerencia) Shall I open the window? (oferta) "Nelly is coming." "Okay, let her come."
• El imperative negative se forma poniendo do not (don't) delante de todas las personas: & Don't let me play. Don't let us play, (let us not play) Don't play. Don't play. Don't let him/her/it play. Don't let them play. Don't let Peter go with you. Don't make so much noise, the children are sleeping. Don't let them play with you. Don't let me see you do that again.
Recuerde que en la primera persona del plural se admiten dos formas de negacion: Don't let us go too early. / Let us not go too early. Don't let's speak about that again / Let's not speak about that again.
• Fijese tambien, que da lo mismo decir let us que let's. • En el imperativo, no existe la forma interrogativa. • Normalmente, en el imperativo no se usa la palabra you. Aunque cuando estudiemos las formas enfaticas veremos que podemos hacerlo si queremos dar entasis a la frase.
1. Complete las siguientes frases en imperativo. Example: Mary, finish your soup. 1. "I want to go to the cinema." "Okay, darling, (buy) 2. Here is the camera.
two tickets at the Odeon."
a picture of me with the baby, (take)
3. "The children are coming.""
4. I don't want to see you do that again. 5. Esther,
see you do that again!
Charles that I want to see him. (to tell)
6. You must not leave anything on the plate. Please, 7. "We don't need to hurry." "O.K., 8. "He is waiting for you." "All right,
anything on the plate.
hurry. We have plenty of time." wait."
2. Estudie la situacion y forme una frase en imperativo para cada una de ellas. Example:
Nelly is waiting for you, but you don't want to see her. Your friend: "Nelly is waiting for you." You: "Let her wait!"
1. You want to see your children, so you say to your wife:
2. You don't want to give charity to lazy people. They can work. So you say: work! 3. They inform you that Diana is going to post the letters. You agree to that. So you say: Okay, them. 4. They tell you that Charles is going away. You don't mind. So you say: All right, go if he wants to. 5. You like the hotel. You want to stay there. So you say to your wife: at this hotel.
3. A continuation tiene unas frases en imperativo. Pongalas en forma negativa. Example: Let Peter come with us. Don't let Peter come with us. 1. Let's go to the cinema tonight. 2. Let the children come with us 3. Let us speak to the Jones." 4. Have a look at this. 5. Eat vegetables, children. 6. Mary, let's take a taxi. 7. Margaret, try on these jeans. 8. Mary, let me see you do that.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Adverbs of frequency and degree Adverbios de frecuencia
• Los adverbios de frecuencia son los siguientes:
• A veces encontramos la palabra often al final de una frase junto con very o quite:
Frases afirmativas often always once twice usually continually occasionally frequently sometimes repeatedly periodically
Frases negativas never hardly rarely seldom ever hardly ever
• Los adverbios de los dos grupos se colocan normalmente: 1. Despues del verbo ser o de un verbo defective: - She is always late for work. I can never understand these people. My father is often wrong. We must never criticize other people.
2. Entre el sujeto y el verbo, en los tiempos simples: They never come to see us. - We sometimes go to see them. I always arrive on time for work.
3. Con los tiempos compuestos, el adverbio se pone entre el auxiliar y el participio: I have always done my duty. You had never spoken like that before.
He comes to see us very often. I have seen them in the park quite often.
• Tambien al final de una frase encontramos: once, twice, frequently, repeatedly. I've been there once. They go to Italy very frequently.
1. Tiene que poner las f rases en el orden apropiado usando un adverbio de frecuencia. Example: never/we talk/ about that/ at home We never talk about that at home. 1. always/she/is/telling/us/what/to/do.
2. very often/we/come/here.
3. I /often/have/told/you/not/to/do/that.
6. seldom/we/go/dancing/on Saturdays.
7. rarely/they/come/to Spain/on holiday.
8. occasionally/have/l/been/to Madrid.
10. frequently/very/we have/travel/to Canada.
11. Very occasionally/meet/you/people/like that.
2. Responda como en el ejemplo: Example: Do you go to Spain very often? Yes, I often go to Spain 1. Have you ever met anybody like that? Well, you people like that, (seldom) 2. Have you ever been to New York? No, I to New York, (never) 3. Have you ever been to South America? Yes, I . (twice) 4. Have you ever done things like that? Yes, I . (continually) 55 STANLEY
UNIT 23 (Cont.)
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Much - how + adjetivo o adverbio Adverbs of degree
•Son: - almost extremely only far - nearly fairly - absolutely hardly barely - much completely just enough quite entirely rather
• En frases afirmativas much tiene un uso limitado. Se prefiere usar a lot o lots:
- really - scarcely very etc.
1. Un adverbio de grado modifica a un adjetivo o a otro adverbio. Generalmente se coloca delante: You are quite right. - We are almost ready. • Sin embargo, enough va a continuation: This house is not big enough for us. She doesn't walk fast enough.
2. Los siguientes adverbios de grado pueden modificar a los verbos: almost, quite, rather, really, scarcely, enough, just, hardly, a little, much, nearly. • Todos, excepto much, se colocan entre el sujeto y el verbo: I nearly fell into the river. I really enjoyed the film.
• Con el verbo ser y con los verbos defectives se colocan detras: - I am just going. - She can hardly speak.
• Con los tiempos compuestos se coloca entre el auxiliar y el participio: We have just arrived. They have nearly finished.
Have you got much money? No, I haven't got much. Yes, I have got a lot of money / lots of money.
"How" para preguntar • How much se usa para cosas incontables (frases en singular). • How many se usa para cosas contables (frases en plural): How much sugar do you want? How many trees are there?
How + adjetivo o adverbio • How combina con gran variedad de adjetivos y adverbios tales como: deep, big, far, long, old, wide, etc.: How far is it to the station? How big is this town? How often do you come here? How wide is this road? How long is this river? How well can you swim?
How long?: time • La expresion how long se puede usar para preguntar cuanto tiempo: How long do you take to do this? How long ago did he live?
1. Ponga las frases en el orden apropiado usando un adverbio de grado. almost - is - ready - dinner Example: Dinner is almost ready. 1. fell/the old man/ nearly/as/he crossed/the road. 2. I have/enjoyed/really/the film. 3. could/she/hardly/speak/when/she/came/out/of/the/water. 4. hardly/we/spoke/to/each/other/during/the/meal. 5. quite/l/liked/the/old man's speech. 6. that/car/enough/is/for/us/not/big. 7. The Evans/arrived/have/just/home. 8. she/hardly/can/speak/the accident/after.
2. A continuacion tiene una serie de adverbios y adjetivos para que los combine con how. deep, big, far, long, quickly, well, often, much, many, wide Example: How much does this cost? 1. How
is the sea in this place?
is the Mississipi river?
is the Post Office?
are you going to take, darling? It's late.
people were there at the concert?
did you pay for it?
does the bus pass this way?
8. Let's see how
you can swim.
9. Let's see how
you can do this addition.
is the corridor?" "About 20 metres!"
is the station? I'm in a hurry.
do you come to this place?
was the river you swam across?
have you been working in this company?
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
The past simple tense • En ingles el past tense comprende el imperfecto y el indefinido, por lo tanto hay que traducir segun el sentido de la frase.
Verbos regulares • Para formar el pasado de un verbo regular se ahade ed: I worked you worked he worked we worked you worked they worked
Irregular verbs • Los verbos irregulares forman el pasado de forma distinta. Por ejemplo el verbo go: 1 went you went he went we went you went they went
• Como se vera, la tercera persona del singular no anade una s.
• Si el verbo ya termina en e solo se ahade la d: I lived. • Los verbos monosflabos, y los bisilabos que terminan en consonante, con acento en la ultima silaba, duplican la consonante final: stop • stopped admit prefer confer
- admitted preferred conferred
• Los verbos que terminan en y detras de una consonante cambian la y por i al anadir la ed: try cry carry study hurry
tried cried - carried - studied hurried
Recuerde • Que ios verbos regulares que terminan en t o en d, como count, visit, add, collect, want, pretend, accept, etc., al anadir la ed se pronuncian como en castellano: counted visited added collected wanted pretended accepted • Los demas verbos regulares que terminan en otras letras, no pronuncian la e que se anade: seem walk play live wash
seemed walked played lived washed
[seemd] [walkd] [playd] [livd] [washd]
1. Responda a estas preguntas, primero en forma afirmativa y despues en negativa. Example:
Did you drink the milk? Yes, / drank it. No, / didn't drink it.
1. Did he eat the potatoes? Yes,
2. Did you finish your drink? Yes,
3. Did you speak to her? Yes,
4. Did she buy the book? Yes,
5. Did the little girl cry? Yes, she
6. Did the boys run in the race? Yes,
7. Did Jane win the match? Yes,
8. Did you work hard? Yes,
2. Ponga estas frases en pasado. Todos los verbos son regulares. Example:
I stop on my way to work. / stopped on my way to work.
1.1 try to do that every day 2. He collects all the exam papers 3. These babies cry a lot 4. The children play in the park 5. I admit it's my fault 6.1 prefer to travel alone 7.1 always travel alone 8. We always hurry to get home 9. I always study in the evenings
UNIT 24 (Cont.)
Use of the past tense • Se usa para acciones que se completaron en el pasado. I met Peter yesterday. We went to Paris last year. I last saw him two years ago. She phoned me last Sunday.
Formation de la interrogation y negacion: Affirmative
I went You went He went We went You went They went
Did I go? Did you go? Did he go? Did we go? Did you go? Did they go?
I did not (didn't) go You did not (didn't) go He did not (didn't) go We did not (didn't) go You did not (didn't) go They did not (didn't) go
• Cuando usamos una partfcula de interrogation o negacion (did, do, does), el verbo se pone en infinitive: "Did you phone Tony?" "No, I didn't." "Did you invite Mary to the party?" "No, I didn't invite her." "Did you like the film?" "No, I didn't like it." "Did you see him?" "No, I didn't." "Did you speak to my teacher?" "No, I didn't."
• Ei verbo have para interrogar y negar en pasado usa la partfcula auxiliar did: "Did you have a dog when you were a child?" "No, I didn't have a dog. I had a cat." "Did the children have school yesterday?" "No, they didn't have school." "They had the day off." "Did you have breakfast this morning?" "No, I didn't have breakfast today." "I had breakfast yesterday."
Para la formation del verbo to be en pasado vease UNIT 7 60 STANLEY
1. Las frases que tiene a continuation debe ponerlas en forma interrogativa y negativa. Example: I went to London on Monday. Did you go to London on Monday? I didn't go to London on Monday. 1. The train left at seven
2. It rained last night.
3.I saw your friend in the station.
4. We played tennis yesterday.
5. The car stopped at the traffic lights.
6. She wrote a book.
7. She opened the shop at 9.
8. He broke a plate.
2. Ponga estas frases en interrogativa y negativa. Example:
She had a baby yesterday. Did she have a baby? She didn't have a baby.
1. We had a shower in the evening.
2. They had a villa Mexico. 9
3. We had something in common. 9
Like - would you like? • En ingles el verbo like es exactamente igual que los demas verbos en cuanto a la conjugation. Hay que olvidarse de la forma reflexiva a mi me gusta, a ti te gusta, etc.: "Do you like Marian?" "Yes, I like her very much." "Does she like fish?" "No, she doesn't like it." "Does Mark like running?" "Yes, he likes it quite a lot." "Does your mother like cooking?" "No, she doesn't like it very much."
Verbs + gerund • El verbo like, junto con hate, enjoy, mind, love, dislike, prefer, etc., va a menudo seguido del gerundio: 1 hate flying. - She enjoys reading at night. I don't like people smoking here. She dislikes working with him. I don't mind obeying orders. - I prefer working alone. • De todas formas, tambien se acepta el infinitive con like, love, prefer, hate: I love walking in the country. I love to walk in the country. I prefer coming here. I prefer to come here.
Like • Aunque normalmente aceptamos tanto el gerundio como el infinitive detras del verbo like, hay, sin embargo, una ligera diferencia entre los dos usos. • Generalmente decimos: I like running cuando disfruto haciendolo: Do you like cooking? (iDisfrutas cocinando?) I don't like driving. (No disfruto conduciendo.) 62 STANLEY
• Pero si usamos el verbo like, no en el sentido de disfrutar, sino de preferir, entonces usamos el infinitive detras: I like to wash the car on Saturdays. (No necesariamente disfruto lavando el coche.) She likes to do the housework first thing in the morning.
Would like • El condicional del verbo like va siempre seguido de infinitive: I would like to be very tall. I would like to be a champion. • Lo mismo ocurre con los verbos love, prefer, hate: - I'd love to accompany you on your travels. • Tambien podemos usar would you like + noun + gerund: I would like these people to stop smoking in my office. • El would like se puede usar seguido del infinitive compuesto: I would have liked to have been here when that happened.
1. Responda estas preguntas usando los verbos que se le dan a continuacion. Example: Why do you go to the beach every day? (love/swim) Because I love swimming. 1. Why don't you wash your hair in the evenings? (like/do/mornings)
2. Why do you go to the country every Sunday? (enjoy/walk)
3. Why do you get up late on Sundays? (like/stay/bed/late) 4. Why do you watch TV so often? (enjoy/watch) 5. Why don't you take a shower? (like/have/bath)
2. Ponga el verbo en gerundio o infinitivo. Example: I enjoy playing tennis. Would you like to speak English, please? 1. I don't mind 2. My sister likes 3. I love 4. I wouldn't like 5. Would you like 6. I like 7. Do you enjoy 8. l"d hate 9. He prefers 10. I like
to school every day. (walk) (walk) but hates
people, (meet) on the 20th floor, (live) with us to the cinema? (come) the washing-up in the mornings, (do) in the country? (live) Christmas alone, (spend) to cycling, (walk) to the dentist twice a year, (go)
3. Las frases que vienen a continuacion se pueden escribir de dos formas. Cambielas como en el ejemplo. Example: / would have liked to go to the party. I would like to have gone to the party. 1. I would have liked to win the match. 2. I wouldn't have liked to spend Christmas there. 3. I would have liked to see that new play. 4. I would have liked to be lying on the beach all day. 5. I would have liked to go on that trip.
When - clauses 1. A menudo se usa en castellano la conjuncion cuando para introducir oraciones de subjuntivo. Cuando vaya a Madrid... • En ingles este tipo de frases se pone en indicative. When I go to Madrid... ya que el subjuntivo ingles esta en desuso. • A menudo se usa este tipo de frases subordinadas de subjuntivo con una oracion de future: - I will call you when I arrive. - We will let you know when she comes. - I'll send you a postcard when I am in Benidorm.
• Por supuesto no podemos usar when en futuro: no podemos decir when I will arrive. 2. Se puede usar when en preterite perfecto del subjuntivo espahol, que equivale al preterito perfecto del indicative ingles: - I will give it to you when I have finished it.
• En este tipo de frases indicamos que la accion estara acabada antes de que tenga lugar la segunda parte, es decir la oracion subordinada de subjuntivo: You can post the letter when I have written it. You can phone your friend when we have finished dinner.
• Lo mismo sucede con while, after, before, until, as soon as: You can have it as soon as I finish with it/have finished with it. Before you leave you must come to have dinner with us. You will feel better after you have something to drink.
"When" y "as" • Se usa when cuando una accion ocurre al mismo tiempo que otra o en el mismo perfodo de tiempo que la otra: When it rains the buses are crowded.
• Tambien se usa cuando una accion sigue a otra: When he pressed the brake the car stopped.
• As se usa cuando la segunda accion ocurre antes de que se haya acabado la primera: As I left the house I remembered the windows were open.
• Esto significa que me acorde de las ventanas antes de salir de la casa; probablemente estaba todavia en el umbral. Si decimos when I left dan'a la impresion que el hecho de salir se habia ya completado y que la puerta estaba cerrada detras de mi. • Tambien usamos as para acciones paralelas: He sang as he walked.
• Para un desarrollo paralelo: As the sun rose the clouds dispersed.
1. En las frases siguientes debe poner el verbo en el tiempo correspondiente. Example: When it stops raining I'll go out to play. 1. When I last
(see) him he was still living in London.
2. When you 3. I
(see) Mary again, you you (phone) when I
4. When I (send) 5. I
(be) on holiday next month, I (get) the book when I
6. When I 7. I
her. (recognize) home from work, (get) you a postcard. to the library, (go)
(finish) reading it you (need) any help when I
have it. (can) up. (grow)
(recognize) him, when you
9. When the police
him again, (see)
(come), they asked a lot of questions.
2. Ahora tiene que formar una frase de las dos que se le dan. Example: You are leaving soon. You must visit us before that. You must visit us before you leave. 1. You will be in Spain next month. You must come and see us then. when
2. We'll find a flat in Bristol. Then we'll give you our address. when
3. I'm going to finish reading the paper. Then I'll get the tea ready. when
4. I will make my decision. Then I will let you know. as soon as
as soon as
5. I will finish. Then I will come. 6. You will read the book. Then you will see it clearly. when
3. En este ejercicio tiene que poner when o as. Example: He was panting as he climbed the stairs. 1. He had just won the lottery 2. I'll buy that for you
I go shopping.
3. He was very well known 4. The fog dispersed
I first met him. a teacher. the sun rose.
5. How can you expect the children to be truthful 6. Just 7. We will talk about it
you tell lies yourself?
he left the house he remembered the key. he comes to see us.
Demonstratives: this/these, that/those • Pueden ser adjetivos demostrativos y pronombres demostrativos.
• Cuando se usan como adjetivos, concuerdan con su sustantivo en numero. Son los unicos adjetivos que hacen esto. Todos los demas adjetivos son invariables. this man these men that woman those women
• Se traduce por este, esta, esto.
Adjetivos THIS • Se traduce por este, esta, esto.
THAT • Se traduce por ese, esa, eso, aquel, aquella, aquello THESE • Se traduce por estos, estas. THOSE • Se traduce por esos, esas, aquellos, aquellas: This is water, and that is milk. This is bread, and that is butter. These children are very clever, but those are stupid.
THAT • Se traduce por ese, esa, eso, aquel, aquella. • A menudo usamos one despues de this, o that: THESE The picture I'm talking about is this one • Se traduce por estos, estas. here, not that one. THOSE • Pero no despues de these o those: • Se traduce por esos, esas, aquellos, The photos I want are those. aquellas. This man here is very tall. Recuerde That woman there has a little dog. There's a tree in this garden. • Que los demostrativos que se usan como There's a table in that room there. pronombres normalmente, se refieren a coThese boys here are very tall. sas, no a gente: Those girls there have nice dresses. I found this inside the wallet, These glasses here have beer in. (pronombre) Those glasses there have water in. I know this boy (adjetivo). Estan'a mal I know this, refiriendose a una persona. • Los pronombres demostrativos despues de what se refieren a cosas: What is that? What are those? • Los pronombres demostrativos this y that despues de who se refieren a personas: Who is this? Who's that? 66 STANLEY
1. A las frases que tiene a continuacion les falta un adjetivo demostrativo. Pongaselo. Example: This man is very tall. These men are very short. 1.
woman here is very beautiful.
2. Go and tell him now, 3.
people there, are listening to
man over there.
trees here, are the biggest in the park.
classrooms here are very old.
school children over there are playing football.
man over there?" "Oh,
8. Do you see
man is Tom Smith".
birds at the top of the tree?
9. Can you see
pigeon on the roof?
2. A continuacion vamos a usar los pronombres demostrativos. Example: These are the easy ones. Those are the most difficult. 1. This is my umbrella,
one is yours.
here are the new boys.
who were wounded were taken to hospital.
over there are the veterans.
in your hand?""
is a tropical fruit."
5. "Look at the photos!" "Which photos?""
6. Do you see that man? Well,
is the man I want you to meet.
7. Look at these children here!
are the children I want you to lookafter.
who wish to go now, stand up.
9. Look at the top of the hill. you.
are the men and women who are waiting for
3. Ahora vamos a usar los demostrativos junto con one/ones, siempre que sea factible. Example: This one here is the best in the shop. 1. Do you like this coat? No, I prefer 2. That chair is too low. I'll sit on
over there. here.
3. "Which socks do you like best, the green socks or the blue socks?" "I prefer the blue ones here. I don't like ." 4. These pullovers are very nice, but I prefer
5. Those houses on the hill are beautiful, but what about 6. The picture I am referring to is 7. Do you see the two girls by the window? Well, the class.
here. are the mostintelligent in
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Both and all 1. All (pronombre) puede ir seguido de of + the / this / these / that / those / posesivos y sustantivos. BOTH (pronombre) + of: • Se puede usar de la misma manera, pero solamente con formas en plural. El of aquf se omite a menudo, especialmente con all + un sustantivo o pronombre en singular. all the village all (of) Peter's friends all her life both (of) the villages all (of) these both (of) his parents 2. Con all/both + of + pronombre personal, el of no se puede omitir:
all of it both of them
I Recuerde • que hay una construccion alternativa: pronombre personal + all/both: all of it se reemplaza por it all all of us - we all (sujeto) us all (objeto) all of you se reemplaza por you all all of them they all (sujeto) them all (objeto)
• De la misma forma: both of us we both - us both both of them - they both - them both All of them were there. They were all there. All/Both of us came. We all/both came. They drank all/both the bottles. They drank all/both of them. They drank them all/both. Do you see those boys? Well, all of them speak French. This is my friend Jeff. We are both volunteers. All of us knew the answer to the question.
1. A continuacion tiene dos frases. Unalas usando both o all. Example: Jim was late. Jack was late too. Both Jim and Jack were late. 1. He closed the door. He closed the window too. 2. She plays the piano. She sings too. 3. James went. Jennifer went to the party too. 4. She speaks French. She can also speak Italian. 5. He has written a play. He has also written a novel. 6. The boy has broken a plate. He has broken a saucer too. 7. He has telephoned. He has written too. 8. He has won the 100 m. race. He has won the long jump too.
2. En este ejercicio tiene que cambiar la frase tal como se hace en el ejemplo. Example:
Both the children were too young. The children were both too young.
1. Both of the cats were sitting on the carpet. 2. Both of the women were talking for hours over a cup of tea. 3. Both cars are very fast. 4. Both the pianos need tuning up. They sound terrible. 5. Both girls are very intelligent. 6. Both the houses need painting. 7. Both pairs of trousers are very dirty. 8. Both planets are very similar.
UNIT 28 (Cont.)
"Both" y "both of" • Both se puede usar de dos maneras en la misma frase: - Both of the children have been to Paris. - The children have both been to Paris. • Both con una frase sustantivada: Both (of) the bikes broke down soon after the start. Both (of) my sons are very tall. I bought both (of) these vases in Greece. • Both puede usarse como adjetivo: She had burns on both hands. • Si both se refiere al sujeto de la frase, se puede poner en la misma position que los adverbios de tiempo, es decir, entre el sujeto y el verbo: We both like beer. The girls both looked English. • o detras del verbo ser: You are both too young. The girls were both very pretty. • En preterite perfecto se pone entre el auxiliar y el participio: We have both been to the same school. My parents have both been invited to the party.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
• Hay varias construcciones posibles con both: Both dogs were asleep. Both the dogs were asleep. Both of the dogs were asleep. The dogs were both asleep. "Both" como pronombre We'll buy both, please. Both looked the same to me. Give me both. Both are very similar.
1. Reemplace la frase que se le da con otra que signifique lo mismo. Use all. Example: All of them enjoyed the party. They all enjoyed the party. 1. All of us are very tired. 2. They are all here. 3. I drank all of it 4. We sent them all 5. All of you are wrong 6. I bought them all. 7. She broke all of it
8. We ate all of it. 9. They all came late to work. 10. All of them are very interesting. 11. We are all very intelligent. 12. They are all very thirsty 13. All of us were tired.
2. Cambie el sustantivo por un pronombre personal. Example: All my friends like riding. All of them like riding / They all like riding. 1. All those children are adorable. 2. All cakes have sugar.
3. All whisky is expensive.
4. All these people are right.
5. All these girls are beautiful.
6. All Shakespeare's plays are good.
7. All the oranges are bad. 71 STANLEY
Say and tell Tell
• Significa "decir", igual que say; la diferencia radica en el uso. El verbo tell se usa generalmente cuando detras hay un complemento indirecto, es decir, una persona que recibe la accion del verbo:
• Se usa generalmente cuando no hay un complemento indirecto detras del verbo, es decir, no hay nadie que reciba la accion del verbo:
Tell me something about that. Don't tell her anything yet. She didn't tell her mother what she had seen. John told his father that he was going to do it. I will tell you the truth tomorrow morning. Did the girls tell you what they intend to do? They never told us the whole truth. What did he tell the children?
What did you say? I didn't say anything. What did Peter say last night? He said that it is going to rain today. Mary said that she is going to get married. Did she say that, really? Say what you want, nobody is listening to you. Don't say that! It is terrible!
• En algunos casos tell signified contar, relatar, narrar un cuento. En estos casos el verbo tell puede no llevar complemento indirecto: He told a story. He told me a story. Mum, tell a story, please. Mum, tell us a story, please.
• Lo mismo ocurre con las palabras truth y lie: He told a lie. He told me a lie. He told the truth. He told me the truth.
Recuerde • que en algunos casos tell equivaie a say to. They told him that it was very difficult. They said to him that it was very difficult. She told us that she was coming. She said to us that she was coming.
1. Ponga el verbo tell o say. Example: She didn't say anything. He didn't tell me anything. 1. What did your cousin
you last night?
me that he hasn't got any money.
she is going to read for a while.
the children to get up early.
5. Mum, Mary
that she is going to have a shower.
6. Did stie
you when she expects to finish?
7. You didn't 8. She
next week was Diana's birthday. she was on a diet. She was too fat.
9. Who did you
came with you last night?
10. I'm afraid she didn't want to 11. She 12. He
me anything. that the chicken was delicious. me to go there by underground.
13. Did Mr Brown
he was going to do it today?
2. En algunas circunstancias se puede usar el verbo tell sin complemento detras. Example: She told the truth at the trial. 1. That girl is always 2. My father likes
3. My son, you must always 4. I'm afraid she
the truth. a lie.
5. My grandmother used to
3. El verbo tell a veces se puede sustituir por say to. Example: What did you tell him? What did you say to him? 1. He didn't tell me that, you know!
2. She is not going to tell us anything.
3. "I'm leaving at once," James told me.
4. "Come here," he told the girl.
5. He told her that he had just heard the news.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Exclamations: What a/an - what - how What a/an
• Se usa con sustantivos en singular: «> What a girl! What a beautiful girl! What a boy! What a silly boy! What a house! What a strange house! What a book! What an interesting book! What a face he has! What an attractive face he has!
• Se usa con adjetivos y adverbios: How big! How big this house is! How dark! How dark that tunnel is! How wonderful! How wonderful she is! How stupid! How stupid I was to lose my ticket! How difficult! How difficult that is! How wide! How wide this river is!
• En la columna de mano derecha hemos anadido un adjetivo calificativo. Como sabemos, un adjetivo calificativo es un adorno que se le anade al sustantivo para que sepa el oyente como es el sustantivo. Esto, por lo tanto, no altera la formation de la oration: what a/an + sustantivo (con o sin adjetivo).
What • Se usa con sustantivos en plural y con cosas incontables: What houses! What strange houses! What coffee! What terrible coffee! What weather! What awful weather! What girls! What beautiful girls! What nonsense! What silly nonsense! What men! What horrible men!
No confundas: What a long road this is! jQue carretera tan larga es esta!
con: How long this road is! !Que larga es esta carretera! • Observa que decimos: What a long road this is y no is this, puesto que no es una pregunta.
I Recuerde • que how long signified que largo/cuanto mide de largo, pero tambien signified cuanto tiempo. How long are you going to stay here?
1. Rellene las frases con what, what a, o what an. Example: What a meal! It's terrible! 1.
house! It's awful!
idiot that man is!
untidy room that is!
awful weather we are having!
beer this is!
scruffy clothes he always wears!
a lot of money she's got!
2. Rellene los huecos con how, what, o what a/an. Example: How difficult this problem is! 1.
wonderful! We can go to Spain in July!
heavy those suitcases are!
haircut you've got, James!
fantastic bargain I found yesterday!
long queues there are for the buses!
waste of time!
lucky you were to win the prize!
clever you were to answer the question!
stupid fool you are!
pity, we didn't arrive in time!
3. Ahora va a cambiar la frase tal como en el ejemplo. Example: What terrible coffee this is. How terrible this coffee is! 1. What a large house this is! 2. What a curious story this is! 3. What scruffy boys those are! 4. What a terrible meal this is! 5. What clever people those are! 6. What a silly story this is! 75 STANLEY
Can - could - be able • Can es un verbo defective. La conjugation completa de este verbo se da en la pagina 126. 1. El infinitive del verbo poder es to be able: They long to be able to live in freedom.
2. Can solamente se usa para el presente de indicative: She can do it alone. I can go tonight.
7. Could se usa para el pasado y el conditional: I could do it alone, but I didn't want to. (podia) I could do it for you, I suppose, (podria)
• Para todos los demas tiempos se usa la locution be able (ser capaz, vease pag. 126).
3. No anade una s en la tercera persona del singular: He can come with you. She can do it tomorrow.
I'll be able to go tonight. Will he be able to come in time?
4. No admite la partfcula to ni delante ni detras:
I have been able to finish it in time.
We can go tonight. They can come at any time.
5. No admite la particula do ni para interrogar ni para negar: Can you come? Can they do it? They cannot do it alone. You cannot go there tonight.
6. La forma negativa se puede contraer: I can't, you can't, he can't, we can't, they can't. I couldn't, you couldn't, he couldn't, we couldn't, they couldn't.
Recuerde * Can-Could se pueden traducir a veces por saber cuando expresamos una habilidad de hacer algo: I can swim very well. She could speak four languages. * La forma impersonal se puede generalmente se traduce por you can aunque tambien se puede usar la voz pasiva: You can't do that here/That can't be done here. Eso no se puede hacer aqui.
1. Tiene unas frases en forma afirmativa. Oebe ponerlas en interrogativa y negativa. Example: You can speak four languages. Can you speak four languages? You can't speak four languages. 1. That little girl can type very well.
2. I could go shopping with you this afternoon.
3. We can go on holiday to Salou.
4. We could go to that supermarket.
5. Mum, you can speak to the teacher.
2. Rellene los espacios con un tiempo apropiado. Example: "Can you come with me?" "I don't know if / will be able to." 1. I
buy the car because it was very expensive.
to do it yet. We'll do it tomorrow.
3. Emilio, 4. I
you speak English when you were a child? probably
to have a shower tomorrow.
you come to the races this afternoon?
6. If you pass your exams, you
7. Sorry, sir. I
do my homework last night.
type very well, I'm afraid.
to come tomorrow, I'm afraid.
to use it yet.
3. Ahora vamos a cambiar el tiempo de las frases de presente a futuro, y de pasado a preterite perfecto. Examples: I can do it now. - / will be able to do it tomorrow. I could do it yesterday. - / have been able to do it this morning. 1. You can type this letter. 2. Could they go shopping yesterday? 3. Can you do that for me? 4. They couldn't tell me what happened. 5. You can have this film developed at the chemist's. 6. They couldn't do it properly.
7. She can speak several languages.
8. I could fill in the form.
9. I'm afraid I can't come today. 77 STANLEY
Be - with ages and measurements • Para preguntar la edad se usa la formula how old are you?, es decir, se usa el verbo to be, y se responde I am fifteen years old. • Opcionalmente se pueden suprimir las palabras years old, asi se puede decir, I am twenty, she is eighteen. • Tambien se puede usar years of age, o at
the age of: How old are you? I am fifteen years old. How old is she? She is twenty-two. How old was David? He was twenty-one. How old is your mother? She is forty. How old was she when she died? She was ninety-one. She died at the age of ninety-one. • Para traducir cumplir ahos tambien se usa el verbo to be: Little Jimmy is five today. Alice was ten yesterday. How old will you be tomorrow? Tomorrow I will be fourteen.
Measurements • Tambien se usa el verbo to be para medidas. Asi se dice: How tall? How big? How long? How wide? How small? How high? How deep is the ...? • Para responder tambien se usa el verbo ser, asi: I am very tall, it is very long, etc. How tall are you? I am six feet tall. How big is the town? It is quite big. 78 STANLEY
How wide is the river? It is 200 yards wide. How small is an atom? It is very small. How high is Everest? It is 8,848 metres high. Tambien se puede decir: What is the height? What is the colour of...? What colour are his eyes? She is the same age as me. I am the same weight as you. What shoe size are you? What is the length of...? What is the width of...? "What's the colour of her eyes?" "Her eyes are blue." "What's the height of the building?" "What size is it?" "It is size 8." What is the length of the river? It is about 1,000 kms long. What's the width of this cloth? It is two yards wide.
1. Le dan unas respuestas. Usted tiene que poner la pregunta. Example: She is twenty years old. How old is she? 1. He was twenty-one.
2. My sister is ten.
3. She is six today.
4. He will be twenty tomorrow.
5. He started school at the age of five.
6. She died at the age of eighty.
7. He was twenty when he went there.
8. My father will be forty on his birthday.
9. I'll be fifteen next week.
2. Ahora vamos a hacer lo mismo con medidas. Example: This man is six feet tall. - How tall is this man? 1. This river is twenty yards wide.
2. The sea is 400 feet deep here.
3. This street is 2 km. long.
4. The corridor is 2 yards wide.
5. Big Ben is 98 m. high.
6. I don't know, but it's very small.
7. I don't know exactly, but the room is very large.
? 8. She is five feet six inches tall.
9. The river is 300 kms. long.
3. Ponga el verbo en el tiempo que corresponda. Example: What size is that? 1. What colo(u)r
just the right height to be a policeman.
a fat man of medium height.
4. What shoe size 5. She 6. What 7. The two roads
you? the same age as you. the width of the river? about 2 km. in length each.
the depth of this river?
the size of that cloth?
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Comparative and superlative adjectives; comparison Adjetivos irregulares
Adjetivos cortos • Para formar el grade comparative de los adjetivos y adverbios cortos (monosilabos y bisflabos), se afiade er, y para el superlative se anade est: tall - taller small - smaller
- tallest smallest
good bad far
- better worse farther further - older elder
- best worst farthest further oldest - eldest
• El que de comparacion se escribe con n (than).
Comparativos Peter is taller than Andrew. Our house is bigger than yours.
Superlatives - She is the tallest girl in her class. - This is the smallest diamond.
Adjetivos largos • Para la formation del grado comparativo de un adjetivo largo se antepone el adverbio more, igual que en castellano. Para formar el superlative se antepone the most: difficult - more difficult - the most difficult
Comparativo This lesson is more difficult than that one.
Superlative - This is the most comfortable chair that I have ever seen.
• Para adverbios que terminan en ly usamos more: You must drive more slowly.
• Con comparativos se puede poner much o a bit. This is much bigger than that, (mucho mas grande) - This is a bit smaller than that, (un poco mas pequeno)
Comparativos de igualdad as
He is as rich as his brother. My watch is as good as yours.
• Para frases negativas se puede usar so o as en la primera parte de la comparacion: • not so/as
as (no tan
This car is not as/so fast as mine.
1. En este ejercicio tiene que poner el adjetivo en el grado que corresponda. Todos son adjetivos cortos. Examples: Our house is bigger than yours. This house is the biggest. 1. Diana is
girl in her class, (pretty)
2. Peter is much
than John, (tall)
3. Our fridge is
than yours, (noisy)
4. My home town is
in Spain, (nice)
5. This girl is a bit
than that one. (thin)
6. It's a bit
today than it was yesterday, (warm) st
7. June 21 . is 8. Everest is
day of the year, (long) mountain in the world, (high)
9. Summer is much
than spring, (hot)
10. This exercise is much
than that one. (good)
11. That exercise is
of all. (bad)
2. Ahora va a hacer los mismo pero con adjetivos largos. Example: She is the most beautiful girl in this town. This book is more difficult than that one. 1. This boy is
in this class, (intelligent)
2. That problem is much
than this one. (difficult)
3. She has the (beautiful)
eyes that I have ever seen.
4. This book is
in the library, (interesting)
5. This room is
than ever, (untidy)
6. My father is
man in the world, (understanding)
3. Tiene ahora dos frases. Va a formar una frase en grado comparativo de igualdad. Example: Peter is tall. Mary is also tall. Mary is as tall as Peter. 1. This mountain is high. That mountain is not very high. 2. My car is fast. Your car is also fast. 3. This problem is difficult. That problem is also difficult. 4. Diana is pretty. Janet is not very pretty. 5. My book is interesting. Your book is also interesting. 81 STANLEY
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Good at / look like / what is ... like? Good at
What is like?
• La expresion good at puede ir seguida de un sustantivo, o de un gerundio: Peter is very good at maths. Those boys are very good at playing games.
• Esta expresion se usa para preguntar como es fulano, no como esta de salud. "What is the new teacher like?" "I think he's very strict." "What is your boyfriend like?" "Oh, he is very nice." "What are the new boys like?" "Well, they look very fit." "What are the recruits like?" 'They don't look very clever to me."
Look like • Esta expresion se puede traducir por parecer, tener el aspecto de. Puede ir seguida de un sustantivo o una frase sustantivada: He looks like a boy of spirit. It looks like rain. That looks like cheese to me. The picture doesn't look like him. He looks like his brother. She looks like her mother. • Tambien puede ir seguido de gerundio: The festival looks like being lively. He looked like biting. It looks like being wet all day. He looked like beating the champion.
Look + adjetivo • Generalmente usamos esta expresion cuando queremos decir que alguien o algo tiene un aspecto triste, cansado, alegre, etc: «> You look very tired today. A sad-looking little boy stood in front of him. The countryside looked beautiful in the sunshine. Pauline looks very excited today. • Con el mismo sentido se puede usar el presente progresivo: You are looking very unhappy today. What's the matter? She is looking very happy today.
• Nota bien la diferencia entre: What is he like?
y How is he? What is he like? iComo es? "How is he?" "Very well, thank you." "I Que tal esta?" "Muy bien gracias."
1. A continuation encontrara varias frases. Cambielas usando good at o bad at. Example: Emily plays tennis very well. Emily is good at tennis. 1. My son understands all the maths problems. 2. My daughter spends the whole winter skiing. 3. That boy can't hold the racket properly. He can't play tennis. 4. The tall boy runs very well. He can run long distances.
2. Gamble ahora estas frases usando look like. Example: There are a lot of clouds, it looks like rain. 1. The weather is good. It's going to be sunny this weekend. It looks
2. It is butter. I am sure it's butter. Well, it doesn't
3. Is that tea or coffee? Well, it
tea to me.
4. The apparatus seemed to be complicated. It
3. Ahora tiene unas frases explicando que aspecto tiene algo. Usted tiene que cambiar las frases usando look + adjetivo. Example: The girl was excited. The little girl looked excited. 1. She wore a new dress. The dress was beautiful. 2. The teacher had an angry expression that morning. 3. The grass was very green. It was beautiful. 4. She had a sad expression on her face. 5. It had a terrible appearance.
4. Tiene ahora unas respuestas. Usted tiene que poner las preguntas. Example: My boyfriend is very nice. - What's your boyfriend like? 1. Our teacher is very strict.
2. My new secretary is beautiful and clever.
3. My little dog is very sweet.
4. He is tall and intelligent.
Present perfect tense: "for" and "since" • El preterite perfecto de indicative se forma igual que en espahol:
I have played You have played He has played We have played You have played They have played
Have I played? Have you played? Has he played? Have we played? Have you played? Have they played?
I have not played You have not played He has not played We have not played You have not played They have not played
• A menudo usamos el preterito perfecto para hablar de situaciones o acciones que continuan hasta el momento en que hablamos (o poco antes): I have lived in this country for many years. I have always liked English people.
• El preterito perfecto se usa a menudo con since y for. Since (desde) • Se usa para decir cuando empezo algo: She has worked there since 1990. I have been reading since five o'clock. I have studied the piano since I was five. It has been raining since Monday.
For (durante) • Se usa para decir durante cuanto tiempo se ha estado haciendo algo; va seguido de una referencia de tiempo (por ejemplo, two months): She has worked here for twenty years, o I've been waiting for hours.
• Este tipo de frases se puede traducir al castellano de dos formas: Ha estado trabajando aqui durante 20 anos (literal). Lleva 20 ahos trabajando aqui (libre).
How long + for • Esto se emplea para preguntar durante cuanto tiempo: How long have you been waiting for?
• En este tipo de preguntas a menudo suprimimos el for: How long have you been living in Los Angeles (for)?
How long + since • Se emplea para preguntar cuanto tiempo hace desde que ocurrio algo: - How long is it since you came to live here? How long is it since you last saw her?
1. En este ejercicio tiene que poner since o for. Example:
I have been doing that lor two years. She has lived in this town since 1990. 1. This is a very old bicycle. I've had it years. 2. My father hasn't had a holiday ages. 3. I haven't had a holiday 1980. 4. It's been raining early this morning. 5. We've been learning English a very long time. 6. She's been learning French October last year. 7. Old Bronson has been a sergeant twenty years. 8. My parents have been married 25 years. 9. Old Mr and Mrs Johnson have been married 1950.
2. Ahora tiene que formar una nueva frase tal como en los ejemplos. Examples: It started raining at three o'clock. It has been raining since three o'clock. I met him two years ago. / have known him for two years. 1. He bought his car in January. He has had his car 2. He went on holiday three weeks ago. He has been 3. We got married ten years ago. We have 4. She went shopping at ten o'clock. She has 5. We last met when they arrived from Spain. We haven't 6. The last time they came to see us was around Christmas. They haven't
. . .
. . .
3. Ahora tiene unas respuestas. Listed tiene que poner las preguntas. Example:
I've been living in New York for ten years. How long have you been living in New York (for)?
1. I've been doing that job for twenty years.
? 2. She's been studying English for two years.
? 3. We've been celebrating all night.
4. Ahora usa la estructura How long is it since ...? Example: It's two years since I last had a holiday. How long is it since you last had a holiday? 1. It's six months since I last had a good meal. 2. It's three months since I last saw her. 3. It's ages since we last met.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Verbs with two objects • Complemento directo se refiere a una persona o cosa que recibe la accion del verbo: They ate the cake. Don't annoy me. He threw the ball. - She dropped the paper.
• El complemento indirecto se refiere generalmente a la persona que se beneficia de la accion expresada por el verbo: Throw me the ball.
Buy your sister a present.
• Se llama verbo transitive el que lleva complemento directo. La mejor forma de averiguar si un verbo es transitive es hacerse la pregunta i,a quien? o ^que? Si se puede responder, el verbo es transitive. I met Peter this morning. ,A quien encontraste? - Peter I am reading the paper. i,Que estas leyendo? - the paper
Posicion de los complementos • El complemento indirecto a menudo se refiere a una persona y se suele poner delante del directo: I gave Peter the book, o detras con to I gave the book to Peter. I sent Jane the letter. I sent the letter to Jane. He gave me the knife. He gave the knife to me. Give me it. Give it to me. I showed Fred the letter. I showed the letter to Fred.
• De la misma forma I'll find a job for Tom podria expresarse I'll findTom a job. Esta construction es posible con los verbos: build, buy, cook, book, find, get, keep, leave, make, order, reserve, etc: - I'll get you a drink. I'll get a drink for you. I bought him a book. I bought a book for him. I'll cook you something. I'll cook something for you.
• Los verbos transitivos se pueden poner en voz • La construction sin preposition se prefiere pasiva: cuando el objeto directo es una oration: The dog eats the meat. The meat is eaten by the dog.
• Se llama verbo intransitivo el que no lleva complemento directo y no se puede poner en voz pasiva: - The plane landed in New York. The girl runs very fast.
Tell me the whole story. Show me what you've got in your pocket.
1. Con muchos verbos se pueden poner los complementos de dos formas. A continuacion se le da una, usted tiene que poner la otra. Example: Give the book to John. Give John the book. 1. Show me the photos.
2. Lend me the newspaper.
3. Can you pass the sugar to your sister?
4. Show the map to your father.
5. I'll offer him more money.
6. Hand me your exams.
7. Bring the bill to me.
8. Please, give it to me.
9. Send him the letter.
2. Ahora vamos a hacur lo mismo usando for. Example: I'll get you a drink. /'// get a drink for you. 1. I bought a book for Mary.
2. He'll find a job for me.
3. I'll fetch you the plate.
4. She bought Jane a present.
5. They'll build a house for us.
6. I'll prepare something for you.
7. She made her daughter a dress.
8. I'll cook you a meal.
9. I'll find the money for you.
10. She got the change for me.
3. A continuacion encontrara unas frases con un complemento directo largo. Cambie la frase que hace de complemento directo por un pronombre y pongalo en las dos formas que sabe. Example: Show me what you've got in your hand. Show it to me. Show me it. 1. She showed me a wonderful photo. 2. He gave me a very nice present. 3. She bought him the book he wanted to read. 4. He offered her the best job in the office. 5. I'll lend you the best book in the library. 87 STANLEY
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Question words as subjects • Who puede hacer el of icio de sujeto y de complemento del verbo. • Cuando hace el oficio de sujeto el verbo se pone en forma afirmativa, es decir, sin partfculas de interrogation: Who came yesterday? (sujeto) o Who spoke at the meeting? (sujeto) Who pays the bills? (sujeto) • Who, whom como complementos del verbo: Ingles coloquial: Who did you see? Who did she talk to? Ingles gramatical: Whom did you see? Whom did she talk to? • Whose como sujeto: Whose car broke down? Whose horse arrived first? Whose ship sank? • Whose como complemento de un verbo: Whose book did you borrow? Whose pen did you use? Whose umbrella did you lose? • Which como sujeto: Which finger hurts you? Which car won the race? Which horse broke its leg? • Which como complemento: Which hand do you use? o Which of these books do you prefer? Which horse do you think will win?
• What como sujeto: What caused the fire? What happened last night? • What como complemento: What paper do you read? What did he say? What do you want? • How many + sustantivo puede ser sujeto de oracion y por lo tanto ir sin partfculas de interrogacion: How many dogs ran in the race? How many cars crashed on the bridge? How many people went to Madrid? • How many como complemento: How many things did you buy? How many people did you see? How many children did they have?
1. A continuacion tiene unas respuestas, usted tiene que hacer las preguntas. A veces el who es sujeto y a veces complemento. Example:
I didn't see anybody. - Who/Whom did you see? Peter came with me. - Who came with you?
1. Your friend spoke at the meeting.
2. She didn't speak to anybody.
3. My mother bought the book.
4. Robert saw it.
5. My father paid the bill.
6. My brother ran in the marathon.
7.I didn't tell anybody.
8. She didn't give it to anybody.
9. He didn't see anyone.
2. What y which a veces son sujetos de oracion y a veces complementos. Forme preguntas para las siguientes respuestas con what y which. Example: Nothing happened yesterday. What happened yesterday? 1. The explosion was caused by gas.
2. They ate fish and chips.
3. This horse arrived first.
4. He reads the "Daily Mail".
5.1 don't know what caused the rebellion.
6. She didn't see anything.
7. This motor makes the noise.
8.1 didn't say anything.
3. Ahora vamos a hacer lo mismo con how many. Example:
About twenty people went to Madrid. How many people went to Madrid? I bought ten books. How many books did you buy?
1. The Evans had six children.
2. About ten girls came to the party.
3.1 had seven students in my class yesterday.
4. Only six dogs run in each race.
5. I posted ten letters.
6. Two union leaders spoke at the meeting.
? 89 STANLEY
Reported or Indirect Speech • Hay dos formas de relatar lo que dice una persona: la forma directa e indirecta. • En la forma directa repetimos las palabras exactas del que habla: He said, "I went to London last week".
• Cuando convertimos el estilo directo en indirecto tenemos que hacer algunos cambios. La tabla que va a continuation indica estos cambios.
• En forma indirecta se da el sentido exacto de lo que se dice pero sin necesidad de usar las palabras exactas del que habla: He said (that) he had gone to London the previous week.
Presente "I never go there", he said. Pasado "I went there yesterday", he said. Future "I will go tomorrow", he said. Condicional "I would like to go", he said. Preterite perfecto "I have done if, he said.
Pasado He said (that) he never went there. Pluscuamperfecto He said (that) he had gone there the day before. Condicional He said (that) he would go the next day. Condicional He said (that) he would like to go. Pluscuamperfecto He said (that) he had done it.
• Hay que tener en cuenta que al pasar a estilo indirecto algunas expresiones de tiempo cambian:
Direct today yesterday the day before yesterday tomorrow the day after tomorrow next week/month/year last week/month/year a week ago 90 STANLEY
Indirect that day the day before two days before the next/following day in two days' time the following week/month/year the previous week/month/year the week before/the previous week
1. Gamble de estilo directo a indirecto. Example: "I never eat bread," he said. He said that he never ate bread. 1. "I always get up early," he said. 2. "I spoke to him yesterday," she said. 3. "I like to stay at home," he explained. 4. "I will go to Mexico on Sunday," he said. 5. "I have eaten too much," he said. 6. "I would like to go to New York," he said. 7. "We have found a flat," she said. 8. "I have spoken to him," Jim said.
2. Ahora vamos a hacer lo contrario. Las frases de estilo indirecto paselas a directo. Example: He said that he never ate bread."/ never eat bread," he said. 1. He said that he always spoke English in class. 2. He said that he had found the book he wanted. 3. He said that he was writing a letter. 4. She said that she had spoken to him. 5. Peter said that he had done it in the morning. 6. She said that she would like to go with him. 7. They said they were going to Paris on business. 8. Jim said he would speak to her.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
So am I - So do I - Neither/nor am • Cuando queremos anadir una adicion afirmativa, yo tambien etc., en ingles hay varias posibilidades. • En caso de que haya un verbo auxiliar en la frase, este verbo se repite: "I am a man." "So am I!" "We are going to school." "So are we!" "I have a dog." "So have I!" "She has a nice house." "So have I!" • Si el que usamos es un verbo defectivo, tambien se repite este verbo: "I can speak French." "So can I!" "I could drive a car when I was 14." "So could I!" "My mother can cook very well." "So can mine!" • En los demas casos usamos las particulas do, does, did, will, would: "I come every day." "So do I!" "She speaks French." "So does he!" "I will go tomorrow." "So will I!" "I would like to go." "So would I!" 'They went to England last summer." "So did we!" • En caso que la frase sea negativa y queramos anadir, yo tampoco, usamos neither o
nor: "I am not a man." "Neither/Nor am I!" "She is not a woman." "Neither/Nor am I!" 'They are not very tall." "Neither/Nor are we!" "I haven't got a dog." "Neither/Nor have I!" • Lo mismo ocurre con los verbos defectives: "I can't speak French." "Neither/Nor can I!" "He couldn't come in time." "Neither/nor could we!"
Con los demas verbos usamos las particulas do, does, did, will, would: "I don't speak French." "Neither/Nor do I!" "I don't want any more, thanks." "Neither/Nor do we!" "He didn't buy the book." "Neither/Nor did she!" "She didn't come in time." "Neither/Nor did I!" "She won't speak to us." "Neither/Nor will he!" 'They won't do it tomorrow." "Neither/Nor will I!" "I wouldn't like to go." "Neither/Nor would I!" "She wouldn't tell me anything." "Neither/Nor would he!"
1. Anada una observacion afirmativa a las siguientes frases: Example: "She is very intelligent." "So am I!" 1. "They are very tall" "
2. "That girl is very pretty." "
3. "He speaks good English." "
4. "I can run very fast." "
5. "You could find a better job.""
6. "I will go to Paris next summer." "
7. "He buys the paper every day." "
8. "I would like to speak many languages." " 9. "I would go there tomorrow." " 10. "She can dance well." " 11. "I was very tired." "
I!" we!" her sister!" the others!"
12. "We came as soon as we could.""
13. "They speak perfect French." "
14. "I will buy it tomorrow.""
15. "I would like to have another drink.""
2. Ahora vamos a hacer lo mismo con frases negativas. Example: I am not a tall man.- Neither/Nor am I! 1. "She is not very pretty." "
2. "They haven't got a big house.""
3. "They haven't done anything yet.""
4. "You didn't come in time.""
5. "They didn't speak French.""
6. "We won't go on holiday this year.""
7. "I wouldn't buy that.""
8. "I didn't see him.""
9. "They won't stop in this village.""
10. "We didn't get paid.""
11. "I can't speak Italian.""
12. "We couldn't pay so much.""
13. "He wasn't injured."" 14. "She never goes to concerts."" 15. "I didn't think about it.""
I!" he!" I!"
Some and something in offers and requests • Normalmente some se usa con verbos afirmativos: They bought some cakes. • Pero tambien se suele usar some en frases interrogativas cuando la frase indica una oferta, sugerencia, o peticion, y se espera que la respuesta sea afirmativa: ^ Would you like some wine? Could you do something for me? Can I have some of those sweets? Have you got some glasses you can lend me? Why don't you give her some flowers? Didn't you borrow some books from the library? Would you like some more milk? Why don't you give him something to drink?
Linking words both ... and Either ... or Neither... nor ... • Las tres estructuras sirven de union. Both.... and... se traduce por tanto... como...: Both Jim and Jane were late. I like both John and Peter. They were both hungry and thirsty. He loved both Susan and Sandra. • La estructura either... or... se traduce por o ...o...: * You can have either biscuits or cakes. She is either French or Italian. We'll go there either on Saturday or on Sunday. We can go either by plane or by train.
• La estructura neither... nor... se traduce por ni... ni...: She can speak neither French nor Spanish. The room was neither large nor bright. The girl was neither pretty nor intelligent. The woman on the phone was neither Rose nor her mother. • Las frases negativas como Ese hombre no era ni Pedro ni Juan se pueden traducir de dos formas: The man on the phone wasn't either Peter or John. The man on the phone was neither Peter nor John.
1. Complete estas frases con some/something. Example: Can you give me some sugar, please? 1. Could you give me
information about this town?
2. Why don't you send him
3. Would you like 4. Can I have
to eat? to drink, please?
5. Why don't they give them
6. What are you looking for? Have you lost 7. Can I have
more milk in my coffee, please?
8. Would you like to take 9. Why don't you give her 10. Why doesn't she put up
of these biscuits? chocolates? to cover that hole in the wall?
2. Esta vez tiene que hacer frases con: both ... and ..., neither... nor..., either... or Example:
Bob was late. Jill was late too. Both Bob and Jill were late. She didn't telephone. She didn't write. She neither telephoned nor wrote.
1. The windows need painting. The doors need painting, too.
2. I don't drink. And I don't smoke.
3. He emigrated because he needed a change. He needed more money, too.
4. You can leave now or you can leave this afternoon.
5. We haven't got any money to go to Disneyworld. And we haven't got time.
6. Is that girl's name Jane? Or is it Julia? It's one of the two.
7. The play was very boring. It was very long, too.
8. The restaurant wasn't good. And it wasn't very cheap.
9. She can't write. She can't read.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Infinitive of Purpose • La idea de proposito generalmente se expresa con el infinitive. Es decir, usamos to + infinitive para hablar acerca del proposito de hacer algo (para + infinitive): She went to Paris to learn French. He shouted to warn us of the danger. Mary telephoned to invite us to her wedding. The secretary went out to post the letters.
• Tambien usamos to + infinitivo cuando nos referimos acerca del proposito de alguna cosa, o el porque alguien necesita o quiere algo: I need something to open this tin. The rich Arab had six bodyguards to protect him. This fence is to keep people out of my property. This generator is here to produce electricity.
• Tambien podemos usar in order to/so as + to + infinitivo con un infinitivo negativo: He pulled out his knife in order/so as to frighten them. - She walked on tiptoe in order/so as not to wake her children.
• Con to be y to have: She gave up her job in order/so as to have more time for her family. She got up early in order/so as to have a big breakfast. She left work at four in order/so as to be home early.
• Con can y could se usa el so that... (para poder): She is learning French so that she can study in Paris. He moved to Boston so that he could see his girlfriend more often.
• Para que el pueda...: Give him my phone number so that he can phone me. He wears glasses so that nobody can recognize him.
• Infinitivo + sustantivo + preposicion: He wants a case to keep his tapes and records in. I need a tin opener to open this tin of asparagus with.
• Esto es cuando hablamos de algo en particular, pero si nos referimos a algo con un sentido en general usamos for + gerundio: This is a box for keeping old books in. - This is a tool for cutting wood.
1. Use las palabras en parentesis para responder a estas preguntas. Example: Why are you going out? (buy/some/milk) I'm going out to buy some milk. 1. Why did you go to Jim's school? (speak/Jim's teacher)
2. Why are you wearing boots? (keep/feet/warm)
3. Why is she going into hospital? (have/operation)
4. Why are they saving money? (get/married)
5. Why did you shout? (warn/you/danger)
6. Why are you going to the bank? (change/money)
2. Ahora va a completar estas frases usando el verbo apropiado. keep, hang, solve, buy, wear, climb, read, celebrate, sit Example: There was no furniture, not even chairs to sit on. 1. We haven't got enough money
a new house.
2. I'm going to buy a picture 3. Get me a box
in the hall. these old books in.
4. We must get together and try 5. He was too afraid 6. I need a new dress 7. I have no time
the problem. the mountain. at the wedding. books.
8. They are having a party
the end of the course.
3. En este ejercicio tiene que escribir frases con so that. Example:
I'll give you her address. I want you to write to her. I'll give you her address so that you can write to her.
1. He locked his door. He didn't want to be disturbed.
2. I spoke loud. I wanted everybody to hear.
3. She arrived early. She wanted to get a good seat. 97 STANLEY
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Conditional Structures • El condicional se forma igual que el future, anteponiendo al infinitive las particulas would o should.
I should/would go
should/would I go?
I should/would not go
you would go
would you go?
you would not go
he would go
would he go?
he would not go
we should/would go
should/would we go?
we should/would go
you would go
would you go?
you would not go
they would go
would they go?
they would not go
• La particula should solo se usa en ingles muy formal: I thought they would give me a diploma. They expected that the plane would arrive on time. She hoped they would come to the party.
• El condicional se suele abreviar, sobre todo en conversacion: I'd, you'd, he'd, she'd, it'd, we'd, you'd, they'd. I'd go if I could. I'd go to Paris if I spoke French. She'd buy the house if she had money. I'd speak louder if I had to.
• El condicional negative tambien se puede abreviar: I wouldn't, you wouldn't, he wouldn't, etc. I wouldn't go if I were you.
Condicional compuesto • Affirmative I would have gone. You would have gone. He would have gone. We would have gone. You would have gone. They would have gone.
• Interrogative Would I have gone? Would you have gone? Would he have gone?
• Negative I wouldn't have gone. You wouldn't have gone, etc.
1. Haga preguntas. Example:
Perhaps one day you will meet a nice girl. What would you do if you met a nice girl?
1. "Perhaps one day somebody will ask you to go out with him". What would you do if
2. Perhaps one day somebody will hit you.
? 3. Perhaps one day a pretty girl will say she loves you.
? 4. Perhaps one day hooligans will rob you.
? 5. Perhaps one day someone will insult you.
? 6. Perhaps one day you will lose your money in Mexico.
? 7. Perhaps one day you will meet your favourite film star.
? 8. Perhaps one day someone will ask you to marry him/her.
2. Ahora responds como en el ejemplo. Example: Are you going to leave at 5? (we/arrive/too/early) If we left at five, we would arrive too early. 1. Is John going to invite Martha? (he have to/invite Marian/too). No, if he invited Martha, he 2. Are you going to see this horror film? (not sleep). No, if I saw this horror film, I 3. Is your brother going to apply for the post? (not/get it). No, if he applied for the post, he 4. Is Mary going to change clothes? (be late). No, if she changed clothes, she 5. Are you going to leave the car unlocked (be stolen). No, if I left the car unlocked, it 6. Are you going to take Mary's necklace? (be angry). No, if I took her necklace, she 7. Are you going to sell your car? (have to walk/to work). No, if I sold my car,
UNIT 42 (Cont.)
Types of conditional sentences • Las frases condicionales en ingles moderno se suelen dividir en tres tipos:
• What will you do if it rains? if + present + future If it rains, we will stay at home.
• What would you do if it rained? if + past + simple conditional If it rained, we would stay at home.
Type 3: • What would you have done if it had rained? if + past perfect + perfect conditional If it had rained, we would stayed at home.
• Con las frases condicionales del tipo 1, el verbo principal se pone en futuro simple, y la frase subordinada en presente. No importa el orden: If you run, you will catch the train. They will go without you if you don't hurry. - If the weather is good, we will go for a picnic. The boys will play football if the teacher lets them.
• Con las frases del tipo 2, el verbo principal se pone en condicional simple, y la frase subordinada en pasado: If you ran, you would catch the train. - They would go without you if you didn't hurry. If the weather was good, we would go for a picnic. The boys would play football if the teacher let them.
• Con las frases del tipo 3, el verbo principal se pone en condicional compuesto, y la frase subordinada en pluscuamperfecto. If you had run, you would have caught the train. They would have gone without you if you hadn't hurried. If the weather had been good, we would have gone for a picnic. The boys would have played football if the teacher had let them.
1. En este ejercicio tiene que poner el verbo en la forma correcta. Tipo 1. Example: If I am hungry, I will eat (eat) something. 1. If you are clever, you
(solve) the problem.
2. What will you do if you
(win) the lottery?
3. I will catch the train if it
(arrive) on time.
4. If it is hot, I
(open) the window.
5. The boys will play football if it
6. If you don't write better, I 7. I will ring you up if I
(understand) a word. (have) time.
2. Pon el verbo en la forma correcta. Tipo 2. Example: If you sold the house, you would get a lot of money. 1. I would go to the party if you 2. If you spoke good English, you
(invite) me. (earn) more.
3. Little Jim would lose the money if you 4. If I found money in the street, I
(give) it to him. (keep) it.
5. You would feel better if you 6. If she found the key, she 7. They would telephone if they
(stop) smoking. (give) it to you. (can).
3. Pon el verbo en la forma correcta. Tipo 3. Example: If he had been taller, he would have been a policeman. 1. If you had come by car, you time.
2. We would have stayed at home if it
3. If I had known she was ill, I her some flowers.
4. We would have arrived earlier if we the 9 o'clock train.
5. If I had known you were coming, I (go) to the airport to meet you. 6. You would have been accepted if you the form. 7. If you had asked me, I gone with you.
(fill) in (go)
Structures with Get • Get es, quiza, el verbo que mas se usa en el lenguaje coloquial ingles. Se usa, sin embargo, mucho menos en el lenguaje escrito, y algunos profesores opinan que el usar get en el lenguaje escrito es "mat ingles". Get tiene cuatro significados.
• Cuando el get va seguido de un participio, a menudo tiene el mismo sentido que to be:
1. Cuando se usa con un complemento directo, significa algo asf como recibir, obtener, conseguir, coger. El significado exacto depende de la frase:
3. Cuando detras del get hay un complemento directo seguido de un adjetivo, infinitive, participio, preposicion o adverbio, el significado es "causar un cambio":
Did you get the parcel? Can you get the tickets for tonight's concert? Can you get a pound of sugar and a sack of potatoes in the supermarket? I'll come and get you at the airport tomorrow. He got a punch on his nose.
2. Cuando se usa con cualquier otra cosa (adjetivo, infinitive, participio, preposicion, adverbio), get generalmente sugiere algun cambio o movimiento. De nuevo, el sentido exacto depende del resto de la frase. • Cuando lo que sigue a get es cualquier cosa menos un simple complemento directo, casi siempre se refiere a un cambio de estado: las cosas o las personas que se hacen diferentes, se mueven de sitio, comienzan otras actividades, etc. El significado exacto depende de la clase de palabra que vaya detras del get, y del resto de la frase. Con un adjetivo, get tiene un significado parecido a become: - That woman is getting old. He got a punch on his nose.
The goods got damaged in transit, (were damaged) The thief got caught by the police, (was caught) He gets invited to all parties, (is invited)
Get him to stop doing that. You can get your hands warm in front of the fire. I can't get Peter to arrive on time.
4. El participio got se usa con algunas formas habladas con el verbo have, cuando se refiere a posesion, relaciones u obligation: I've got a friend who lives in Paris. What have you got in your hand? We haven't got any news yet.
• Hay que observar, no obstante, que esto solamente ocurre en presente de indicative.
1. Cambie el verbo get por otro verbo con el mismo significado. Example:
She got the tickets at the Odeon Cinema. She bought the tickets at the Odeon Cinema.
1. Did you get my letter? 2. Can you get some apples at the shop, please? 3. I'll get you home in my car. 4. I'll get a glass of beer for you. 5. Have you got any news from your boyfriend? 6. I'll get some information about this company.
2. Ahora vamos a hacer lo mismo con el tipo 2. Example: When people get old they forget things. When people become old they forget things. 1. When you get to New York send me a post card. 2. My friend got hit by a golf ball. 3. The poor woman got very ill. 4. The picture got damaged on the way here.
3. Haga lo mismo con el tipo 3. Example: She wants to get her feet warm. She wants to warm her feet. 1.I want to get the car going. 2. Try to get her to stay with us for dinner. 3.I am going to get my hair cut. 4. The prisoner is trying to get his hands free.
4. En algunas de las siguientes frases se puede afiadir el got, en otras no. Anada el got, siempre que se pueda. Example: Have you got a dog? - Yes, I've got a nice little dog. 1. The Evans had a house in the country. 2. Robert has very good marks at school. 3. The boys will have many things to do next Sunday. 4. Jill and Jane have had a lot of work this year. 5. They have to come early every day, not only on Mondays.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Still, yet, already, since, for, during Always - never
• Los adverbios always y never se pueden usar en los comienzos de frase con oraciones de imperative: Always pay the money you owe. - Never say that again. - Always tell me the truth. - Never throw stones at people. Always ask for advice. Never go jogging alone.
• A menudo se usa para expresiones de tiempo con preterito perfecto o pluscuamperfecto: I haven't seen him. I met her last week. I hadn't seen her since 1990.
Still (todavia) • Se usa para frases afirmativas e interrogativas. Su posicion es la misma que los adverbios de frecuencia: Mr Evans is still in bed. Are you still waiting for an answer? Jimmy still works for that company.
Yet (todavi'a) • Se usa para frases con sentido negative, a menudo en preterite perfecto. Generalmente lo solemos poner al final de la frase: I haven't finished the job yet. She hasn't written the letter yet. Have you finished washing the car yet?
Already (ya) • Su posicion es la misma que los adverbios de frecuencia, aunque tambien puede ir al final: This machine is already too old. I've already read the newspaper. He already knows the truth. He knows it already.
Ago (hace) • Se pone al final de la frase. Se refiere a algo que sucedio algun tiempo atras sin idea de continuidad. Normalmente se usa un verbo en pasado (past tense): I went to London six months ago. I studied Latin years ago.
For (durante) • Se usa para marcar la duration de un periodo de tiempo. Suele ir seguido del artfculo indeterminado a, o de un numeral. A menudo se usa con preterites perfectos o pluscuamperfectos: I haven't seen her for six months, o She has been on the phone for an hour.
During (durante) • Suele ir seguido del artfculo determinado the, o un adjetivo posesivo: - It was very cold during the winter, o I spoke to him during the interval. I learned a lot during my stay with you.
Nota: • Con la expresion the last se usa for: I haven't seen him for the last two weeks. We haven't done anything for the last three hours.
1. Use still o yet, segun convenga a la frase. Example: Mum hasn't finished doing the washing up yet. Are you still reading that book? 1. I can
run faster than you.
2. She is
in hospital. She hasn't come out
3. He hasn't finished studying German 4. The children haven't gone to bed homework. 5. We've
got many things to do. We haven't finished
6. He hasn't decided what to do
7. "Have you finished washing the car finished
thinking about it.
?" "No, I haven't
2. Ahora tiene que poner bien since o bien ago, en las frases que vienen a continuacion. Example: I haven't seen him since January. We met two years ago. 1. I started working at Lloyds six months
2. She's been doing the same thing
3. They emigrated to Australia years
4. Jews have been emigrating to Israel
5. News has been arriving
five o'clock this morning.
6. I last heard of him ten years
7. I've just spoken to him on the phone a few minutes
3. A continuacion tiene que diferenciar entre for y during. Example: We haven't seen each other for years. We met during the rehearsal of the last play. 1. She's been waiting
2. The weather was terrible
3. We haven't had any news from him 4. It was very hot
a couple of years.
5. We were very happy 6. The Wilsons lived here 7. The Browns have been living in Spain
our stay with you. five or six years. the last twenty years.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Question Tags • Las coletillas o question tags son preguntas que se ponen al final de una frase afirmativa: ,verdad? 1 . Las frases con verbos auxiliares o defectives forman la coletilla con el mismo verbo. Si la frase es afirmativa la coletilla ira en forma interrogativa/negativa. Si la frase es negativa, la coletilla ira en forma interrogativa solamente: You are a man, aren't you? She is a woman, isn't she? He isn't a boy, is he? » She isn't a girl, is she? He has a dog, hasn't he? We have a son, haven't we? He hasn't got a dog, has he? We haven't got a son, have we? You can speak French, can't you? She couldn't run fast, could she? She could cook, couldn't she? He can't speak Italian, can he? 2. Con los demas verbos se usan las particulas do, does, en presente: You come every day, don't you? She plays tennis very well, doesn't she? You don't speak Chinese, do you? She doesn't cook very well, does she? 3. En pasado se usa did: You went to Madrid, didn't you? She spoke at the meeting, didn't she? 4. En futuro se usa la parti'cula will. Recuerda que will not = won't: You will go tomorrow, won't you? They won't come tomorrow, will they? 5. En condicional se usa would: They would come if they could, wouldn't they? She wouldn't tell you, would she?
Con el verbo impersonal there is/there are: There is a lot of money, isn't there? There are many people, aren't there? There isn't much time, is there? There aren't many trees, are there? There wasn't anny coffee, was there?
1. Complete las frases poniendo la coletilla con los verbos auxiliares o defectives. Example: Her birthday is on the 23rd, isn't it? 1. He has been an engineer for 20 years,
2. They weren't in New York yesterday,
3. That girl is not coming with you,
4. You've got a German car,
5. Your friend can't speak French,
6. Mr Brown wasn't at work yesterday,
7. You haven't given the fish to the cat,
8. You aren't going to leave me here,
9. They must take him to hospital,
10. You are very clever,
11. You can help us with this, 12. He is going by car,
13. The hotel was very expensive,
14. You can't drive a car without a licence,
15. He has borrowed money from you,
2. Ahora va a hacer lo mismo pero usando las particulas do, does, did, will, would etc. Example: You went to Mexico, didn't you? 1. She speaks English very well, 2. You learned a lot,
3. They didn't buy the video,
4. You will come with us,
5. She won't pass her driving test,
6. You would like to do that,
7. She wouldn't like that to happen,
8. There are many things to do,
9. There weren't many people at the concert,
10. There is a lot of time,
11. That TV set doesn't give a good picture,
12. You won't go swimming tomorrow,
13. We will get our pay tomorrow, 14. It will rain tonight,
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Passive Voice • La voz pasiva inglesa, igual que en castellano, se forma con el auxiliar to be, y el participio del verbo que se conjuga. • La preposicion espanola por se traduce por by.
The dog eats the bread. These boys study this book.
The bread is eaten by the dog. This book is studied by these boys.
The cat drank the milk. The player threw the ball.
The milk was drunk by the cat. The ball was thrown by the player.
Susan will read the book. Alice will wash the dishes.
The book will be read by Susan. The dishes will be washed by Alice.
My mother would do it better. They would eat the cake.
It would be done better by my mother. The cake would be eaten by them.
I have broken the jar. He has written two books this year.
The jar has been broken by me. Two books have been written by him this year.
She had made a delicious cake. This artist had painted the picture.
A delicious cake had been made by her. The picture had been painted by this artist.
They will have stolen the money. She will have taken the medicine.
The money will have been stolen by them. The medicine will have been taken by her.
would have broken that.
That would have been broken by me.
Recuerde • La voz pasiva en ingles se usa mucho mas que en castellano. Se usa a menudo para traducir formas impersonales: se dice, se piensa... It is said... It is thought...
1. Ponga las siguientes frases en voz pasiva. Example: My father built this house. -This house was built by my father. 1. The children will do this exercise. 2. This horse won the race. 3. This man wrote this book. 4. The centre forward scored a goal. 5. My brother has repaired the TV set. 6. My wife washed the dishes. 7. They would buy many things. 8. The government bought that company. 9. The cook has prepared a good meal. 10. Jim will write the letter. 11. He has said many things. 12. My mother will open the window. 13. My colleague will do the job.
2. Ahora va a hacer todo lo contrario. Ponga estas frases en voz activa. Example: The milk was drunk by the cat. - The cat drank the milk. 1. This sweater will be worn by Peter tomorrow. 2. The money was stolen by the thieves. 3. Jean was taken out by Jeff. 4. A goal was scored by the centre forward. 5. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. 6. Many writers were influenced by Cervantes. 7. The dishes were washed by my wife. 8. The work has been done by the children. 9. Many things are broken by children playing at home. 10. That film is going to be seen by all the children.
Interrogative Pronouns Who (quien)
• El pronombre interrogative who es sujeto de oracion: Who was that woman? Who is going to do it?
• Se usa para cosas y personas y es mas selectivo que what: Which is the cheapest? Which is the best? We have two Susans here. Which one do you want to see?
Whom (a quien) • Es complemento indirecto o circunstancial, y a menudo va acompahado por una preposicion: Whom did you see last night? A quien viste ayer noche? Whom did you speak to? ,A quien hablaste? Whom did they go with? iCon quien/quienes fueron? Whom are you talking about? iDe quien estais hablando? (acerca de) Whom did he tell? iA quien se lo dijo? • Ffjese que colocamos la preposicion al final de la frase. Antiguamente se colocaba al principio - With whom are you going? pero eso ha caido en desuso.
Why (por que?) "Why was he late?" "Because he missed the train." When (cuando) "When do you come here?" "I come here every day." Where (donde) "Where do you live?" "I live in New York." How (como) "How did you come?" "I came by train."
• En ingles coloquial a veces se suprime la m de whom: Who are you going with? Who were you talking to? Whose (de quien) • Es un complemento determinative. Indica posesion: Whose is this car/Whose car is this? quien es este coche? What (que) • Se usa para cosas: What did you say last night? iQue dijiste ayer noche?
que cuando los pronombres who y what son sujetos de oracion no se usan particulas de interrogacion: Who came yesterday? Who told you that? Who ate all the bread? Who spoke at the meeting? What happened last night? What caused the fire?
1. Ponga el pronombre interrogative apropiado. Example: Whom did you see this morning? 1."
is that dog?" "It's ours."
were you talking to?" "I was talking to Tom."
are you going to run with?"
happened in your school last week?"
one do you like?" "I like the one on the left."
came with you last night?"
are you going to make the cake with?"
was she with?" "She was with her friend."
were you talking about?" "I was talking about Jim."
2. Estas son las respuestas. Usted tiene que hacer las preguntas. Example: Peter came with her. Who came with her? 1. I didn't say anything.
2. The dog? It's ours.
3. I was talking to Jim.
4. Steve told me that.
5. I went with my friend.
6. We saw that woman.
7. We are going to the cinema with Fred.
8. A short circuit caused the fire.
3. A continuation se le dan unas frases de relative con la preposicion al principio. Usted tiene que poner la preposicion al final. Example:
To whom were you talking? Who were you talking to?
1. About whom are you talking, boys?
2. With whom did you have dinner on Sunday?
3. With whom was she when you met her?
4. To whom are you going to get married?
5. With whom are you going to run the marathon, Fred?
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Relative Pronouns Who (quien, que, el cual) • Es el sujeto de la frase subordinada de relative. Se usa para personas: This is the man who came. Those are the boys who said that.
That • Puede ser sujeto de una frase de relative detras de all, everyone, everybody, no one, nobody and those: & Everybody who/that knew her liked her. Nobody who/that saw the accident will forget it.
Whom (a quien) • Es complemento indirect© o circunstancial, se usa para personas: This is the man whom I saw. This is the girl with whom he fell in love.
• Sin embargo, en ingles coloquial, a menudo ponemos la preposicion detras del verbo en la oracion de relative. Cuando hacemos esto generalmente usamos who en vez de whom: This is Mr Carter, who I was telling you about.
Whose (cuyo) This is the man whose son is so tall.
Which or that (el cual) • Generalmente se usa para cosas, pero a veces tambien para personas: The car (which/that) I bought last week, broke down yesterday.
• Which no se suele usar detras de all, everything, little, much, none, no, o despues de superlatives. Solemos usar that o lo omitimos: Everything (that) you say will be taken
• La forma whom se considera muy formal. En down. ingles coloquial generalmente usamos who o This is the best hotel (that) I know. that, y todavia es mas corriente omitir el proWhat (lo que) nombre: The girl whom I asked, told me to come back today. The girl who I asked, told me to come back today. The girl that I asked, told me to come back today. The girl I asked, told me to come back today.
• En las oraciones que proporcionamos una informacion extra se puede usar la preposicion antes de whom (para personas) y which (para cosas). Asf que se puede decir to whom, with whom, about whom, for which, etc.: Mr Jones, to whom I spoke on the phone last night, is interested in your plan.
And this is what he said. Is that what you wanted?
• Cuando el sujeto es una mezcla de personas y cosas usamos that: Those are the men and the carts that we saw on the way.
1.Tiene que unir estas dos frases en una usando un pronombre relativo. Example: The police have caught the man. He stole my car. The police have caught the man who/that stole my car. 1. A dictionary is a book. It is used to look up words.
2. A vegetarian is a person. He/She doesn't eat meat.
3. The woman answered the phone. She told me you were away.
4. What was the name of the boy? He won the race.
2. En este ejercicio tiene que escribir estas frases de nuevo uniendolas con una oracion de relativo. Examples: Jim's father goes running every day. (Jim's father is 80) Jim's father, who is 80, goes running every day. 1. The Boston train was late this morning. (It is always on time.)
2. That woman is an artist. (She always wears a red dress.)
3. Mr Smith is retiring now. (He has worked for the company all his life.)
4. My friend speaks French and English fluently. (His mother is French.)
3. Complete estas frases, cuando sea necesario, con that, who, o what. En los casos en los que se pueda escribir that u omitirlo, escribe (that). Example: Did you hear what she said? Everything (that) I say is true. 1. Tell me
you want and I'll see what I can do.
2. My mother is the only person
3. She gives her daughter everything 4. I can't give you any money. All
she wants. I've got is a few coins.
5. I can't agree with
you've just said.
6. Don't tell anyone
happened last night.
7. Don't blame me for everything 8. My sister always disagrees with everything 9. I don't know, but this is
goes wrong. I say. people say.
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ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Irregu lar verl)S Infinitive
to be to begin bo blow to break to bring to build to buy to catch
was/were began blew broke brought built bought caught
been begun blown broken brought built bought caught
to lie to make to meet
to pay to put to read to ring
-llamar (al timbre)
to come to cost to cut to do to draw to drink to eat to fall to feel to find to get to give to go to grow to have
to run to say to see to sell to send to shine to show
to hear to keep to know to lead to leave to let
cut did drew drank
ate fell felt found
got gave went grew
had heard kept knew
-ser, ester -empezar -soplar -romper -traer -construir -comprar -coger, atrapar come -venir cost -coster cut -cortar done -hacer drawn -dibujar drunk -beber eaten -comer fallen -caer felt -sentir found -encontrar got -conseguir given -dar gone -ir grown -crecer had -tener, tomar heard -oir kept -guardar known, -saber, conocer led -conducir left -salir, dejar let -dejar, permitir
to sit to sleep to speak to spend to stand to swim to take to tell to think
-ester de pie
thought -pensar, creer
to understand understood
The days of the week Sunday - Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
domingo lunes martes miercoles jueves viernes sabado
my your his her
enero febrero marzo abril mayo junio
mine yours his hers
its our your their
its ours yours theirs
Personal pronouns (object forms) me you
- July August September October November December
Months of the year January February March April May June
Julio agosto septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre
Interrog. Pron. who? whom? whose? which? what?
when? where? how? why?
who whom whose which that what
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
one 21 two 22 three 23 four 30 40 five six 50 seven 60 eight 70 nine 80 ten 90 eleven 100 twelve 101 thirteen 200 fourteen 500 fifteen 1.000 sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty
Ordinals twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety a hundred a hundred and one two hundred five hundred a thousand
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th
first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth
18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 30th 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 101st 200th 500th
eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth a hundredth a hundred and first two hundredth five hundredth
1,000th a thousandth 2,000th two thousandth 1,000,000th a millionth 117 STANLEY
Verbo ser-estar Indicativo
Yo soy/estoy tu eres/estas el es/esta nos. somos/estamos vos. sois/estais ellos son/estan
yo he sido/estado tu has sido/estado el ha sido/estado nos. hemos sido/estado vos. habeis sido/estado ellos nan sido/estado
yo sea/este tu seas/estes el sea/este nos. seamos/estemos vos. seais/esteis ellos sean/esten
yo era/estaba tu eras/estabas el era/estaba nos. eramos/estabamos vos. erais/estabais ellos eran/estaban
yo habi'a sido/estado tu habias sido/estado el habia sido/estado nos. habiamos sido/estado vos. habiais sido/estado ellos habian sido/estado
yo fui/estuve tu fuiste/estuviste el fue/estuvo nos. fuimos/estuvimos vos. fuisteis/estuvisteis ellos fueron/estuvieron
yo hube sido/estado tu hubiste sido/estado el hubo sido/estado nos. hubimos sido/estado vos. hubisteis sido/estado ellos hubieron sido/estado
yo sere/estare tu seras/estaras el sera/estara nos. seremos/estaremos vos. sereis/estareis ellos seran/estaran
yo habre sido/estado tu habras sido/estado el habra sido/estado nos. habremos sido/estado vos. habreis sido/estado ellos habran sido/estado
jse tu! jsea el! jseamos nosotros! jsed vosotros! isean ellos! jesta tu! jeste el! jestemos nosotros! jestad vosotros! jesten ellos!
yo serfa/estaria tu serias/estarias el seria/estaria nos. serfamos/estariamos vos. serfais/estarfamos ellos serian/estarfan
Compuesto yo habri'a sido/estado tu habrias sido/estado el habri'a sido/estado nos. habrfamos sido/estado vos. habrfais sido/estado ellos habrian sido/estado
Imperfecto (ser) yo fuera o fuese tu fueras o fueses el fuera o fuese nos. fueramos o fuesemos vos. fuerais o fueseis ellos fueran o fuesen
Imperfecto (estar) yo estuviera o estuviese tu estuvieras o estuvieses el estuviera o estuviese nos. estuvieramos o estuviesemos vos. estuvierais o estuvieseis ellos estuvieran o estuviesen
Preterite perfecto yo haya sido/estado tu hayas sido/estado el haya sido/estado nos. hayamos sido/estado vos. hayais sido/estado ellos hayan sido/estado
Pluscuamperfecto yo hubiera o hubiese sido tu hubieras o hubieses sido el hubiera o hubiese sido nos. hubieramos o hubiesemos sido vos. hubierais o hubieseis sido ello hubieran o hubiesen sido
Pluscuamperfecto yo hubiera o hubiese estado tu hubieras o hubieses estado el hubiera o hubiese estado nos. hubieramos o hubiesemos estado vos. hubierais o hubieseis estado ellos hubieran o hubiesen estado
Infinitivo Gerundio Participio Participio pasado ser estar
haber sido estado
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Verbo to be Indicative
Present perfect tense
1 am you are he is we are you are they are
1 have been you have been he has been we have been you have been they have been
if if if if if if
Past perfect tense
1 was you were he was we were you were they were
1 had been you had been he had been we had been you had been they had been
Future perfect tense
1 shall/will be you will be he will be we shall/will be you will be they will be
1 shall/will have been you will have been he will have been we shall/will have been you will have been they will have been
Nota: El imperfecto de subjuntivo del verbo SER (TO BE) es el unico que se usa en la practica. Ej: "si yo fuera rico" -If I were rich.
let me be! be! let him be! let us (let's) be! be! let them be!
I should/would be you would be he would be we should/would be you would be they would be
I were you were he were we were you were they were
Past conditional I should/would have been you would have been he would have been We should/would have been you would have been they would have been
Verbo haber-tener Indicative
yo he/tengo tu has/tienes el ha/tiene nos. hemos/tenemos vos. habeis/teneis ellos han/tienen
yo he habido/tenido tu has habido/tenido el ha habido/tenido nos. hemos habido/tenido vos. habeis habido/tenido ellos han habido/tenido
yo haya/tenga tu hayas/tengas el haya/tenga nos. hayamos/tengamos vos. hayais/tengais ellos hayan/tengan
yo habia/tenia tu habias/tenias el habia/tenia nos. habiamos/tem'amos vos. habiais/teniais ellos habian/tenian
yo habi'a habido/tenido tu habfas habido/tenido el habia habido/tenido nos. habfamos habido/tenido vos. habiais habido/tenido ellos nab fan habido/tenido
yo hube/tuve tu hubiste/tuviste el hubo/tuvo nos. hubimos/tuvimos vos. hubisteis/tuvimos ellos hubieron/tuvieron
yo hube habido/tenido tu hubiste habido/tenido el hubo habido/tenido nos. hubimos habido/tenido vos. hubisteis habido/tenido ellos hubieron habido/tenido
yo habre/tendre tu habras/tendras el habra/tendra nos. habremos/tendremos vos. habreis/tendreis ellos habran/tendran
yo habre habido/tenido tu habras habido/tenido el habra habido/tenido nos. habremos habido/tenido vos. habreis habido/tenido ellos habran habido/tenido
ihe tu! jhaya el! jhayamos nosotros! jhabed vosotros! jhayan ellos! jten tu! jtenga el! itengamos nosotros! jtened vosotros! jtengan ellos!
yo habrfa/tendria tu habrias/tendrias 61 habria/tendria nos. habrfamos/tendriamos vos. habriais/tendriais ellos habrian/tendrian
Compuesto yo habria habido/tenido tu habn'as habido/tenido el habria habido/tenido nos. habrfamos habido/tenido vos. habriais habido/tenido ellos habrfan habido/tenido 120 STANLEY
Imperfecto (haber) yo hubiera o hubiese tu hubieras o hubieses el hubiera o hubiese nos. hubieramos o hubiesemos vos. hubierais o hubieseis ellos hubieran o hubiesen
Imperfecto (tener) yo tuviera o tuviese tu tuvieras o tuvieses el tuviera o tuviese nos. tuvieramos o tuviesemos vos. tuvierais o tuvieseis ellos tuvieran o tuviesen
Preterite perfecto yo haya habido/tenido tu hayas habido/tenido el haya habido/tenido nos. hayamos habido/tenido vos. hayais habido/tenido ellos hayan habido/tenido
Pluscuamperfecto yo hubiera o hubiese habido tu hubieras o hubieses habido el hubiera o hubiese habido nos. hubieramos o hubiesemos habido vos. hubierais o hubieseis habido ello hubieran o hubiesen habido
Pluscuamperfecto yo hubiera o hubiese tenido tu hubieras o hubieses tenido el hubiera o hubiese tenido nos. hubieramos o hubiesemos tenido vos. hubierais o hubieseis tenido ellos hubieran o hubiesen tenido
Infinitivo Gerundio Participio Participio pasado haber tener
haber habido tenido
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Verb to have Indicative Present I have you have he has we have you have they have I had you had he had we had you had they had Future
Present perfect tense I have had you have had he has had we have had you have had they have had Past perfect tense I had had you had had he had had we had had you had had they had had Future perfect tense
I shall/will have you will have he will have we shall/will have you will have they will have
I shall/will have had you will have had he will have had we shall/will have had you will have had they will have had
let me have! have! let him have! let us (let's) have! have! let them have!
I should/would have you would have he would have we should/would have you would have they would have
Past conditional I should/would have had you would have had he would have had we should/would have had you would have had they would have had
Infinitive Gerund To have
Have had 121 STANLEY
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Verbo amar Indicative
yo amo tu amas el ama nos. amamos vos. amais ellos aman
yo he amado tu has amado el ha amado nos. hemos amado vos. habeis amado ellos nan amado
yo amaba tu amabas el amaba nos. amabamos vos. amabais ellos amaban
yo habi'a amado tu habfas amado el habi'a amado nos. habfamos amado vos. habfais amado ellos habfan amado
yo ame tu amaste el amo nos. amamos vos. amasteis ellos amaron
yo hube amado tu hubiste amado el hubo amado nos. hubimos amado vos. hubisteis amado ellos hubieron amado
el ame nos. amemos vos. ameis ellos amen
Imperfecto yo amara o amase tu amaras o amases el amara o amase nos. amaramos o amasemos vos. amarais o amaseis
yo amare tu amaras el amara nos. amaremos vos. amareis ellos amaran
yo habre amado tu habras amado el habra amado nos. habremos amado vos. habreis amado ellos habran amado
allos amaran o amasen
Preterite perfecto yo haya amado tu hayas amado el haya amado nos. hayamos amado vos. hayais amado ellos hayan amado
Pluscuamperfecto yo hubiera o hubiese amado
tu hubieras o hubieses amado
nos. hubieramos o hubiesemos amado vos. hubierais o hubieseis amado ellos hubieran o hubiesen amado
yo amarfa tu amarias el amarfa nos. amarfamos vos. amarfais ellos amarfan
iame el! jamemos nosotros!
Iamad vosotros! Iamen ellos!
el hubiera o hubiese amado
Compuesto yo habrfa amado tu habrias amado el habrfa amado
Gerundio Participio Participio pasado
nos. habriamos amado vos. habrfais amado ellos habrfan amado
Verb to love Indicative Present I love you love he loves we love you love they love I loved you loved he loved we loved you loved they loved Future
Present perfect tense I have loved you have loved he has loved we have loved you have loved they have loved Past perfect tense I had loved you had loved he had loved we had loved you had loved they had loved Future perfect tense
I shall/will love you will love he will love we shall/will love you will love they will love
I shall/will have loved you will have loved he will have loved we shall/will have loved you will have loved they will have loved
let me love! love! let him love! let us (let's) love! love! let them love!
1 should/would love you would love he would love we should/would love you would love they would love
Past conditional I should/would have loved you would have loved he would have loved we should/would have loved you would have loved they would have loved
Infinitive Gerund Participle Past participle To love
Verb to love Indicative
Present perfect tense
do 1 love? do you love? does he love? do we love? do you love? do they love?
have I loved? have you loved? has he loved? have we loved? have you loved? have they loved?
I do not love you do not love he does not love we do not love you do not love they do not love
I have not loved you have not loved he has not loved we have not loved you have not loved they have not loved
should/would I love? would you love? would he love? should/would we love? would you love? would they love?
Past tense interrogative
Past perfect tense
did I love? did you love? did he love? did we love? did you love? did they love?
had I loved? had you loved? had he loved? had we loved? had you loved? had they loved?
I should/would not love you would not love he would not love we should/would not love you would not love they would not love
I did not love you did not love he did not love we did not love you did not love they did not love
I had not loved you had not loved he had not loved we had not loved you had not loved they had not loved
Future perfect tense
shall/will I love? will you love? will he love? shall we love? will you love? will they love?
shall/will I have loved? will you have loved? will he have loved? shall we have loved? will you have loved? will they have loved?
I shall/will not love you will not love he will not love we shall/will not love you will not love they will not love
I shall/will not have loved you will not have loved he will not have loved we shall/will not have loved you will not have loved they will not have loved
Nota.- Salvo muy raras excepciones, el modo subjuntivo no se usa en ingles. For regla general se usa el mismo tiempo que en indicative. Ej.: "Cuando yo vaya"-When I go.
Past conditional Interrogative should/would I have loved? would you have loved? would he have loved? should/would we have loved? would you have loved? would they have loved?
Negative I should/would not have loved you would not have loved he would not have loved we should/would not have loved you would not have loved they would not have loved
Imperative Negative do do do do do do
not not not not not not
let me love! love! let him love! let us love! (let's not love!) love let them love!
Verbo "there to be" - haber (impersonal) Indicative Present there is there are hay
Present perfect tense there has been there have been ha habido
Past perfect tense
there was there were habia/hubo
there had been habia/hubo habido
Future perfect tense there will have been
there will be habra
Conditional Present There would be Habria
Imperative Let there be! jHaya!
Past conditional There would have been Habria habido
Infinitive Gerund There to be Haber
Participle Past participle
There being Habiendo 125 STANLEY
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
"to be able"- poder Indicative
Presente 1 can/I am able you can/you are able he can/he is able we can/we are able you can/you are able they can/they are able
Preterite perfecto yo puedo tu puedes el puede nos. podemos vos. podeis ellos pueden
Pasado I could/l was able you could/you were able he could/he was able we could/we were able you could/you were able they could/they were able
he podido has podido ha podido hemos podido habeis podido han podido
Pluscuamperfecto podia, pude podias, pudiste podia, pudo podiamos, pudimos podiais, pudisteis podian, pudieron
I had been able you had been able he had been able we had been able you had been able they had been able
habfa podido habias podido habia podido habiamos podido habiais podido habian podido
Futuro I shall/will be able you will be able he will be able we shall/will be able you will be able they will be able
I have been able you have been able he has been able we have been able you have been able they have been able
podre podras podra podremos podreis podran
I shall/will have been able you will have been able he will have been able we shall/will have been able you will have been able they will have been able
habre podido habras podido habra podido habremos podido habreis podido habran podido
Conditional Condicional I could/would be able you could/would be able he could/would be able we could/would be able you could/would be able they could/would be able
Condicional compuesto podria podrias podria podriamos podriais podrian
I should/would have been able you would have been able he would have been able we should/would have been able you would have been able they would have been able
habria podido habrias podido habria podido habriamos podido habriais podido habrian podido
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