English for Specific Purposes (Ppt) (1)
Descripción: ESP for english learners...
ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES Group 7 Cotanda, Laurice Marie Homillano, Deborah Lara, Angela Patrice Malapingan, Clare Antonette Sevilla, Ma. Samantha
There are three reasons common to the emergence of all ESP: 1. the demands of a Brave New World, 2. a revolution in linguistics, and 3. focus on the learner (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987).
Hutchinson and Waters (1987) note that two key historical periods breathed life into ESP. First, the end of the Second World War brought with it an " ... age of enormous and unprecedented expansion
economic activity on an international scale · for
economic power of the United States in the post-war world, the role [of international language] fell to English"
Second, the Oil Crisis of the early 1970s resulted in Western money and knowledge flowing into the oil-rich countries. The language of this knowledge became English.
The general effect of all this development was to exert pressure on the language teaching profession to deliver the required goods. Whereas English had previously decided its own destiny, it now became subject to the wishes, needs and demands of people other than language teachers (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987).
The second key reason cited as having a tremendous impact on the emergence of ESP was a revolution in linguistics.
The final reason Hutchinson and Waters (1987) cite as having influenced the emergence of ESP has less to do with linguistics and everything to do psychology.
DEFINITION OF E.S.P.
According to Strevens He defined ESP by identifying its absolute and variable characteristics. Strevens' (1988) definition makes a distinction between four absolute and two variable characteristics.
I. ABSOLUTE CHARACTERISTICS ESP consists of English language teaching which is: *designed to meet specified needs of the learner; *related in content (i.e. in its themes and topics) to particular disciplines, occupations and activities; *centered on the language appropriate to those activities in syntax, lexis, discourse, semantics, etc., and analysis of this discourse; *in contrast with General English.
II. VARIABLE CHARACTERISTICS: ESP may be, but is not necessarily:
*restricted as to the language skills to be learned (e.g. reading only);
*not taught according to any pre-ordained methodology.
Anthony (1997) notes that there has been considerable recent debate about what ESP means despite the fact that it is an approach which has been widely used over the last three decades. At a 1997 Japan Conference on ESP, Dudley-Evans offered a modified definition.
I. ABSOLUTE CHARACTERISTICS
ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learner;
ESP makes use of the underlying methodology and activities of the discipline it serves;
ESP is centered on the language (grammar, lexis, register), skills, discourse and genres appropriate to these activities.
II. VARIABLE CHARACTERISTICS ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines; ESP may use, in specific teaching situations, a different methodology from that of general English; ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners, either at a tertiary level institution or in a professional work situation. It could, however, be for learners at secondary school level; ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students; Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language system, but it can be used with beginners (1998).
Dudley-Evans and St. John have removed the absolute characteristic that 'ESP is in contrast with General English' and added more variable characteristics. They assert that ESP is not necessarily related to a specific discipline. Furthermore, ESP is likely to be used with adult learners although it could be used with young adults in a secondary school setting.
As for a broader definition of ESP, Hutchinson and Waters (1987) theorize, "ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner's reason for learning". Anthony (1997) notes that, it is not clear where ESP courses end and general English courses begin; numerous non-specialist ESL instructors use an ESP approach in that their syllabi are based on analysis of learner needs and their own personal specialist knowledge of using English for real communication.
TYPES OF ESP David Carter (1983) identifies three types of ESP: English English
as a restricted language
for Academic and Occupational Purposes
with specific topics.
Mackay and Mountford (1978) clearly illustrate the difference between restricted language and language with this statement:
“... the language of international air-traffic control could be regarded as 'special', in the sense that the repertoire required by the controller is strictly limited and can be accurately determined situationally, as might be the linguistic needs of a dining-room waiter or air-hostess. However, such restricted repertoires are not languages, just as a tourist phrase book is not grammar. Knowing a restricted 'language' would not allow the speaker to communicate effectively in novel situation, or in contexts outside the vocational environment.”
The second type of ESP identified by Carter (1983) is English for Academic and Occupational Purposes. In the 'Tree of ELT' (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987), ESP is broken down into three branches.
a) English for Science and Technology (EST),
b) English for Business and Economics (EBE), and
c) English for Social Studies (ESS).
Each of these subject areas is further divided into two branches.
English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Occupational Purposes (EOP).
An example of EOP for the EST branch is 'English for Technicians' whereas an example of EAP for the EST branch is 'English for Medical Studies'.
The third and final type of ESP identified by Carter (1983) is English with specific topics. Carter notes that it is only here where emphasis shifts from purpose to topic. This type of ESP is uniquely concerned with anticipated future English needs of, for example, scientists requiring English for postgraduate reading studies, attending conferences or working in foreign institutions.
CHARACTERISTICS OF ESP COURSES The characteristics of ESP courses identified by Carter (1983) are discussed here. He states that there are three features common to ESP courses: a) authentic material, b) purpose-related orientation, and c) self-direction.
REVIEW OF IMPORTANT APPROACHES TO THE DESCRIPTION OF LANGUAGE
NEEDS ANALYSIS Needs Analysis (also known as needs assessment) refers to the activities that are involved in collecting information that will serve as the basis for developing a curriculum that will meet the needs of a particular group of students.
Formal needs analysis is relatively new to the field of language teaching. However, informal needs analyses have been conducted by teachers in order to assess what language points their students needed to master.
At the need analysis stage, ESP practitioners often take one of two paths: either texts (spoken or written) are indentified, the language of which constitutes the language syllabus for the students, or some sort of language syllabus is identified and then the texts are sought or created to embody that language.
REGISTER ANALYSIS Register, or context of situation as it is formally termed, "is the set of meanings, the configuration of semantic patterns, that are typically drawn upon under the specific conditions, along with the words and structures that are used in the realization of these meanings" (Halliday, 1978:23).
It is concerned with the variables of field, tenor, and mode, and is a useful abstraction which relates variations of language use to variations of social context.
analysis concept departed from the principle that English of a specific science differs from each other in terms of its grammatical and lexical features of the registers.
was tailored for the pedagogic purpose, i.e. making the ESP course more relevant to learners’ needs, not intended for the purpose to discuss the nature of registers of English per se.
main purpose of an ESP course was to produce a syllabus which gave a high priority to the language forms students would meet in their field and in turn would give low priority to forms they would not meet.
DRAWBACKS OF REGISTER ANALYSIS •
The analyst is going beyond the study of words and the structures they are found in; certainly beyond the sentence, if not outside the text. (Candlin)
The register studies is being confined to the texts. What is important is role: when one is learning a new language (or a new variety of language) one is learning a new role. (Spencer)
Traditional register studies of lexis and structure is ‘quantitative’. What is needed is a new ‘qualitative’ approach which would consider such things as communicative competence and role performance. (Widdowson)
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS Discourse, firstly, refers primarily to spoken interaction, which will be analyzed in terms of units of meaning, organized into a hierarchy employing some or all of the terms act, move, exchange, transaction and others.
Secondly, discourse may refer to a stretch of language, either spoken or written, analysis of which will consider aspects of sentence connection, or cohesion.
Discourse analysis focuses on the text – and the levels above the sentence- rather than on the sentence itself, and on the writer’s purpose rather than on form.
This approach tended to concentrate on how sentences are used in the performance of acts of communication and to generate materials based on functions. One of the shortcomings of the discourse analysis is that its treatment remains fragmentary.
GENRE ANALYSIS For some writers, ‘genre’ seems to be the same as ‘text types’.
For Swales, ‘genre’ is a more or less standardized communicative event with a goal or set of goals mutually understood by the participants in that event and occurring within a functional rather than a personal or social setting.
Swales introduces the concept of ‘discourse community’. The members of a discourse community ‘share common public goals’. Have ‘mechanisms for intercommunication between members’ and have ‘discoursal expectations’ leading to the development and use of distinctive test types involving specialised terminology, ‘appropriacy of topics, the form, functioning and positioning of discoursal elements, and the roles texts play in the
Thus for Swales ‘genre’ involves not only text type but also the role of the text in the community which produces it, thus implying some study of institutional culture. The view of language is a social semiotic one and not a purely linguistic one.
analysis refers to the regularities of structures that distinguish one type of text from another.
be used as a classificatory system, revealing the essential differences between both the genre studied and other genres and also between the various sub-genres (Dudley-Evans)
WHAT IS A COURSE DESIGN? It is the interpretation on learning needs data to produce an integral series of teaching- learning experience.
WHAT IS THE AIM OF A COURSE DESIGN?
The aim of the course design is to lead the learner to a particular state of knowledge.
THERE ARE 3 TYPES OF COURSE DESIGN 1. Language-centered course design 2. Skill-centered course design 3. Learning-centered approach
LANGUAGE-CANTERED COURSE DESIGN Simplest
connection between analysis of target situation and the content of ESF courses Seems
is not learner center approach It is static and inflexible It appears to be systematic It has no acknowledgement to data analysis. It is only at the surface level of learning
SKILL-CENTERED COURSE DESIGN
THEORETICAL PRINCIPLE Iceberg
Theory Underlying any language are skills and strategies used by learners to produce or understand discourse Thus, SCA will combine the performance and competence when presenting its learning objective
PRAGMATIC PRINCIPLE Based on goal oriented and process oriented (Widowson, 1981)
Not enough time to master intended subject
1 year student (have little experience) st
SCA IN GENERAL SCA
is not about achieving set of goals It lets the learners achieve what they can with own experience and time constraint
is a continuum process which means there is no cut of point of success and failure. Learner will simultaneously learn and develop degree of proficiency
SCA CONCLUSION Take
more learners into account than LCA Still take the learner as the user of language instead of a learner Still concern with the process of language use not of language learning
COMPARISON OF LEARNER AND LEARNING-CENTERED APPROACHES Learner-Centered Approach Learning-Centered Approach -It is based on the principle that -It is seen as a process in which the learning is totally determined by the learner use what knowledge or skills learner even though it can influence they have to make sense of the flow what is taught. of the new information. -It is an internal process, which is crucially dependent upon the knowledge the leaner already have and their ability in motivation to use it. -It is a process of negotiation between individuals and the society. Society sets the target and the individuals must do their best to get as close to that target as is possible.
LEARNING-CENTERED APPROACH Focuses
on students’ learning.
by the learner.
on prior knowledge and skills,
5 PRACTICES THAT NEEDED TO BE CHANGED TO ACHIEVE LEARNINGCENTERED APPROACH (WEIMER, 2002): The
functions of content The role of the teacher The responsibility for learning The processes and purposes of evaluation The balance of power
expression of opinion on the nature of language and learning
as a guide for teachers and learners by providing goals to be attained
TYPES OF SYLLABUS
Evaluation syllabus It puts on record the basis on which success or failure will be evaluates. It reflects an official assumption as to the nature of language and linguistic performance.
Organizational syllabus A list of what should be learnt will be organized Includes factors which depend upon a view of how people learned will be considered in order to determine the order of terms.
Material syllabus Additional assumptions about the nature of language in terms of: Context of language Relative weightings and integration of skills Number and type of exercises Degree of recycling or revision will be decided by the author
The teacher syllabus Teacher influence the clarity, intensity and frequency of any item, and thereby affect the image that the learners receive
classroom syllabus It is a planned lesson done by the teacher Although it is well planned by the teacher, it can be affected by all sorts of unexpected conditions while conducting the lesson.
learner syllabus It is also known as the internal syllabus. The network of knowledge that develops in the learner’s brain, enables learner to comprehend and store the later
WHY IS A SYLLABUS REQUIRED ? According
to Parkes and Harris (2002): -As a contact -As a permanent record -As a learning tool
to Hutchinson and Waters; -Better management of study time, assessment, and reading materials -Provides moral support -Reassures sponsors and students -Acts as a road maps -Emphasizes the most important aspect of language -A set of criteria in selecting and producing materials -Assures uniformly -Basis for evaluating students
APPROACHES TO COURSE DESIGN Language-Centered
approach 1. analyze target situation 2. write syllabus 3. write/select texts to illustrate items in syllabus 4. write exercises to practice items in syllabus 5. devise tests for assessing knowledge of items in syllabus
(Holmesm, 1981) -presents opportunities for students to practice and evaluate skills and strategies 1. analyze target needs 2. select interesting and representative texts 3. devise a hierarchy of skills to exploit the texts 4. order and adapt the texts as necessary to enable a focus on the required skills 5. devise a system to assess the
Learning-Centered Approach -Focus on Learning process -Instead of a linear approach, divides the design process into two levels L1. Analysisa. Actual learning situation b. Target situation L2. Generation of: c. Language syllabus based on a. d. Skills syllabus based on b. e.Complement results of each analysis to form new syllabus
-Focused on the learners 1. identify the purpose of the course 2. develop learner-centered objectives 3. structure course according to objectives course outline 4. structure course according to goals- build lessons 5. calendar 6. support pieces
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND LEARNERS
Teacher 1. Shaping the input 2.Encouraging the learners’ intention to learn 3.Managing the learning strategies 4.Promoting practice and use In some cases: • consultant •involved in designing, setting p and administering the ESP course
Student The learners come to an ESP class with: 1. Focus for learning 2.Subject-matter knowledge 3.Adult learning strategies
VARIOUS KINDS OF COLLABORATION (AMONG TEACHERS) Team
Teaching (DudleyEvans) a. Two teacher together b. Subject-language Integration
a. Topic Centered Modules/ Minicourses -All language skills with the focus on comprehending new content b. Content-based Academic Writing Courses - Composition courses organized around sets of readings on selected topics
c. Content-centered ESP/ Sheltered Courses - Specialists material is taught to classes consisting exclusively of “at risk” non-native speaking students who have been taken out of the full specialist class. d. Back-up or Adjunct Language Work - Parallel to the specialist subject class
“It is a useful term for smaller-scale collaboration between language and subject teachers than that of some of the cases described.” - Adam Smith
BENEFITS OF THE APPROACHES DESCRIBED The
student is given the opportunity to see how well he is measuring up to the requirements of his department, and catch up on work not fully understood.
language teacher is able to see at first hand what difficulties the students are having with their subject course, and to learn a little of the way communication takes place in a given
subject lecturer receives feedback on how well he has been communicating with his students.
Jackson and Price and Chamberlain) noted that the interaction between the two lecturers created a higher level of involvement among the students, helping to overcome their fear of asking questions and engaging in discussion.
TASKS IN EGP Littlejohn and Hicks list the following criteria for task design: Extended discourse-learners should be involved in processing language beyond the sentence level; An information gap; Uncertainty- learners should be able to choose what they want to say; Goal-orientation-there should be a purpose for communication: Real-time processing- the tasks should require learners to deal with language spontaneously.
Phillips suggests that there are four key methodological principles:
Reality control, which relates to the manner in which tasks are rendered accessible to the students; Non-Triviality-the tasks must be naturally generated by the students’ special purpose;
Authenticity- the language must be naturally generated by the students’ special purpose;
Tolerance of error- errors which do not impede successful communication must be tolerated.
The learner is given a task to perform or a problem to solve The background information and the environment of the problem is simulated Involves LISTENING AND SPEAKING
should be: ♣ realistic and lead to more natural communication ♣ Sturtridge suggests that in language learning, the outcome or end product is less important than the language used to achieved it. ♣But Robinson suggest that in ESP the end product is as important as the means, and may appear to be more so to the students.
Studies Involves studying the facts of a real-life case, discussing the issues involved and reading some kind of discussion or action plan.
Importance: Improve activation of all the language skills.
THREE TYPES 1. Group Project Involves the members of the group in real research 2. Mini- Research Project- for individual students Involving the use of questionnaires, surveys and interviews 3. Literature-based or Library Project Most common type Involve students in extensive purposeful reading 4. Oral presentation
MATERIALS FOR E.S.P.
JOHNS (1990) One of the core dilemmas he presents is that "ESP teachers find themselves in a situation where they are expected to produce a course that exactly matches the needs of a group of learners, but are expected to do so with no, or very limited, preparation time" (Johns, 1990, p. 91).
In the real world, many ESL instructors/ESP developers are not provided with ample time for needs analysis, materials research and materials development. There are many texts which claim to meet the needs of ESP courses. Johns (1990) comments that no one ESP text can live up to its name. He suggests that the only real solution is that a resource bank of pooled materials be made available to all ESP instructors (Johns, 1990). The only difference between this resource bank and the one that is available in every educational setting -teachers' filing cabinets -- is that this one is to include cross-indexed doable, workable contentbased (amongst other) resources.
TECHNICAL AIDS 1.Visual and mechanical aids
2. Video in ESP
3. Word Processors and computers in ESP