English Grammar for Students of French.pdf

July 14, 2017 | Author: Anonymous 4Da9Ycv3Qg | Category: Grammatical Gender, Grammatical Number, Part Of Speech, Grammatical Tense, Pronoun
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.

.) -)

-)

.

.)

..)

.) The Study Guide For Those Learning

Third

..)

French

Edition)

-)))

English

Grammar

Students

for

French)

of

The

for

Study

Those

Guide

Learning

French)

l1Jird

edition)

Jacqueline

Morton)

The

Olivia

and

Hill [email protected])))

ENGLISH

series)

GRAMMAR

for Students

Grammar

English

of Spanish

English

for

English Grammar

for StudentsofItalian

Gramnzar

Grammar

English

Students

Students

for

English Grammarfor Students for Students

Grammar

English

Gramdtica

para

espaflola

@

1993,

any

of Latin of

Russian

of Japanese

estudiantes

de ingles)

Morton)

Jacqueline

All rights

of German

reserved.No

fonn of

by

any

or transmitted be reproduced part of this work may means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying any infonnation storage retrieval system, without

and recording, or by in writing from

pennission

Printed

in the U.S .A.)

Library

of Congress

ISB N 0-934034-18-4)))

the

publisher.)

Catalog Card Number:

87-7889)

in

CONTENTS)

1

Introduction

1.

What

is

a Noun?

2.

What

is

Meant

by Gender?

6

3.

What

is

Meant

by Number?

9

4.

What

are

4

12

Articles?

12

Articles

Defmite

14

IndefmiteArticles

15

Articles

Partitive

the Possessive?

18

is

a Verb?

21

What

is

an Infinitive?

23

8.

What

are

9.

What

is

a Subject?

28

10.

What

is

a Pronoun?

30

11.

What

is

a Subject

12.

What

is

a Verb

13.

What

are

Affirmative

and Negative

What

are

Declarative

and Interrogative

What

is

Meant

by Mood?

50

16.

What

is

Meant

by Tense?

52

17.

What

is

the

Present

18.

What

is

the

Imperative?

19.

What

is

a Participle?

5.

What is

6.

What

7.

14. 15.

25

Verbs?

Auxiliary

Pronoun?

32

Conjugation?

36 Sentences? Sentences?

56 59

59

60

Past Participle What

is the

Past

63

Tense?

63

Present Perfect (passecompose) Imperfect

Selection

65

(imparfait)

of the

46

54

Tense?

Present Participle

20.

43

passe compose or

ii i)))

the

imparfait

66)

21.

What

22.

What

is the is

the

Past Perfect

69

Tense?

72

Tense?

Future

73

Immediate Future

23.

What

24.

What

Perfect

is

the

Future

is

the

Conditional?

75

Tense?

77

Present Conditional

77

PastConditional

79

Sequenceof

80

25.

What

is a

26.

What

is

Tenses

82 85 by Active and Passive Voice? an Active Sentence to a Passive Sentence 86

Reflexive Verb?

Meant

Changing

Passive

the

Avoiding

Voice

in French

27.

What

28.

What is

an

29.

What is

a DescriptiveAdjective?

30.

What

is

is

the

90

Subjunctive?

92

Adjective?

a Possessive

What is an

32.

What

is

a Demonstrative

33.

What

is

Meant

93

Adjective?

Singular Possessor: my, your, Plural Possessor: our, your, 31.

87

his,

her, its

their

Interrogative Adjective? Adjective?

by Comparison

of Adjectives?

96 97 99

101 103

105

Comparative

105

Superlative

106

34.

What

is an Adverb?

35.

What

is

36.

What is a Preposition?

37.

What

109 112

a Conjunction?

are

Direct

114 116

Objects?

116

Object

118

Indirect Object

Objectof

a

119)

Preposition

iv)))

38.

is an

What

123

Object Pronoun?

DirectObject

124

Pronouns

Indirect

126

Pronouns

Object

129

Pronouns as Objectsof a Preposition 39.

What is

an

133

Pronouns

(Stressed)

Disjunctive

138

Pronoun?

Interrogative

138

Subject

139

Direct Object

IndirectObject

and

\"Which

Object

145

148

40.

What

41.

Singular Possessor: mine,yours, Plural Possessor: ours, yours, What is'a Relative Pronoun?

is

Pronoun?

a Possessive

Subjectof

the

Direct Object

his,

hers,

Object

of a

154 155

Preposition

Relative Clause

Possessive is

What

without

Antecedents

Pronoun?

a Demonstrative

\"Thisone, that one\" and \"these, those\" \"Theone, the ones\"(celuiqui) de to Show Possession Celui Answer

157 in a

159 163

\"whose\"

Modifier

Pronouns

149 151

theirs

of the Relative Clause and

42.

its

Clause

Relative

IndirectObject Relative

141

Preposition

ones\"

which

One,

of a

166 169 169 170

172 175

Key

179)

Index

v)))

STUDENT)

THE

To

for Students ofFrench explains the grammatical terms that are in your French textbookand shows you how they relate to English grammar.Onceyou have understood the terms and concepts in your own it will be easier for language, to With undertand textbook. and you your simple explanations numerous examples this handbookcompares and French English grammar, pointing out the similarities and differences. English

Grammar

Grammar into the class sylyou pages to read before doing an in If you are selectingthe pages French textbook. assignment your check the detailed index for the terms and concepts yourself, you will need to understand for your When assignment. you finish a chapter in the handbook, you can test your comprehension by and doing the short Reviews checking against the your answers Most

teachers

English

incorporate

labus so

which

know

will

Answer Key.)

for

Tips

1. RULES

-

Make sure you on to the next one.Language

each brickis only 2.

a Foreign

Studying

as

each

understand

secure

Language

learning

as its

rule

is like

you move building a house; before

foundation.

-

in lanMemorization plays an important part guage learning. For instance, you will have to memorize vocabrules. To memorize, here ulary, verb conjugations, and grammar are the steps you should follow: MEMORIZATION

you can easily 2 sentences or 5 words). retnember(for instance, \302\267 Read the first section aloud several times. \302\267 Write down the first section as you repeat it aloudto \302\267 Divide

the

into sections

passage

yourself. \302\267

what

Compare

\302\267

what \302\267

Repeat

said

you

these

\302\267 Continue

reciting

steps

metnorizing frotn

wrote

with the

original. is no differencebetween the original. to metnorize the second section. each section in the same way,

until there or wrote and

above

the

Repeat

you

the

each

beginning vi)))

time.)

3.

-

Use any trick remember new words.Hereare VOCABULARY

or some

that

gimmick that

students

helps

you

have found

useful:) \302\267 Write

word

each

oneside,

on a on

English

separate index card, Frenchon

the

other.

or pens of different colors.Thiscan other useful information about the help you remember word:using blue for masculine nouns and red for femwill inine nouns you remember genders. (You help can also usegreen for for verbs, orange adjectives,

\302\267 Use

index

cards

etc. to relnelnber parts of speech.) the French words, look at the English learning words.Say the French word that corresponds aloud,

\302\267 When

and flip the cardto check answer. Shuffle the your so you see the English word cold (i.e., without relnemberingthe word order).

deck often

4.

- Read the Frenchwords sentences out and write them.That are seeing, way you practicing you them. saying, and hearing the words.It will help you remember to 5. DAILY PRACTICE - Don't get behind.It's almost impossible need catch up in language learning because you daily practice and time to absorbthe material. WRITTEN

EXERCISES

loud as

6.

LANGUAGE

TAPES

- It is betterto listen

several times duringthe one long session.)

week

rather

Bonnechance, Jacqueline

Morton)

vii)))

to

than

for short

periods doing everything in

tapes

1)

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION)

When

1. The

language, in this

a foreign

you learn

word in threeways:

at each

male

a young

Boy,

word

you

must look

English word must be connected equivalent meaning. has the same meaningas the French

that has an

word

a French

French,

word-An

of the

meaning

with

case

child,

gar\037on.

Words

with

easy

words

These

and

same

the

are

words

two

course,

by memorizing vocabor very similar in both are called cognates and are, of

are learned

meanings

equivalent

ulary. Sometimes French. English learn.

to

French

English

intelligent

intelligent

gouvernement

government

continuer

continue)

knowing one French word will help you learn another. that etudiant is a male student shouldhelp you learn that Knowing is a female student; or knowingthat vendeur is a etudiante vendeuse salesman should help you remember that is a salesOccasionally

woman.

Usually there is littlesimilarity French word will not help you must memorizeeachvocabulary Knowing girl.

In addition,

that

is

gar\037on

boy

between

item

will

there are times when

words,

As a

another.

learn

and

one

knowing

general rule, you

separately.

not help

words

you learn

in combination

that

fille

is

take on

a

special meaning. French

The

However,

word

faire

faire means to make; la queuemeansthe la queue means to line up, to stand in line.

tail.

as a whole (faire la queue)is difindividual words (faire and la queue)is calledan Idiom. You will need to be aware of these in order to recognize them and use them idiomaticexpressions

An

whose

expression from

ferent

the

meaning

meaning

of the

correctly.

2.The sified

classification in

eight

of

categories

the

word-English called parts

and French words are clasof speech. Here is a list of the)))

2

INTRODUC\037ON)

of speech:

parts

article

noun

verb

adverb

pronoun

preposition

adjective

conjunction

Each part of speech has its own rules for spelling, pronunciation, and use. You must learn to identify the part of speech of each word in order to choose the correct French equivalentand to know what rules to apply.

Look at

a.

the

word

What

do

in the

what

following sentences:

want?

you

b. What mov.ie do you want c. I'll do what want. 1 you

to see?

in French is the same in all three sentences; but words will be used and three different sets of rules will apply becauseeachwhat to a different belongs part of speech. 3. The use ofthe word-A word must also be identified accordingto the roleit plays in the sentence. Each word, whether English or will French,plays a specific role. Determining this role or function also help you to choose the correctFrenchequivalent and to know what rules to apply. Hereis a listof functions: The

word

English

different

three

subject

direct

object

indirect object

object of a preposition

Let

us

go

back

to the

again

a.

What

is on

b.

What

is she

the table? doing?

c. What are you

1

talking

about?2)

a. Interrogative pronoun, see p. 138. b. Interrogative adjective, see p. 101. Relative pronoun without antecedent, see p. 166.

c. 2

word what.

Subject, see p. 28. b. Direct object, see p. 116. c. Object of a preposition, see p. 119.))) a.

3)

INTRODUCTION

sentences; English word is the same in all three three different words will be used becauseeach what

but in French a different

The

has

function.)

Careful As a student of Frenchyou

speech

the

and

essential because one

The small petites

black shoes are on chaussures I

I

the

big

I

noires sont I

I

I

IN

word in a

another.)

I

Les

both the part of given sentence. This is sentence have a great deal of to recognize

learn

a French

in

words

on

influence

must

of each

function

II

round

table.

sur la grande table ronde. I I I I)

I

I

I

ENGLISH

is shoes, only word that affects another word in the sentence which forces us to say are. If the word were shoe, we would haveto .

The

say

IS.)

IN FRENCH

for shoes (chaussures) not only (soot), but also the spellingand pronunciation

The word

the, small, and and

black.

The of the

pronunciation

word

French

for table

affects

of the

the

word

French

for are words for

(table) affects the spelling

words for

the, big, and

round.

The

means on. affected by another word is sur, which in the same are determined Since parts of speech and function usually in in this will show handbook way English and French, you how to identify them in English. You will then learn to compare English and Frenchconstructions. Thiswill give you a better understanding of the

only word not

explanationsin

your

French

textbook.)))

4

IS A NOUN?)

WHAT

word

is a

A noun thing,

NOUN?)

A

of a person,

the name

be

can

that

an animal,place,

idea.)

or an

event,

IS

WHAT

1.

ENGLISH

IN

types of words which are nouns: professor, clown, student,girl

some different

us look at

Let

. a

person

Professor

animal

an

dog,

Paul,

Bozo,

Smith,

.

Mary

bear, snake

bird,

Heidi, Tweetie,Teddy . a

city, state,

place

.a

thing

continent

country,

Paris,

Michigan,

lamp,

airplane,

France, Europe book, dress

Perrier, Eiffel

Tower,Arch graduation, marriage,birth,

. an event or activity . an idea

As

a noun is not only

can see,

you

tangible, i.e., it can

House,

Triumph football

death,

robbery, rest, growth mathematics poverty, democracy, humor, addition, strength, elegance, virtue,

or concept

that is

of

that

also be

you

can

which

a word

such as

touch,

the nameof things

are

that

increase

names

something

table, dog, and abstract,

White

i.e., that you

and honor. cannot touch, suchasjustice,jealousy, A noun that does not state the nameof a specific person,place,thing, noun does not begin with a a common noun. A common etc. is called capital letter, unlessit is the first word of a sentence. All the words are common nouns. above that are not capitalized A

noun.

words

above

the

The

girl I

proper

that are

is made

cream or a propernoun, the

begins

always

with a

capitalized are propernouns.

etc.

is called

capital letter. All

I

noun can

compound

where

specific person,place,thing,

noun)

that

To help

noun

proper

noun noun

A

is Mary.

cotntnon

A

name of a

is the

that

noun

a proper

you

learn

nouns

up of two wordsis calleda

be a commonnoun, such

as Western

nouns,

to recognize are in italics.

The best purchasesfroln gloves and other luxury

France items.

such

as comic

strip

A

and ice

America.

Europe

and North

look at

the paragraphbelow

include Today,

noun.

compound

wines, perfumes, scarves, French workers make excel-)))

5)

IS A NOUN?

WHAT

lent skis and tennis racketswhich sold the world over. Thanks are to the Common Market, Germany, Italy, you can find goods from and their commercial partners in all large French stores. England, and Thus, Italian sportscars, English leather,German glassware, in lace can be bought at prices to the those Belgian comparable of origin.)

country FRENCH

IN

in the

are identified

Nouns

same way as they

Used to

Terms

are

in English.)

Talk About Nouns

noun has a gender; that is, it can be classified according to whether it is masculine,feminine,or neuter What is Meant (see by Gender?, p. 6). - A noun has a NUMBER number; that is, it can be identified according to whether it is singularor plural What is Meant (see by Number?, p. 9). - A noun can be classifiedas to whetherit is a OR NON-COUNT COUNT count noun or non-count noun; that is, whether it refersto something can be counted are Articles?). that or not (see p. 15 in What - A

GENDER

A noun can have a is, it can be the subjectof the -

FUNCTION

p. 28) or an

(see

object

sentence

(see

are Objects?,

What

in a

functions

of

variety

sentence;

is a

What

that

Subject?,

p. 116).)

................REVIEW.................. Circle

the

nouns

in the

sentences:

following

into the classroom and

1. The

boy came

2. The

textbookhas a painting on its cover.

3.

Mary

Evans

Paris

visited

4. Thelionroaredand 5. Truth is 6. His

stranger

kindness

than

the

with her children

spoke

to the

teacher.

class.

screamed.

fiction.

and understanding

were known

throughout

the

world.)))

WHAT IS MEANT

6

BY GENDER?)

IS MEANT BY

2. WHAT

in the grammatical sense means that as masculine, feminine,or neuter. Gender

in English;

is not

Gender

very important French language

of the

heart

GENDER?) a word

be classified

can

however, it is at the very

where the gender of a

in the way the word is spelledand pronounced. in English. Parts speech have a gender in Frenchthan

is often

word

More parts of of speech that

reflected

indicate gender: French nouns

English

pronouns

articles

adjectives)

possessive

pronouns

adjectives

Sinceeach

of

part

fmd

will

gender

look at IN

the

speech

in the

discussed

types of

various

its own rules to indicate gender,you sections dealing with articles and the In this section we shall only adjectives.

follows

pronouns and of nouns.)

gender

ENGLISH

their do not have a gender, but sometimes themselves meaning or will indicate a gender based on the biologicalsex the person or the noun stands for. When we a common animal proper replace noun with he or she, we automatically use he for malesand she for All the nouns which name things that do not have a sex are females.

Nouns

of

replaced

it.

by

Nouns

came

Paul

indicate the masculinegender.

to males

referring

home;

1

tired, and I was glad to

he was 1

.

see

him. 1

.

masculIne

mascu Ine

noun

I

male)

Nouns

to females

referring

The

girl 1

came

indicate the feminine gender. she was

home; \037

.1.

tired, and I was glad to

see \037

lemlnlne

noun

her. .1.

lemlnlne

female)

All

ered

which

nouns

other

do not

indicate a biologicalgenderare

neuter.

The

of ci1ty noun

Washington

is lovely. I

enjoyed visiting if. neuter)))

consid-

WHAT

to

referred The IN

United States sailed

S/S

for

BY GENDER?

MEANT

such as ship, which

well-known exceptions, as she. It is custom, not logic,which a few

are

There

IS

7)

is

decides.

She

Europe.

was a

beautiful ship.)

FRENCH

nouns and proper nouns-have a gender;they or feminine. Do not confusethe grammatical \"masculine\" and \"feminine\" with the meaning of \"male\" and a few French nouns have a grammatical gendertiedto Only of the male or femalesex,most refer to someone nouns they

All

nouns-common

are

either

terms

\"female.\" whether

masculine

which must be

a gender

have

The genderof

mine.These

are

the

of

other

Males

based

nouns

\037

on

whose

nouns

biological

memorized. biological meaning

or female.

sexes, male Females

masculine

Paul

\037ary

is easy to detertied to one or the

gender is always

\037

boy

girl

brother

sister

son

daughter

feminine

The gender of all othernouns, common and explained or figured out. Thesenouns only gender which is unrelated to biologicalsex.Here of English nouns classified underthe gender of

cannot

proper, have are

their

be

a grammatical some

French

examples

equiva-

lent.)

Masculine

Feminine

boat

car

suicide

death

Japan

France

blackboard

chalk

government)

democracy)

Gender is important not only and

pronunciation

rize

the

noun

does you

does

not will

indicates

for

words

the

noun

it influences.

but for the spelling You will have to memo-

itself,

French noun you learn. Sincea indicate its gender, when memorizing usually have to learn a noun with its articlebecausethe gender (see What are Articles?,p. 12).))) gender

grammatical alone

vocabulary

article

of the

of every

WHAT IS

8

MEANT

BY GENDER?)

Careful

of French rely on biological genderto indicatethe gender of nouns such as professorwhich refer can to a female or equivalents male. Such nouns have a grammatical gender which must be only

You cannot

memorized.

TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTREVIEW

TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT

Circle can up

or F (feminine) (?) next to the

M (masculine)

and identify, in a dictionary.)

GENDER

IN

next

to the

nouns whose

nouns whosegenderyou

FRENCH

1. boys

M

F

?

2. chair

M

F

?

3. Jane

M

F

?

4. classroom

M

F

?

5. visitor

M

F

?

6. sisters

M

F

?

7. houses

M

F

?)))

would

gender you have

to look

IS

WHAT

IS MEANT BY

WHAT

3.

MEANT

BY NUMBER?

9)

NUMBER?)

Numberin the grammaticalsensemeans that is singular or a word When a word refers to one or it is saidto besInplural. person thing, when it refers more than it is to one, gular; plural. Moreparts of speech indicate number in French, and there are more in French than in English. Parts of and spelling pronunciation changes number:

indicate

that

spe\037ch

French nouns

English

nouns

verbs

articles

pronouns

verbs

demonstrative

only

pronouns

adjectives

adjectives

Since each part of speech follows will find number discussed you the various types of adjectives

and

tenses. In this

section weshallonly

look

at the

ENGLISH

made plural in oneof two or \"-es\" singular noun can add an \"-s\" noun is

A singular 1. A

2. A

A

own

of nouns.)

number IN

and their

verbs

on

tions

rules to indicate number, sections dealing with articles, as well as in all the secpronouns, its

in the

book

books

kiss

kisses

singular

plural

noun

can change

man

men

mouse

mice

leaf

leaves

child)

children)

noun

is usually

ways: .

its spelling.)

spelled and pronounceddifferently

from

the

singular.

nouns, called collective nouns, referto a things, but the noun itself is consideredsingular. A football team has eleven players. Some

well.

Thefamity

is

The crowd

was under

control.)))

group

of persons

or

WHAT IS MEANT

1 0

NUMBER?)

By

IN FRENCH spelled differently plural form of a noun is usually The most commonchangeis the same as the one made in English; that is, an \".s\" is added to the singular noun.

As in English, the from the singular. livre

livres

book

books

table

tables

table

tables

Thereis gular

an

and

to .aux

change

words that end in

of French

group

important which

.al in the sin-

in the plural.)

Singular

Plural

Iejournal

les journaux

newspaper

newspapers

les

animal)

animals)

I

'animal)

animaux)

of a noun doesnot change

The gender

What is Meant by

Hearing

The main difference betweenthe

that in French, even though

reading

the

word,

can

you

when

it becomes

plural

(see

p. 6).)

Gender?,

Plural

the

forms

plural

in English

and French

is

you plural ending if you are the final \"s\" is never hear because it, rarely

see the

can

pronounced.) same

on

unciati pro\037

I

I

Ii vre

Ii vres

table

tables)

You will usually

have

to listen

to the

word

that

comes

The whether the noun is singularor plural. show you that in English you hear the plural in the in French you hear it in the word that precedes it.)

to know

English

French

Singular

Plural

the book

the books

the table

the tables

livre

les livres

la table

les tables)))

Ie

before

the noun

examples noun itself,

below

while

WHAT

.....\037...\037......REVIEW

IS MEANT

By

NUMBER?

11)

.\037..\037.\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037\037..

Indicate under COLUMN A if English and French wordsbelow. is singular (S) or plural (P). \302\267 the B if you under COLUMN English and French words aloud.Indicate Say if can hear if the word is singular (S) or plural or can't tell.) (?) you (P), Look

the

at the

word

Column

A

B

Column

1. desks

S

p

S

P

?

2. maisons

S

p

S

P

?

3. tooth

S

p

S

P

?

4.

S

p

S

P

?

5. feet

S

p

S

P

?

6. etudiantes

s

p

s

P

?)))

cheval

WHAT ARE

12

ARTICLES?)

ARE ARTICLES?)

WHAT

4.

the noun word placed before a noun to show whether or or idea, event, particular person, animal,place,thing, or idea. whether the noun refers to an unspecified thing, person, An

is a

article

to a

refers

I saw the boy

spoke

you

about.

I

a particular

boy)

a boy

I saw

street.

the

in

I

an unspecified

boy)

Articles)

Definite

IN ENGLISH

article is used beforea

A definite

particular person,place,

animal,

thing,

article,the.

I

the

read

noun

when

we are

or idea.

speaking about a is one definite

There

you recommended.

book

I

a particular

book)

the apple

I ate

I

a particular

becomes

remains

the when the noun which

follows

plural.

I read

I ate IN

me.

apple)

article

definite

The

you gave

the books the

apples

you recommended. you

gave

me.)

FRENCH

article is used beforea noun when referring in person, place, animal,thing,or idea.However, the article works hand in hand with the noun it belongs to in French, that it matches the noun'sgenderand number. This is \"matching\" called agreement. (One says that \"the article agrees with the noun.\") A different article is used, therefore,depending on whether the noun is masculine or feminine (gender)and depending on whether the noun is are both singular or plural (number).Becausethesearticles pronounced and spelled differently, they indicate the genderand number of the noun to the ear as wellasto the eye.))) As

in English,

to a

particular

a definite

13)

WHAT ARE ARTICLES?

forms of the definitearticle:three

There are four one plural.

Le indicates that

noun

the

is masculine

Ie livre

the

book

Ie

the

boy

gar\037on

la table

the table

la porn me

the

singular.

apple

L' is used instead of Ie and la before does not tell us, therefore,if the noun I

and

noun is femininesingular.

that the

La indicates

forms

singular

'etudiant

the

student)

the

school)

a word

beginning

is masculine

with

It

a vowel.

or feminine.)

I

Inasculine)

I' ecole I

felninine)

in writing. It is never pronounced.When exists only with the letter \"h\",the word is usually considered with vowel: I'herbe a (the grass); (the hotel). beginning Your textbook will go into the few exceptions to this rule.

The letter

a

\"h\"

starts

word

as

l'h6tel

The

of a

dropping

is called an

final vowel beforea word

elision. You

will

have

to rely

dictionary or your

word is masculineor feminine. Les is used to indicate that the noun is plural.Sincethere form, it does not tell us if the noun is masculineor feminine. to know

memory

Masculine

les les

Ii

les

the

gar\037ons)

only

one

books

plural

tables

the tables

the apples)

Vowels are the sounds associated with the other letlers of the alphabet.)))

with

is

the boys)

les pOlnlnes) I

if the

plural

vres

Feminine

a vowell

with

starting

on the

the letters 0, e, i, 0 and u; consonants are

the sounds associated

WHAT ARE

14

ARTICLES?)

Articles)

Indefinite

IN ENGLISH An Indefinite

article is usedbeforea noun an unspecified person,animal,place,thing, two indefinite articles,a and an. a word beginningwith

used before

A is

a boy

I saw

speaking about There are

or idea.

event,

a consonant.

street.

the

in

we are

when

I

a particular

not

a word

before

is used

An

boy)

beginningwith

a vowel.

an apple.

I ate

I

a particular

not

article is used only

The indefinite

when the noun but

it,

replace

apple)

becomes

it is

noun;

a singular

the word

it is

dropped

some is usedto

usually omitted.

I saw

boys

I saw

(some)boys

I ate

plural.

with

At times,

street.

in the

the

in

street.

apples.

I ate (some)apples.) IN

FRENCH

in English, an indefinite article is used when referring to an unspecified animal, person,

As in

idea. Just as with

definite

the noun's genderand

indefinite

the indefinitearticle:two

one plural.

Un indicates that

Une

the

noun

un

livre

a book

un

gar\037on

a boy

indicates une

that the

table

une pomtne

before

a noun

place, thing, event, or articles must agree with

number.

forms of

are three

There

articles,

French

singular.

noun is feminine singular.

a table

an

is masculine

apple)))

singular

forms

and

WHAT

Des is form,

ARE ARTICLES?

used to indicatethat the noun is plural. Since there is only not tell us if the noun is masculineor feminine.

15)

one

it does Masculine

plural

des

Ii

des

gar\037ons

boo ks

vres

Feminine

boys

plural

des tables

tables

des pOlnmes

apples)

Articles

Partitive

French also has another set of articlescalledpartitive articles because are used before certain nouns they refer to \"part of the whole.\"They called non-count nouns. As the name implies, a non-count noun dessinignatesan object that cannot be counted. It is, therefore, always the For noun water is a non-count n oun because it is a gular. example,

cannot be precededby

such as 1, 2, 3, etc. (You The waters...) opposite of non-count is count noun can be singular nouns or plural because an object that can be counted.Forexample, the noun it designates pen can be preceded by numbers suchas 1,2,3 etc.(one pen,two pens...). in French, partitive articles agree with Like the all articles noun's form and number. Since non-count nounsdon't have a plural gender and are always singular, partitive have forms. articles only singular As you will see in the examples below, French partitive articles can be translated some or any, but they are often left out in Engby the words

noun which

numbers

water, two A count nouns.

one

count

cannot

lish. In French,

the

however,

partitive

article

expressed.

Thereare

Du indicates

of the

forms

three that

the

partitive. is masculine

noun

J'achete du beurre.

I

am

buying

(some)

butter.

Voulez-vous

du beurre?

Do you

(any)

want

butter?)))

singular.

must

always

be

16

ARE ARTICLES?)

WHAT

indicates that the noun

De la

de

J'achete

I am

vowel.

la viande. meat.

(some)

buying

Voulez-vous

de la

Do you

(any)

De I'

. nme.)

is femininesingular.

want

viande? meat?

is used instead of du and de la before a word beginning with a It does not tell us, therefore,if the noun is masculine or femi-

Je bois de I'eau. I

felnin

I am

ine

drinking (some)

water.

Devez-vousde I'argenta Marie? I

masculine

Do you This

owe (any) money to

Mary?

you the genderbecausedeI' isused with both singular nouns. of the different forms of the partitive summary textbook for the rules regarding their usage.)

does not tell and feminine

form

masculine

The aboveis

articles.

Refer

brief

a

to

your

Hearing the Genderand In

spoken

French

the singular form

the gender

of a noun can usually

of articles. When

article,the femininegender

can

Number

be

a noun

heard

be

is preceded

in the

\"a\"

sound

heard

only

in

by a definite at the

end of

la. The masculinegenderis harder to identify because the final \"e\" of Ie is not pronounced. When a noun is precededby a definite article, will un and have to train ear to the difference between hear you your une. The number of a noun will in often be heard the article only

which precedesit, lesor des.)))

WHAT

....\037............\037

................REVIEW is a

Below \302\267 Circle count \302\267 Write

list of

English

which

of the

nouns

(N).

French

the

feminine

nouns

by a definite

preceded

are count

nouns below

article for each

ENTRY

DICTIONARY

shows

on

noun

you

if

nouns

the

the noun

entry

C

N

livre

C

N

ami

C

N

chaise

C

N

idee

C

N

argent

(n.m.)

C

N

temps

(n.m.)

C

N

cours

luck

C

N

chance

dinner

C

N

diner

(n.m.)

C

N

glace

(n.f.))))

friend

3. some

7. a

chairs

idea

5. some 6. the

money

weather

course

8. some 9. the

article.

which are

non-

(f.).)

1. the books

4. an

or indefinite

(C) and

line provided. The French (n.) is masculine (m.) or

Dictionary

2. the

17)

ARE ARTICLES?

10. some

ice-cream

(n.m.) (n.m.) (n.f.) (n.f.)

(n.m.) (n.f.)

French article

WHAT IS THE

18

POSSESSIVE?)

IS THE

WHAT

5.

The term possessivemeans

one

that

POSSESSIVE?) owns or

noun

possesses another

noun.)

are torn.

The

b\037Ok'S payes

possessor possessed plural)

singular

IN ENGLISH

show possession in oneof two An apostrophe can be used. In this comes before the noun possessed.

You can 1.

A

\"s\"

the

noun possessor

or proper

common

singular

ways. construction,

noun

adds an

possessor +

apostrophe

.)

dress

Mary's I

possessor)

singular

book

the professor's

a tree's branches

A

plural the

possessor

ending

students'

teacher

with

\"s\"

adds

an apostrophe

after the

\"s\".

I

possessor)

plural

club

the girls' A

plural the

possessor

not ending

children's

playground

with

\"s\"

adds

an apostrophe

+

\"s\".

I

possessor)

plural

the men's

department

2. The word of can

comes

the

before

A singular

or of a. the

be

noun

In this

used.

of the

the noun possessed

possessor

is preceded

possessor.

or plural commonnoun

book

structure,

professor I

singular

common

noun possessor)))

by of

the

IS THE

WHAT

of the

teacher

19)

of a tree

the branches the

POSSESSIVE?

students I

common

plural

noun possessor)

noun possessor is precededby

A proper

the

dress

of

of Mary I

noun possessor)

proper

IN

FRENCH

The

structure

apostrophe

( 1 above) does not

way to express possessionand tion

(2

above).

a noun possesses another noun the noun possessed + de + definiteor indefinite sessor) When

dress Mary's I I possessor

of Mary

I

book)

follows: the noun pos-

+ the

article

I

noun

possessor

possessed

la robe professor's

is as

structure

the dress

noun

possessed)

the

one

\"of' (de) construc-

using the

is by

that

is only

There

exist.

de

the book

Ie

of the professor du

livre

Marie)

professeur

I

de + Ie)

a tree's

branches)

the branches

les

branches

the lady's

handbag)

the handbag of the Ie sac

the students' teacher)

of a tree d'un

arbre) lady

de la dame)

the teacher of the Ie professeur

des

students \037tudiants

I

de + les)

Careful

confuse du, de la, de I', and des meaning of and of the with words of the samespellingwhich are articles (see p. 15) and partitive the plural indefinitearticle(p. 15)meaning some or any. When they indicate possession, they usually come between two nouns (the book of the teacher).))) Do not

WHAT IS

20

THE

POSSESSIVE?)

REVIEW \037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

are

Below

structure

possessives which

is the

using the apostrophe. Write the alternate English equivalent of the French structure.

word-far-word

1. somechildren'sparents 2.

the

3. the

4.

a

dress's

5. the

color

school's entrance

car's

speed

books'

covers)))

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037)

WHAT

6. is a word that

A verb

IN

of the sentence. The word necessarilyphysical action.)

action

the

indicates

broadest sense, not

in its

used

is

\"action\"

A VERB?)

IS

WHAT

21)

IS A VERB?

ENGLISH

Let us

.

look at different a

mental

to

to run,

activity

physical

.a

types of words which areverbs: to hope, to think

activity

. a condition

to

be,

\"action\" of the

imagine, to

of the

one

into

neatly

because

they

sentence.)

The book costsonly

box dream,

to have

nevertheless

verbs

to walk, to

talk,

to believe, to

to sit,

Many verbs, however,donot fall

gories. They are

to

hit,

above catethe

represent

$5.00.

I

to cost)

seem tired.

The students

I

to seem)

you learn to recognize where the verbs are in italics.

To help

The

verbs, look

at

the

below

paragraph

selected a table, looked at the menu and the waitress asked what she recommended. She advised the beef stew. It was not expensive. They chose daily special, a bottle of red wine and ordered a salad.The servicewas but the food tasted very good. Good cooking,they slow, takes time. They ate pastry for dessert and finished decided, three

hung up

meal

the

The verb

entered

students

and

their

coats

with

coffee.

the restaurant, sat down. They

is one of the mostimportant

words

write a completesentence,i.e.,express verb. It is important that you learn to tion

of

many

words

in a

sentence

the verb. For instance,the

actionof

the

verb

p. 116)

the

(see .)))

verb,

What

and

is a

object

Subject?,

sentence;

a complete

identify

often

subject

the

in a

depends

of a

sentence

is the

thought,

you cannot without a

verbs because on their

is the

the func-

relationship

to

word doingthe

word receivingthe actionof

p. 28, and

What

are

Objects?,

WHAT IS A VERB?)

22

IN FRENCH

identified the same way

Verbs are

- The

INFINITIVE

its subject:

verb is

conjugated or changesin

I do, he does(seeWhat

an

form

the

an

is called

verb is

Infinitive?,

to agree

with

Conjugation?, p. 36). or indicates tense, that is, the time (present, is Meant by be (see What action: I am, I was, I will Verb

is a

past,

A verb of

future)

English.)

Verbs Terms Used to TalkAbout verb form which is the nameof the

- A

CONJUGATION

-

are in

they

to eat, to sleep, to drink (seeWhat

infinitive: p. 23).

TENSE

as

Tense?, p. 52). - A

VOICE

verb shows

and the actionof the

voice,

verb

(see

that

the

is,

relation

is Meant

What

Voice?,p. 85). -

MOOD

shows mood, that

A verb

between the subject by Active and Passive

is, the speakers'attitude

toward

(see What is Meant by Mood?, p. 50). they form PARTICIPLE - A verb be used to a also participle: writing, may written, (see What is a Participle?, p. 59). sung singing, - A verb can be classifiedas transitive or OR INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE or the verb can a direct on whether not take intransitive depending are Objects?, p. 116).) object (see What are saying

what

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

the

Circle

1. The 2. Paul

verbs

They

dinner,

6. I

the

sentences.

following

students purchase their lunch at and Mary were happy.

3. enjoyed 4. Paulate sad to 5. It was

in

the

movie,

fmished

see the

but they his

novel,

little dog

school.

preferred the book. and then went to bed.

struggle to get out

attended a concertto celebratethe

New

Year.)))

of

the

lake.

WHAT IS AN

An IN

is the

Infinitive

IS

WHAT

7.

name of the

23)

INFINITIVE?

INFINITIVE?)

AN

verb.)

ENGLISH

infinitive is composed of two words:to + the dictionary the verb (to speak, to dance). By dictionary we mean the form,

The

the verb that is listedas the be used in

most basic form of the another verb which Conjugation?, p. 36).

of

form of

(speak, dance). verb, it can never

is conjugated(see

is exciting.

learn

To

dictionary

without

a sentence

a Verb

is

What

in the

is the

infmitive

the

Although

entry

form

y

\037ain

verb

infinitive)

It's

(it

on time.

important \037s)

\037 . . .. In f Inlhve)

verb

main

.

main

It has

I.

ver

ce

f

together.

\037ar

b

infinitive)

I. Y

main

L ver

b s)

infinitive

\037

form

dictionary

used after a verb

of the

verb, Le., the infinitive

such as must

must be

Paul

I

started to rain.

auxlhary

The

I

and Mary want

Paul

I

without

the

to, is

let.)

and

home by noon.

infinitive)

Her

parents

watch television.

let Mary

I

infinitive)

IN FRENCH

The infmitive

form is shown by

calledthe ending;the

English

the word

last

or three letters of the verb the infinitive has no French

two

to in

equivalent.

danser

to dance

finir

to finish

vendre

to sell

These endings,called group each belongs la

verb

termlnalson to:)))

in French,

also tell

you which

WHAT IS AN

24

belong to the 1st group

verbs

-er

INFINITIVE?)

-ir verbs belongto the 2nd group -re verbs belong to the 3rd group It is important for you to identify the group to which a verb that you will know what pattern to follow when conjugating

belongs

so

verb.)

Careful

When

equivalent of a verb

up the

looking

an English-French of the English

in

nary, be sure to lookfor the specificmeaning English it is possibleto changethe meaning

words (prepositionsor adverbs) in ColumnA below changes

lows

a verb

of

depending

meaning

by placing

For example,

them.

after

dictioverb. In

on the

the verb

word that

short

look fol-

it:)

Column

A

Column

to look

for

I am

after

look

to

out

look

for a book.

looking

to take careof

\037)

I to

B

to search for

\037)

am

to beware of

\037)

Lookout for it is

In French,

the children.

after

looking

lions.

impossible to change the meaning

of

a verb

by adding

A above. An entirely a preposition or adverb as in Column different When verb would be used for each of the above. various meanings A will under Column above consulting a dictionary, all the examples look (regarder), but you will have be found under the dictionary entry to searchunder that entry for the expression look for (chercher) or lookafter (surveiller) to find the correct French equivalent. Don't selectthe fIrst entry under look and then add on the Frenchequivalent for the result will be meaninglessin French.) after; \037\037\037\037.\037.\037\037\037\037\037..\037\037REVIEW

words

Circle the

1. Mary 2.

The

4. They

5. Paul

you

would

replace

with

an

infinitive

has nothingmoretodotoday. must study

students

3. Paul

that

\037\037...\037..\037..\037\037\037\037\037.\037

wants

to

learn

their lessons.

French.

can leave on Tuesday. and

Mary

hope

to travel

this summer.)))

in French.

WHAT

8. is called an

A verb main

AUXILIARY

25)

VERBS?

VERBS?)

verb when it helps another is used alone,it functions as a

or helping

verb

auxiliary

tenses. When it

of its

one

form

verb

ARE

WHAT

ARE AUXILIARY

verb.)

Mary is a girl. a headache.

has

Paul

He has

been gonetwo

weeks.)

is

main

verb

has

main

verb

has

auxiliary verb

been

auxiliary

main

gone)

verb

verb)

ENGLISH

IN

auxiliary verbs: to

are three

There

series of auxiliary are

which \302\267 An

words

to change

used

is used

auxiliary

verb

past,

(present,

have, to be, and

to

do,

as well

as a

must, can, could

as will,

would, may, the meaning of the main verb. such

primarily future -

to indicate the tense of the

see

What

is

Meant-by

main

Tense?,

p. 52.))

Mary is readinga book. I to

auxiliary

Mary

read a

has

present)

be)

book.

past)

I

to

auxiliary

Mary

have)

will read

a book.

future)

I

will)

auxiliary \302\267

The tomake

verb to do auxiliary sentences negative Sentences?,

rogative tive

Sentences?,

Does Mary Mary

does

p.

is used to help formulatequestions and What are Declarative and Inter(see 46 and What are Affirmative and Nega-

p. 43)

read a book? not read

a book.

interrogative

negative

sentence sentence)

IN FRENCH

are only two auxiliary verbs:avoir (to have) and etre (to be). The other English auxiliary verbs such as do, does, did, will or would do not exist as separate words. In Frenchtheirmeaning is conveyed either a different structure or the form of the main verb. You by by will find more on this subject under the different tenses.))) There

WHAT ARE

26

The

AUXILIARY

are irregularverbs

and etre

avoir

verbs

VERBS?)

They are importantverbs auxiliary verbs and main verbs. avoir J'ai un livre.

be memorized.

whose because

must

conjugations they

both as

serve

main

verb

a book.)

I have

J'ai pris un

avoir

livre.

taken a

I have

book.

auxiliary

prendre

(to

\"

Je suis fatigu\037.

take)

verb

main verb)

etre)

main verb)

etre

auxiliary

aller

main

tired.

I am

Je suis

a la

all\037

maison.

gone home.

I have

(to

go)

verb

verb

in different the tenses verbs avoir and etre conjugated is a of main verb the the What (see by past participle the to form the tenses of main are used various Participle?, p. 59) verb.A verb tense composed of an auxiliary verb plus a main verb is tense which is a to a simple called a compoundtense,as opposed

The auxiliary and followed

tense composedof only

the

main

verb.)

Je mange. I

\"

sunp

Ie

tense

present of manger I eat.)

manee.

J'ai

I \" \"

I auxl1ary

verb

compound

r\"

maIn verb

tense

past tense of manger I have eaten.

look at some examplesofthe compound tensesyou will in your study of French. (The firstsentenceof each pair uses a fonn of avoir as an auxiliary, and the second, a fonn of etre.) PASSE COMPOSE of avoir or etre + past par(PREsENT PERFEcr)-Present is verb Past of main What the (see Tense?, p. 63) ticiple Let us encounter

Le

gar\037on

a mange

la pommel

The boy ate (has eaten)the apple. La fille est allee au cin\037ma. The girl went (has gone) to the movies.)))

WHAT

participle

gar\037on avait mange the had eaten boy

Le The

La fi The

lle

allee had gone

etait

girl

ANTERIEUR

FUTUR

participleof p.

au

69)

la pommel apple.

cin\037ma.

to the movies. PERFECT)-Future is the What

(FUTURE verb

main

or etre + past

Tense?,p.

verb

main

27)

VERBS?

AUXILIARY

of avoir (PAST PERFECT)-Imperfect is the Past Perfect What (see

PLUS-QUE-PARFAIT of

ARE

(see

of avoir or etre + past Future Perfect Tense?,

75)

Le The

mange gar\037on aura will have eaten boy

La fille sera alleeau The

girl will have

la pommel the apple.

cinema.

gone

to

movies.

the

of avoir or etre What is the Conditional?, p.77)

CONDITIONNEL PASSE(PAST CONOITIONAL)-Conditional

+

of main

participle

past

Le The

verb (see

gar\037on aurait mange la pommel would have eaten the apple. boy

La fille serait allee au cinema. The girl would have gone to the You

other

wilileam

compound

movies.

tenses as your

study

of French

pro-

gresses.)

\037............\037..REVIEW Cross

out the

English

auxiliary

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037..

verbs

which

are not

French.)

1. Did

2.

the children

They

3. Do you

do

will

want

4. Have the

their

do their homework? homework

to study

tomorrow.

now?

children donetheirhomework?)))

used as

auxiliaries

in

WHAT IS A SUBJECT?)

28

IS A

9. WHAT In

subject. When for

is called

action

the

performs

of a sentence,always

the subject

ask, who?or what?

I will be the subject.

Paul

to find

wish

you

fIrst; then

the verb

or thing that

the person

a sentence

SUBJECT?)

the

before

verb.

the look

The answer

French.

speaks

Who speaks French? Answer: Paul is the subject.

The subject is singular.

Paul.

to one

It refers

person.)

Are the keys on the table? W

hat

Keys

is on the table? is the subject.

The subject is plural. Train

to ask

yourself

Answer:

is in boldface

subject

(the

Didthe game

on

start

After

playing for two in the

Looking

Some sentences

have

the subject. Never assume a sentence. Subjects can

in the

fIrst

as you can see in the following and the verb italicized):

time?

hours, Paul becameexhausted. was a little girl. than

more

The boys were doingthe

one

main verb; while

cooking,

Mary

table. Boys

is the

(Note

that

Mary

is the

(Note that In

both

verb to choose

English

thing.)

you have to find

the

verb.

of each

subject

mirror

one

than

to fmd

question

word is the subjectbecauseit comes be locatedin several different places, examples

keys.

to more

It refers

that

the

was setting

the

of were doing. and verb are plural.)

subject

the subject

subject the

subject

of was setting. and verb are

and French it

make surethat the the form of the verb

singular.))

is important to find the and the verb agree;

subject that

goes

VerbConjugation?, p.

with

subject that

the subject.

is,

of each you

must

(See What is a

36.))

IThe subject performs by Active

is Meant

the action in an active

sentence,

and Passive Voice?,p. 85).)))

but

is acted upon

in a passive

sentence

(see What

WHAT

..................

.\037..............REVIEW Find

the

\302\267 Next

in the sentences subjects to Q, write the question you

\302\267 Circle

to A, write the if the subject

the bell

1. When

below. need

to

to ask

find

the

subject

of the

below.

sentences \302\267 Next

29)

IS A SUBJECT?

answer to the question you is singular (8) or plural (P).)

rang, all the childrenran

just

asked.

out.

Q:

A:

S

p

S

P

S

p

S

P

S

P

S

p

S

p)))

Q:

A:

2. One

waiter

the

took

order

and another

brought the food.

Q: A:

Q:

A:

3. The fIrst-year

students

voted

for the

class president.

Q: A:

4. Frenchis a

beautiful

language,

but

it is

difficult to

learn.

Q: A:

Q:

A:

WHAT IS A

30

PRONOUN?)

A

pronoun

therefore,

IS A PRONOUN?)

WHAT

10.

It is a word used in place of one or morenouns. for a person, animal,place,thing, or idea. event,

For instance, rather than lowing two sentences,

the

repeating

proper

it is betterto usea

noun

pronoun

\"Paul\"

in the

stand,

may

in

the

second

fol-

sen-

tence.

Paul likesto swim. Paul practices every day. Paul likes to swim. He practices every day. a pronoun can only be usedto referto someone(or someGenerally been mentioned. The word that the pronoun that has already thing) or refers to is called the antecedentof the pronoun.In the replaces the pronoun he refers to the propernoun Paul. Paul is above, example the antecedent of the pronoun he.) ENGLISH

IN

are different types of pronouns,eachserving funca different tion and following different rules. Listed belowarethe more important in detail. are discussed types and the sections where they

There

PRoNouNs-These

PERSONAL

the

function

pronouns

they

change

their form

according to

sentence.

in the

have

. as subject(seep. 32) I

.

as

go;

direct

(see

object

she sings.

he runs;

read;

they

p. 123)

Paul loves it. Janemethim. . as

indirect

object (see

Jane . as objectof

us

gave

a

the

Speak to them.

book.

p. 129)

(see

preposition

Paul is going out . as

p. 126)

with

her.

a disjunctive (seep. 133) Who

is

there?

Me.

PRONOuNs-These

REFLEXIVE

sentence(seep.82). I

cut

myself.

We washed

pronouns

refer

ourselves.)))

back to

the subject of the

WHAT

PRONoUNs-These

INTERROGATIVE

are used in

pronouns

31)

IS A PRONOUN?

questions

(see p. 138). do you

What

that?

is

Who

want?

PRONouNs-These

DEMONSTRATIVE

persons or

is expensive.That

This (one)

to point out

169).

p.

(see

things

are used

pronouns

is cheap.

(one)

pronouns are usedto show

POSSESSIVEPRONouNs-These

possession

p. 148).

(see

is that?

Whose book

PRONoUNs-These

RELATIVE

Yours

Mine.

the table.

is on

to introduce

are used

pronouns

relative

subordinateclauses(seep. 154). The

man

That

is

the

PRONoUNs-These

INDEFINITE

personsor

are used

pronouns

to refer to

unidentified

things.

do that.

doesn't

One

nice. read last summer.

is very book which you came

who

Something is wrong.

The French equivalents.

indefinite They

in usage

correspond

pronouns

in your

be studied

can

to their

textbook.)

English

FRENCH

IN

same way as in English.The most with the noun it agrees in and gender, correspond usually in number, in the

identified

are

Pronouns

importantdifferenceis

replaces;

that

a pronoun

antecedent.)

its

with

it must

is,

that

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Circle \302\267 Draw

the

pronouns

an arrow

is more

in

below.

sentences

the

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

from the pronoun to

its

or antecedents

antecedent,

than one.)

1. Did Mary

2.The coat 3. baked

and

Mary

4. Paul and

Yes, she

Peter?

call

are

dress

the

cookies

I are very

5. If the bookis not

tired. on

the

called him last but they

elegant,

night.

are expensive.

herself. We

bed,

went

out last

look under

night.

it.)))

if

there

WHAT IS A SUBJECT

32

is a

pronoun

subject

while

worked

He

pronoun used she read.

subject of

Who read? Answer:

Sheis the

She. verb read.)

Subject pronouns are divided

speaking (the and

the

first

into

the

into

the

person),

about

spoken

person divided

further

worked.

verb

the

of the

subject

as a subjectof a verb.

He.

Answer:

worked?

Who

He is the

PRONOUN?)

IS A SUBJECT

WHAT

11. A

PRONOUN?)

singular

categories:

following

the person

second person), spoken person third These (the person). categoriesare to (the

and plural.

Let us comparethe personalsubject

and French.)

in English

pronouns

English)

French)

I)

je)

you

to

Singular

1st person the

speaking)

person

2nd person

the person spokento

3rd

person

or objectspokenabout)

the person

he

it

she

elle

it

it or

we

noos)

you)

vous)

elle

Plural 1 st

person

the person Paul

speakingplusothers

and I speak

I

French.

I I

we)

2nd

person

the person(s) Paul

and you

I

spoken to

speak French.

I I

you)

3rd person

the persons Paul and I I

they)

Mary I

or objectsspoken speak

French.

they) about

ils elles)))

WHAT IS A

are three

There

English subjectpronouns

than one

more

have

which

33)

PRONOUN?

SUBJECT

equivalent in French: you, it and they. Let us look at each one so that can learn how to choose the correct fonn.) you

IN

OR VOUS

\037 TU

\"You\"

ENGLISH

You

used to

is always

The same or

States

you asked: \"Are

there weremany

IN

with

coming

you

talking

to.

of the United

singular and standing

people

me?\" the

in the

you

in a

room and

you could referto one

than one.

to more

or

are

President.

between you in the

difference

plural. For example, if person

you

the President

to address

Mr. have any questions, a good dog,Heidi.

is no

there

used

is

dog.

your

Do you You are Also,

addressthe personor persons

pronoun you

FRENCH

sets of pronouns for you.'

are two

There

1. The

form-tu

familiar

when

with

anyone

2. The called do

child, family singular is used to

form,

polite

very well.

know

not

to a

form-vous

formal the

This form is used

plural).

(vous

member, a friend, an whom you are not on formal terms.

speak

you

singular

When in doubt, always

use

the

animal,

or

(vous plural). This form, also address one or morepersons you

polite

form, unless

speaking to a child

or animal,because are likely to offend French speakers by with to when it is not appropriate. addressing Seep. and p. 39 for a more detailed of these forms.) you

them

37

\"IT\" IN

\037

study

IL OR

ELLE

ENGLISH

or idea,you Where is the book?It is on the table.

Whenever

you refer

Hereis

IN

the

chair.

to one thing It is

use

the

pronoun

it.

comfortable.)

FRENCH

The noun

singular it replaces

subject pronoun (see What is

you use dependson the genderof the Meant by Gender?, p. 6); that is, the

-pronoun must correspond in genderwith

its

antecedent.)))

WHAT IS A

34

SUBJECT

antecedent

Masculine

est Ie

Ou

masc.

livre? II est sur la table.

.

I

I

masc.

sing.

pronoun

Elle est

\"THEY\"

fern. sing.

sing.

antecedent pronoun is the chair. It is

Here

\037

confortable.

I

I

fern.

table.

elle

\037

la chaise.

Voici

. sing

book? It is on the

is the antecedent

Feminine

it

\037

antecedent

Where

IN

PRONOUN?)

ILS

OR ELLES

you

refer to

comfortable.)

ENGLISH

Whenever

more

one

than

or more

person

than one

you use the plural pronoun they. Paul

and

Here IN

The

books?

the

are the

lot.

are students; they study a They are on the table.

Henry

are

Where

object

chairs. They are comfortable.)

FRENCH

pronoun you use dependson that is, the pronoun must correspond

subject

plural

it replaces,

antecedent.

Masculine antecedents\037 Paul

sont

et Henri

I

the

ils

\037tudient

ils

\037tudiants;

I

beaucoup.

I

I

masc. pI.

masc. pI. t teceden

an

Paul

pronoun

and Henry

Ou sont

are students. They

les livres? lis sont t an

Where

are the

les chaises; I

feln. pI. antecedent

Here

are the

a lot.

la table.

masc. pI. pronoun

books?

Feminine antecedents Voici

sur

study

I

masc. pI. t teceden

They

are

on

the table.

elles

\037

of gender in gender

elles sont

confortables.

I

fern.

pI.

pronoun

chairs; they are comfortable.)))

the noun with the

IS A SUBJECT

WHAT

Two

masculine antecedents

or more

Ie livre

soot

Ou

masc.

I

la

Ou soot

fern.

notebook?

the

et

I

sing.

fern. sing.

fern. pI. pronoun

watch?

the

fern.

I

I

sing.

rnasc. sing.

the key

are

masc. pI. pronoun

and the notebook. They are on the

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Write

French

the

table.

I

Lantecedents--.J Here

la

table.

\037 ils

genders

et Ie cahier.lIs sootsur

la cle

are on the

They

Two or moreantecedentsof different Voici

the table.

I

\037

key and

are the

are on

sur la table.

Elles soot

la mootre?

I antecedents

They

\037 elles

antecedents

cl\037

L Where

pronoun

book and

Two or morefeminine

table.

masc.pI.

antecedentW

are the

Where

la

I

masc. sing.

sing.

L

subject pronoun

that

you

table.)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

would

use to

replace the words in

italics. \302\267 Write

the

person and number of each

corresponding

pronoun.

French

subject

pronoun 1.

I invited?

Am

2. Come on children, you go to bed now.

must

3. Paul and I are goingout.

4.

have

you

Mommy,

to give

me a kiss.

5.

Mary

and

are home.

Helen

6. Do you and your

wife

likesports?

7.

My

brother

French.)))

and

sister

35)

ils

\037

et Ie cahier?lIs sootsur

I

PRONOUN?

speak

Person

Number)

36

IS A VERB CONJUGATION?)

WHAT

WHAT

12.

A verb

conjugation

IS

CONJUGATION?)

VERB

A

forms is a list of the sixpossible

particular tense. For eachtense,

six persons usedas the

Pronoun?,p. 32.) IN

of

verb

the

for a

each of the

form for

(See What

verb.

the

of

subject

verb

one

is

there

is a Subject

ENGLISH

verbs

Most

change

sing when eachof the

verb to

Let us lookat the

very little.

is the

pronouns

possible

of the

forms

various

subject.

1

Singular)

1 st

I sing

person

2nd person)

You sing

with

the

music.)

He

with

the

music.

sings

She sings

3rd person)

{

music.

the

with

It sings

music.)

the

with

music.

the

with

Plural 1 st

person

We

the music.

with

sing

2nd person

You sing

3rd person

They sing

music.

the

with with

the

music.

English verbs change so little, you do verbs.\" It is much simplerto say that verbs

Because

to \"conjugate an \"-s\" in the 3rd

need

not

add

person

singular.

The

verb

English

verb forms in

three different

the most is the verb

that changes

the

I am,

present:

to

has

which

be

are,

you/we/they

he/she/it is.) IN

FRENCH

forms change constantly, and it is thereforenecessary for each the form of the verb for each of the six persons Verb

forms of all the verbs that exist endless task. Fortunately, mostFrenchverbs following two categories:

rizing

all the

Regularverbswhoseformsfollow a

example must be memorizedand

other verbs 1In

tJ1is section

in

the

we will

same

the

would belong

pattern

tense.

be an to the

can

Memo-

impossible, first of the

pattern.

regular

know

to

then be

Only

one

applied to

group.)

speak only about

the present

tense (seeWhat

is the

Present Tense?,p. 54).)))

WHAT

Irregular verbs whose formsdonotfollow must be

37)

IS A VERB CoNJUGATION?

regular

any

and

pattern

memorizedindividually.

you memorize,

verb

Whatever

conjugation made always

regular or irregular,a con-

is up of a pronoun subject and the verb form is a conjugation that goes with that subject. The orderused then the and 3rd the same: the singular 1st, persons, always

jugation

2nd,

2nd, and 3rd persons.)

pluralIst,

to list

Subject Pay

chanter

verb

subject pronoun in

to the

attention

special

French

(to

this conjugationof the

sing).

Singular 1st person

je chante

2nd person)

tu

chantes

it chante

3rd

person)

{

elle chante)

Plural 1 st

nous chantons vous chantez

person

2nd person) 3rd Each 1 ST

ils person)))

PERSON SINGULAR-The\"

the person

whenever Le

matin

In the 2ND \"tu

form\")

je chante

SINGULAR-The

form\")

is used

\"you familiar

the person

terms, see p. 33) is the tn

John,

you sing well.

is

I form\" of the verb

chantes

when

(the \"jeform\")

used

is

action.

doer

singular form\" of the verb

spoken to (with

of the

whom

you

(the are

action.

bien.

elle is

\"he, she, it form\" of the verb (the \"ii, the person, thing, or idea spokenabout the)

SINGULAR-The used

verb.

well.

whenever

Jean, PERSON

doer of the actionof the

bien.

I sing

morning

chantent

speaking is the doerof the

PERSON

on familiar

3RD

{ elles represents the

subject

chantent

WHAT IS A

38

doer one

of the

3rd

The

\037ction.

of three

CONJUGATION?)

VERB

person

singular

subject can

be expressedin

ways:

person singularmasculine pronoun elle (she, person singular femininepronoun

1. the third

il (he,

it) and

the third

it)

bien.

II chante

He singswell. II est

livre.

ce

Regardez

interessante

Look at this book.It is interesting. bien.

chante

Elle

She sings

well.

la chaise.

Voici

Here is the

chair.

Elle est confortable. It is comfortable.

2. a proper noun

Marie chantebien. I

elle

well.

sings

Mary

Paul chante

bien.

I il

Paul

sings

In both pronoun singular

well.

these sentencesthe proper he (iI) or she (elle),so that form

of the

noun you

could be replaced by the must use the 3rd person

verb.)

3. a singular commonnoun La

title

chante

bien.

I

elle

The

girl

sings well.)

L'oiseau chante bien. I

i}

bird

The In

both

pronoun singular

sings well.) sentences the common noun could be replaced by the (iI) or she (elle), so that you must use the 3rd person form of the verb.)

these he

- The \"we form\" of the verb 1STPERSON PLURAL \"nous (the form\") is used whenever \"I\"(the speaker)is one of the doers of the action; that is, whenever the speaker is includedin a plural or multiple subject.)))

bien.

Nous chantons We

39)

CONJUGATION?

IS A VERB

WHAT

well.

sing

moi chantons bien.

Paul et

Marie, I

I I

nous)

sentence, the by the pronoun

last

this

In

sing well.

and I

Paul

Mary,

replaced

nous fonn of the PLURAL

PERSON

2ND form\")

1. The plural of tu tu individually et

Paul

verb.)

is used the

Dupont, sing

you

form\"

\"they

things,

persons,

vous chantez

bien.

well. of the

or ideas

of the action. The 3rd personplural of three ways:

verb (the \"ils, elles form\ are which are spokenabout subject

plural masculine pronoun i1s(they) feminine person plural pronoun elles(they) The

third

lis

person

bien.

chantent

They sing well.

RegardezcesIivres. lis sont interessants. these books.They are interesting.

Look at Elles

bien.

chantent

They sing well. Voici

les

chaises.

Here are the

chairs.

more persons

action.

bien.

doers

in one 1.

the

when

chantez

one or

doers of the

sing well.

et Madame

- The

- When

are the

vous

Dupont,

PLURAL

use

well.

formally

Mr. andMrs.Dupont, 3RD PERSON

you

bien. sing

you

Mrs. Dupont,you Monsieur

whom

bien.

tu chantes

address

Madame

form\" of the verb (the \"vous

bien.

vous chantez

chantes

singular and plural politeform

whom you

be

use the

instances:

Paul and Mary, 2. The

must

you

two or more persons with are the doers of the action.

tu

Marie,

in French

- When

Marie,

Paul,

that

we J so

- The \"you plural

in two

is used

subject, Mary, Paul and /, could

Elles

sont confortables. are comfortable.)))

They

can

be expressed

and

the

third

40

2.

IS A VERB CoNJUGATION?)

WHAT

proper or commonnouns

or more

two

Marie et

bien.

chantent

Paul I

I I

ils

Paul sing

and

Mary

La tille et Iegar\037on I

well. bien.

chantent

I I

ils

The

3.

a

and the

girl

boy sing well.

noun.

plural

Les rilles

bien.

chantent

I

elles

The

girls

sing well.)

Verb Form

Let

at again attention

look

us

special

paying

of the verb chanter the conjugation each to the verb forms. Notice that

persons has a different verb form.However, one belong to the same person thereis only the 3rd person singularhas two pronouns,

have the sameverb

chante

tu

chantes)

iI

verb

il and

form.

two

six

of the

pronouns

For instance,

elle, but

they both

chante.

form:

je

when

(to sing),

chante) })

elle nous)

chantons

vous

chantez)

ils chantent)))

elles }

TheFrench is composed 1. The stem (alsocalled verb

the

by

dropping

What

is the

of two root),

parts:

ilia racine\"

in French,

the last two or three letters fromthe Infinitive?, p. 23).)

which is found infinitive

(see

WHAT

Infinitive

Stem

chanter

chant

finir

fin-

vendre)

vend-)

In regular

IS A VERB CONJUGATION?

41)

-

verbs the stem rarely

a conjugation.

throughout

changes

for each endlng,\"laterminaison\"in French,which changes in the of and verbs. You will person conjugation regular irregular know which endings to add when you have established which group the verb belongs to.)

2. The

Regular verbs are divided based on the infinitive

Eachof

verb

three

pattern

like

verbs

verb

-+ 1st

aiIner) 2.

Find

the verb

own set of verb

Tense?,

sample

belonging

at regular

(to speak) and

above.

of the verb by its infmitive

infmitive

aim-) agrees

with

the subject.

je parle

j'aime

tu

tn aimes

paries

it parle

il aime

elle parle

elleaime

nons

nons

parlons

vons parlez ils

parlent

elles parlent

ending.

conjugation or group)

stem by removing the

the ending that

for

each

first group (-er verbs), aimer (to love) that follow the

of the

verbs

parl-

3. Add

endings

p. 52). You will have to memoverb from each group in order to to that group. As an example, let

(to sing),conjugated

the group

parler

one

only

parler

of chanter

1. Identify

3rd group has its

groups

more

is,

conJugations,

-re)

What is Meant by

any

also called

ending.)

2nd group

rizeallthe tensesof conjugate regular us look closely that

groups,

-ir)

the

tense (see

three

into

-er)

1st group

Verbs

of Regular

Conjugation

aimons

vons aimez ils aiment

elles aiment)))

ending.

WHAT IS A VERB CoNJUGATION?)

42

The

belonging to the other groupswill of conjugation will always be the same

for verbs

endings

the process

but

verbs:

1. Identify

the

2. Find

the verb

group

3. According

to

verb by its

of the

infinitive

be

different,

for regular

ending.

stem. the

group,

add the ending

that

with

agrees

the subject. in your As irregular verbs are introduced the entire conjugatextbook, tion will be given so that memorize them can you individually. Be sure to dosobecause common verbs are irregular (avoir, to have, many

etre, to be,

and

to make,

faire,

Careful A

special

Although

word

must

you can

be said

for example).)

about the verbs of the

among easily see the differences

the

forms when they are written (parle,paries,parlent),they nounced in the same way (parle). In orderto write them will have to identify the subject.) \037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Write

the

stem

and conjugate the

first

group.

verb

various are

all

pro-

correctly

you

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

regular verb

Stem:

.

Je

nous

tu

vous

il/elle

ils/elles)))

porter

(to carry,

to wear).)

ARE AFFIRMATIVE AND

WHAT

WHAT

13.

AND

AFFIRMATIVE

ARE

NEGATIVE

43)

SENTENCES?

NEGATIVE

SENTENCES?) it is expressing can be classifiedasto whether a fact or situation that is not. affirmative sentence expresses a fact or situation that

a fact

A sentence uation

An

or sit-

is or

that

is;

it affirms

the information.

France is a country Paul

in

will work at the

They liked to travel. A

sentence

negative

Europe.

university. a fact

expresses

the information. It includesa word

a country

France is not Paul will not

IN

is

not;

it negates

negation.

Asia.

work at the university.

They did not An

in

or situation that

of

to travel.)

like

ENGLISH

can become a negative sentencein

sentence

affIrmative

of two

one

ways:

1. add the

word not after

verbs)

some

Affirmative

Negative

Paul is a student.

Paul

Mary can do it. They

travel.

will

is not

a student.

Mary

cannot

They

will not

do it.

travel.

Frequently, the word not is attachedto the verb and replaced by an apostrophe; this is calleda contraction. tracted fonn of \"will not\" is \"won't.\ Paul

isn't a

the

\"0\" is

letter The

con-

student.

I

is not)

Mary

can't do

it.

I

cannot)

They

won't

travel.

I

will

not)

the auxiliary of the main verb

2. add

verb do, does,or did+ not

(do or doesis

used

for

+ the

negatives

dictionary in the

form

present)))

44

ARE AFFIRMATIVE AND

WHAT

SENTENCES?)

NEGATIVE

tense and did for negatives in the past tense-see What is the Past Tense?, p. 63) sent Tense?, p. 54 and What Affirmative

We

Pre-

the

is

Negative

a lot.

study

We

Mary writes well. The train arrived.

Mary

The

do

not does

study a lot. not write well.

train did not

Frequently, do, does, or didiscontracted

arrive.

with

not:

doesn't,

don't,

didn't.) IN

FRENCH

The

basic

tence

is

(If

the

rule for turning an ne before the

to put

conjugated verb and pas after that verb. with a vowel, ne dropsthee and

verb starts

conjugated

becomes

affirmative sentence into a negativesen-

n'.)) Affirmative

Nous

Negative

Nous

beaucoup.)

mangeons

ne

pas beaucoup.

manfeons

verb

conjugated

We eat

a

not eat

We do

lot.)

Marie n'\037crit

Marie ecrit bien.)

a

lot.)

bien.

pas

conjukated verb

Mary does not write

well.)

writes

Mary

Le train est

Le

arrive.)

n 'est

train

.

The

placement

negated

of ne

and when

to consultyour

and pas

there is an

The train

arriv\037.

pas

I

conjugated

The train has arrived.)

verb

has not

varies somewhatwhen object

pronoun

well.

in the

arrived.)

an

is

infinitive

sentence. Be

sure

textbook.)

Careful

Remember that there did in French; do not

is no equivalent for the auxiliary to include them in a negative try

words sentence.)))

do,

does,

WHAT

ARE

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Write

the

\302\267 Circle

negative words

the

AND NEGATIVE

AFFIRMATIVE

SENTENCES?

45)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

of each sentence. which indicate the negative in

the

sentences

you have just

written. \302\267 Box

in the

English words around

1. We want

2. He

to speak Englishin

does his

3. Helenwas

4. Paul

which

you

sentence.)

French

class.)

homework.)

home

this

morning.)

can go to the restaurant

with

us.)))

would

place

the ne

. . . pas in

a

WHAT ARE

46

SENTENCES?)

AND INTERROGATIVE

DECLARATIVE

WHAT ARE DECLARATIVE AND

14.

INTERROGATIVE

SENTENCES?) whether can be classified according to its purpose, or asks a question.

A sentence

A

it

a statement

makes

is a

sentence

declarative

sentence that is a statement;it

the

declares

information.

discovered America

Columbus An

sentence

Interrogative

written

IN

a

ENGLISH

one of

can be

sentence

A declarative

1.

a question.

asks

sentence always ends with

an interrogative

language, mark.)

question

is a sentence that

Columbus discover America?

When did In

1492.

in

changed to an

in

sentence

interrogative

two ways:

or did before the subjectand the change dictionary form of the verb (do and tense and did to does are used to introducea questionin the present What is the Present introduce a question in the past tense-see Tense?,p. 54 and What is the Past Tense?, p. 63).) the

Add

do, does,

verb to

likes

Does Philip like the

the class.

I

I

3rd pers. sing.)

present

and Mary

Paul

Alice

went

3 rd pers.

I

3rd

present

pl.)

to Paris.

Did

Alice

I

I

past)

past

sing. + dictionary

and Mary

Paul

Do

I

class?

I

present

sing together.

3rd pers.

present

sentence

Interrogative

sentence

Declarative

Philip

verb

auxiliary the main

pi ers.

form)

together? sing I

pI. + dictionary

fonn)

go to Paris? I

+ di \037 tionary

form)

word orderof subject+ verb to verb + subject. This Inversion process can only be used with verbs that can be used are as auxiliaries(seeWhat Verbs?, Auxiliary p. 25).) Declarativesentence sentence Interrogative the normal

2. Invert

Paulis home.

Is Paul

I

subject

+

I am

late.

verb)

verb

+ subject) I late?

Am

I

subject

home?

I

I

+

verb)

verb

+

subject)))

ARE DECLARATIVE AND

WHAT

She will come

tomorrow.

she

Will

I

+ will +

subject

IN

will

+ subject +

maio verb)

FRENCH

sentence can

A declarative

one of

1.

maio verb)

tomorrow?

come

I

47)

SENTENCES?

INTERROGATIVE

two ways: the

Add

a la

mangez

Est-ce quevous are

Are

you eating

eating

soir?

evening.

at home this evening?

a la

mange

the statement.

maison ce

a la this

in

sentence

interrogative

soir.

maison ce

mangez

at home

You

Paul

que before

est-ce

expression

Vous

be changedto an

maison.

Est-ce que Paul mange Paul eats at home.

maison?

a la

DoesPauleat at home?

Je

I can

maintenant.

manger

peux

Est-ce

que je peux manger maintenant? eat now.

Can I eat now?

2. Usethe verb.

inversion

that

form,

is, put any subject,

subject, use the est-ce the subject is a pronoun,simply

(If je

When

is the

que invert

except je,

after

the

form.) the

verb

and pronoun

subject. Vous

a la

mangez

maison ce

Mangez-vousa la maison eating at home you eating at home

soir. soir?

ce

You are

this

evening.

Are

this

evening?

is a noun, follow thesesteps:

the subject

When

1.

State

the

noun

subject.

the verb and, when add writing, 3. State the subjectpronoun that corresponds number of the subject (seep. 32).

2. State

Paul

est

a la

maison.

Paul est-it a la maison? (word-for-word:

Paul

Paul is home.

Is Paulhome?)))

is he

home?)

a hyphen. to the gender

and

WHAT ARE

48

DECLARATIVE

et la cl6 sont sur la table. et la cle sont-elles sur la table?

La montre

La

montre

Since both

and the

watch

The

(word-for-word:

(18 montre

subjects

will be feminine

pronoun

plural;

they on the

are

table?) the

feminine,

watch

the

Paul et Mariechantent Since one pronoun

Paul and

Do

do they

together?)

sing

(Paul) and the other feminine plural; i.e., Us (see p. 35).

is masculine

subject

will

be masculine

the

(Marie),

Mary sing together. and

Paul

and Mary

Paul

(word-for-word:

ensemble.

chantent-ils ensemble?

et Marie

Paul

key

and 18 cle) are i.e., elles.

and the key are on the table. and the key on the table?

The watch Are

SENTENCES?)

INTERROGATIVE

AND

sing

Mary

together?)

Tag Questions

In both Englishand at the

French

when

a statement

transform

also

can

you

expect

a yes-or-no

into a question by

end of the statement.Thisshort

phrase

adding

answer, you

a short

is sometimes

phrase called a

tag. IN

ENGLISH

The

tag repeats and

Paul

The watch IN

the idea Mary and

sing the

of the statementas a negativequestion. together, don't they? key are on the table, aren'tthey?)

FRENCH

words n'est.ce pas? turn it into a question. The

can be addedto a

declarative

sentence

to

Paul et Mary chantent n'est-ce ensemble, pas? Paul and Mary singtogether, don't they? La montre et la cl6 sont sur la table, n'est-ce pas? The watch and the key are on the table, aren't they? Notice

that

although

the English

n'est.cepasdoesn't

change.)))

tag changes, the Frenchexpression

ARE DECLARATIVE AND

WHAT

INTERROGATIVE

SENTENCES?

49)

Careful

Make sure that you do not use the auxiliaries do, does and did when like est.ce que, they signal a you are asking a question in French.Just Also, use only one interrogativeform question and are not translated. or the other, either est.ce que with no inversion of the verb and subject, or the inversion form.) \037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

the interrogative form for the words which indicate

I. Write \302\267 Circle

each of the sentences in the the interrogative

below. you have

sentences

written.

just

studied all evening.)

and Mary

1. Paul

2. His brother eatsa lot.) 3.

The

II. Let

parents

girl's

us

changed

the different

see

4. In

word

the

2. Circlethe 3. To

space

in

can

French.

and father went to the movies. before after

word

use the

the

ways the declarative sentence below

to an interrogative sentence My mother

1. Box in

speak French.)

inversion

which

you

which you form,

provided,

fill

fill

would would

in the

in the

\302\267 State

the

noun subject:

\302\267 State

the

verb:

\302\267 State

the

pronoun

place place

answers

answer

in

est-ce n'est.ce

que? pas?

to the steps

below.

French.

that

corresponds to the subject:)

\037

In French:)))

be

WHAT IS MEANT

50

BY MooD?)

WHAT IS

15.

one or

into moods which,in

are divided

forms

Verb

MEANT BY

more tenses. Theword

MOOD?)

turn,

are

subdivided

into

of the word mode,

mood is a variation The various grammatical moods indicatethe if For of the speaker toward what he or sheis saying. attitude instance, if are use one but an are a statement mood, giving you making you you use another. As a beginning student of French, order you only you so that you will know what have to recognize the names of the moods will it uses these terms. You to when your Frenchtextbookis referring verbs and their learn when learn to use the various moods as you

or

manner

meaning

way.

tenses.) IN

ENGLISH

can be in

Verbs

-The

INDICATIVE

that

one of three moods:

the verb

facts. This

forms that

you

indicativemood. of the indicativemood: Most

the

p. 63),

future

the

and

used to state the actionofthe verb, and most of is the mostcommon mood, in everyday conversation use belong to the studied in this handbook belong to the tenses tense (see p. 54), the past tense (see present mood is

indicative

is, to indicate

tense

(p. 72).

Paul studies French. I

indicative)

present

Mary

was here. I

past

They

indicative)

will come

tomorrow.

\037 future

indicative)

IMPERATIVE-The (see

What

is the

imperative

mood

Imperative?,

tenses.

Paul, study French

Mary, be homeon

now! time!)))

give commandsor orders moodis not divided into This 56). p. is used to

WHAT IS

MEANT

BY MooD?

SUBJUNCTIVE-The subjunctive mood is usedto expressan toward the action of the verb. Sinceit feeling the fact or idea, it is \"subjective\" about them. (SeeWhat

51)

or

attitude

stressesfeelings

junctive?, p. 90.) In English, this moodis not divided The school requires that students French. study I wish

that

Mary

IN

were

is

the

Sub-

tenses.

here.

recommends

The teacher

into

about

that

he

do

his homework.)

FRENCH

The

French

language

identifies four

moods.

the indicative mood is the mostcommon, will learnbelongto this mood. in English, the imperative mood is usedto give IMPERATIVE-As orders and it is not divided into tenses. SUBJUNCfIVE-Unlike the subjunctive mood is used very freEnglish, The French two and it is divided into tenses. has subjunctive quently The premain tenses: the present subjunctiveand the past subjunctive. and in written sent subjunctive is commonlyusedin conversation French. Textbooks use the term\"present to distinguish subjunctive\" that tense from the \"presentindicative\" the \"present conditional.\" and CONDITIONAL-Frenchgrammar also recognizesa moodcalledthe conto ditional. The conditional mood (see p. 77) is frequently used if a the action of the verb as a possibility or an impossibility express the present condicertain condition is filled. There are two tenses: tional and the past conditional. and

in English,

As

INDICATIVE-

most

tenses you

of the

Sij'avais

de

I'argent,

If I had money,

I would

j'acheterais

buy this

ce livre.

book.

Les etudiants seraient allesa Paris,s'ilsavaient eu Ie temps. The students would have to had had the time. Paris, gone if they use the

Textbooks

made

mood,

term \"present conditional\"to distinguish it from

to

the

the

the

is

ve\" and \"present subjunctive.\"If noreference the tense usually belongs to the mostcommon mood,

indicati

\"present

indicative.)))

52

IS MEANT BY TENSE?)

WHAT

WHAT

16.

The tense of a

IS MEANT BY

TENSE?)

time when the action of the verb in the past,or in the future). The word takes (at the present time, place as the French word \"temps,\" which tense comes from the same word the

indicates

verb

means time.) I aID

present

eating.

I ate.

past

I will eat.)

future)

the verb in a see in the above examples, just by putting tense and without additional information different (such as giving any \"Iam eatingnow,\" \"I ate yesterday,\" \"I will eat tomorrow\,") you can indicate when the actionof the verb takes place. A are formed. Tenses may be classified accordingto the way they simple tense consists of only one verb form (I ate), while a compound tense consistsof two or more verb forms (I am eating). In this section we will only consider tenses of the indicative mood(see As

Meant

is

What

IN

can

you

by Mood?,

p. 50).

ENGLISH

are the main tenses of the indicativemoodwhose will encounter in French:) you below

Listed alents

Present I study

equiv-

present

I aID

present progressive)

studying)

Past)

I studied

past

simple

studied

I have

present

perfect

I was studying

past progressive

I had studied)

past perfect)

I will

future

Future)

study

I will have studied)

As you

can see,

past), all of

more

auxiliaries

p.

25).)))

the

there are only other plus

tenses the

main

future

two

perfect)

verb (see

(present and simple tenses formed by one or

tenses

simple

are compound

What are

Auxiliary

Verbs?,

WHAT

IS

MEANT

53)

BY TENSE?

FRENCH

IN

are the main in French:)

below

Listed

encounter

tenses of the indicativemoodthat

you

will

Present

j' etudie

I study, I am

studying

present

(Present))

Past

,

etudiais

I was

j'ai etudie

I have

studied

I had

studied)

passe anterieur (Past

I will

study

futur

(Future)

I

have

futur

anterieur

j

j' avais etudie

(Imperfect)

imparfait

studying

passe

compose

(Present Perfect) Perfect))

Future

j' etudierai

, j aurai

etudie)

will

studied)

(Future Perfect))

can see, therearemore simple tenses than in English (Present, tensesin French are formed with Imperfect, Future).The compound the auxiliary verbs avoir oretre+ the past participle of the main verb. This handbook discussesthe various tenses and their usage in separate sections: What is the PresentTense?, p.54; What is the Past What is the Past Perfect 63; Tense?, p. Tense?, p.69; What is the Future Tense?,p.72; and What is the Future Perfect Tense?, As you

p. 75.

Careful Do not

way

assume

in English

that

tenses

and in French.)))

with the

same name are usedin

the

same

WHAT IS THE

54

WHAT IS

17. The

It can

.

be:) the

when

IN

action is happeningat

is speaking

speaker

. a habitual . a

THE PRESENTTENSE?)

that the

indicates

tense

present

time.

TENSE?)

PRESENT

The sun

truth)

shines

he is nervous.

every

day.)

ENGLISH

forms of the verb which indicatethe present have although slightly different meanings: they in the library. studies present Mary in the library. present progressive Mary is studying present emphatic Mary does study in the library.

There

are three

When you answerthe followingquestions, you choose one of the above fonns. Where

does

Where

is

Mary

now? in

the

library.

Mary study in the

Yes, Mary

does

automatically

the library.

Mary is studying Does

will

tense,

study?

Mary

Mary studies in

IN

present

you.

He smokes when

action

general

I see

the

study

library?

in the

library.)

FRENCH

There

is only

one verb form to indicatethe

present

tense.

It is

used to

and progressive, present, present express the meaningof the English present emphatic tenses. In Frenchthe idea of the present tense is indicated by the ending of the verb, without any auxiliary verb such as is and does. It is very important, therefore, not to translate theseEnglish auxiliary verbs. Simply put the main verb in the present tense.)))

WHAT

Mary studies

the

in

IS

THE

PRESENT

TENSE?

55)

library.

I

etudie)

is studying

Mary

I

in

the

library.

I

I

etudie)

does

Mary

study

in

the

library.

I

I I

etudie)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

\037\037\037\037\037.\037.\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Fill

in the

\302\267 Write

the

proper form of the verb to read in French verb form for sentences

does Mary

1. What

the

2 and

FRENCH VERB: lit.) she

Has

No,

but

3. Does Yes,

answers.

3.)

do all day?

She

2.

following

she

read

The Red

and the Black? it right

she

now.

FRENCH

VERB:)

FRENCH

VERB:)))

Mary readFrench? French.)

WHAT IS

56

IMPERATIVE?)

THE

WHAT

18. The

IN

It isusedto

order.

an

and

something)

IMPERATIVE?)

is the command form of a verb. There are affirmative commands

Imperative

someone

IS THE

negative

commands

(an order

give

(an orderto do not to do something).

ENGLISH

are two types of commands, dependingon who is being told to or not to do, do, something. command -When an order is given to one or morepersons, the \"You\" form of the verb is used. dictionary

There

imperative

Affirmative

imperative

Negative

Answer the

phone.

Don'tanswerthe

Talk

phone.

Don't clean your room. Don't talk softly.

your room.

Clean

softly.

\"you\" is not stated. The absenceof the prosentence is a good indicationthat you are dealing you with an imperative and not a present tense.

Notice that

the

pronoun

in the

noun

the

answer

You I

I

phone.

I

present)

the phone.

Answer I

imperative)

\"Well

command

- When an

order is given to oneselfas well

\"let's\" (a contractionof let us) others, the dictionary form of the verb.) the phrase

Affirmative

Let's

Let's go to IN

imperative

leave. the

movies.)

Negative

is

used

followed

as

to

by

imperative

ut's

not leave.

ut's

not

go

to the

movies.)

FRENCH

in English, there are also two basic types of commands, depending on whom is beingtoldto do, ornotto do,something. there However, are three forms because the \"you\" command has both a familiar (tuform) and a formal form (vous-form). For the imperative, without the submost verbs use the presenttense Your textbook will go over the few verbs that use ject pronoun. another tense for the imperative.))) As

IS

WHAT

- When an

UTu\" command

order is given

THE

to whom

someone

to

57)

IMPERATIVE?

one

says tu. Affirmative

imperative

Negative

imperative

Chante.

Ne chante

Sing.

Don't

avec

Va

Go

with

Notice

Paul.

Ne va

Paul.

Don't

etc.)drop

final

the

tu

\037

\"s\" of the tu

tu vas;

chantes,

an infinitive

with

verbs

that

imperative

pas.

sing.

pas avec Paul. Paul.

go with

ending in -er (ex. chanter,aller, form of the presenttense(present \037

va).

chante,

- When an order one uVous\" command is given to more than whom one says tu or to onepersonto whom one vous. says Affirmative imperative

Negative imperative

Chantez.

Ne chantez

Sing.

Don't sing.

- When

command

uNous\"

Don't

Paul.

an order

pas.

pas avec

N'allez

Paul.

avec

Allez

Go with

to

person

go with

Paul.

Paul.

is given to oneselfas

well

as

to

others.) Affirmative

Ne chantons

Let's

Let's not

sing.

Allons avec Paul.

N'allons

Let's go

pas avec

Let's

sing. with

Paul.)

\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037.\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

the sentences

I. Change 1.

You

2. We

imperative

Negative

imperative

Chantons.

should

go

to the

evening.)

once a week.)))

go

with

Paul. Paul.)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037

below to the imperative

study every

movies

not

pas.

affirmative.

WHAT IS THE

58

the

II. Change

1. You

III.

if

Circle

sentences

following

shouldn't

2. We don't

IMPERATIVE?)

sleep

to the

imperative negative.

in class.)

speak in class.)

the

verb

of the

sentences

below is in

the

(P).)

present

1. Tu

2.

lis beaucoup.

Parlons

fran\037ais.

3. Vous

4.

Ne

allez en France.

dormons

pas.

I

P

I

P

I

P

I

P)))

imperative

(I)

or the

WHAT

19.

IS

WHAT

IS A PARTICIPLE?

A PARTICIPLE?)

is a form of a verb which can be used in one verb to indicate certain tenses, or as an to describe something.

A participle an

with

of two

ways:

adjective

or

auxiliary

modifier

I was writing I

59)

a letter. I

participle

auxiliary

L past

tense.J)

The brokenvase was

on

the

floor.

I

describing

participle

and the types of participles: the presentparticiple past As you will learn, participlesarenot used in the same way

two

are

There

vase)

participle.

in English and French.)

Present Participle) IN

ENGLISH

is easy to

The

present participle of the verb: working,

The

present

1.as

the

participle

tenses

She is singing. I

I

I

present

They

were I

progressive

of to

sing)

of to

dance)

dancing. I

I

past

2. as an

progressive

adjective

This

is an

amazing discovery. I

describes

-ing

form

studying, dancing,playing. has two primary uses:

in compound

verb

main

recognize becauseit is the

the noun

discovery)

He was a good dancingpartner. I

describes

the noun

partner)))

with

the

auxiliary

verb

to be

WHAT IS A

60

IN

The

PARTICIPLE?)

FRENCH

is formed

participle

present

by

to the

-ant

adding

nous formofthe present fmissant, (chantant, We refer you to your textbookfor the useof

the

since it is only

French,

Keep

mind

in

formed

they

were

that

the

with

an

constructionscorrespond to She

a

participles in French. These English

simple \037)

ing.

tense

They

chante.

Elle

I

present)

progressive)

were

dancing.

I

I

\037)

lis

dansaient. I

I

past

imperfect)

progressive)

will be

He

writing.

I

\037)

II ecrira.

I

I

I

future

future)

progressive)

Past

IN

The

French verb.)

of a

\037s \037in\037

present

in

participle

present

of the commonEnglish equivalents + present participle (she is singing,

French

auxiliary do not use

dancing)

the

introducedin advancedFrench.)

Careful

tenses

stem of

etc.)

tense

Participle)

ENGLISH

past

is formed in several ways. the form of the verb that

participle

by remembering

I have walked. spoken, I have written, The past participle has two primary uses: 1. as the main verb in compound tenseswith

I have written He hasn't spoken 2. as an

all that I to me

You

can

follows

the

find it

always I have:

I have

verb

to have

auxiliary

have to say. since our quarrel.

adjective

Is the

written

word more

I

describes

the noun

word

important

than

the

spoken

describesthe

word?

I

noun

word)))

WHAT

IS A PARTICIPLE?

61)

FRENCH

IN

have a

verbs

Regular

-er

regular past participle: the stem

-e to

add

verbs

-ir verbs add -i to the stem -re verbs add -u to the stem Infinitive

Stem

Past

chanter

chant-

chante

finir

fin-

fini

repondre

repond-

repondu

participle

You will have to memorize irregularpast participles individually. be very different may you can see in the examples below, they

the

As

from

infinitive.)

Infinitive

Past participle

etre

ete

avoir

eu

recevoir

re\037u

comprendre

compris

ecrire)

ecrit)

English, the verb or as an adjective.

As in

past participlecan beusedas

verb in compound tenses with etre or have) (to be)

1. as

the main

avons

Nous

We have

est aile

Paul

has gone

h

the past

avoir

auxiliary

(to

lesson.

home. with

of

participle

tenses

These

a compound

la Inaison.

Many tensesareformed

p. 63).

of

la I\037on.

compris

understood the

Paul

the

part

the

auxiliary

verbs avoir

verb (see What is under various

the

main

are

discussed

or etre plus

the Past Tense?, sections of this

handbook.

2.

as

an

When

adjective

the past

the noun

it

participle is usedas an in gender

modifies

it must

adjective

agree

with

and in number.

the spoken language

la langue

Spoken feminine

parlee

modifies singular,

This is shown

by

the

noun

language.

the word adding

an

Since

for spoken must -e.)))

la langue be

(language) is

feminine

singular.

62

WHAT IS A

the

words

written

les mots

PARTICIPLE?)

ecrits the noun

Written

modifies

plural,

the word

by

adding

for

words. Since les mots (words)is masculine must

written

be masculine

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Circle

the

auxiliary

the equivalent of 1. I

am speaking

plural. This

is shown

an -s.)

+ present a simple

participlesin

tense

in

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

the

sentences

French.

French.

2. Paul and Mary.were 3. Are you bringing 4. The students will

studying the

book

be trying

for the

exam.

to class? to memorize

the

verbs.)))

below which

are

WHAT

20.

THE

IS

WHAT

tense is usedto expressan

The past

IS THE

PAST TENSE?

63)

TENSE?)

PAST

occurred

that

action

in the

past.)

ENGLISH

IN

verb forms

are several

There

action

the

indicate

that

took place in

the

past.

I

simple past

worked

I was

past progressive

working

I used

I did

to work

with

verb

helping

used to

past emphatic

work

present perfect 1) The simple past is called \"simple\"because it is a simpletense;Le.,it in the example above). The otherpast consists of one word (worked are tenses one tenses; Le., they consist of more than word, compound an auxiliary plus a main verb (was working, did work, etc.). worked)

I have

FRENCH

IN

There

French tenses which correspondto allthe English past listed above: the passe compose(the present perfect) the Imparfalt (the imperfect).) are two

forms

verbal and

Present Perfect (passe compose) The is formed by the auxiliary verb avoir (to have) or passe compose + in etre the the tense the of (to be) conjugated present pastparticiple is a main verb (see What are Auxiliary Verbs?,p. 25and What the past participle does not change Participle?, p. 59). As in English, form

one

from

j'aiI

.

person

I spoke,

parl\037 I

avo\037,: auxIlIary)

past

nous

avons

I have

spoken

. .

participle

all\037 je suis I I A .:tr\037.

to another.

past

parl\037

we

spoke,

I went, . .

we have I have

spoken

gone

participle

auxIlIary)

il est

1A

separate

all\037

he

went,

he has

gone)

section is devotedto the past perfect (I had worked),

seep. 69.)))

WHAT IS

64

THE

PAST

TENSE?)

\"

of

Selection

Mostverbs use auxiliary memorize the list of

the

avoir.

the

verbs

Avoir or

Auxiliary

conjugated

Therefore, etre

with

Etre

it is easier for you to and assume that all

the other verbs are with avoir. conjugated There are approximatelysixteenbasicverbs, sometimes referred to by with etre. grammar books as \"verbs of motion,\"that are conjugated \"Verbs of motion\"is not an accuratedescription of these verbs since some of them, such as rester (to stay, to remain), do not imply motion. You will find the \"etreverbs\" in pairs of oppoeasier to memorize

sites:)

aller

to go

retourner

to

return

entrer

to

come

arri ver)

to arrive)

monter)

to

in

climb)

*'

venir

to

*'

rester

to remain

*' *'

sortir

to

partir

to leave

descendre

to

{:)

*' naitre to be born Verbs derived from the aboveverbs rentrer (to return),revenir(to come

back),

out

go

down

go

to fall to die

tomber

mourir are

come

with etre:

also

conjugated and devenir

(to become),

among others.)

The

rules

auxiliary

1.

of

verb

Agreement of the Past Participles of the past participle dependon agreement is avoir of

Agreement

participles

past

conjugated

with

etre

verb is etre, the pastparticiple agrees the section What is a Subject?,p.28). subject (review

When

the

auxiliary

est

Pierre I

aile

au

cin\037lna.

I

past participle

subject

L tnasc. sing..-J

Peter went to the movies.) est

Marie I

subject

allee

the

whether

or etre.

au cinema.

I

past participle

Lfetn. sing. .-J

Mary went to the movies.)))

with

the

IS THE

WHAT

fay)

t

9

soot

Marie

alfes past

subjects

L and

Paul

PAST TENSE?

65)

au cinema.

participle

masc. pI. \037 Mary went to the

movies.)

2. Agreementof pastparticiples with avoir conjugated When the auxiliary verb is avoir, the past participle with the agrees in the senverb direct the object if the direct objectcomesbefore If the direct tence (review the sectionon directobjects, p.116). the past parand object comes after the verb, there isno agreement textbook will ticiple remains in its masculinesingularform.Your in In over rule this detail. the here are a few meantime, go examples some structures where there is agreement. showing

Q

-

Je I 'ai

vu Paul?

avez-vous

uand

hier.

vu

I

I

past part.

dir.obj.

L masc. sing. When

did you

see Paul?

I saw him yesterday.)

vu Marie

avez-vous

Quand

.-J

? Je I 'ai vue l . dlr.obJ.

hier. I

past part.

L fern. sing. did

When

you

vu Paul

avez-vous

Quand

I saw

see Mary?

.-J

her yesterday.)

et Marie? Je les ai I

dir.obj.

I

past part.

L masc. pI. did

When

1. 2.

Depending

imparfait

the stem of the

needto

repeat

the

on which

rules of

is a verb. what

and Mary?

steps when

two whether

Determine

priate

The

you

these

Remember

see Paul

verb

hier.

vus

.-J

I saw them yesterday.)

using the passe compose: or etre as the auxiliary.

takes avoir

auxiliary verb

is required,apply

the

appro-

agreement.)

Imperfect (imparfait) simple tense formed by The is in

conjugation

your French

textbook.)))

of endings to there is no that regular

adding

is so

a set

66

WHAT IS

There

are two

should be

1.

English verb forms that used in French:

the

when

that

indicate

the

imparfait

or could include,the

form includes,

verb

English

helping

to.)

used

verb

TENSE?)

PAST

THE

I used to go to Franceevery en France chaque J'allais

year. ann\037e.

I

itn parf ai t)

I went

a child

As

to France every

year.

I

be replaced

could

enfant j 'allais

Comme

en Francechaque

verb form is in

the English

2. when

to go

used

by

the

past

was singing, wereworking. At A

P.M. last night, hier soir, heures

8:00 huit

ann\037e.

as in

tense,

progressive

I was eating dinner. je dinais. I

imparfait

for these

Except

to you

indicate

\037

verb forms,the English

two English

whether you

use

should

verb

the imparfait

not

will

or the

passe

compose.)

Imparfait

a verb is the passe composeor the imparfait the context in which a sentenceis used.As upon remember the following: to put

Whether

depend guideline,

passe compose\037 imparfait Let us

\037

tells

\"what

tells

\"how

the verb, namely \"went,\" the

on

depending

is

the

of

which

question

often

used to be\" or to

France.\"

\"what

The

was

going

on\"

same form

of

two English answers below; verb aller (to go) will be different

in the

used

French

tense

will

a general

happened\"

things

consider the sentence\"Hewent

however, \302\267 \"What

compose or the

Passe

of the

Selection

the verb

answers.

happened?\"

QUESTION: What ANSWER:

did Paul

He went to

do this

summer?

France.

context, you are asking and answering last summer\"; therefore, the verb \"did pened the passe compose.))) In

this

the question \"what and \"went\" will

do\"

hapbe

in

WHAT

Qu'est-ce que Paul

a fait

cet

IS THE

67)

PAST TENSE?

\037t\037?

y

passe compose

II est aile en

France.

y

passecompose) \302\267 \"How

to be\"

used

things

QUESTION: During his childhood,where

Paul

did

go

for the summer? went

He

ANSWER:

to France.

In this context, you are asking and things used to be;\" therefore,the the imparfait.)

Pendant son enfance,ou

answering verb

est-ce

que

Paul

\"how

the question

\"did go\" and

allait

en

be in

will

\"went\"

\037t\037?

I

imparfait)

en France.

II allait I

ilnparfait)

As you can see from the two Frenchexamples above, the answer will usually be the sameas the tense used ti

the

tense

in the

of

ques-

on.

\302\267 \"What

was

going

on?\"

indicateactionsthat imparfait and the passecompose in the same time the during place period past,you will often the two tenses intermingledin a sentenceor a story.

Since the took

fmd

I was

reading actions

Both

was

What

happened?

French the

you

both

logical.)))

\037

passe

compose

arrive. cOin

pose)

will give you additional guidelinesto help you tense. You should practice analyzing English in the past and indicate for each oneif out the verbs in the imparfait or in the passe compose. are possible, but usually one of the two is more

textbook appropriate Pick

times

He arrived

same time.

\037

passe

paragraphs. would

and \"arrived\" took place at the on? I was reading \037 imparfait

going

quand il est

im\037arfait

Your

arrived.

\"reading\"

What

Je lisais

choose

when he

put tenses

it

Some-

68

IS THE

WHAT

PAST TENSE?)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Circle that

the

that

verbs

be put

would

in

be

would

the

put

passe

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037

in the

compose.

I went to France with

Last summer,

Imparfalt and underline the verbs

my

family.

excited when we arrivedat the

airport.

luggage and

the tickets,

father

my

handled

parents droppedeverything duckedbehind the counter.Finally, brought her back to us.She was

leavingher dog

for

she

went

on to

two

the plane

weeks. with

my mother

While

away. My

my

tried

and a manager crying

Everyone a smile.)))

was very

Everyone

because

little

sister

to catch

Mary

ran

her, but she her and

grabbed she was

comforted

checked the

sad she was

her and,

fmally,

WHAT IS THE

21.

THE

IS

WHAT

want

IN

ENGLISH

ticipleof She

I had

verb:

main

the

happened

the

past. It times in the past and in the

+ the

had

auxiliary

walked, he

had seen,etc.

had forgotten her I I

that she

remembered

suddenly

in the

completed

occurred

preceded the other.1)

is formed with

past participle

action

at different

which action

to indicate

you

The

actions

two

69)

TENSE?)

PERFECT

PAST

The past perfecttense isusedto express an or event past before some otherspecificaction

is used when

PERFECT TENSE?

PAST

I

past par-

keys.

I

tense

past

Both actions1 and 1. Therefore,action

Don't forgetthat

Therefore,

2

in the

2 occurred 2 is

tenses

verb

in the

verbs

when

past perfect

1 in the

past, but past perfect.)

action

indicate the time that an action occurs. same sentence are in the sametense,the

the same period of time. In orderto show at different tenses must they periods of time,different place used. Look at the following examples: took

actions

during

place

took

that

be

The

was

mother

because

crying

I

her son

I

was leaving. \037

I

past tense

past

Action

1 and action

The mother w

2 took place at

ing

1s

because

the

same

Action

\037dlleft-

past perfect

progressive

2 took

time.)

her son h

\037'i

past

perfect

2

1

2

1

place before action

1.)

FRENCH

IN

The

It is

past perfect is called Ie plus-que-parfait. verb avoir or etre in the imparfait+ the

auxiliary

the main verb: j'avais marche, ment of the past participlearethe

p.

2 preceded

action

elle etaitallee.

formed

past

The

same

as for

the passe

with

the

of participle of agreerules

compose (see

64).)

1You can this tense with the future perfect which is used when two actions will happen at difcompare ferent times in the future and you want to stress which action will precede the other (see What is the Future Perfect Tense?, p. 75).)))

WHAT

70

A

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE?)

IS

the plus-que-parfait tense in orderto stressthat verb took place beforethe actionof a verb in either

is put in

verb

of that,

action

the

the

passe compose or the imparfait.

Observe sequence lowingtime-line:

of events

the

Plus-que-

Present)

Perfect

Present

Perfect

Past

TENSE:

VERB

past tensesin the fol-

by the

expressed

Passe

Parfait)

Present)

compose

Imparfait

-2)

-1)

TAKES

ACTION

TIME

same

'moment

I

Different

leaving.

imparfait - 1

- 1

in the

0

before

in time)

imparfait

time

\037

\037before -1

crying because her son was parce que son fils partait. I

The mother was La mere pleurait

Two actions

J()

o \037 now

PLACE:)

- 1 - 2

Same verb tense \037

o) J()

J()

the

in

imparfait

show that

took

they

at the

place

same

past.)

verb tenses

\037

different

times

crying because her son parce que son fils etaitI

The mother was La mere pleurait I

had

left.

partie I I

plus-que-parfait -2

imparfait

- 1

The action in the plus-que-parfait action in the imparfait (point

(point -

- 2)

occurredbefore

the

1).)

Careful

when You cannot always rely on Englishto determine cases, usage permits English perfect in French. In many

simple past to describean which actioncamefIrst.) The

teacher

wanted I

simple

action

to know

that

preceded

simple

past)))

use

the past

the use of the another, if it is clear

who saw the student. I

past

to

IS

WHAT

asked who

The teacher

the student.

seen

had

I

71)

PERFECT TENSE?

PAST

THE

Y

simple past

past

perfect)

the two sentences above meanthe samething Although rect in English, only the secondsentence with its sequence

and

are

cor-

of tenses

would be correct in French.)

Le professeur

savoir

voulait I

qui

vu 1'etudiant.

avait Y

plus-que-parfait

ilnparfait

-

-1

Le

a demande

professeur

I

I

qui avait

plus-que-parfait

-2

-1

The action in the pleted before the

plus-que-parfait (point -2) other action (point -1) which

fait or the

compose

In French

passe

depending

number the verbs parentheses, line below, indicate if the verb

perfect(PP) in

2. After

could

context

the

than

Mary read the ))

lunch, Paul ))

(-)

accordingto would be

in

book she bought

of

it was

com-

the imparthis sentence.)

in English.)

time-line

the

past

yesterday.)

))))

that

on p. 70. (P) or past

the

))

asked who'd calledhim (-)

that

be in

French.

morning

(-)

stresses

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037\037\037\037

the

(-)

on

the sequence of tensesis morerigid

\037\037..\037.\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

1. This

1 'etudiant.

-r-

I

In the

vu

\037

passe cOlnpose

\302\267 On

2)

morning.)

WHAT IS THE FUTURE

72

will take place sometime

in

future.)

the IN

FUTURE TENSE?)

an action

that

indicates

tense

future

IS THE

WHAT

22.

The

TENSE?)

ENGLISH

The

future

nary

form

the tense is formed with main verb. Note

of the

will or

auxiliary

is used

shall

that

(and British English),will occurs in everyday Paul and Mary will do their homework

shall + the dictioin formal English

language. tomorrow.

leave tonight.

I will

In conversation, shall and

tomorrow;I'II

leave

are

will

to

shortened

often

'

II: They'll doit

tonight.)

IN FRENCH

You do the

not need an

indicated by a simple tense. infinitive as the stem for the future.)

the

use

verbs

Regular

Stem

Infinitive

aimer

aimer-

to love

finir

finir-

to finish

vendre)

vendr-

to sell

(the final verbs have

Irregular

dropped))

irregular future

stems

which

aller

ir-

to

venir

viendr-

to come

avoir

aur-

to have

ctre

ser-)

to be)

notice

will

letter

of the book

\"e\" is

will

the future

that whatever

\"r\"

show

tense.)

is

always

the stem, regularor irregular, the before the future ending. Your

the

when,

the

future,

sound

heard

you how to conjugate regular and

While Englishuses and as, by the in

be memorized.

go

Careful

place

must

Stem

Infinitive

You

action will takeplacein

time is

Future

future.

that the

to show

auxiliary

present

tense

after

irregular

text-

in

such as soon action that will take

expressions

time, which introduce an French uses the future tense.)))

verbs

WHAT

as he returns, I will

As soon

I

I

She will

I

future

as he will

come.

. .\

come when she

is ready. I

future

present I

future

future

she

\". . . when

is more

sera prete.

quand elle

viendra I

French

73)

future

Y Elle

TENSE?

call.

future

\"As soon

FUTURE

je telephonerai.

reviendra,

qu'il

THE

Y

present Des

IS

strict

than

be

will

ready.\

in its

English

use of

tenses.)

Immediate Future

In

English

in

the

itself, IN

the fact that an action will occur sometime be expressed without using the future tense a construction which implies the future.) in French

and

can also

future but

ENGLISH

You can form

+ the dictionary use the verb to go in the presentprogressive she is going to see, etc.) main verb: I am goingto walk,

of the

sitnilar

meaning I I

I

I am I

going

to sing. I

I will sing. \037

-r-

I

present propressive of to go + infinitive) IN

future

tense

FRENCH

calledIe exists in French. It is sometimes because the future is conaction proche sidered nearer at hand than an action expressed by a verb in the future tense. The future is formed with the verb aller (to go) in immediate the tense + the infinitive of the main verb:je vais marcher, present

The futur

elle

same

construction or Ie

immediat

va voir,

etc.)))

futur

WHAT IS THE FUTURE

74

TENSE?)

Je chanterai.

chanter.

Je vais I

I

I)

I

aller +

of present immediate

going to

I am I

future

infinitive

sing. I

I will

In

to go + infinitive

future

tense)

future)

conversational

the immediate future

French,

often replaces the

tense.)

future

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Indicate

future

the

1. As

tense

as

it

is in

perfect (FP).

\302\267 Indicate

IN

sing.

y

I

of present immediate

tense)

future

the soon

tense as we

of the

the English

verb as it

finish our

would

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037\037

sentence: present (P),future be in

a French

sentence.)

meal, we'll leave.

ENGUSH:

IN FRENCH:

2. We

will speak Frenchwhen

IN

ENGUSH:

IN

FRENCH:)))

we

go

to France

this summer.

(F),

or

IS THE FUTURE PERFECT

WHAT

23. The

future

the

IN

ENGLISH

is used

to express an

action

in the

perfect is

future

participleof

In

tense

TENSE?)

action whichwill have

future or beforea specifictime

I'll see you

I'll seeyou I'll seeyou

as I will

as

soon

as

as

soon

as

I'll call you

s\"

as I'vefound

soon

as

\",

or

\",

ve\" .

have finished. I'll have finished. I've finished.

soon

as

auxiliary

to

to

is shortened

will have + the past she will have gone,etc. II: or, in some cases,dropped

the

have walked, '

I will

is shortened

will

have

and

formed with verb:

main

the

conversation

altogether

75)

l)

future.

in

PERFECT

FUTURE

THE

another

perfect

before

happened

The

IS

WHAT

TENSE?

Mary.

LT-J

Y

future

event

future

perfect

2 1 Both actions 1 and 2 will occur at some future but action 1 will time, 2 takes be completed before action place. Therefore, action 1 is in the future perfect tense.) I will have l I

eft

beforetomorrow. I

I

I

future

I

future event

perfect

2

1

1 and

action

Both

be completed

will

action 1 is in IN

the

event 2

will

occur

at some

before a specifictime future

perfect

future time, but action future. Therefore,

1

in the

tense.)

FRENCH

future

The

auxiliary verb

main

is

with the perfect is called Ie futur anterieur.It formed avoir or etre in the future tense+ the pastparticiple the com(the rules of agreement are the sameas for the passe

of

etc. 64): j'aurai marche,elleseraallee, a verb is put in the futur anterieur tensein order English, that the action of the verb will take placebefore the action

pose-see p. As

in

stress

verb in the

I

future,

or

before

a specific

to

of a

future time.)

You can con1pare this tense to the past perfect which is used when two actions OCCUlTed at different the past and you want to stress which action preceded the other (see What Is the Past Perfect

tilnes in

Tense?,p. 69).)))

WHAT IS THE

76

the

Observe

TENSE?)

expressed by the future

of events

sequence

TENSE:

Present

Future perfect

Present

Futur

telephonerai I

2)

K)

o \037

TAKES PLACE:)

Je vous

Futur

1)

K)

ACTION

Future

anterieur

o) TIME

in the

tenses

time-line:

following VERB

PERFECT

FUTURE

K)

now

1 \037 after

0 and

2 \037

0)

after

des que j'aurai I

before 2

trouve Marie. I I

1

2

[' II Je

call you as

serai

['II

parti

have

left

soon as ['vefoundMary.) avant demain.

before

tomorrow. \037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

\037\037\037\037.\037\037\037\037..\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

number the verbs accordingto parentheses, line below, indicate if in a French sentence (F), or future perfect (FP). present (P), future In the

\302\267 On

the

1. When

the

bell

rings ()

FRENCH

2. As

soon as

I've written

))

TENSE:)))

the

)

time

line above.

the verb

would

be

they'll have finished the exam.) ()

))

TENSE:

( FRENCH

at noon,

the

letter,

I'll send

(

it. ))

in the

WHAT IS

24.

WHAT IS

THE

77)

CONDITIONAL?

THE CONDITIONAL?)

does not exist in English, but is an important is an (see What is Meantby Mood?, p. 50). There verb form which is to the similar French conditional however, English and which can help you to understand it. For our purposes,we will call this form the \"conditional.\" The conditionalmoodhas a present and a past tense.) mood

conditional

The

in French

mood

Present Conditional) IN

ENGLISH

The

conditional\" is a compound tense.It is formed would + the dictionary form of the main verb.

\"present

auxiliary

I would like someketchup, please. If she had the money, she would call I said that I would come tomorrow.

is more

polite

Would you please The

. in

the main

If I had

close the door. door\"is softened

\"please close the

command

ways:

to eat.\

\"I want

than

the

him.

The \"presentconditional\" is usedin the following . as a politefonn with like and in polite requests I wouldlike to eat. This

with

by the

use of

would.)

clause of a hypotheticalstatement a lot of money, I would buy a Cadillac.

or result clause. buy a Cadillac\" is calledthe main clause, It is a clause becauseit is composed of a group of words containing a subject (I) and a verb (wouldbuy) and is used as part of a sentence.It is the main clause because it expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself without being attached to the first part of the sentence(\"If I had a lot of money... \.")It is calledthe result clause because it expresses what would happen as the resultof getting a lot

\"I would

of money.

had a lot of clause. It is subordinate a verb subject (I) \"If I

is

money\"

and

and

cannot

stand

called

clause

a

(had),

it does

alone. It must

the

subordinate

because,

although

clause, or If. it contains a

not express a completethought

be attachedto the main clause.)))

WHAT IS

78

THE CoNDITIONAL?)

because it refers to a conis called hypothetical at the present time (the personspeaking is the remote possibility of does not have a lot of money), but there could have a lot of its becoming a reality (the person speaking

entire statement

The

dition that

one

money

. in an

exist

not

does

day).

indirect statementto expressa future-in-the-past

for-word

opposed of what

or reports, but does not quote, direct statement which is a wordsomeone said. In written form a direct

statementis always

between

quotation

statement

Indirect

An

someone's

as

words,

quotation

repeats,

to a

marks.)

Paul said Mary

indirect statement)

\037

2

1

present

past

Paul said: \"Mary

statement)

direct

will

1

the

indirect statement, it takes place after

action 2 is calleda

another actionin

statement, action 2 is merelya quotation IN

come.\"

future)

past

because

conditional)

\037 2

\037

In

come.

would

\037

of

the

what

future-In-the-past

In the

past.

direct

was said.)

FRENCH

You

Ie auxiliary to indicatethe presentconditional, future it is a simple tense. It is formedwith the

need an

do not

condltlonnel

present;

72) + the imperfect endings:je parlerais il fmirait (he wouldflnish), nous vendrions (wewould The present conditional is used in the same ways as . as a politeform or in polite requests stem

(see p.

Je voudrais

sandwich.

un

I

conditional

present

I would

like a

sandwich.)

Pourriez-vous

fenner

la

I

present

conditional

Could

you close

the door?)))

porte?

(I

would

sell).

in English:

speak),

WHAT

. in the

main clause of a hypothetical

Si j'avais

.

in

an

I

had a lot of money,

II a dit

conditional

buy a

I would

to express

statement

indirect

79)

CONDITIONAL?

une Cadillac.

d'argent, j'acheterais

beaucoup

THE

statement

present

If I

IS

Cadillac.

a future-in-the-past

viendrait.

qu'il

I

conditional

present

(that) he

He said

Je

savais

wouldcome.)

pleuvrait.

qu'il

I

conditional

present

I knew

(that)

it

rain.)

would

Careful

The auxiliary would does not correspond to the conditional when it talk while he painted.\" In this senstands for used to, as in \"Shewould tence,it means used to talk and requires the imperfect(see 65).)

p.

Conditional)

Past

IN

ENGLISH

is formed with \"past conditional\" past participle of the main verb. I would have come if I had known.

The

Unlike some statementsin

the

present

the auxiliary

conditional

all possibility of their becominga reality, the main conditional are contrary-to-fact: because the condition expressedwas never done with.

He

have

would

spoken

I

if he

have

would

where

+ the

there is a

using the past never action happened met and it is now over and statements

had known the truth.

I

I

past

conditional

Contrary-to-fact: If you had called Contrary-to-fact:

He did

us, we would We did

have

eaten if I

Contrary-to-fact:

I did

I would

not

not

speak

have come

because

he didn't

know

the

come. because

you didn't

had been hungry. not eat becauseI wasn't hungry.)))

call

us.)

truth.)

WHAT IS

80

CoNDITIONAL?)

THE

IN FRENCH with the conditional, called Iecondltlonnelpasse,is formed + avoir or etre in the presentconditional the past participle auxiliary as for the passe of the main verb (the same rulesof agreement apply elle serait allee, etc. compose - see p. 64):j'auraismange,

The past

all statementsusing

As in English,

the

are contrary-

conditional

past

to- fact.) II aurait

su la v\037rit\037.

s'il avait

parle,

I

I

I

conditional

past

have spoken, if he I

He would I

had known

the

truth.

I

conditional)

past

of Tenses

Sequence

Let us study

some

French tense.

Hypothetical

and

because they

.

the

are

learn to recognizethem contrary-to-fact

always

if (si . the

made

that

\"If\"-clause; in

of constructions

examples

so that you

results

is,

their

is, the main clause the

recognizing

difficulty

tenses

comes, I will be happy. I

Y S 'i I vient, I

present

just

rutur)

present

present

and in French. apply these three rules.

in English

same

REsULT CLAUSE-+ future

-+ present

If he

and

the appropriate

French)

result clause; that

\"lP\"-CLAUSE

conditions

to use

statements are easy to recognize of two clauses: up the subordinate clause that starts with

The sequenceoftensesis have

with

and

future

je serai I futur)))

contente.

If you

WHAT

-CLA USE -+

\"Ip\"

past

simple

IS

CLAUSE

RESULT

THE

CONDITIONAL?

-+ present

81)

conditional

conditionnel present)

imparfait)

I would If he came, I

be

happy.

\037

present conditional je serais contente.

past S'i1

venait, I

I

conditionnel

imparfait

USE -+ past

-eLA

\"Ip\"

present)

perfect

CLAUSE

REsULT

conditional

-+ past

conditionnel passe)

plus-que-parfait)

come,I would I If he had \037

been

have

happy.

I

-r-

I

past conditional

perfect

past

S'i1 etait venu, j 'aurais etecontente. I

I

I

I

I

I

conditionnel

plus-que-parfait

passe)

the if-clause can comeeither at the beginthe sentence beforethe main clause, or at the end of the sentence.The tense of each clause remains the same no matterthe order. In

in French

and

English

ning of

I

been

have

would I

I

happy,

if he

had come.

I

\037

past conditional

past perfect

ete

J'aurais I

s'i1 etait

contente,

venue

I

\037

I

conditionnel

passe

plus-que-parfait)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Write

the

tense

you

would

present (P), future imperfect (I), past perfect

below:

for each of the italicizedverbs (F) present conditional (C), past conditional (PC), in French

use

(PP).

1. Studentswoulddo theirhomework 2. If they

3.

When

4. We'll

had

they

had

were

be going

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

an exam,

separated,

if they

they would have he would

had

time.)

studied.)

call her every

abroad, if we have the money.)))

evening.)

WHAT IS A

82

VERB?)

REFLEXIVE

IS

WHAT

25.

verb is a

verb that

reflexivepronoun;

pronoun

A reflexive

this

is

VERB?)

REFLEXIVE

special pronoun called a the action of the

linked

to a

serves

to \"reflect\"

that is, to the subjectof the sentence. The performer, the subject of the sentenceand the object are the same

to the

back

verb

is that

result

A

person.

She cut herselfwith IN

knife.

the

himselfin the mirror.)

He saw ENGLISH

on a reflexive meaningby

can take

verbs

Many

a reflexive

adding

pronoun.

Peter cuts the

paper.

I

verb

regular

when he shaves.

cuts himself

Peter

I

I

I

+ reflexive pronoun)

verb

Pronouns

ending with -self or -selves reflexive pronouns.

are used

to make verbs

reflexive.

are the

Here

singular)

Subject

Reflexive

pronoun

pronoun

I

myself

yourself himself

you

he it)

herself itself

she

plural)

we

ourselves

you

yourselves

they)

themselves)

In a sentence a reflexive pronounis always the subject because both the pronoun and

tied

object.

I

cut

Paul

Although plural,

a specific

subject,

the same personor

myself.

and

themselves for

Mary blamed

the

accident.

the subject pronoun you is the samefor the singular there is a difference betweenthe reflexivepronouns

yourselfis yourselves

to

refer to

and

used:

used

is used

when

you

are speaking

when you

to one

person (singular)and

are speaking to morethan

one

(plural).)))

WHAT IS A

Paul, did Children,

IN

REFLEXIVE

83)

VERB?

you makeyourself a sandwich? make sure you wash yourselves properly.)

FRENCH

in English many regular verbs can be turned by adding a reflexive pronoun. As

Marie

verbs

enfant.

son

lave

her child.

washes

Mary

reflexive

into

Marie se lave. washes

Mary

The

the

herself.

lists laver

dictionary of

infinitive

and

laver

to wash

as the infinitive

of

Look up

oneself

and se

to wash

laver as

both forms underthe verb

see

not under

Here are the Frenchreflexive pronouns: me

myself

te se

singular) yourse lf (familiar himself, herself, itself

nous

ourselves

vous

yourselves

se

themselves)

Since the reflexivepronoun

perfonner,

the

changes. verbs example,

sent placed

reflexive

(familiar

the

reflects

pronoun

plural,

will

fonnal

action

change

singular

& plural)

of the verb back to the as the subject of the verb

to memorize the conjugation of reflexive with the subject pronoun and the reflexive pronoun.For let's look at the conjugation of the verb se laver in the pretense. Notice that unlike English wherethe reflexive is pronoun after the verb, in French the reflexive pronoun is placedimmeYou

before

diately

have

will

the

verb.

Subject

pronoun

Reflexive +)

pronoun

+)

Verb

je

me

lave

tu

te)

laves)

se)

lave)

nous

lavons

vous)

lavez

se)))

lavent)

il

elle) }

nous vous

ils elles)

}

WHAT IS A

84

verbs can

Reflexive

reflexive

the

and

VERB?)

REFLEXIVE

be conjugated in all tenses.Thesubjectpronoun remain the same, regardlessof the tense

pronoun

of

ils se laveront (futur); ils sesontlaves (passe compose). The perfect tenses of reflexive verbs are always with the conjugated rules of for the the however, agreement past participle auxiliary etre; to the past of reflexive verbs are differentfromthe rulesyou apply French of verbs. Be sure to textnon-reflexive consult your participles verb:

the

book for these rules.)

Careful

Reflexive

common

more

are

verbs

in French than in

English;

that

is,

verbs that take a reflexive pronoun in Frenchbut not in For example, when you say \"Paulwashed in the morning,\" it English. In French is understood, but not stated, that \"Paul washed himself.\" the \"himself' must be stated:\"Paul s'est lave.\" In addition, other English verbs such as to get up have a reflexive meaning:\"Mary got up\" means that she got herself up. In Frenchyou to get up by express using the verb se lever, that is lever (to raise) + the reflexivepronoun se (oneself): that \"Marie s'est levee.\" Memorize the many verbs are idiomatic a reflexive pronoun in French. Some of them require in English.) for which there is no directequivalent expressions are many

there

..\037\037..\037...\037\037\037.\037\037\037.

\037.\037\037.\037\037.\037..\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Fill in \302\267 Fill

the proper English reflexive pronoun. French reflexivepronoun equivalent

in the

Les

every

enfants

2. Mary

3. Mary,

lavent

coupe

We

you cut

constantly.

coupes constamment.)

dress

Nous)

les soirs.

constamment.)

Marie, tu 4.

tous

evenmg.

constantl y.)

cuts

Marie)

French

.

children wash

1. The

in the

habillons.)))

sentences.)

IS MEANT BY ACTIVE

WHAT

WHAT IS

26.

The voice of the verb its

and

- A

voice

Active

85)

VOICE?

PASSIVE

VOICE?)

basic relationship between the verb voices: active and passive.

is said to be in

sentence

subject is the performerof the an

AND

PASSIVE

to a

refers

are two

There

subject.

ACTIVE

BY

MEANT

AND

In this

verb.

the

active

instance,

voice

when

the verb

the

is called

verb.

active

prepares the exam.

The teacher

S ate an

Paul

apple.

DO

v

S

DO

v

Lightning has struck

the

v

S

tree. DO)

the subject (5) performsthe actionofthe verb examples What direct object (DO)is the receiverofthe action (see are Objects?, p. 116). Passivevolce-A sentence is said to be in the passive voice when the In this instance, the verb is called the is receiver of the action. subject In

(v)

these

all

and the

a passive

verb.

is prepared

exaln

The

S The

apple

S

teacher. Agent)

was eaten by V

Paul.

Agent

been struck by

tree has

The

by the

V

V

S

lightning. Agent)

these examples, the subjectis the receiver of the action of the verb. The performerof the action, if it is mentioned, is introduced by the word \"by\" and is called the agent. In all

IN

ENGLISH

the verb to be conjugatedin The tense verb. appropriate past participle of the main the passive sentenceis indicatedby the tense of the verb to be. The examisprepared by the teacher.

The

passive

is expressed by

voice

+ the

tense

I

present)

The

exaln

was prepared by I

past)))

the teacher.

the

of

WHAT IS

86

BY ACTIVE AND

MEANT

exam will be

The

PASSIVE

prepared by the

VOICE?)

teacher.

y future)

IN

FRENCH

As in

English, a passive verb

conjugated

the

in

verb.

The

tense

is

tense

appropriate

by the

expressed

+ the

auxiliary etre (to

passive sentence is indicatedby

of the

verb etre. 1

L'examen est pr\037par\037

be)

past participle of the main tense

the

of the

Ie professeur.

par

I

present

The

exam

is prepared

by the teacher.

L'examena ete prepar\037

Ie professeur.

par

y

passecompose The

has

exam

L'examensera

par

prepare

teacher.

by the

been prepared

Ie professeur.

I

future

prepared by the teacher. in the passive voice is always \"etre\"(to be), all Becausethe auxiliary with in a passive sentence agreein gender and number past participles the subject. The

exam

Les vins

will be

sont

fran\037ais

apprecies

\037 masc.

subject

French

an

Thestepsto same English

monde entier

and

\037

Inasc.

pI.

appreciated the world over.)

Active an

change

participle

past

pI.

wines are

Changing

in

dans Ie

I

I

Sentence

active

sentence

to a Passive to a

passive sentence arethe

in French.

1. The direct objectof the activesentencebecomes passive sentence.)

1Verbs passive

partir,

Sentence

the

subject

of the

to Conn compound tenses in the active voice (see p. 64) do not have a that take \037tre as an auxiliary voice since they are never followed by a direct object in the activevoice. For example, aller, etc. cannot be made passive.))) venir,

IS

WHAT

BY ACTIVE AND

MEANT

direct

J,)

object

is prepared by the

The exam

passive)

I

87)

VOICE?

preparesthe exam. I

The teacher

active

PASSIVE

teacher.

subject)

tense of the verb of

2. The

the activesentenceis reflected

in

the

tense

verb to be in the passivesentence.)

of the

the exam. prepares I

The teacher

active

J,

present

passive)

is prepared by

exam

The

the teacher.

I

t)

presen

the exam. prepared I

The teacher

active

J,

past

exam

The

passive)

was prepared by

the teacher.

I

past)

The teacher

active

will preparethe

exam.

I

future

J,

The exam will

passive)

y

be prepared by the teacher.

future)

3.

of the active subject sentence introduced with The

sentence becomesthe The

by.

agent

I

J,

passive

omitted.)

prepares the exam.

The teacher

active

of the

agent

is often

subject

exam

The

passive)

is prepared by I

the teacher. I I

agent)

the

Avoiding

Passive

Voice In French

French has a passive its use as Engvoice, it does not favor lish does, and whenever possibleFrenchspeakers to avoid the try passive construction by replacingit with an active one. This is particularly true for general statements,that is, when we don't know who is Although

doing

action.

the

is spoken We don't know

English

in

many

who

is

countries. speaking.)))

WHAT IS

88

BY ACTIVE AND

MEANT

is sold here.

New York Times

The

who is selling.)

know

don't

We

VOICE?)

PASSIVE

can ways a passivesentence 1. by using the on construction

There are two

The

\"on\"

word

\"one,\"as

in

to the

corresponds

the

should

\"One

sentence,

be

in French.

avoided

English indefinite pronoun eat when one is hungry.\" To

construction, French often makes one the an active sentence, even in sentences whereEnglish speakers never use such a construction. a passive

avoid

On parle anglais

dans

(word-for-word:

The New York Times is On vend Ie New York (word-for-word:

2. by

using

the

de pays. in many countries\

beaucoup

\"one

English

speaks

sold here. ici.

Times

the New

sells

\"one

York Times

reflexive

exists

construction

only

in French

is spoken

in

se parle

L'anglais

\"speaks

The New

York

Le New York

voice

passive

to

p. 82). This and is usually senseless

countries.

many

dans beaucoupdepays.

itself') is sold

Times

se vend

Times

\"sells

here. ici.

itself')

Careful

ticiple

the

Verb?,

English.

English

Make

here\

verb construction

reflexive

The main verb of the sentenceis changedfrom is a Reflexi\\'e its reflexive form (see What in

would

countries.

in many

is spoken

English

of

subject

sure you distinguish between used to form a present tensein

the auxiliaryetre + the

iary etre + a past participleto form

a past

eaten)

is a

instance,\"est voice, \"est aile\"

(is

mange\"

but

(went)

is a

passive

voice

a

past

and the

par-

auxil-

active voice. For in the passive tense present tense

in the

past tense in the active voice.)))

WHAT

IS

BY ACTIVE AND

MEANT

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Underline \302\267 Circle \302\267

Identify

\302\267

Identify

in the below. sentences subjects performer of the action. each sentence as active (Ac) or passive (Pa). the tense of the verb: past (PP),present

the

the

(P),

over the moon.

1. The

cow jumped

2. The

bill was paid by

Bob's

parents.

3. The bank

is

4. Everyone

will be goingaway

transferring

the money.

spring break will be enjoyed

by

(F).

PA

PP

P

F

Ac

PA

PP

P

F

Ac

PA

PP

P

F

PA

PP

P

F

PA

PP

P

F)))

the

during

future

Ac

vacation.

Ac 5. The

89)

VOICE?

PASSIVE

all.

Ac

WHAT IS

90

SUBJUNCTIVE?)

THE

The

is

subjunctive

SUBJUNCTIVE?)

used to express a wish, hope,uncertainty toward a fact or an idea. Since it stresses

a mood

attitude

similar

other

IS THE

WHAT

27.

speaker's feelings about the fact or idea,it

is

usually

subjective

or

the about

them.) IN

ENGLISH

The

constructions.

few

very

The

subjunc-

likeother is difficult to recognizebecauseit is spelled

tive verb form

verb.)

of the

tenses

used in

is only

subjunctive

I am in Paris right now. I

indicative

present

to be)

I wish

I were in

Paris

I

He

like a past tense

spelled

subjunctive

a book

reads

now.

right

of to be)

form

a week.

I

indicative

present

The course

to read)

requires that

a book

a week.

I

like the dictionary form of

spelled

subjunctive

read

he

to

read)

IN FRENCH

is used will usage rarely help you

The subjunctive

frequently,

very

but unfortunately and how to use

English

it in French. Therefore,we referyou to your French textbook. First, learn how to in the present tense of the subverbs conjugateregularand irregular of the are rarely used, particuother tenses (The junctive. subjunctive decide

where

the verbs and expressions that larly in conversation.)Then,learn the verb which the to followsin subjunctive. require you put 1. Example of a verb of desire that is followed by a verb in the subjunctive: vouloir (to want) Je

veux

que tu sois

I

I

vouloir

J want

subjunctive

you to

(word-for-word:

sage. @tre

be good. \"I want

that you

be good\))

WHAT

2. Example of

tive:il

faut

an

que

II faut que

(it is necessary Paul

sache

must know

(word-for-word:

by a

SUBJUNCTIVE?

91)

verb in the subjunc-

that)

parler

fran\037ais.

I

subjunctive

Paul

is followed

that

expression

IS THE

savoir

how to speak French. \"it is

necessary

that Paul

know

how

to speak

French \ emotion 3. Example of an adjectiveexpressing an in the etre heureux a verb (to by subjunctive:

Je suis

heureux que vous veniez

which be

ce soir.

I

subjunctive

I am

happy that you are

venir

coming this

evening.)))

happy)

is followed

WHAT IS AN

92

ADJECTIVE?)

An

IN

word

is a

adjective

IS

WHAT

28.

AN

describes

that

ADJECTIVE?)

a noun

or a

pronoun.)

ENGLISH

according to the way they

are classified

Adjectives

describe a noun or

pronoun.

tells

what

See p. 93.

kind it is.

Sheread

an

adjective indicates a quality,

it

book.

interesting

brown eyes.

He has POSSESSIVE

ADJECTIVE

tells

it is.

whose

- A descriptive

ADJECfIVE

DESCRIPTIVE

- A

See p.

possessive

adjective shows possession,it

96.

His book is lost. Our

are

parents

away. -

INTERROGATIVEADJECTIVE

about someoneor something. What book is lost? Which

parents

DEMONSTRATIVE

someoneor That

question

adjective asks a question

you speak to? - A demonstrative ADJECTIVE did

See

something.

This teacher

An interrogative See p. 101.

p.

adjective points out

103.

is excellent. is very

appropriate.

ormodifies, In all these casesthe adjective describes, noun.) IN

the

noun

or pro-

FRENCH

in the same way as in English.Theprincipal in English and French adjectives is that English

Adjectives

are classified

difference

between

adjectives

in gender

in French do not change their form,while and number with the noun or pronoun they

adjectives modify.)))

agree

IS A

WHAT

WHAT IS

29.

name

the

As

word that

ENGLISH

IN

The

it modifies.

or pronoun

of a

noun or

the noun or pronoun.)

does not change form,regardless ofthe

adjective

descriptive

noun

a quality

indicates

it describes

implies,

93)

ADJECTIVE?

ADJECTIVE?)

DESCRIPTIVE

A

adjective is a

A descriptive

pronoun.

DESCRIPTIVE

The students are intelligent. is an

She

person.

intelligent

The adjective intelligentis the same although are different in number (studentsis plural and

adjectives are divided into two groupsdependingon how to the noun they modify.

Descriptive

connected

are

they

1. Predicate

- A

adjective

it describes

(the

The

are

children

The

sentence) by

linking

predicate

subject

verb

adjective)

I

a

I

noun

linking

predicate

subject

verb

adjective)

-

adjective

attributive

An

to the noun it describes and I

usually

looks small.

I

The good

verb,

I

noun

house

2. Attributive

connected to the noun

a linking

good.

I

I

adjective is

predicate

subject of the

form of to be.

is connected

adjective precedes

always

directly

it.

children were praised. I

attributive

noun

adjective

described)

The family lives

IN

the persons described is singular).

person

in

house.

a small I

I

attributive

noun

adjective

described)

FRENCH

The

most and

French

adjective,

noun

it

difference

important English

predicate modifies;

between descriptive adjectives in an they change forms.In French,

is that in French

or attributive, always agreeswith the noun or prois, it must correspond in gender and numberto)))

that

94

WHAT IS A

ADJECTIVE?)

DESCRIPTIVE

Thus, before writing an adjectiveyou if the noun or,pronounit modifiesis masculine or plural.

its noun.

Most adjectives add an nine

and

form

blue

the

an \"-s\"

\"-e\"

to the

masc. .

sing.

sing.)

la robe blene

dress)

I

I

feln. .

fern.

.

sing.)

sing.

les Iivres

the blue books)

biens

I

blue

singular

I

masc.

.

the

to determine

feminine,

bien

I

the blue

or

to the masculine form to make the femifeminine ormasculineto makeit plural.)

Ie livre

book)

have

will

I

masc.

masc.

pI.

pI.)

bleues

les robes

dresses

I

I

fern.

fern.

pI.

pI.

the adjective \"blue\" As you can see in the examples above,in English, \"bleu\" after the comes before the noun it modifies,whereas goes some French the noun in French. This is not always case, adjectives Refer to your textbook to also come before the noun they modify. is placed before or after the noun it learn whethera Frenchadjective

modifies.)

Nouns Used as IN

Adjectives)

ENGLISH

also be able to recognizenouns noun. When another a noun usedto modify You should

another

the

noun,

tive)

+ the

noun

structure

is as

follows: the

The

French

I

I

noun)

I

noun)

that is,

is used to describe

describing noun (adjec-

described.)

French is difficult.

Chemistry

as adjectives;

used

a noun

The

I

interesting.

noun described)

adjective

is difficult.

class is

chemistry I

adjective

books are I

noun

expensive.

described)))

IS A

WHAT

ADJECTIVE?

DESCRIPTIVE

95)

IN FRENCH

noun is usedas an

When a

the structureis noun

as

the French class I

I

I\037fran\037ais

I\037

sing.

sing.)

the chemistry

la

classe

the

les livres)

adjectives

masc.

the

in

I

pI.

fern.

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

you

to the

circled

noun or pronoun

described.)

1. The young

man

was

2. Shelookedpretty

in

reading her

long

a French

newspaper.

red dress.

3. It is interesting.

4.

The

5.

Paul

old was

piano tired

could after

still produce his long

sing.)

below.

sentences

from the adjective

an arrow

de chimie

I

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Circle

I

masc.)

les livres

I

la chimie

de fran\037ais

classe fern.

books

another noun,

the describing noun remainsa describing

I

I

\302\267 Draw

The

an article. its fonn.)

not change

does

noun

the

without

(adjective) and

noun

is, to describe + de + described

that

adjective,

follows:

walk.)))

good music.

WHAT IS A

96

ADJECTIVE?)

POSSESSIVE

WHAT IS

30.

and the noun modifiedis calledthe

the \"possessor\" \"possessed.\"

thing

Whose house My is

is that?

It's

an adjective that

\"house.\ IN

ADJECTIVE?)

POSSESSIVE

adjective is a word which describesa noun by The the thing or person beingdiscussed.

A possessive who possesses called

A

showing owner

is

person

or

my house.

tells us

who

is

the

possessor

of the

noun

ENGLISH

Here

is a

list of the

Singular

possessor

1 st

possessive adjectives:

person

my

2nd person)

your

3rd person) Plural

{

masculine

his

feminine

her

neuter)

its)

possessor

1 st

our

person 2nd person 3rd

your

their)

person)

Possessive

of the adjectives never changetheir form,regardless only refer to the possessor.

thing

they

possessed;

Is

that

your

house?

Are those your

keys?

house.

Yes, it is my Yes,

they

are my keys.

the objects The same possessive adjective(my) is used, although in is is are different number (house keys singular, plural). possessed color is John's What car? His car is blue. What color is Mary's car? Her car is blue. the

Although tive singular,

is

different Mary

possessed because the

object

feminine

same (car), the possessive adjecis different masculine (John possessor is the

singular).)))

WHAT IS A

and

97)

ADJECTIVE?

FRENCH

IN

Like but

POSSESSIVE

a French possessive adjective refersto the possessor, it must agree, like all French adjectives,in gender English, number with the noun it modifies, that is, the personor English,

unlike

object

possessed. For

example,

the

possessive

my, while which is

in the

mon frere (my brother) the first letterof to the 1st personsingular possessor

phrase

m- refers

adjective

the ending -on is masculine singular.

my brother

masculinesingularto agree Let us see when happens

with

what

plural.

[love

brothers.

my

mes freres.

J'aime

endings

\037asc.pl.

1 st

pers. sing.

possessor)

Let us look at the Frenchpossessive adjectives formed. Because the rulesfor the selection from the for a singular possessoraredifferent

possessiveadjectives Frenchpossessive

for

plural

adjectives

Singular In French,

Possessor:

3. the

into

possessors, these two

my, your (tu

each of these possessive

depending on the gender and 1. the mascul ine singular 2. the feminine singular plural

(the

Here are the stepsyou

of the

same for both

genders)

follow

of possessive rules for the we

1. Indicatethe possessor

with

adjective. my

m-)

your

t-)

(tn fonn)

his

her

s-)))

}

the

they are

how

see

adjectives

selection of have the divided the

groups.)

form),

his,

her,

Its

ves has three noun possessed:

adjecti

number

should

to

in choosing

the correct

sive adjective.

its)

frere,

we make

first

letter

of the

forms

posses-

possessive

WHA T IS A POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE?)

98

2.

according to

the ending

Choose

the genderand

of the

number

possessed.

.

noun

is masculine

possessed

beginning Helene

with

a vowel

lit mon

livre. I

masc.

Helene

lit

Helene

lit son

ton

singular

or feminine

Helen reads my

book. I

. noun

sing.

livre.)

Helenreads

her

Paul meetsmy

mon arnie.

friend. I

noun possessed

fern.

sing. with vowel begins

rencontre

.

noun

consonant

\037

lit ma

Paul

ton arnie.

Paulmeets

Paul meetshis (her)friend.

friend.

your

beginning

singular

lettre.

Paul

reads my letter.

I

lit ta

Paul

Paull it . noun

sa

I

noun

sing.

your letter.

Paul reads

lettre.)

Paul reads

his

Helen

my books.

reads

I

masc.

lit tes

Paul

letter.)

(her)

-es)

add

livres.

lit mes

singular

possessed

lettre.

possessed is plural \037

Helene

a

with

-8)

add

fern.

singular

son arnie. is feminine

possessed

book.)

(his)

I

Paul

singular

possessed

your book.

Helen reads

Paul rencontre

singular

-on)

add

livre.

rencontre

Paul

\037

I

noun

pI.)

lettres.

Paul

reads

possessed

your

plural)

letters.)

I

fern.

Elle

lit ses

pI.

She is reading her (his)

livres. I

masc.

the proper

3. Select

Let us

apply the is

Paul

looking

books.)

pI.)

form accordingto the two

steps

above.

above steps to someexamples: at his

mother.

1. Possessor:s-

2.

Noun

possessed:

3. Selection:sa

Paul regardesa mere.)))

La mere

(mother) is feminine singular.

noun

IS A POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE?

WHAT

99)

Paul is lookingat hisfather.

1.

: s-

Possessor

possessed: Le pere (father)

2. Noun

is masculine

singular.

son

3. Selection:

Paul regardeson pere.) Possessor:

Plural

In French,

depending same

for

. noun

possessed is singular\037

lis

fille.

Pierre et Mariesont

daufhter. noun possessed

\037

nos

or leurs)

vos,

nos,

Peter

enfants.

and Mary

are our children. I

noun

Helene lit vos

singular

Paul reads your letter. They read their letter.

is plural

possessed

genders).

our

is

Mary

both

or leur

votre,

notre,

lettre

leur

lisent

two forms 1. the singular(the

has only

plural (the samefor

lettre.

lit votre

Paul

noun

and 2. the

genders),

Marie est notre

.

adjectives possessive of the noun possessed:

number

the

both

these

of

each

on

their

(vous form),

your

our,

livres.

Helen reads

Elles lisent leurs lettres.)

plural

your books.

their

read

They

possessed

letters.)

Careful

the subjectand the not necessarily match. It all dependson what In French

and in English,

Avez-vous moo livre? I

Also, decide

I

Do you

have

you

1st

2Ad

st \037

pers.

pers.)

pers.

pers.)

whether

you write a sentence it is appropriate to

with the possessiveadjectiveyour, use the tu form or the vous form in

French. Then makesurethat every right form, including the verb. \"You

either \"1\\1 lis 18lettre\"

or

\"Vous

to say.)

want book?

my

2nd

before

do

adjective

possessive

lisez

word

that

are

reading

votre

refers your

lettre.\)

to

\"you\"

is

in the

letter\" would

be

1 00

IS A POSSESSIVE

WHAT

ADJECTIVE?)

Summary

is a

Here

chart you can useas a reference.) Noun

Possessor

possessed

Singular

Plural

mon

mes

mon

mes

ma

mes

ton

tes

ton

tes

fern.

ta

tes

masc.

son

ses

fem.+ vowel

son

ses

fern.)

sa

ses)

our

notre

nos

your

votre

vos

leur

leurs)

Singular

masc. fern. + vowel fern.

my)

your

masc.

(Iu form))

fern.

his, her,

its)

+ vowel

Plural

(vous

form)

the ir

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

below. possessive adjectives in the sentences arrow from the possessive adjectiveto the noun it modifies. of the possessive number adjective: singular (8) or plural (P). in this section, fill in the French possessive adjective in the charts French sentences below. the

Circle

. Draw an . Circlethe

.

Using

the

1. I took my

home.

books

POSSESSIVE ADJECfIVE J'ai

2.

IN

livres a la

pris borrowed

Mary

(familiar)

your

IN FRENCH:

ADJECfIVE

POSSESSIVE

Marie a

our

4. Your

clothes

p)

s)

p)

s)

p)

s)

p)))

maison. car. feminine

mother.)

POSSESSIVE ADJECfIVE

ressemble

s)

voiture.

emprunte

3. Paul lookslike Paul

masculine

FRENCH:

IN

mere.

a are

feminine

FRENCH:

expensive.

POSSESSIVEADJECfIVE vetements

IN FRENCH:

masculine

sont chers.)

IS AN INTERROGATIVE

WHAT

WHAT IS AN

31.

An Interrogative about a noun.) IN

ADJECTIVE?

101)

ADJECTIVE?)

INTERROGATIVE

is a word that asks for moreinformation

adjective

ENGLISH

The

words come

they

are called interrogativeadjectiveswhen and areusedto ask a questionabout that

which and what in front of a noun

noun.

are

courses

What

IN

is teaching the course?

teacher

Which

you taking?)

FRENCH

one interrogative adjective quel which to agree changes and number with the noun it modifies. Therefore, in order to book\" or \"what dress\" in French, you start by determining say \"which the genderand number of the word book or dress.

There

is only

in gender

Noun

is masculine

modified

Livre

(book)

so the

word

What

Noun

Iivres

Quels

Oil

sont

Livres

(books)

so the

word

What

singular, must be masculinesingular.

table?

the

is masculine

modified

plural \037 sur la table?

plural, must be masculineplural.

table?

Noun modifiedis femininesingular Quelle

robe

word for

Which dress Noun

modified Quelles

quelle

are you

singular.

plural

\037

queUes

voulez-vous?

word for

Which dresses

be feminine

wearing?

is feminine robes

singular, must

\"which\"

Robes (dresses)is feminine

so the

\037

portez-vous?

Robe (dress) is feminine

so the

quels

is masculine for \"what\"

are on the

books

quel

is masculine for \"what\"

is

book

\037

sur la table?

vre est

Quelli

singular

\"which\"

do you

plural, must

want?)))

be feminine

plural.

WHAT IS AN

102

ADJECTIVE?)

INTERROGATIVE

above, the interrogativeadjectiveimmediately preThis is not always the case. As you will from the noun it can be separate see below, the interrogative adjective because the interrogative modifies. You must learn to find that noun, adjective agrees with it no matter where it is placed in the sentence.

In the

sentences

cedes

the noun

it modifies.

address?

is your

What

To establish Quelle

which

can

sentence

the

est votre

word the interrogative be restructured to read:

adjective modifies, \"What

is yours?\"

address

adresse?

I

I I

fern.

sing.)

are his favorite

What

To establish

which

can

sentence

the

programs?

the interrogative adjective modifies, be 'restructured to read: \"What are his programs word

favorites?\"

ses programmespreferes?

Quels soot I

I I

masc.

pI.)

Careful

The

word

tence

what is

not

on

the

is

\"What

that

important

are used

an Interrogative

and

Pronoun?, p. 138.))

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

interrogative

an arrow

\302\267 Indicate \302\267 Fill

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

below. adjectives in the sentences from the interrogative adjective to the noun it modifies. if the noun modified is singular (8) or plural (P). the French interrogative adjective in the French sentences below.

the

Circle \302\267 Draw

is

table?\"

distinguish

you

words

different

In the seninterrogative adjective. it is an interrogative pronoun. It one from the other, becausein French rules. is What (See they follow different an

always

in

1. Which NOUN

courses are you

MODIFIED IN cours

2. What NOUN

is your

FRENCH:

masculine)

s)

p)

s)

p)))

suivez-vous?

favorite

MODIFIED IN

taking?

city? FRENCH:

est ta

feminh,e

ville preferee?)

WHAT

32.

ADJECTIVE?)

DEMONSTRATIVE

A

IS

WHAT

adjective is a word usedto point out

A demonstrative

103)

ADJECTIVE?

IS A DEMONSTRATIVE

or an

a person

object. IN

ENGLISH

demonstrative

The

are this

adjectives

the plural. They in noun number with the agreeing and those in

these

that

and

to those

changes

cat

that man)

and

singular

of adjectives

they modify: this changes to when they modify a plural noun.)

these

cats

those

men)

This and these referto a personor objectnear from and those refer to a personor objectaway IN

the

in

examples

these

Plural

Singular

this

and that rare

are

the

the

speaker,

and

that

speaker.)

FRENCH

in gender

say the

to agree one demonstrative adjective ce which changes and number with the noun it modifies. Therefore, in order to or \"this dress\" in French, you start by determining book\" and number of the word bookor dress.

is only

There

\"that

gender

Noun

is masculine

modified

livre

Ce

Livre

est sur (book)

singular

is masculine

modified Cet

with

begins

is feminine

modified Cette

robe

singular.

table.

singular and starts with is masculine

is

word

\"this\" must

cette

est jolie.

word for

This (or that)

a vowel

\037

singular. for

large.

singular \037

Robe (dress)is feminine so the

be masculine

a vowel, the

This (or that) apartment Noun

\037

est grand.

appartement it

a consonant

singular,

Appartement (apartment) Since

with

la table. is masculine

so the word for \"this\" must This (or that) bookis on the Noun

and starts

\"this\"

singular, must

dress is pretty.)))

be feminine

singular.

be cet.

cet

ce

WHAT IS A

104

ADJECTIVE?)

DEMONSTRATIVE

Cette Am\037ricaioe \037tudie Ie fran\037ais. Americaine (American girl) is feminine must be feminine so the word for \"this\"

girl is studying

This (or that) American is plural

modified

Noun

soot sur

livres

Ces

Livres

so

ces

la table. must be plural.

for \"those\"

word

These (or those)booksareon To distinguish

what is far

after the noun: noun

the

that

French.

is plural,

(books)

the

\037

singular,

singular.

the

table.

between what is closeto the from the speaker(that, those), from the

these)

-Ia can

from

be added

is close to the speaker;-Ia

speaker.

Ces livres-cisoot These books (here)are chers;

and

-ci

the noun

that

indicates

-ci

is far

(this,

speaker

ces

livres-Ia

expensive;

oe soot those

books

pas chers. (there)

are not

expensive.) \037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Circle

demonstrative

an arrow

\302\267 Circle \302\267 Fill

below. adjectives in the sentences from the demonstrative adjectiveto the noun it modifies. if the noun modified is singular (8) or plural (P). sentences below.) the French demonstrative adjective in the French

the

\302\267 Draw

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

in

1. They NOUN

prefer that

restaurant.

MODIFIED

IN

FRENCH:

masculine

s)

p)

s)

p)

s)

p)

restaurant.

Ils preferent

2. This testis toohard. NOUN

IN FRENCH:

MODIFIED

examen est

3.Thesehouses

are

NOUN

MODIFIED maisons

masculine

trop difficile.

expensive. IN

FRENCH:

sont

feminine)

cheres.)))

WHAT IS MEANT

33. We

I

quality.

105)

nouns have the same and we want to indi-

of these nounshas a greater,lesser,orequaldegreeof

that one

cate this

color,

size,

(height,

quality

two or more characteristic), any

when

adjectives

compare

OF ADJECTIVES?

OF ADJECTIVES?)

BY COMPARISON

MEANT

IS

WHAT

BY COMPARISON

comparison of adjectives I I

I

but Mary

is tall

Paul

I

is taller. I

adjective

adjective

modifies

modifies

Paul

Mary)

and in French there are two superlative.)

in English and comparative Both

types

of

comparison:

Comparative

The comparative same

quality

one or

that

person or

in another person or thing.Thecomparison the otherhas more,less,or the same amount

thing with

the

indicate

can

of the quality.)

ENGLISH

IN

Let's

the three

go over

Greaterdegree-

The

short

is prettier

. more

of the

the length

+ than

Paul is tallerthan Mary

degree (more) is formed adjective beingcompared:

of greater

comparison

+ -er

adjective

degrees of comparison:

on

depending

differently

.

of one

a quality

compares

Mary. than

sister.

her

+ longer adjective+ than is more

Paul

My car

intelligent

than Mary.

is more expensivethan

car.

your

lesserdegree(less)is

-

The comparisonof degree not as + adjective as, or less+ adjective

Lesser follows:

Paul My

is not as tall car

is less

Equal degree follows: as + Paul

formed

as

formed

as

+ than

as Mary.

expensive

than

your

car.

- The comparisonof equaldegree(same)

is

adjective+ as

is as

tall as

Mary.

My car is as expensiveas your for conlparing Iln English and in French, the structure same as the structure for comparing adjectives.)))

car.)

adverbs

(see What Is an Adverb?,

p.

109) is the

WHAT IS MEANT

106

OF ADJECTIVES?)

BY COMPARISON

FRENCH

IN

are

There

English. and tive

and

as in the same three degrees of comparisonof adjectives Remember that, in French, agreement betweenthe adjective

required. However, since a comparativeadjecthan one noun, it always agreesin gender

is always

noun

the

more

always

describes

number

with the

subject.

Greater degree - Thecomparison

lows:plus

+

(more)

Paul est

Lesserdegree-

moins(less)+

adjective

The

+

adjective

is

degree

is formed

as follows:

que

active que Paul. I with Marie

comparison

adjective

as

of equal degreeis formedas follows:

+ que

active que Paul.

est aussi

Marie

as fol-

less active than Paul. - The

Mary

of lesser

comparison

agrees

degree

is formed

with Paul

est moins

Mary is Equal

degree

que Marie. plus actif I agrees

aussi(as)+

greater

mOTeactive than Mary.

Paul is

Marie

of

+ que

active

as Paul.)

Superlative

The superlativeis usedto stressthe quality. go over

the two

Greatestdegreeently the

depending + short

the

The

lowest

degrees

of a

adjective

of highest

superlative

of the

My most

+ long

cheapest on the market. adjective

Mary is the most most

intelligent. expensive

of

degree

adjective:

+ -est

smartest.

car is the

His caris the

degrees of the superlative.

the length

on

Mary is the

.

and

ENGLISH

IN

Let's

.

highest

all.)))

is formed

differ-

IS MEANT BY COMPARISON

WHAT

Lowest

- The superlativeof lowest

degree

is the leastexpensiveof all.)

His car IN

as fol-

active.

least

the

is

Paul

is formed

degree

lows: the least+ adjective

107)

OF ADJECTIVES?

FRENCH

same two degrees of the superlative.

are the

There

Greatestdegreelows:Ie,la, les described)

The

(depending

on the

+ plus

(most) +

adjective.

Marieest la plus active I

de

degree is formed as foland number of the noun gender

of highest

superlative

or

la famille.

I

I

feln.

sing.

is the

Mary

est Ie

Paul I

most active

in

the

family.)

plus grand.

I I

masc.

sing.

tallest.)

is the

Paul

Marieet Paul

sont

I

les I

plus

intelligents

de la classe.

I

Inasc.

Mary Lowest lows:

pI.

and Paul

degree Ie, la, or

are the most intelligentin

est

I

class.

- The superlativeoflowestdegreeis formed

les (dependingon

described)+ moins(less)+ Paul

the

Ie moins

the

and

gender

number

as

of the

fol-

noun

adjective.

actif de la classe.

I I

Inasc.

Paul

SlOg.

is the

least active

in

the

classe.)

Careful

In English comparison adjective

and in French, a few adjectiveshave irregular which you will have to memorizeindividually. Cette

pomme

est bonne.

pomme

est meilleure.

This apple is good. comparative

Cette

This apple superlative

Cette

pomme

is better. est la

meilleure.

This apple is the best.)))

forms

of

WHAT IS MEANT

108

BY COMPARISON

OF ADJECTIVES?)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

the superlative

I. Underline

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

and comparativeadjectives in

the

sentences

below.

from the adjective to the noun it modifies. of degrees comparison: superlative (8), comparative degree (C+), comparative of equal degree(C=),or comparative degree (C-).

an arrow

\302\267 Draw \302\267 Circle

the

greater lesser

1. The 2.

He

3.

Mary

various

teacher is olderthan

is less is

the

intelligent than I

as tall

students.)

am.

c+

S

c+ c=

S c+

as Paul.

c=

S

c-

5.

S

c+ c=

student

than

Mary.)))

c-

c=

c+

a better

c-

c-

S

is

of

c=

4. That boy is the worst in the school. Paul

of

c-)

WHAT

WHAT IS

34.

AN

ADVERB?)

is a word that describes a verb, an It indicates quantity, time, place, intensity,

adverb

An

adverb.

109)

IS AN ADVERB?

or

another

or

adjective,

1

manner.

drives well.

Mary

I

I

adverb)

verb

The house

is very big. I

I

adverb

The girl ran

adjective)

too quickly. I

I

adverb)

adverb

IN ENGLISH

are different

There

.

adverbs and

common with

answer

of manner

verbs

ad

types of adverbs: the question

usually easy

to

how? They

are

they end

because

recognize

most

the

-ly.

beautifully.

sings

Mary

the verb

describes

Beautifully

They parked the

you

how

Mary

tells

you

how

the car

car carefully. the verb

describes

Carefully

sings-it tells

parked-it

sings.)

was

parked.)

.

of

adverbs

of

adverbs

He will . adverbs The IN

well

does

Paul

.

quantity

time come

or degree enough

answer

answer the

in class.

the question

when?

soon.

of place answerthe question old were left behind.)

where?

FRENCH

memorize most adverbs can be recognized the by ending to the English ending-lYe) You

question how much?

will

have to

of manner

as

vocabulary.

which

-ment

11n English and in French, the structure for con1paring adverbs is the same adjectives (see What L4iMeant by Comparison of Adjectives?, p. 105).)))

as

Most

adverbs

corresponds

the structure for comparing

WHAT IS AN

110

The

ADVERB?)

joliment

beautifully

generalement

generally

heureusement

happily

fact important this means that

most

invariable:

for you to rememberis that adverbs they never becomeplural,nor dothey

are have

gender.)

or AdJective?

Adverb

must Because adverbs are invariableand adjectives agree with the noun they modify, you must be able to distinguish one from the other. make sure that adjecWhen you write a sentence in French, always and that adverbs tives agree with the nounsor pronouns they modify remain unchanged.

The tall girltalked modifies

Tall

verb talked; I

it is an

girl;

boy talked

Le grand

Rapidly

modifies

the

modifies

the

adverb.

is an

rapidly.

gar\037on

boy; it is an adjective. how he talked; it

adverb.

I adverb)

sing.

in English

that

Rapidly is an

rapidement.

parlait

I

Remember

it

adverb)

the noun Tall modifies verb talked; it describes

masc.

adjective.

she talked;

how

describes

sing.

tall

The

noun

fille parlait rapidement. I

La grande fern.

it

rapidly.

the

good is

an

well

adjective;

is an

adverb.

The student writes goodEnglish. modifies

Good

The student

English;

the verb

writes;

in French bon is an adverb meaningwell.

Likewise,

The

students

good

speak

French

well. I

bons etudiants I

pI.

adverb)

Ie fran\037ais. parlent bien I adverb)))

an adverb.)

meaning

adjective

adjective

masc.

an adjective.)

is therefore

is therefore

it

I

Les

it

writes well.

modifies

Well

the noun

good;

bien

is the

WHAT

IS AN ADVERB?

\037\037\037\037\037\037..\037.\037\037.\037.\037.\037 \037..\037.\037..\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.REVIEW

Circle

the

adverbs

in

the

sentences

below.

\302\267 Draw

an arrow

from the adverb to the word

1. The

students

arrived early.

2. Paul learnedthe 3. The 4.

He

5.

Mary

lesson

really

it

modifies.)

quickly.

students were tootiredto study. has a is

reasonably secure

a good

student

income.

who speaks

French very

well.)))

111)

WHAT IS A

112

CONJUNCTION?)

is a

A conjunction IN

IS

WHAT

35.

word

CONJUNCTION?)

A

words

links

that

or groups

of words.)

ENGLISH

There

and kinds of conjunctions:coordinating

are two

join words, phrases, and clausesthat elements of equal rank.The majorcoordinating but, or, nor, for, and yet.

coordinate

they

are

conjunctions

and,

or evil

good

over the river and through They invited us, but we

woods

the

couldn't

go.

conjunctions join a dependent clauseto a main introduced one clause to another. A clause

Subordinating subordinate

they

clause. ordinating conjunction is called subordinate are before, after,since, nating conjunctions a

Typical

although,

while,

so that,

unless,

are

conjunctions

Coordinating equal;

subordinating.

sub-

subordi-

because,

if,

beginning

of

invited, we didn't go.

we were

Although

by a

when.

and

that,

clause;

I

I

I

subordinating

m \037 in

conjunction

clause)

They left

because

they

were

bored.

YI main

subordinating

clause

conjunction)

he was tired.

He said that

I..

Y

main

subordinatIng

clause

conj

the subordinate

that

Notice

the sentence IN

unction)

or

after

the

main

clause may come

either at

the

clause.)

FRENCH

must

Conjunctions that,

like

they

never

adverbs change

be memorized and their

prepositions, fonn).)))

as vocabulary items. Remember conjunctions are invariable (Le.,

WHAT

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037\037.\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Circle

the

coordinating

and

subordinating

IS A CoNJUNCTION?

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

in the

conjunctions

sentences

below. \302\267 Underline

the

words

each conjunction serves to

coordinateor to

subordinate.)

1. Mary

and Paul

were going to study

2. She

did not study because she was

3. Not

only had

or Spanish.

French too

he forgottenhis ticket,but

passport as well.)))

113)

tired. he

had

forgotten

his

WHAT IS A

114

PREPOSITION?)

PREPOSITION?)

A

the relationship of one word (usuword in the sentence.The noun or the preposition is calledthe objectof the preposifollowing phrase.) preposition plus its objectis calleda prepositional

a noun

ally

word

is a

A preposition

pronoun tion. The

IS

WHAT

36.

shows

that

to another

or pronoun)

IN ENGLISH

Prepositions .

normally indicate

Paul was in Mary

.

car.

the

put the

books on the table. direction

showing

prepositions

Mary

went to

The students

school. came

. prepositionshowing French

people

class.

go on

vacation in August. to eat.

went

prepositions are singlewords:

because

of

due to IN

from

directly time

Beforeclass,they Not all

position

showing

prepositions

position, direction,ortime.

in front

of

in

of

spite

instead of on account

of)

FRENCH

will have and use must

You

to memorize prepositionsas vocabulary. be carefully studied.Thereare two

Their

meaning

things

important

to

remember:

1. Prepositions areinvariable.Thismeansthat form. (They never becomeplural,nordo they 2. Prepositions ently. Do not

are tricky. Every assume that the

in English,or even

oneis used

in

English

that

a preposition (and

uses

language

same

vice

preposition

will be

versa).)))

never

they have

their

change

a gender.

prepositions

is used in

) differ-

French as

used in French when

IS A PREPOSITION?

WHAT

French

English

Change to be

angry

of

preposition etre

with

ition

No

to wait/or

(in)

preposition

regarder)

No Preposition

Preposition

to telephone

t\037l\037phoner

to ask

will

a

demander a

(someone)

dictionary

(against)

I 'avion)

attendre

to look at)

A

fach\037 contre

etredans

to be on the plane Prepos

115)

give you

usually

the verb plus the preposition when

is required.)

one

Careful

Do not translate an Englishverb French equivalent. (Seep. 24.))

+

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Circle

the

1. The

prepositions

The

had

teacher to

Contrary

The

the

following

students didn't understand

2. His family

3. 4. 5.

in

garden

come

from

with

preposition

a word-for-word

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

sentences.) what

Paris the

the

lesson

was about.

year before we had.

walked

around

the room

as she talked.

popular

opinion

he was

a good student.

between

the two

houses was

very

small.)))

WHAT ARE

116

OBJECTS?)

Every sentenceconsists,at is calledthe sentence base. Children

ARE OBJECTS?)

WHAT

37.

the

very

of a

least,

subject and a verb.This

play.

Work stopped.

The subjectof the

or pronouns

or pronoun.Many which are relatedto the

to a preposition. These nouns

verb or

of the

action

nouns

other

a noun

is usually

base

sentence

contain

sentences

or

are

pronouns

called objects.

Paul writes a letter. I

I

He

I

verb

subject

to Mary.

speaks I

object)

I

I

verb

subject Paul

out with

goes

I

object)

I

Mary.

I

verb

subject

I

preposition

object

study the threetypes of objects rect object,and object of a preposition.) We will

direct object,

separately:

indi-

Direct Object) ENGLISH

IN

A direct

is a

object

noun or pronoun

verb directly, without

lowing what?

Paul

or

noun

the verb.

writes a letter. Paul writes what? A letter is the direct

They They

see Paul see

this section,

Voice?,p. 85.))))

we will

the

receives

It answers

the verb

of the and the fol-

action

the question whom?or

1)

A letter.

object.)

and Mary.

whom?

Paul and Mary

1In

object.

pronoun

after

asked

or

that

between

a preposition

consider

Paul and Mary. the two direct

are

objects.)

active sentences only (see What is Meant

by

Active

and Passive

WHAT

Paul sees

well.

sees

what?

Paul

Paul sees

117)

No answer. answer.)

No

whom?

which comesright the direct It the matically object. must answer Do not

ARE OBJECTS?

assume that any word

after

a verb

question

is autowhat? or

whom?

There is no directobjectin the sentence. Well is an adverb; it answers the question:Paul sees how? Verbs can be classified as to whether or not they take a direct object. . a transitive verb is a verb which takes a direct object.It is indicated V.t. (verb

abbreviation

the

by

The boy

ball.

the

threw I

I

direct

transitive \302\267 an

is a

verb

Intransitive

is indicatedby

transitive) in dictionaries.

object)

verb that

does

not

v.i. (verb

abbreviation

the

require

a direct

intransitive)

object. It

in the

dictio-

nary.

is

Paul

sleerillg. intransitive)

IN

FRENCH

As in

English,

action of the verb tion qui? (wIuJm?)

lis

a direct object is a without

directly,

rencontrent

or

or pronoun a preposition. It

noun

asked after

(what?)

quoi?

that receives the answers the ques-

the verb.

et Marie.

Paul

No preposition separates\"Paul from the verb \"rencontrent.\" meet Paul and Mary. They

et Marie\"

Paul prend Ie livre. No

from

separates

preposition

the verb

\"Ie

livre\"

\"prend.\"

Paul takes the book. As

with

depending

verbs, English on whether

French verbs can be transitiveor intransitive or not they are followedby a direct object.)))

WHAT ARE

118

OBJECTS?)

Indirect

IN

ENGLISH

indirect

An

the verb

indirectly,

the

with

indirect

painting

after

the

verb.

object.) museum.

the

to

The museum. object.)

what?

to

painting

The museum

indirect

is the

FRENCH

an indirect

in English,

As

the action of

the verb

the

Paul parlefA son Paul

fA

receives

relating it

a qui?

are always

(to whom?) or a quoi(to indirect objectsareeasy to preceded

by. the

preposi-

brother.

)'examen.

about the exam.)

is thinking

Sentences sentence

which

a (to)

or

frere.

speaks to his

II pense He

pronoun

the preposition

Nouns that are

because they

in French

identify . , tlon a.

with

question

the verb.

after

asked

what?)

object is a noun

indirectly,

to the verb. It answers

IN

what? asked

of

the verb. It

Her friends.

to whom?

Her friends is the

A

it to

her friends.

She spoke to

He gave the He gave a

or to

action

the

receives

to relating

preposition

whom?

to

question

Shespoke

or pronounwhich

is a noun

object

answersthe

IN

Object)

both a

contain

may

a

With

Direct

and

Indirect

direct object and

an

Object indirect

object.)

ENGLISH

a sentence has both a direct and an indirect object, the following two word ordersarepossible: 1.subject (S) + verb (V) + indirect object (10)+ directobject(DO) When

Paul

Who gave

Paul is the Paul

DO

10

v

A gift

a gift.

his sister

gave

S

a gift? Paul. subject.

gave what?

is

the

direct

A

gift.

object.)))

WHAT ARE

Paul gave a gift H is sisteris the 2. subject

+ verb

Paul

S

to whom? indirect

there

identify its function questions

IN

than

the

establish

to

object

sister 10

first structure, under is no \"to\" preceding

The

His sister.

+ directobject+ to+ indirect DO

V

119)

object.)

a gift to his

gave

OBJECTS?

1, is the mostcommon. However,

because

more difficult to in the second structure. Be sure to ask the function of words in a sentence.) the

indirect

object,

it is

FRENCH

There

one word

is only

direct and an word

indirect

Paul a

donne un

S Paul

+ verb

subject

order):

gave his

+ direct a sa

contains both a objects follow a different

a sentence

(pronoun

object + it

+ indirect

object

soeur. 10

sister a gift.

a gift

gave

cadeau

noun

DO

V

Paul

order possiblewhen

object

to his

sister.)

Object of a Preposition) IN

ENGLISH

of a preposition is a noun or pronounthat receives the the verb through a preposition otherthan to. (Objects of the indirect It answers above.) preposition to are discussedunder objects An

object action of

the question whom? or what? Paul works for Paul Mary

asked

after

the preposition.

Mary.

for whom? For Mary. the object of the preposition

works is

for.)

The baby eats with a spoon. The baby eats with what? With a spoon. A spoon is the object of the preposition IN

with.)

FRENCH

or pronoun that receives the object of a preposition is a noun action of the verb througha preposition other than a (to). It answers the question qui? (whom?) or quoi? asked after the preposi(what?)

An

tion.)))

WHAT ARE

120

OBJECTS?)

travaille

Paul

Marie.

pour

Paul worksfor Mary. Le

eats with

a

spoon.)

Careful

a verb and its object is often

The relationship between and French. For English

example, a verb may

preposition in English but in

that

French when

some of the

1. objectof I am

a

that

differences

in English

preposition

object

of a

or a direct object

you \037

are likely

direct

object

indicate

p. 24).

to encounter. in French

lookingfor the book.

I am

Object of a preposition The book. of the preposition for.)

in English:

Function

what?

looking/or

The book is the Je

an

take

in French,

object

Your textbook, as well as dictionaries,will verb needs a preposition beforean object (see

verbs. a French

Here are

close

pay

you

a direct

in

different

object in French. For this reason,it is imporattention to such differenceswhen learn you

an indirect

but

English

tant

cuillere.

une

avec

b\037b\037 mange

The baby

object

cherche IeIivre. Direct

in French:

Function

object

J e cherche quo;?Le livre. Le livre is a direct object since chercheris not

by a

followed

preposition.)

Many common verbs require an indirect object in English but a direct objectin French. preposition

ecouter

to

to listen

to lookat

regarder

to wait

for

attendre

for

payer

to pay

2. directobjectin

\037 indirect

English

She phones herfriendsevery Function

Shephones

or

in English:

Her friends

whom?

is the

object day.

Direct object

Her direct

friends. object.)))

in French

an

object

of

a

WHAT ARE

ses amis tous

t\037lephone a

Elle

Indirect

in French:

Function

les jours.

object

Elle telephonea qui? A ses amis. The verb is telephoner a and takes

an indirect

object.

common verbs requirea directobjectin rect object in French. A few

to obey

obeir

to resemble

ressembler a

3. directobjectin

of a

the Mary'sparentsremember

in English:

Function

Mary'sparents

Function

direct

in

is se

verb

prepos iti Here

is another

lish and

an

la guerre.

de

souvenir

de and it

De la guerre. for the

an object

requires

common verb whichrequiresa of a

preposition

direct

in Eng-

object

in French.

entrer

dans)

the function

identify

Always

se souviennent

de.)

on

object

to enter

The war.

what?

of preposition Object se souviennent de quoi?

French:

Les parents de Marie The

war.

object.)

de Marie

Les parents

preposition in French

Direct object

remember

The war is the

an indi-

and

English

a

\037 object

English

121)

OBJECTS?

you are working; do not

mix

of a

word within patterns

English

the

language

in which

into French.)

Summary

The different types of objectsin looking to seeif they are introduced

by a

can

be identified

preposition

and, if so,

by by

one.

which

Direct

object without

directly,

- An object which receivesthe actionoftheverb a preposition.

Indirect object - An through

rectly,

Object verb

a sentence

the

a preposition

receives

the action

of the verb indi-

to.

preposition

of a preposition -

through

which

object

object

which

other than

to.)))

An

receives

the action

of the

WHAT ARE

122

OBJECTS?)

to recognize the three types Your ability French pronouns, for instance, a different

lish

him

pronoun

indirect

an

depending

Find

the

objects

\302\267 Next \302\267 Circle

the

objectof

is used

for the

Engdirect object(Ie) or

(Iui).)

object

to Q, to A,

With

is essential.

objects

him is a

on whether

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

\302\267 Next

of

pronoun

in

the

sentences

below:

write the question you write the answer to the kind of object it is: direct

a preposition

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037

need

to ask

question

object

to

find

the

object.

asked. (DO), indirect object (10)or you just

(OP).

children took a shower.)

1. The Q:

A:

2. They

ate the

meal with

their

DO)

10)

OP)

DO)

10)

OP)

DO)

10)

OP)

DO)

10)

OP)

DO)

10)

OP)))

friends.

Q:

A:

Q: A:)

3. He

sent a present to his brother.)

Q:

A:

Q:

A:)

WHAT

WHAT IS AN

38.

123)

PRONOUN?)

OBJECT

pronoun is a pronoun usedas an

An object

PRONOUN?

IS AN OBJECT

of a

object

verb or

a prepo-

sition.)

IN

ENGLISH

Pronouns

used as We

Verb noun tion. The

use

according to their

change

subjects are studiedin

Conjugation?, is either a direct

What

is a

the

Subject

we conjugate

when

pronouns

subject

in

function

sentence.

Pronouns

p. 32.

Pronoun?,

verbs (see What

is

p. 36). Object pronounsareusedwhen

a pro-

object,indirectobject,or object a preposiObjects?, p. 116.) the object pronoun is different from the form of subbut the same form pronoun is usedas direct object, of

(See What are of

form

the

a

pronoun, indirect object,

ject

or an object of a preposition.) Subject)

Object)

Singular 1 st person 2nd person) 3rd

person)

{

I

me

you

you

he

him

she

her

it)

it)

Plural 1 st person 2nd person 3rd

person)

She

saw

we

us

you

you

they)

them)

me. I

direct

I lent

Iny

object car

\037

object

pronoun)

to him. I

indirect

They

object

went out

\037

with

pronoun)

object her. I

object

In English,

of a preposition

the object

\037

object

pronoun is always

pronoun) placed

after

the verb.)))

a

124

IS AN OBJECT

WHAT

PRONOUN?)

IN FRENCH

As in English, the pronouns used as ones used as objects. Unlike English,however,

subjects

ferent object pronounis used

and object of a preposition. of analyze the function

each

You

will

object

in

pronoun

have

you

that

Remember type

of

objects

can choosethe

placed

the

before

verb.

French DirectObjectPronouns to establish that the French verb takesa directobject. and French verbs don't always takethe same English and

the type of

establish

direct, indirect, to learn how to

so that you

In French, the object pronouns are usually Consult your textbook for the rules.)

First,

a dif-

cases

many

of object: therefore have kind

form.

French

correct

an

for

the

from

different

are

working in French

that when

object taken by

French

the

verb

you

have

will

(see p.

to

120).

Let us look at the Frenchdirectobjectpronouns to see how they are selected. Since the rulesfor the selection of 1 st and 2nd persondirect are different from the rules for the selectionof 3rd objectpronouns direct we have divided the Frenchdirect object person pronouns,

object

pronouns

into

these

two

categories:

1 st and 2nd PersonsSingular and Plural (me, you, and us) 1 st or 2nd person are merely The direct objectpronoun of the a question of memorization. Select the form need from the chart below you and place it beforethe verb.)

Direct

Subject

object

je

me

tu

te)

DOUS

nons

VOUS)

vons)

Si ngular

1 st

person

2nd person

PIural 1 st

person

2nd person)

our examples, we have chosena verb which in English and in French, the verb to see (voir).))) object both

To simplify

takes

a direct

WHAT

Paul sees

1.Identify 2. What

IS AN OBJECT

125)

PRONOUN?

you. to see

verb:

the

French

is the

3. Doesthe

French

4. Function

of pronoun

equivalent: voir require a preposition before an in French: direct object

verb

No.

object:

5. Selection:te or vous te voit.

Paul

Paul vons

voit.

in a nous and vous can be either the subject or the object and is sometimes confusing, particularly since both subject before the verb in are French. It is object pronouns placed important that you do not think of nous and vous only as subjects. In case of look at the verb. Remember that verbs agree with their doubt, subject. If nous is the subject, the verb will end in .ons; if it doesn't, nous is an object of somekind.Thesame is true with vous. If it is the subject of the verb, the ending of regular verbs will be.ez.)

The fact that sentence

nons

Vous

Nous cannot

voyez be

tous

les jours. because the verb voir

the subject

of voyez can only object pronoun.

The

subject

3rd Person

Therefore,

doesn't end in DOUS

must

-ODS.

be an

us everyday.

see

You

vous.

be

Singular and Plural

(him,

The French directobjectsof the

depending on the genderand

3rd

number

her,

It and

them)

have a different person of the pronoun.)

form

Direct

Subject

object

masculine

iI

Ie

feminine)

elle

la)

masculine

ils

les

feminine)

elles)

les)

Singular

Plural

following sentences, in which we have usedeachof object pronouns, will enable us to selectthe form from the chart above. We have used the proper again verb to see (voir)becauseboth the English and the French verbs take An

analysis

the

3rd

person French

a directobject.)))

of the

direct

WHAT IS AN

126

HIM -

Always

Do you Voyez-vo'us

-

HER

PRONOUN?)

OBJECT

masculine singular. see Paul? Yes, I see him. Paul? Qui, je Ie vois. feminine

Always

singular.

I see her. Do you see Mary? Yes, Marie? Qui,je la vois. Voyez-vous IT

-

noun

gender will dependon the genderof the antecedent). but the

singular, Always it refers to (its

Do you

livre?

Ie

Voyez-vous

1. Antecedent: 2. Gender:

Le masculine

3. Selection:' Do

Ie)

table? Yes,I see it. table? Qui, je la vois. La table (the table) is feminine.

see the

you

Yes, I see it. Qui, je Ie vois. livre (the book) is masculine.

book?

the

see

la

Voyez-vous

1. Antecedent: 2. Gender:feminine

3.

THEM

-

Selection:

Always

la)

plural

and the

same form

is

used

for both

genders.

Do you see the girls? Yes, I see them. Voyez-vous les jeunes filles? Qui,je lesvois. Doyou see the boys? Yes, I see them. les gar\037ons? Qui, je les vois.) Voyez-vous

French Indirect ObjectPronouns

First,

you

object.

have

Remember

that the

establish

to

that English

objects and that to establishthe type of object same type of

French verb takes an

and French verbs when

working

don't

in French

always

indirect

take

the

you will have

French verb (see p. 120). In French it is easier to distinguish between direct and indirect objects with nouns rather than with pronouns because nounsthat are indirect indirect are always preceded by the prepositiona whereas objects object

pronouns

are

not.)))

taken

by the

WHAT

IS AN OBJECT

PRONOUN?

127)

look at the French indirectobjectpronouns to see how they are selected. Since the rulesforthe selectionof 1stand 2nd persons indirect object pronouns are differentfromthe rulesfor the selection of divided the French indi3rd person indirect object pronouns, we have rect object pronouns into thesetwo categories: 1 st and 2nd Persons Singularand Plural (me, you, and us) The indirect object pronoun of the 1stand 2nd persons is the same as Select the form you need from the chart the direct objectpronoun. Let us

below.)

and

Direct

indirect

objects)

Subject)

Singular 1st person

je

me

2nd

tu)

te)

nous

noDs

vous)

vons)

person

Plural 1 st

perso

2 nd To

n

person)

we have

our examples,

simplify

rect object both in

English

and

in

chosen a verb

French,

the verb

which

takes

to speak to

an indi-

(parler

it).)

Paul

to us.

speaks

1. Identify 2. What

the is the

to speak

verb:

French

equivalent: parler

3. Is the French verb followed by a: Yes. in French: indirect object 4. Function of the pronoun Paul nons parle. I

indirect

Person

3rd

Since are

object

and Plural (him, her, It and them) for the selectionof 3rd personindirectobjectpronouns for pronouns referring to a \"person\" (this category and pronouns referring to a and live animals) beings includes category objects and ideas), we have divided

Singular

the rules

different

includes

human

\"thing\"

pronoun)

(this

3rd personpronouns

into

these

two

categories.)))

128

IS AN OBJECT

WHAT

PRONOUN?)

- antecedent is a person(him, her, and them) are two forms of the indirectobjectpronoun, plural form.) \"Person\"

There

Direct

Indirect

object

object

Ie la

lui)

masculine

les

leur

feminine)

les)

leur)

and a

a singular

Singular masculine

feminine)

lui

Plural

HIM

-

OR HER Are

Always singular. to Paul? Yes, I to speak the French equivalent:

speaking

you

1.

Identify

2.

What

is

3. Doesthe

verb

French

5. Function of the 6. Selection:lui

Qui, je lui

Are you speaking to Mary?

The only

THEM

refers

you

way

-

Always

to (its

Are

you

1-

tell if

You will

plural.

indirect

to Paul

speaking of

antecedent:

to her.

is

have to determine whetherthe thing.

If it

from

and Mary? Yes,I am

person

(Paul

fa

Paul

et a

Marie?

refers

noun

and

speaking

Mary)

Qui, je

leur parle.)))

it

to a person,

leur.

leur

7. Selection:

Parlez-vous

speaking

lui refers to a male or female

object pronoun

5. See above.

6. Type

object

parle.

antecedent) is a personor a

the

use

always

can

Yes.

object?

said before.)

has been

what

J am

Qui, je lui

a Marie?

before an

parle.

Yes,

1 - 6. Seeabove.

Parlez-vous

parler

in French: indirect

pronoun

fa Paul?

Parlez-vous

to him.

speaking

a preposition

require

preposition? a

4. What

am

verb:

the

to them.

WHAT

\"Thing\"

- antecedentis

There is only

one

(it and them) indirect object

a thing

of the

form

Direct

pronoun y.

Indirect

Object

Object

Person

Antecedent:

129)

PRONOUN?

IS AN OBJECT

Thing)

Singular

masculine

Ie

lui

y

feminine)

la)

lui)

y)

masculine

les

leur

y

feminine)

les)

leur)

y)

Plural

Are

the letter? Yes,I am answering you answering 1. Identify the verb: to answer 2. What is the French equivalent: repondre

3. Doesthe 4. What

French

verb

5. Function of pronoun 6. Type of antecedent: 7. Selection:y a la

Repondez-vous

Do 1.

you

obey

is the

3. Doesthe 4. What

the the

Identify

2. What

in French:

lettre?

before an

object?

Yes

object:

Yes

indirect object letter)

reponds. Yes, I obey them.

laws?

Qui, j'y

to obey

verb:

French

French

a preposition

thing (the

equivalent: obeir require a preposition

verb

before an

preposition: a

of pronoun 5. Function 6. Type of antecedent: 7. Selection:y Qbeissez-vous

require

preposition? a

it.

aux I

lois?

in French: thing (the

Qui, j 'y

indirect object laws)

obeis.

a + les)

of a

Preposition First, you have to establish that the French verb takes an object of a Remember that English and Frenchverbs don't always preposition. take the same you type of objects and that when workingin French verb (see will have to establish the type of objecttaken by the French p. 120). Pronounsthat are objects of prepositions other than to (a in French) which have certain forms are different from the forms usedas direct))) French

Pronouns

as

Objects

WHAT IS AN

130

OBJECT

objects

and indirect

usually

placed

PRONOUN?)

objects. Unlike other objectpronouns

which

are

are before the verb, pronounsas objectsof prepositions In like the verb. this are with after the they usually placed, preposition, en is an exception nounsusedas objectsofprepositions. (The pronoun

under to this rule, seebelow 2.) Let us look at the Frenchpronouns they

of a preposition to see how for the selectionof objectsof a

objects

the rules

Because

selected.

are

1st and 2nd personsaredifferent the from of of the 3rd the objectof a preposition rules for the selection pronoun ofa preposition pronouns person, we have divided the Frenchobject into these two categories: 1st and 2nd Person Singular and Plural (me, you, and us) are a The 1st and 2nd person object of a preposition merely pronouns form need from the chart of memorization. Selectthe you question after the verb. below and place it, with the preposition, of the

pronouns

preposition

Direct & of

ind irect

Object

Subject)

object

preposition)

Singular 1st person

je

me

prep.

2nd

tu)

te)

prep. + toi)

nous

nous

prep. + nons

vous)

vous)

prep.

person

+ moi

Plural 1 st person 2nd person) Here

is an

vons)

example.

No,it'sfor

Is the bookfor Paul?

No,

1.

Identify

2.

+

What

3. Is the 4. What

it's for

No, it's for the is the

verb:

French verb

French preposition?

5. Function of

pronoun

me.

you.

us.

to be

equivalent: etre by a preposition? Yes.

followed pour

(for)

in French:

toi (vous), nous 6. Selectit>n: moi, Est-ce que Ie livre est pour Paul?

object of

preposition

il est pour moi. Non, il est pour toi (or vous). Non, Non,

il est

pour

nons.)))

WHAT

PRONOUN?

IS AN OBJECT

131)

her, It and them) (him, Singular and Plural Since the rules for the selectionof 3rdpersonobjectofa preposition are different for pronouns referring to a \"person\" (this catepronouns live includes human and and animals) gory beings pronouns referring to a \"thing\" includes (this category objects and ideas), we have divided 3rd into these two categories.) person pronouns

3rd Person

\"Person\"- antecedent

person (him, her and them) the object of prepositionpronouns referring number of the on the and gender pronoun. person depending Indirect Objectof Direct are

There

a

is a

forms of

four

object

Subject

Person &

Antecedent

Thing

object

preposition

Person

Person

to

Singular

masculine

il

Ie

lui

prep. + lui

feminine

elle

la

lui

prep.

masculine

ils

les

leur

prep.+

feminine)

elles

les

leur

prep. + eux)

+ elle

PI ural

An

analysis

the

3rd

enable

HIM

-

masculine

Always

Is the 1.

following sentences, in which we have usedeachof object of a preposition referringto persons, pronouns to select the proper French form from the chart above.

of the

person us

will

book

for the

Identify

2. What

is the

3. Is the 4. What 5.

singular.

Paul?

Yes,

verb:

to be

French verb

French

(for) in French:

of antecedent:

HER

Always

Is the 1-

Ie livre

feminine

book

for

5. See above.

6. Gender 7. Selection:

Est-ce que

him.

equivalent: etre by a preposition? Yes.

of pronoun

que

is for

followed

lui 7. Selection:

Est-ce

it

pour

preposition?

Function

6. Gender

-

eux

object of preposition masculine (Paul)

est pour Paul?

\037ui,

il est

pour

lui.

singular.

Mary?

Yes,

of antecedent: elle

Ie livre est pour

it

is for

feminine Marie?

her. (Mary)

Qui,

il est

pour

elle.)))

WHAT IS AN

132

OBJECT

PRONOUN?)

-

Always plural. You will refers to is a personor a thing. THEM

antecedentis

have

a

Is

the

1-

If the

or thing.

person

the gender of the

to determine

the

bookfor

5. See above.

6. Gender

Yes

girls?

7. Selection:elles

Est-ce

que

Ie

est pour

livre

is used if the antecedent is a person,you will them.

is for

it

whether the noun it

object pronoun

antecedent.

feminine

antecedent:

of

to determine

have

A different

(the girls)

les filles?

Qui, il est pour

elles.

bookfor the boys? Yes it is for them. 1 - 5. Seeabove. of antecedent: masculine (the boys) 6. Gender

Is the

7. Selection: eux Est-ce

que

Ie livre

- antecedent

\"Thing\"

In French,

est pour

is a

les gar\037ons?

(it and

thing

a noun referring to a

when it is the objectof preceded by any other

the

Qui,

pour eux.)

il est

them) is only

thing

de.

preposition

replaced by (A noun referring

a pronoun to a thing

is not replaced. For instance, in to the table; book is on it\" referring When it or them is the instead one says \"Thebookis onthe table.\") and the pronoun are object of the prepositionde,both the preposition l) the en is before verb. which placed replaced by

French

you

preposition

say \"The

cannot

Antecedent

Person

Object of

Ind irect

Direct

object

Subject objects & Thing

Person

Thing

preposition

Person Thing

Singular

masculine

il

Ie

lui

y

lui

en

feminine

elle

la

lui

y

elle

en

masculi ne

ils

les

leur

y

eux

en

feminine

elles

les

leur

y

elles

en)

Plural

1Your

textbook

may cover

the few

cases in

which the

pronoun

en can be used to

refer

to persons.)))

(after

dt)

WHAT

Here are

PRONOUN?

133)

some examples:

[liked

the

1.

2. What

3. Is the 4. Function

speak about it.

to speak

verb:

the is the

French

French

followed by de: Yes in French: object of preposition pronoun

of

de

(book)

thing

en je vais

alors

livre

Ie

equivalent: parler

verb

antecedent:

5. Type of 6. Selection: aim\037

going to

so I am

book

Identify

J'ai

IS AN OBJECT

[likedthesebookssoI 1 - 6. See

am

en parler.

going

to speak

about

them.

above.

]'ai

alors je

Iivres

aim\037 ces

vais en parler.)

(Stressed)

Disjunctive

Pronouns

The set of pronouns usedas objectsof another has tion. These pronouns, without the preposition, are In this function, they are calleddisjunctive or contrast. emphasis

prepositions

stressed

Disjunctive

pronouns. Who

Him.

there?

is

pronouns often

Her. I

standing alone)

pronoun

personal

Qui est lh?

Lui.

Elle. I

pronoun)

disjunctive

Me.

Who called?

I

personal

Qui a

pronoun

tel\037phone?

standing alone) Moi. I

disjunctive

pronoun)))

func-

alsoused

stand alone.

for

or

WHAT IS AN

134

PRONOUN?)

OBJECT

Summary

is ,a flow

Below

French

equivalent

you.

do

the

steps

chart of of

each

the

steps

you

have

to follow

to find the

object pronoun. It is important

English

because each step dependsonthe

in sequence,

that

pre-

VIOUS one.

DO

\037

Direct

10

\037

Indirect

OP

\037

Object

in the

object

in the

French sentence

preposition

or disjunctive

object of a

French sentence

pronoun in the French

sentence)

.

mOl)

me)

vous)

toi)

Ie)

la)

lui)

lui)

elle)))

WHAT

What is gender

135)

PRONOUN?

IS AN OBJECT

the

of its

antecedent?)

Ifno

If yes

\037

If masculine

If feminine

+

noun

+ la)

Ie)

y)

is not

1

replaced

en

pronoun)

by

\037

nous)

Is the

If a person \037

les)

leur)

Is the

antecedent

a person

de?)

preposition

or a thing?) If a thing

Ifno)

I f yes)

\037

Is

y)

Is

the

a person

a personor

or

a thing?)

a thing?) If a

What

of its

is the

gender

antecedent?)

If masculine en)

If a thing)

If a person)

thing)

the

antecedent

antecedent

If feminine

+

+

eux)

elles)

noun is

not

replaced

by

pronoun)))

WHAT IS AN

136

PRONOUN?)

OBJECT

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

below. object pronoun in the sentences French direct chart on pp. 134-35, circle the correct equivalent: or of a indirect object (OP),person(P), (DO), object (10) preposition the

Underline \302\267

the

Using

object

or thing

(T)

likes the

1. Mary

to take

\037

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN ENGLISH:

00

10

OP

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN FRENCH:

00)

10)

OP)

GENDER

to

ENGLISH:

spoke to

to

speak

FRENCH:

Ie livre et elle)

teacher

The

IN

OF ANTECEDENT IN

Marie aime

\037

masculine) prend.)

them aboutthe examyesterday. a)

parler

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN ENGLISH:

00

10

OP

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN FRENCH:

00

10

OP)

p)

T)

TYPE Le

book and she takes it.

prendre)

ANTECEDENT

2.

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

OF

ANTECEDENT:)

a parle

professeur

3. Go with

to go with

de I' examen hier.)

her. \037

avec)

aller

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN ENGLISH:

00

10

OP

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN FRENCH:

00)

10)

OP)

Va avec) 4. Is

the present for your

to be

for

\037

etre

parents? Yes, it's forthem.

pour)

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN ENGLISH:

00

10

OP

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN FRENCH:)

00)

10)

OP)))

WHAT

Is

IT

OBJECT OF

THE

ANTECEDENTIN

DE:

PREPOSITION

Le cadeau

est-il pourtesparents?

5. Did you

answerhis letters?No,we

to answer

\037

No

P

T

masculine

IN FRENCH:

ANTECEDENT

GENDER

YES

PRONOUN?

ENGLISH:

OF ANTECEDENT:

TYPE

IS AN OBJECT

Oui,

il est will

pour

answer

them

today.

a)

repondre

FUNCflON

OF

PRONOUN

IN ENGLISH:

DO

10

OP

FUNCTION

OF

PRONOUN

IN FRENCH:

DO

10

OP

P

T

IN ENGUSH:

ANTECEDENT

TYPE

OF

ANTECEDENT:

repondu a ses lettres?Non,nous

Avez-vous aujourd

'hui.

6. Paul

doesn't like exams.Heis afraid

to be

afraid of

\037

avoir

of

repondrons

them.

de

peur

FUNCTION

OF PRONOUN

IN

ENGLISH:

DO

10

OP

FUNCTION

OF PRONOUN

IN

FRENCH:

DO

10

OP

YES

No

P

T

Is

IT

THE

OBJECT OF

ANTECEDENTIN TYPE OF

DE:

PREPOSITION

ENGLISH:

ANTECEDENT:

Paul n'aime pas lesexamens.

II

a

peur.)))

137)

WHAT IS AN

138

INTERROGATIVE

PRONOUN?)

INTERROGATIVE

pronoun

Interrogative duces a question.

intro-

ENGLISH

IN

Different

interrogative

live Also,

pronouns

to a

are used dependingon

whether

you

and \"person\"(this category beings and animals) or a \"thing\" (this categoryincludesobjects ideas). the form of the interrogative pronoun referringto persons

are referring

includes

to its

according

changes

function

in the

human

sentence.)

FRENCH

A different

interrogative pronoun is used dependingon whether a person or a thing. Also,the interrogative pronoun to its function in the sentence. according

the

replaces

pronoun changes

In

AN

is a word that replaces a noun and Interrogative comes from interrogate,to question.)

An

IN

IS

WHAT

39.

PRONOUN?)

in French, an indirect

and

English

direct

object,

study eachtype

an interrogative

object, or

an

object

pronoun can be a subject,a of a preposition. We shall

separately.)

Subject) IN ENGLISH

subject pronoun is always

An interrogative

verb.

different

A

interrogative

the subjectinterrogative

pronoun

pronoun refers

\"Person\"

Who

for the

is used Who

speaks I

subject of the sentence.

French?

I

verb)

subject

\"Thing\"

What is

used for the subject of the sentence.

What I

subject

is

on

I verb)))

the table?

followed

directly

is used depending to a person or a thing.)

by the

on whether

WHAT

IN

IS

AN

INTERROGATIVE

PRONOUN?

139)

FRENCH

As

an interrogative

in English,

subject pronoun is always

followed

Also, a different interrogativepronoun is used whether the subject interrogative pronoun refers to a

by a verb.

directly

on

depending

personor

a

thing.

\"Person\"

Qui

+ verb

or Qui est.ce qui + verb

Qui

parle

Qui

est-ce

are

interchangeable.

fran\037ais?

qui parle

I

I

fran\037ais?

I

I

verb

subject

speaks French?

Who I

of

su bject

speaks)

\"Th I ng\"

qui +

Qu'est-ce

verb is the only qui est

Qu'est-ce

I

I

form.

sur la table?

I

I

verb

subject

is on

What

the table?

I

of

subject

is)

Direct

Object)

IN ENGLISH

A different interrogative direct object interrogative

on pronoun is useddepending refersto a or pronoun person a

whether

the

thing.

\"Person\"

is used

Whom

do

Whom

for the object of the sentence. know

you

here?

I

direct

object

(You is the Because (ex:

\"Who

subject.))

English who is often usedinsteadof whom know here?\,") it is difficult to recognizethe interas a direct object. Make sure that the analyze you

in conversational do you

rogative

adjective

sentence

to establish the

function

of

the

interrogative

pronoun.)))

140

IS AN INTERROGATIVE

WHAT

PRONOUN?)

\"Thing\"

for the objectof the

is used

What

do you

What I

direct

sentence.

want?

object)

IN FRENCH

a different interrogativepronoun direct objectinterrogative pronoun

As in English,

whether the

is

used

refers

depending to a person

on

or a

thing.)

\"Person\"

are intersubject + verb or Qui + verb + subject Notice that form the with \"est-ce takes the normal que\" changeable. word order,subject+ verb, whereas the other form takes an inversion, Qui

que +

est-ce

namely, verb + subject.(SeeWhat tive Sentences?, p. 46.)

Qui est-ce

v

que

are

Declarative

and

Interroga-

ez?

9us \037o(

+

subject

us?

v0

Qui

verb)

1ez;v\037 + subject

verb

do you see?

Who(m) I

direct

of see

object

(You is

the

subject.))

\"Thing\"

are intersubject + verb or Que + verb + subject Notice form that the with \"est-ce takes the normal changeable. que\" word order,subject+ verb, whereas the other form takes an inversion,

que +

Qu'est-ce

namely, verb

+

Qu'est-ce

)

subject.

que vous voulez? I

I

I

subject

voulez-vous?

Que

I

I I

verb

What do I

direct

object

(You is

the

+ subject

you want? of want subject.))))

+

verb)

WHAT IS

Indirect IN

INTERROGATIVE

and Object of a

Object

141)

PRONOUN?

Preposition

ENGLISH

is no difference between the form of the interrogative indirect object or as an objectof a preposition. However,

There as an

ferent

pronoun is used dependingon

interrogative

a person by

AN

the

or a thing.When an

considered

It is often difficult to identify

rated

the

from

tion

of

I

interr.

I

interr.

you get the

of the sentenceso will This that

restructuring

pronoun,

the

not

indirect

identify

will

you

object pronouns and to change the structure

is placed before the pronoun. make it easier for you to identify the

preposition

only

but it will

The following sentenceshave

also establish the word restructured

been

preposition. are

giving

you

the book

to? I

preposition

pronoun

To whom I

indirect

are you giving the

book?

object)

are you

What I

contributing to? I preposi tion

pronoun

To what are I

indirect

have

order

for

sentence.

the French

Who I

preposition.

preposition)

easier for you to of a object prepositionpronouns, the

is linked. This separa-

bookfrom? I

To make it

of

to which it

object is calleda dangling

preposition)

pronoun

function

of a pronoun because, in end of the sentence, sepa-

I

pronoun

Who did

to

speak to?

did you

Who

placed

from its

a preposition

at the

pronoun

interrogative

it refers

whether

indirect object, it is preceded by any other preposition,it is

function

the

English, a prepositionis often

a dif-

as an

serves

it

to; if it is preceded of a preposition. object

preposition

pronoun

object)))

you contributing?

to avoid

a dangling

WHAT IS AN

142

are you

Who I

going out with? I

preposition

pronoun

With

PRONOUN?)

INTERROGATIVE

of the

object

What

are

going out?

are you

wh,ot;n

preposition

with)

with?

you writing

I

I

preposition

pronoun

are you writing?

With what I

of the

object

preposition

with)

\"Person\"

Who

is used

(whom)

Who did you I

indirect

speak to? (To

did

whom

of a

objects

preposition.

you speak?)

object)

Who did you I

object

for indirect objectsand

get the book from? (From whom

did

you

get the

book?)

of preposition from)

\"Thing\"

What is used for indirectobjectsand What do I

object

IN

you cook with?

of preposition

(With

of a

objects

what

do you

preposition.

cook?)

with)

FRENCH

between the form of the interrogaAs in English, there is no difference or as an object of a preposition. tive pronoun as an indirect object

Also, as in English,

a

different

interrogative

depending on whether it refersto a personor a rogative pronoun serves as an indirect object,

preposition a (to);if it is sidered an

object

of a

preceded

preposition.)))

by

any

other

pronoun

is used

When

the inter-

thing.

it is

preceded

preposition,

by the it is

con-

WHAT

IS AN INTERROGATIVE

PRONOUN?

143)

\"Person\"

The preposition + qui + est-ceque + subject+ verb qui + verb + subjectareinterchangeable. A

preposition

+

preposition

+

donnez Ie livre?

que vous

est-ce

qui

or

I

I I

+ verb

subject

donnez-vous Ie livre?

A qui

I

I I

+ subject

verb

are

To whom

book?

the

giving

you

I

indirect

object

(Book is the Avec

direct

object.))

sortez? que vous I I

qui est-ce

I

+ verb

subject

sortez-vous?

Avec qui

I

I I

+ subject

verb

are you going out?

With whom I

of preposition

object

\"Thing\"

The

with)

+ quoi + est-ce que + subject+ verb + subjectareinterchangeable.

preposition

quoi + verb A

que vous

est-ce

quoi

contribuez? I

I

I

subject

+ verb

contribuez-vous?

A quoi

I

I I

+ subject

verb

To what are

you contributing?

I

indirect

Avec

object)

quoi est-ce

ecrivez? que vous I I I

subject

Avec quoi

+ verb

ecrivez-vous? I

I I

verb

With what are I

object

of the

+ subject

you writing?

preposition

with)))

or

WHAT IS AN

144

INTERROGATIVE

PRONOUN?)

remind you that

some

Careful

Once

again we

verbs

French

while the equivalentEnglish verbs takean indirect versa (see p. 120).Makesure that you determine

pronoun

in

take direct

objects, vice-

and

object

of the

the function

French.)

Summary

the correct form,

To choose

1. Determine

proceed with

the functionof the

the

interrogative

sentence (subject, directobject,indirect

three

following

object,

in pronoun or object

steps: the French of a prepo-

sition).

2. Establish

the

whether

3.

Refer

to

the

chart

to a

refers

pronoun

below.)

Indirectobjectand of a prepositon

Direct

person

thing

person or a thing.

Subject

object

object

who

who(m)

preposition

+ who(m)

prep. + qui

est-ce

qui

est-ce

qui

qui est-ce

que

qUI

qui (+ inversion)

prep.

what

what

preposition

qu'

est-ce

qui

qu' est-ce que

+ qui

prep.+ quoi (+ inversion) prep. + quoi que

que

(+ inversion) + what est-ce-que (+ inversion))))

WHAT IS AN

There is interrogative pronoun separately becauseit doesnot

we will

which

another

the

follow

145)

ones\"

one, which

\"Which

PRONOUN?

INTERROGATIVE

same

pattern

now examine as the ones

above.)

IN

ENGLISH

and things; one, which ones can referto both persons they are used in questions that request the selectionof one(which sinone, or more than one (whichones,plural) from a group that has gular) one and ones are often omitted. already been mentioned.Thewords be These interrogativepronouns used as a subject, direct object, may

Which

indirectobject,

and

of a

object

preposition.

teachers are here.Which

All the

I have

I

mentioned

group

singular subject) Which

cars.

two

one do

I

The

I

books.

has many

library

their

do you

ones

Which

want to

read?

I

mentioned

plural direct

object)

FRENCH

These tion.

object)

I

group

IN

you want to take?

singular direct

mentioned

group

French?

teaches

one

I

pronouns do not change accordingto theirfuncto the gender of theirantecedent,and change according one on whether you want to say which (sindepends

interrogative They number

gular) or

which ones (plural). Singular

Plural

masculine

lequel

lesquels

feminine

laquelle

lesquelles

To choosethe proper form, follow these steps: 1. Determinethe antecedent.

2.

the

Determine

3. Do you ones 4. Select

wish

\037

gender to say

of the antecedent. which one \037 singular

or which

plural?

the correct

French

form

from

the

above

chart.)))

146

Let US apply

Tous

these steps to someexamples. are here. Which one soot ici. Lequel

teachers

the

All

PRONOUN?)

IS AN INTERROGATIVE

WHAT

les

professeurs 1. Antecedent: the

teaches French? enseigne Ie fran\037ais?

teachers

2. Gender:Un professeur(aprofessor) 3. Number: One is singular. Selection:

4.

I have two

is masculine.

lequel)

cars.

do you

one

Which

want to

J'ai deux voitures.Laquelleveux-tu

take?

prendre?

the cars

1. Antecedent:

2. Gender:Une voiture

is feminine.

car)

(a

3. Number: One is singular. Selection:

4.

laquelle)

has

The library

Which

books.

many

La bibliothequea beaucoup 1. Antecedent:

do you want to read? veux-tu lire? Lesquels

ones

livres.

de

books

Les livres (the books)is masculine. Ones is plural.

2. Gender: 3. Number:

4. Selection:lesquels)

Here arefour girls;which

do you

ones

before

the preposition

Place

RESTRUCTURE:

want to

speak to?

interrogative

pronoun. to speak?

the

girls; to which ones do you Voici quatre filles; voulez-vous aux\037uelles are four

Here

a + lesquelles 1. Antecedent:

Selection:

There are two

girls

There II y

books.

Iivres. de

1. Antecedent:

one

Which

the preposition

are two books.

a deux

Selection:

are

before

you speaking the

interrogative

About which one are you

DU1ueiparlez-vous?

+ lequel

\037

duquel

books

2. Gender:Un livre (a book) 3. Number: One is singular. 4.

is feminine.

lesquelles)

Place

RESTRUCTURE:

parler?

auxquelles

\037

2. Gender:Unefille (a girl) 3. Number: Ones is plural. 4.

want

lequel)))

is masculine.

about? pronoun.

speaking?

IS

WHAT

the

Underline

interrogative pronouns chart on p. 144, circlethe

the

Using

direct object (DO),indirect

1.

PRONOUN?

in

the

correct

(10)

questions French

or object of

subject (8)

a preposition(OP).

FUNCTION

OF PRONOUN

IN

ENGLISH:

S

DO

10

OP

FUNCTION

OF PRONOUN

IN

FRENCH:

S

DO

10

OP

S

DO

10

OP

S

DO

10

OP

S

DO

10

OP

S

DO

10

OP

S

DO

10

OP

S

DO

10

OP

est entre dans la piece?

2.

did

Who

speak

you

to?

RESTRUCTURE:

to

to

speak

\037

a

parler

FUNCTION

OF

FUNCTION

OF PRONOUN

PRONOUN

IN ENGLISH: IN

est-ce que vous is she

3. What

to do \037

FRENCH: avez

parle?

doing tonight?

faire

FUNCTION

OF

FUNCTION

OF PRONOUN

PRONOUN

IN ENGLISH: IN

FRENCH:

fait-elle ce soir?

4.

Who

are

you

calling?

RESTRUCTURE:

to call

\037

telephoner

FUNCTION

OF

FUNCTION

OF PRONOUN

PRONOUN

a IN ENGLISH: IN

147)

below. equivalent:

the room?

into

came

Who

object

INTERROGATIVE

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037

.\037...\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

\302\267

AN

FRENCH:

telephonez-vous?)))

148

IS A POSSESSIVE

WHAT

IS

WHAT

40.

PRONOUN?)

pronoun is a word that

A possessive

possessor of that

Mine is a pronounthat

possesses

the

It's mine.

is that?

house

Whose

a noun and indicates from possess, to own.

replaces

comes

Possessive

noun.

PRONOUN?)

POSSESSIVE

A

the

replaces

words

my house

and shows who

house.)

the

IN ENGLISH

Here is

a list of the possessivepronouns: possessor

Singular

1 st

mine

person

2nd person)

yours

3rd person) Plural

1 st

masculine

his

feminine

hers

neuter)

its)

{

possessor

ours yours the irs)

person

2nd person

3rd person) Possessive

never

pronouns

possessed;

only

they

Is that your house? Are those your keys?

Yes, it Yes,

The same possessivepronoun

sessedare

in

different

John's

car

blue.

is

their form, possessor. is mine. they are mine.

change

regardless of the thing

to the

refer

number

His is

(mine)

although the objects is singular, keys is plural).

is used,

(house

pos-

blue.

Mary's car is blue.Hersisblue. the

Although

is

noun

Mary

singular,

IN

different

possessed the because

object

feminine

same (car), the possessive propossessor is different (John masculine is the

singular).

FRENCH

but pronoun refersto the possessor, in all French and English, pronouns, gender number with its antecedent, that is, with the personor objectposIn sessed. the possessive addition, pronoun is preceded by a definite in article which also agrees gender and number with the objectpos-)))

Like

unlike

English,

a French possessive it must agree, like

IS A POSSESSIVE PRONOUN?

WHAT

sessed.

there are

Therefore, the

and

singular

In the

149)

masculine and feminine forms in both the

plural.

example below, in the phraselesmiens

the possessive pronounm- refersto the (mine), while the ending-iensand the which the noun possessed livres (books) Where are your

fIrst

1st person singular les definite article

is masculine

books?Mine are in masc. pi

the

(mine),

the

living

letter of

possessor

agree with

plural. room.

endings

\037

Ou sont

vos livres? Lesmienssont

dans

Ie salon.

I

1 st

pers. sing.

possessor)

Let us look at the Frenchpossessive pronounsto seehow they Since the rules for the selectionof a singular formed. possessor we different from the rules for the selectionof a plural possessor, two groups:) divided the French possessive pronounsinto these Possessor:

Singular

mine, yours

(tu

his,

form),

hers,

are

are have

its

hasfour forms each of these possessivepronouns number of the noun and gender possessed:the masdepending the the feminine masculineplural culine form, form, singular singular To the and feminine form. choose the form, properformfollow plural In French,

on the

these

steps.

1. Indicate

the possessor.

This will be shown

possessive pronoun.(They

siveadjectives, see

What

mine yours (tu

the

are is a

same

Possessive

by

the

first

initial letters Adjective?,

letter

of the

as the possesp. 96).)

mt-)

fonn)

his

hers its }

s-)))

2. Establish the genderand

the definite articleand

numberof

that

noun.)

number the

ending

of the

object

according

possessed. Choose to the gender and

150

WHAT IS A

Noun

possessed

POSSESSIVE

. sessor+ -Ien book

Whose

PRONOUN?)

is masculine

singular

is that?)

It is

of the

+ first

letter

+ first

letter of

Ie

\037

pos-

mine. It is yours

It is his/hers. A qui est

ce livre? I

noun masc.

sing.)

sessor +

feminine

mien.

Ie tien.

C' est p\037ssessed

is Noun possessed .

C'estIe

C'est Ie sien.) \037 la

singular

the pos-

-Jenne

Whose

is that?)

house

It is mine. It is yours.

It is his/hers.

A

qui

est

cette

mai,son\037 I

noun

I?ossessed fern. sing.)

C'est

mienne.

la

la tienne.

C' est

C'est la sienne.)

Noun plural . possessedis masculine

les

\037

+ fIrst

letter of

+ -lens Whose

are

books

those?)

mine.

They are are

They

yours.

his/hers.

They are

A qui sootceslivres? I

noun

p
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