Employees Motivation on Cadbury
employees motivatio, calculation with the Linkert's scale...
A Summer Training Project Report On
“Employees Employees Motivation ” Of
Cadbury India Ltd. Malanpur Industrial area, Malanpur, Bhind (M. P.)
IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 2009
Affiliated to Jiwaji University, Gwalior
Submitted to : Mrs. Ritu Singh (HOD) MBA NRIITM Gwalior
Submitted by ROSHNI SHARMA Roll No. 3102 MBA (HR) II sem NRIITM Gwalior
Chapter-1 Introduction 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5 1.6
About of Company Brief History Cadbury manufacturing Malnapur Factory Chocolate Market in India Base Chocolate Ingredients
1 1 3 6 7 10
Chapter-2 Role of motivation for employees training and its effectiveness 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8.
Abstract Initial Interview Data Application evaluation results Discussion Competitive attitudes Focus on extrinsic motivation The superiority of intrinsic motivation Allow self-initiated activities
18 24 25 26 27 28 28 29
Chapter-3 Data Analysis and Findings 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4.
Literature Review Data Collection Parameter Used Graphical Representation of the Responses
33 40 42 44
Chapter-4 Conclusion and Suggestions 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4.
Findings Suggestion Limitation & Methodology Conclusion
51 52 55 58 61 64
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT No work is possible without the “Grace of God”, guidance of teachers, blessing of elders, love and encouragement of family member and friends. I would like to acknowledge with thanks the genuine interest and faith shown by our director who truly deserve the credit for providing inspiration to each student in their summer training. I am thankful to the HR Department of Cadbury India Limited and specially Mr. Atul Jha (HR Manager) who gave me time out of their busy schedule to help e administer my task. In the completion of this report, I have drawn heavily on the vast amount of literature in the field of personnel management, industrial relation and human resource development. Naturally, I owe a deep intellectual debt to numerous authors who have significantly enhanced my understanding on various issues in Human resource management through their rich contribution in this field. Above all, I heavily Thank my Father and my mother for their love, the constant encouragement and support of my brother and friends. Last but not least I would be special gratitude to our all friends who heartening me to complete this project.
Chapter 1 Introduction of Cadbury
1.1 ABOUT THE COMPANY Cadbury, a subsidiary of Cadbury Schweppes is a dominating player in the Indian chocolate market with strong brands like Dairy Milk, Five Star, Perk etc. Dairy milk is in fact the largest chocolate brand in India. Cadbury India Limited, now stands only second to Cadbury UK Limited in sales of Dairy Milk. The company is pushing the gifting segment, through occasion linked gifts. Chocolates contribute to 64% of Cadbury’s turnover. Confectionery sales accounting for 12% of turnover, is contributed largely by Eclairs. Cadbury also has a strong brand Bourn Vita the malted health drink category, which accounts for 24% of turnover.
1.2 BRIEF HISTORY Fifty years ago, the real taste of chocolate as we know it today, landed on Indian shores. An event that carried forward the entrepreneurship and vision born as far back as 1824, when John Cadbury set up shop in Birmingham (UK) to sell among other things – his own cocoa concoction. From these modest beginnings emerged Cadbury Schweppes – that is today the leading manufacturer of confectionery and beverages in the United Kingdom. A company that has its presence in over 200 countries worldwide and has made the name ‘Cadbury’ synonymous with cocoa products in countries across the planet. This is the brand that came to India in 1947 to a nation that was in its infancy, a market that was ready for the world and a people that were open to new ideas, new products. Within a year of being set up as a trading concern, Cadbury fry India was incorporated as a Private Limited company, set up for processing imported
chocolates and Bourn vita. The same year saw the launch of Cadbury’s Milk chocolate for millions of Indians. Through 50 years of investment in capital and marketing, the scale and scope of our operations has expaned to cover a range of brands in the chocolate, sugar confectionery and malted food drinks segments. We have a majority share in the Indian chocolate market and a significant presence in sugar confectionery and food drinks. Today Cadbury India Ltdl, a subsidiary of Cadbury Schweppes employs over 200 people across the country. And operates in one of the fastest growing chocolate markets for Cadbury Schweppes group across the globe.
1.3 ABOUT CADBURY’S MANUFACTURING FACILITY AT MALANPUR In 1989, the company began its manufacturing operations at its newest and most modern plant at malanpur near Gwalior in M.P. The factory is located on 24 acres of land which is taken on lease from M.P. Audyogid Vikas Nigam.
Nearby Industries The Malanpur belt has a host of other industries located in the region. Some of the prominent industries are : • Godrej • SRF • CT Cotton • Kodak • LG Hotline • Supreme Viny1 Area of the Factory Total plot area
Built up area
Cadbury Malanpur – products Equipped with the state of art technology and backed constant investment, this the Cadbury’s Malanpur unit manufactures a range of liquid milk chocolate and variety of enrobed chocolate products.
• Dairy Milk • Eclairs • 5 Star • Gems • Perk Employees The factory has a young workforce with the average age of an employee being 28 years. The employees the following number of personnel : Line Operates
Skill Level of Workforce All operates in the factory are IITTs and professionally qualified.
Policies The unit practices the policies and guidelines as laid down by it’s parent company Cadbury Schweppes plc. The following practices are in place and diligently observed by the company : • HACCP (Good manufacturing Practices ) • Prerequisites • Risk Management • Quality policy • Safety policy • Environment policy
The above is audited from time to time by the Group Technical.
Contact Numbers: Telephone No’s Factory
(07539) 2283801 (Direct Line)
Address: Cadbury India Limited Plot No. 25, Malanpur Industrial Area Village Gurikha, Tehsil Gohad Distt. Bhind, Pin – 477116 Professional Association The unit is a member of the following bodies :• M.P. Chamber of Commerce & Industry • Malanpur Industries Association • MP AKVN • Cll • Quality Circle Federation of India.
Community Development The unit has also taken up many community development initiatives for the surrounding area along with M/s Sambhav a prominent NGO like , the primary school at Gurikha village for the local children.
1.4 MALANPUR FACTORY In 1989 the company stated manufacturing operations from its third and newest factory at Malanpur near Gwalior in M.P.
Using the most modern state of the art technology, the unit today manufactures range of liqud milk chocolate and a variety of enrobed chocolate products. Factory in 8 phases 1988-89
Eclairs & Gems
: Plot No. 25, Malanpur Industrial area, Malanpur
distt. – Bhind. Telephone No.
Cadbury Schweppes International UK
Total Area 24 Acres – Constructed 8.5 Acre
1.5 CHOCOLATE MARKET IN INDIA Chocolate market is estimated to be around 1500 crores(AC Nielson) growing at 18-20% per annum. Cadbury is the market leader with 72% market share The per capita consumption of chocolate in India is 300 gram compared with 1.9 kilograms in developed markets such as the United Kingdom. Over 70 per cent of the consumption takes place in the urban markets. Margins in the chocolate industry range between 10 and 20 per cent, depending on the price point at which the product is placed. Chocolate sales have risen by 15%
in 2007 to reach 36000 tonnes
according to one estimate. Another estimate puts the figure at 25000 tonnes. The chocolate wafer market (Ulta Perk etc) is around 35% of the total chocolate market and has been growing at around 13% annually. As per Euromonitor study, Indian candy market is currently valued at around USD 664 million, with about 70% or USD 461 million, in sugar confectionery and the remaining 30% or USD 203 million, in chocolate confectionery. Entire Celebrations range has a market share is 6.5% . The global chocolate market is worth $75 billion annually. Consumers can choose from wide range of chocolates, which initially was limited to Milk chocolates like Dairy Milk and Milky Bar. In past few years we have seen so many SKUs with almonds, raisings and all sort of nuts. And how can we forget latest 5 star crunchy and Ulta Perk, which has opened new windows for consumers.
WHAT IS CHOCOLATE ? Cocoa Cocoa plant is a small tree having pods on the main trunk as well as on the branches. Pods is long, narrow, flat part which contain the seeds and usually having thin skin. Cocoa pods after harvesting are cautiously opened. The beans and mucc8lage are scoped out and subjected to natural fermentation either in heaps, wooden boxes. Fermentation generally take 5-10 days. At the end of fermentation, the pulp breaks down and there is a change in the of the seeks from pale yellow to brown. The endogeneous enzymes activated by the heat fermentation brings out changes in protein and polyphenols in the kernel. The beans are then dried to six to eight percent moisture level in sun or artificial dryers. The
dried beans are cleaned sorted roasted. Roasting develops the
characteristic flavour, after roasting the beans are passed through corrugated rollers to break their shells and removed by winnowing. The cotyledons are known as ‘nibs’. This nibs are used for the manufacturing of cocoa and chocolate. The nibs are ground using stone mills to fine paste or liquor. The heat produce during grinding causes cocoa fat to melt and the melted fat carries with it, in suspensions, finely ground particles of cocoa. This is known as cocoa mass’, chocolate liquor’ or bitter chocolate’. This mass solidifies at about 300C . Cocoa mass is very rich in fat ( 50-55 percent) and cannot be used directly for the preparation of any beverage. It is subjected to filter pressing to separate out a major part of fat (cocoa butter). The amount of fat left in the pressed cake can be varied by the conditions of pressing. The pressed cake is used for producing cocoa power.
CHOCOLATE : Cocoa mass not treated with alkali is generally used for the manufacture of chocolate. There are many types of chocolate depending upon the level of cocoa mass, added cocoa butter, sugar, milk, and other ingredients. Plain chocolate is mass processed with cocoa butter and sugar. Plain chocolate contains 40-55 percent sugar and 32-42 percent fat.
COCOA BUTTER : Cocoa butter which accounts for more than 50 percent of cocoa bean is a valuable by product of the cocoa industry. The butter is a pale yellow liquid with a characteristic odour and flavor of chocolate. It is brittle at temperature below 250C , softens in the hand and melts (340C) in the mouth. It is not greasy to touch , it is rich in saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic and higher acids).
BASE CHOCOLATE FOR 5-STAR & PERK
1. SMP 2. FCMP 3. SUGAR
ADD ONE BY ONE TWO ROLL REFINER
PARTICLE SIZE 200 MICRON
FIVE ROLL REFINER
25 MICRON CONCH 1. LOADING 2. DRY CONCHING 3. PASTING 4. LIQUEFYING 5. FLAVOUR MIXING 6. DISCHARGING
STORAGE & SEIVING TRASFER TO LINE
INGREDIENTS • Emulsifier : Lecithin is used as a emulsifier, an emulsifier often added to chocolate during the manufacturing process to give it a smooth, fluid consistency. Lecithin stabilizes fat drops and keeps them from congealing and separating. The majority of lecithin used in chocolate is derived from soybeans, naturally occurs in egg yolks and some vegetables. • Palm oil • Flavouring agent • SMP • Sugar : Added as a sweetener. It caramelizes with heat, its helps the product to become brown. It also increases the tenderness of the product. • Slat Salt act as a antimicrobial agent, It also impart taste to the product. It also absorb moisture, act as a dehydrating agent. • Cocoa butter • Cocoa solid • Hydrogenated vegetable oil • Edible gum • Soya flour • Invert sugar
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM CHOCOLATE
CORN FLAKES AND RICE CRIPS
SPREADING OF CERALS OVER NAUGA
CARAMEL COATING COOLING TUNNEL -1
(ITS HOLD THE CEREAL)
CUTTER (VERTIC AL CUTTING)
COOLING TUNNEL-2 MATERIAL CHECK
CARAMEL MAKING MILK POWDER
HOT WATER AT
E-MILK (EMULSIFIED MILK)
PRE DISSOLVER (650C)
FOAMING SYRUP MAKING WATER AT 850C (440LT)
HYDROOXIDE (10.5 KG)
(ADD SOYA FLOUR WHEN WATER TEMPERATURE < 700C ) MIXING (15-20 MIN)
STIRRING (UP TO 7 HRS) SALT FOAMING AGENT (37 KG) LIQUID
+ SUGAR (34 KG)
GLUCOSE (86 KG) +
SYRUP INVERT SUGAR
(15 KG )
FRAPPE MAKING WATER
GLUCOSE -93 KG
SUGAR SYRUP AT 80 0C
(80 KG OF SUGAR SYRUP
COOKER – 1 (1000C) FOAMING SYRUP
(WHEN TEMP.OF SUGAR SYRUP REACHES 1250C F.S. IS INTRODUCED
(25 GK) DOSING
(TEMPERATURE REDUCE TO
PRESSURE VESSEL (HOLD)
CREAM AND NAUGA MAKING VANASPATI
SOP FOR REWORK 1. Take 20 kg of conditioned coated rework and break it into small pieces. 2. then visually check the rework for the presence of any foreign material like laminate, plastic threads etc. and remove the same if it exists. 3. pass the broken through the metal detector. 4. put the broken rework in the Stephen blender and blend it in the following manner: i.
blend for 10 sec. at a slower speed and then add 2kg of vanaspati in it.
Blend for 5 sec. at faster speed.
Blend for 10 sec. at faster speed.
remove all the material from the blender into a bucket using a scrapper:
Chapter 2 Role of Motivation for Employees Training and its Effectiveness
THE ROLE OF MOTIVATION WHEN MANAGING CREATIVE WORK
2.1 ABSTRCT While implementing and evaluating computer support for corporate creativity it was noticed that the sheer presence of technology does not guarantee usage. Factors such as organizational culture and management attitudes seem to have an equally important role, and this observation called for a more focused analysis of the motivational aspects of crativity management. Based on literature and empirical data, four managerial advice to promote corporate creativity are presented : abandon reward system; officially recognize creative initiatives ; encourage self-initiated activities, and ; allow redundancy.
1. A NEED FOR CRATIVITY The importance of creativity in industry has risen dramatically during the last few decades. During the peak of the industrial era, a company could prosper from slowly developing and refining one single product or service. The inereasing pace with which business now reshapes itself propelled by the new capabilities offered by information technology (IT) places higher demand on the organizational members to be able to see, and grasp, new opportunities. Globalization, and the competition that accompanies it, further adds to the need for crativity in an entrepreneurial way, and it is argued that employees of tomorrow will be valued more for their ability to create new knowledge than for being able to manage known facts [1,2,3]. Creativity will therefore
become a quality of
increasing importance and a vital branch of knowledge management (K.M.). although crativity is highly unpredictable it can be promoted. If you in a library start reading book after book looking for a particular word, you cannot predict when and where it will show up, but you know
with certainty that you will eventually find it. However, by carefully choosing what shelf to start from, you may increase the probability for the sought word to turn up. Similarly, managing crativity is about raising the probability for creative acts to happen by stimulating the factors that works in favour of crativity.
Traditional suggestion systems The traditional way to address this need for continual improvements has been to implement some form of suggestion system ad to encourage employees to submit improvement proposals to it. These proposals and ideas are then typically attended to and reviewed by Proposal –Handling Committees (PHCs). Good suggestions are usually rewarded in some way , while not so good proposals are rejected. However, there are scrious shortcomings with such systems. Firstly, there is a problem of communication. Suggestions are seldom shared within the organization. Good ideas may be implemented locally but remain unheard of in other parts of the organization, resulting in the “reinventing –the-wheel”- syndrome. Other ideas may be prematurely rejected due to the proposer’s problem to accurately communicate the vision that he or she has, or the PHC’s limited capacity to understand and appreciate the quality of a perhaps innovative – and thus unusual – suggestion. Had these ideas only been made public, they could have started other creative ideas elsewhere in the organization. Secondly, many ideas are never proposed at all due to several reasons. One reason generally recognized as a serious performance blocker is evaluation apprehension: the fear of being evaluated by ones’ peers. We are reluctant to present silly ideas if we ridk losing face in front of our colleagues. Instead, we keep our potentially revolutionary ideas to ourselves, again missing an opportunity for organizational benefits. Another reason is the
threshold an official suggestion system constitutes: we may feel that our idea is not worthy of being submitted as an official proposal or we may lack the ability or motivation to write-up our proposals in the form required for suggestions to be accepted.
An alternative approach The work described here has been aimed at improving corporate creativity by designing and implementing IT support for a brainstorming – based approach to idea generation. By applying the principles underpinning brainstorming as posited by Osborn i.e.. quantity over quality; elaboration on other’ ideas; and absence of criticism, I hoped to address the problems mentioned above by providing a complement to the suggestion systems traditionally used in industry. Having a desire not only to the suggestion systems traditionally used in influence the processes undr study, my research approach may be described as an action case. This hybrid is a mix of understanding and change, designed to balance the trede-offs between being either an observer capable of making interpretations or a researcher involved in creating change in practice. Therefore, this research takes place in a real industry setting. Diffusions and adoption of technology depends not only on technology itself, but also on structural and cognitive factors such culture, motivation, trust, and mindset. KM systems in particular must not be seen as stand-alone systems but as a symbiosis between social processes and technology. Amabile has singled out motivation to be the key factor for creativity and I shall therefore limit my discussion to elaborate on motivation and its managerial implications. To provide the reader with a background I shall shortly describe the prototype system implemented by giving a conceptual description of it. I thereafter present some
empirical data from my interviews before ending the paper with a discussion and a conclusion.
2. WORK ON BRAINSTORMING Since introduced by Osborn in 1953, brainstorming has been widely used in industry and busiess as a technique for idea eneration and problem solving. However, in contrast to its popularity stands the result of several studies that consistently show that nominal brainstorming, i.e. the aggregated work of individuals working simultaneously but without contact witheach other , outperform group brainstorming. Three main reasons for this have been identified. Ffirstly, there is evaluation apprehension, which refers to a situation when the group members are reluctant to express their perhaps unpopular or politically incorrect suggestions or poorly developed ideas in fear of being judged or evaluated by peers or managers. Secondly, social loafing occurs when group members intentionally limit their contributions and rely on other group members to do the job. Thirdly and finally, there is the problem of production blocking, .e. the result of group members having to wait for others to finish before they can offer their own ideas. While waiting deas may become obsolete or forgotten, or, in order not to forget, people concentrate on and rehaearse their own ideas instead of participating and generating more and new ideas. Electronic brainstorming was introduced as an attempt to address these three problems. In EBS, the participants use networked computers to send ideas to and read ideas from the group. By allowing anonymous idea entry the evaluation apprehension problem is avoided. The logging capability of computer software helps reduce the social loafing since. Information on the relative performance of each individual may be made salient. Finally, since participants are using individual computer terminals, idea entry and sharing may be performed
by all users simultaneously, thus eliminating much of the production blocking observed in face-to-face brainstorming. Though apparently solving the three main problems mentioned above, it has been suggested that EBS only outperform nominal brainstorming when used in large groups. Despite this suggestion not much research has been done on really large groups.
3. THE MINDPOL PROTOTYPE In response to the call for more study on large groups Mind pool is an intranet application available for the entire organization ( See for details about its predecessor). The most fundamental design principles for Mind pool are that work is carried out asynchronously, users are anonymous but yet able to contact, and the entire organization may be addressed, instead of just a group of a selected few. The idea is to mimics the creative atmosphere found in brainstorm sessions, where no suggestions are turned down but instead used to spawn new and possibly even better ideas. Unlike ordinary EBS sessions, Mind pool supports asynchronous brainstorming. Users do not have to be active simultaneously, which removes the temporal restriction present in other media, e.g. chat forums. The system further allows the proposer to be anonymous while yet providing a mechanism for letting people contact them. The reasons for anonymity are two; firstly, it eliminates evaluation apprehension and thus enables users to submit proposals without risking making fools of themselves – a fact known to have a positive effect on the amount of ideas. Secondly, not revealing the contributor helps separating effect on the amount of ideas. Secondly, not revealing the contributor helps separating personalities from the issues, thus promoting a more objective evaluation, especially so when power differences exist among the participants. Suggestions are submitted as emails and added to a web
page. The web is accessible from all platforms and the persistent nature also allows the idea to linger long enough for it to be found by many different people in different locations and contexts, thereby allowing ideas to develop long after the point of introduction. The possibilities to add comments directly to the proposal, as is the case in news groups, is absent in Mind pool. This helps shielding the new idea from public negative critique. Still, a mechanism that made it possible to contact the propose either to ask for or to provide more information was provided. Though the latter may contain criticism, the original idea remains publicly available and can serve as a seed for others, while the critique is not displayed. The fact that each contributor can be tracedaalso enables individual recognition, which is otherwise a problem in anonymous EBS systems.
4. EMPIRICAL RESULTS Before installing and evaluating Mind pool , I needed to set a base line for my later experiments by interviewing the employees about their views on creativity, suggestion systems, and management. Below, I first present the results from the 10 semi-structured interviews before reporting from the prototype evaluation.
2.2 INITIAL INTERVIEW DATA A malter student conducted ten semi-structured interviews with employees of a large Swedish IT company. These interviews, lasting approximaltely 40 minutes, included both members of the Proposal\Handling Committee (PHC), i.e. the people responsible for evaluating submitted ideas, and ordinary office workers. All interviews were taped and analyzed by the author. Most respondents stressed the importance of stimuli of some kind to spark creativity, and mentioned the interaction with other people as an important source. Aside from the shared view of “input from people” as being an important stimuli a diversity of other situations were mentioned during the interviews: facing a challenging task; going to conferences; visiting other companies; looking at different applications; or doing physical workout. “It’s more difficult to be creative when you really have to” is an utterance that well depicts the common view of the interviewees, that creativity is highly situated and spontaneous. All respondents believed that a suggestion submitted to the PHC had to be both concrete and well thought through to be considered. “it has to be serious stuff. Which makes you a bit reluctant to submit” said one respondent who believed the threshold for participating was too high. Some also conveyed it as meaningless to submit suggestions since somebody else had probably already thought of the same idea and already suggested it. Several respondents complained about not having time for extraordinary activities, or to do things outside their immediate duties; “You don’t have time to, like speculate, or be creative in a general sort of way. We’re too tightly governed by budgets and deadlines”. Another interviewee pointed out that “if you have too much to do you can’t be
creative any more”. It was/ also suggested that there should be a separately designed forum alongside the suggestion system where/ creative people would be “allowed to spend time” trying to develop ideas they have. To be recognized as a creative person and allowed entry to such a group would be like becoming one of the “Knights of the Round Table”, said one respondent.
2.3. APPLICATION EVALUATION RESULTS Mind pool was implemented on the corporate intranet and tested during four weeks. Though the application was available to everybody in the corporate group we explicitly invited 32 users to test the application. Among these 32 were the 10 people interviewed earlier. Not all invited users tried the application but the log files revealed that 52 different users accessed the application, indicating that it was found by people other that only those invited. Most people did only read the suggestions without making suggestions of their own. This, however, was an expected behavior. Mindpool received 22 suggestions during the four week test and 14 of these were submitted the very first week. The 22 ideas were submittewd by eight different uses. The prototype was no immediate success even if some user thought of it as potentially useful; “I think this is good, if onlyyou get going and get it up to speed sort of. You don’t want to be the first one to contribute”. Several interviewees, however, saw Mindpool and the traditional suggestion system as competitors; “if you have a good idea, why post it here instead of submitting it to the PHC? There you might get a reward and you know you’ll get an anser”. A similar comment was; “if I post my idea on this site, someone might steal it and send it to the suggestion system. Those who saw Mindpool as a complement to the suggestion
system found another problem (which also was raised during the work with Mindpool’s predecessor. What will happen if an initial idea submitted by a inspires someone else (B) to generate a better idea, which then is modified by yet another person (C) to a really great idea that receives acknowledgement by the PHC and renders a gratification? Should only the last person get the credit? What about the other two (A and B) who got the idea started ? those who had not tested Mindpool blanmed it not having time: “I haven’t got round to it. If you don’t do it right away you forget about it. We haven’t time to be crative on pure speculation”.
2.4. DISCUSSION The design of Mindpool, with its distributed and asynchronous nature, enables company wide brainstorming through the use of web technology. Mindpool eliminates the need of large facilities and simultaneous sessions, thereby, in theory, allowing company-wide continuous brainstorming. The novel blurring of boundares between electronic brainstorming and ordinary work activities should have a positive effect on creativity. In practice, however, this has not been observed.
2.5. COMPETITIVE ATTITUDES Perceiving Mindpool and the suggestion system as competitors is very unfortunate from an organizational point of view. There is an obvious risk that neither A, B, nor C, as discussed above, would have managed to crate the useful idea on their own, in isolation. The final idea was the result of the interaction of A, B. and C, a social knowledge creation process that required the combined input from all three parties. For example, one user contributes with A, which may be an idea, a suggestion or even just a remark; “ All email is driving me crazy. Can’t we throw out our email system;” this somewhat unrealistic suggestion may be observed by another user and spawn a process in that persons unconscious mind that later results in B: “Must all this For-YourInformation email really be email? Aren’t there any other channels?” note that A and B do not connect visibly- there is no mechanism in our prototype grouping or linking suggestions. This is must be so because even the user suggesting B may no be aware of the mental link from A. in practice, there may be weeks or even months between A and B. suggestion B may in a similar manner eventually lead to C. which in turn inspires D and E, and so forth. None of these suggestions or ideas needs to be “good” or “useful’ in a practical sense, eventually, however, this cumulative process leads to a point where a useful, constructive, practical suggestion can be identified. In a traditional suggestion system only the last person would receive acknowledgement and all the previous contributors would be ignored. Such an approach encourages employees to keep ideas to themselves. If instead all users were rewarded for participating there would be no reason to hold back any ideas.
2.6. FOCUS ON EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Practical experiences of Mindpool are yet in their early stages but the tentative results analyzed this far are consistent with the findings derived from the work with its predecessor. Organizational members express a concern for not receiving the financial reward that the final suggestion might generate. This concern can be attributed to the use of a suggestion system based on extrinsic motivation. It should be noted that the suggestion system in use remunerates the proposer of a good idea with financial compensation corresponding to half of the company’s first year’s savings, which might come to a substantial amount of money. During 1999, the company under study spent approximately USD 45000 on rewards. It was thus argued that if users A and B above are not acknowledged, they are instead encouraged to keep their ideas to themselves to try to develop them into what C managed to come up with however, not many employees actually contribute to the suggestion system that is in use. During 1999, the PHC received suggestions from 226 of the +2400 employees, which means that less than 10 percent of the members participated actively consistent research findings show that the reliance on extrinsic motivation limits participation to typically 10-15 percent of the employees, as opposed to 70-80 percent when no reward system is used , or when recognition is kept to a symbolic level.
2.7. THE SUPERIORITY OF INTRINSIC MOTIVATION This strong correlation between the use of intrinsic motivation and high participation in the improvement process suggests that other forms of acknowledgement should be used. A form of reward that seems to be more appropriate is being allowed to work with what one finds
interesting. It so appears that when people are primarily motivated by their interest in the work and the enjoyment of that activity, they are more creative than they are when primarily driven by some goal imposed on them by others. The use of extrinsic motivation such as rewards or bonuses tend to cause a focus on the reward rather than on the task at hand, and winning the reward becomes more important than finding the most creative solution. Overwhelming empirical findings in line with these are reported from the field of social psychology of creativity and are referred to in the literature as the intrinsic motivation principle. To be allowed to work with one’s own ideas is a reward in it self and ould therefore be used to replace extrinsic motivation in form of money. Rewarding creative work requires a delicate balancing /between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and must be done skillfully. Whatever reward is chosen, it should be used to recognize the competence or the work ability of the group or individual, and the reward should be used to motivate further work and not act as a bribe. Encouraging work-focused feedback and discouraging excessive initial critique of new ideas foster a positive attitude towards creativity. By demonstrating that innovations and creativity are valued by communicating the potential of the work and accomplishments that have been made, intrinsically motivated employee initiatives cold be further propelled.
2.8. ALLOW SELF-INITIATED ACTIVITIES Self-initiated activities are powerful because they are driven primarily by intrinsic motivation. When employees are allowed to, and in fact encouraged to, pick and pursuits their own projects, they are driven by their personal interests. Research in a corporate setting has shown that professional interests rather than espoused theory is what motivates
people. A management strategy to promote creativity would be to present and motivate the direction for work but leave the individuals to conduct the work as they see fit. Employees should further be matched up with projects according to their interests or where their competence is challenged and developed. Planned actions can only take an organization in directions already anticipated. To reach the unexpected, the company must go beyond what is scheduled and put its trust in the unplanned actions that often are the result of user initiatives. Every unanticipated activity begins as an unofficial task, and very often, if not always, these unanticipated and unofficial activities are indeed also user initialted. The expression “Skunk Works” was coinded during the second World War by the aircraft manufactufacturer Lockhed Martins to describe a situation where a small group of technician wer allowed to work outside the established bureaucracy and with minimal management control. It has been shown that creativity and innovation is aided by low forma-lisation and large degrees of freedom, especially during the initial stages. It is also recognized that creativity often requires extra-ordinary dedication and commitment, and that most employees would willingly do far more than the company could possibly ask of them if only they were allowed to work with things in which they were really interested. A company should therefore allow, and encourage, their employeses to act as autonomously as possible and support as much unofficial skunk work as it can. To be really effective, however, a system that promotes such entrepreneursip must not be restricted to any particular group, as was the case at Lockheed, but reach everyone in the organization, since it cannot be determined in beforehand who will be creative.
2.9. THE NEED FOR REDUNDANCY Although it is not desirable to reinvent the wheel from scratch, repeating all the error previously made, it is often necessary to allow every one to build their own wheel. This is due to the strong relationship between knowledge and action. Learning – by- doing is the only way to acquire certain knowledge, and this suggests that enough redundancy should be allocated to allow for such experimenting. However, corporate settings with deadlines and resource constrains do seldom allow for much spontaneous self-initiated activities, as testified by the quoted respondent earlier. Tight budgets and deadlines are denying the employees the ability to follow-up on the hunches they get, or to be “creative on speculation” as one respondent put it. The fact that today’s Iean organizations do to allow the redundancy that is so vital to knowledge creation has also been recognized by the literature. To set free the desire to initiate creative acts that already exists within most people, the company must take appropriate actions. For example, Toshiba and 3M allow their employees to devote 15 percent of their time to self-initiated activities.
Chapter 3 Data Analysis and Findings
Data Analysis & Finding The management of people at work is an integral part of the management process. To understand the critical importance of people in the organization is to recognize that the human element and the organization are synonymous. An well-managed organization usually sees an average worker as the root source of quality and productivity gains. Such organizations do not look to capital investment, but to employees, as the fundamental source of improvement. An organization is effective to the degree to which it achieves its goals, an effective organization will make sure that there is a spirit of cooperation and sense of commitment and satisfaction within the sphere of its influence. In order to make employees satisfied and committed to their jobs in academic and research libraries, there is need for strong and effective motivation at the various levels, departments, and sections of the library. Motivation is a basic psychological process. A recent data-based comprehensive analysis concluded that competitiveness problems appear to be largely motivational in nature. Along with perception, personality, attitudes, and learning, motivation s a very important element of behaviour. Nevertheless, motivation is not the only explanation of behaviour. It interacts with and acts in conjunction with other cognitive processes. Motivating is the management process of influencing behaviour based on the knowledge of what make people tick. Motivation and motivating both deal with the range of conscious human behaviour somewhere between two extremes: • Reflex actions such as a sneeze or flutter of the eyelids: and • Learned habits such as brushing one’s teeth or handwriting style (Wallace and Szilag 1982:53). Luthans (1998) asserts that motivation is the process that arouses, energizes, directs, and sustains behaviour and performance. That is , it is the process of stimulating people to action and to achieve a desired task. New way of
stimulating people is to employ effective motivation which makes workers more satisfied with and committed to their jobs. Money is not the only motivator. There are other incentives which can also serve as motivators. Specific employee attitudes relating to job satisfaction and organizational commitment are of major interest to the field of organizational behaviour and the practice of human resources management. Attitude has direct impact on job satisfaction. Organizational commitment on the other hand, focuses on their attitudes towards the entire organization. Although a strong relationship between satisfaction and commitment has been found, more recent research give more support to the idea that commitment causes satisfaction. However, mot studies treat satisfaction and commitment differently, especially in light of things like downsizing that are part of modern organizations.
3.1 LITERATURE REVIEW Along with perception, personality, attitudes, and learning, motivation is a very important part of understanding behaviour. Luthans (1998) asserts that motivation should not be thought of as the only explanation of behaviour,since it interacts with and acts in conjunction with other mediating processes and with the environment.Luthan stress that, like the other cognitive process, motivation cannot be seen.All that can be seen is behaviour,and this should not be equated with causes of behaviour.while recognizing the central role lf motivation, Evans (1998) states that many recent theories of organizational behabiour find it important for the field to re-cmphasize behaviour. Definitions of motivation abound. One thing these definitions have in common is the inclusion of words such
incentives”.Luthan (1998) defines motivation as, “a process that starts with a physiological deficiency or need that activates a behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal incentives”. Therefore, the key to understanding the process of motivation lies in the meaning of, and relationship anong,needs, drives, and incentives.Relative to this, Minner,Ebrahimi,and watchel,(1995)atate that in a system sense, motivation
elements,i.e.,needs, drives, and incentives. Managers and management researchers have liog believe that believe that organizational goals are unattainable without the enduring commitment of members
(stoke,1999).It includes the factors that cause,channel, and sustain human behaviour in a particular committed direction. Stoke, in adeyemo (1999) goes
on to say that there are basic assumptions of motibation practices by managers which must be understood. First,that motivation is commonly.Second, motivation is one of several factors that go into a persons performance (e.g.,as a lebrarian).factors such as ability, resources, and conditions under which one performs are also important. Third, managers and researchers alike assume that motivation is in short supply and in need of periodic replenishment. fourth, motivation is a tool with which managers can use in organizations.If managers know what drives the people workers to perform by fulfilling or appealing to their needs.To Olajide (2000),”it is goal-directed, and therefore cannot be outside the goals of any organization whether public,private,or non-profit”.
Strategies of Motivating Workers Bernard in Stoner, et al. (1995) accords dye recognition to the workers saying that,”the ultimate test of organizational success is its to create values sufficient
contributed.”Bernard looks at workers, in particular librations, in an organized endeavor,putting in time era of the information superhighway, employers of information professionals or librarians must be careful to meet their needs. Otherwise, they woll discover they are losing their talented and creative professionals to other organizations who are ready and willing t meet their needs and demands. the question here is what strategies can used to motivate information professionals, particularly librations? The following are strategies: salary,wages and conditions of service: To use salaries as a motivator effectively, personnel managers must consider four major components of a salary structures. These are the job rate, which relates to the importance the prganization attaches to each job; payment, which encourages workers or groups by rewarding them accor ding to theier perfoemance personal or special
allowances, associated with factors such as scarcity of particular skills or vertain categories of information professionals or librarians, or It is also important to ensure that the prevailing pay in other library or information establishments is taken into consideration in determining the pay structure of their organization. money: Akintoye (2000) asserts that money temains the most significant motivational strategy. As far back as 1911.Frederick Taylor and his scientific management associate described money as the most important factors in motivating the industrial workers to achieve greater productivity. Taylor advocated the establishment of inventive wage systems as a means of stimulating workers to higher performance, commitment, and eventually satisfaction. Money possesses significant motivating power in as much as it symbolizers intangible goals like security ,power prestige, and a feeling of accomplishment and success.Katz, in Sinclair,et al.(2005) demonstrates the motivational power of money through the process of job choice. He explains that money has the power to attract,retain, and motivate individuals towards higher performance. For instance,if a librarian or information professional has another job offer which has identical job characteristics with his current job,but greater financial reward ,that warder would in all probability be motivated to accept the new job offer.Banjoko(1996)states that many managers use money to reward or punish workers .This is done through the (e.g.,premature retirement due to poor performance).The desire to be promoted and earn enhanced pay may also motivate employees. staff Training: No matter how automated an organization or a library may be, high productivity depends on the level of motivation and the effectiveness of the workforce.Staff training is indispensable is an indespensable strategy for motivating workere. The library organization must have good training programme. This will give the librarian or information professional
opportunities for self-improvement and development to meet the challenges and requirements of new equipment and techniques of performing a task Information Availability and Communication: One way managers can stimulate morivation is to give relevant information on the consequences of their action on others (Olajide,2000).To this researcher it seems that there is no known organization in which communicate,cooperate,and collaborate with one another. Information availability brings to bear a powerful peer pressure,where two
information,subordinates compete with one another. Studies on work motivation seem to confirm that it improves workers’performance
Shepherd(1997)examine the charecreristics of the work of teacher-librarians in four mmajor categories: Knowledge base, technical skills,values,and beliefs.He reports that they will succeed in meeting this challenge only if they are motivated by deeply-held values and beliefs regarding the development of a shared vision. vinokur,jayarantne,and Chess (1994) examine agency-influenced work and employment conditions, and asses their impact on social workers’job satisfaction.While Colvin(1998)shows that financial incentives will get people to do more of what they are doing,Silverthorne(1996)investigates motivation and managerial styles in the private and public sector. The results indicate that there is a little difference between the motivation needs of public and private sector employees, managers, and non-managers.
Job satisfaction Locke and Luthan (1976) give a comprehensive definition of job satisfaction as pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the apparaisal of ones job
or job expereience.job satisfaction is a result of employee’s perception of how well their job provides those things that are verwed as important. According to (Mitchell and Lasan,1987),it is generally recognezed in the organizational behaviour field that job satisfaction there are three important demensions to job satisfaction
*Job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation.
As such it cannot be seen, it can only be inferred. * job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcome meet or exceed expectation. For instance,if organization participants feel that they are working much harder than others in the department but are receiving fewer rewards they will probably have a negative attitudes towards the work, the boss and or coworkers .On the other hand, if they feel they are being treated very well and are being paid equitably,they are likely to have positive attitudes towards the job. *job satisfaction represents several related attitudes which are most important characteristics of a job about which people have effective response. These to Luthans are: the word itself,pay,promotion opportunities, supervision and coworkers. job satisfaction of the libraian naturally depends on the economically, social and cultural conditions in a given country (Ebru,1995).A librarian who can get a sufficient wage will be faced with the problem of maintaining his or her family’s life. This problem puts the librarian far from being sarisfied. Especially the social facilities (transportation services,and consumer cooperarives-cash boxes) are sufficient because of the economec conditions. Low wages add lack of status and social security affect motivation.job satisfaction cannot be talk of where there is absence of motivation.job satisfaction of the librarian who has an important place in the information society will affect the quality of the service he renders. In this respect, the question of haw the material and moral element affect the job satisfaction of the librarians gains importance (Ebru,1995).
job satisfaction is so important in that its absence often leads to lethargy and reduced organizational commitment (Levinson,1997,Moser,1997).Lack of job satisfaction is a predictor of quitting a job (Alexander,Litchtenstein and Hellmann,1997;jamal,1997). Sometimes workers may quit from public to the private sector and vice versa.At the other times the movement is from one profession to another that is considered a greener pasture.This later is common in countries grapplign with dwindling economy and its concomitant such as poor conditions of service and late payment of salaries (Nwagwu,1997 Other researchers (e.g.MacDonald,1996;O’Toole,1980)argue in favour of the control of job satisfaction by factors intrinsic to the workers. Their arguments are based on the idea that workers deliberately decide to find satisfaction in their jobs and perceive them as worthwhile.
Organizational Commitment A wide variety of definitions and measure of organizational commitment exist. Beekeri,Randal,and Riegel(1995)defined the term in a three demensions: 1.a strons desire to remain a member of a particular organization; 2.a willingness to exert high levels of efforts on behalf of the organezation; 3.a define belief in and acceptability of the values goals of the organization To Northeraft and Nealr (1996),commitment is an attitude reflecting an employee’s loyalty to the organization,and an ongoing process through which organization members express their concern for the organization and its continued success and well being. organization commitment is deterined by a number of factor, including personal factors (e.g,age,tenure in the orgnization, disposition, internal or external
control attributions); organizational factors (availability lf alternatives). All these things affect subsequent commitment (North craft and Neale,1996). Monday, porter and Steer (1982) see commitment as attachment and loyalty. these authors describe three components of commitment; • an identification with the goals and values of the organization; • a desire to belong to the organization;and • a willingness to display deport on behalf of the organization. A similar definition of commitment emphasizes the importance of behavior in creating it. Salancik (1977) conceives commitment as a state of being in which an individual becomes bound by his actions and it is these actions that sustain his activities and involvement. From this definition, it can be inferred that three features of behaviour are important in binding individuals to act; visibility of acts, the extent to which the outcomes are irrevocable; and the degree to which the person undertakes the action voluntarily. To Salancik therefore, commitment can be increased and harnessed to obtain Based on the multidimensional nature of organizational commitment, there is growing support for a three-component model proposed by Meyer and Allen (1991).All three components have implications for the continuing participation of the individual in the organization. The three components are: Affective commitment: Psychological attachment to organization. Continuanvce Commitment : Costs associated with leaving the organization. Normative
organization. the following research questions were developed to guide the study. 1.What is the relationship between work motivation, job satisfaction? 2.will there be difference in the commitment of library personnel based on their years of experience?
3.2 DATA COLLECTION • Primary data • Secondary data Primary data It was collected through questionnaire prepared contains relevant questions that are both close ended and opened. Individual and group interviews also under taken with difference consumers, I have collected mainly the Primary Data for my study by utilizing the questionnaire and interview methods.
Secondary data These data are collected from published sources such as Magazines, NEWS papers, several books, and also from the help of web site www.hdfcsl.com
(A)Sampling plan of the study: Sample size: Sample size refers to number of elements to be included in the study several qualitative factors should also be taken into consideration when determining the sample size. These include the nature of research, number of variable, and nature of analysis, sample size used in similar studies incidence rates, completion rates, and resources constraints. During the process of the study, survey has been conducted on 100 retailers.
Sampling method: The researcher had choice between probability and non probability sampling methods. In this study a simple non probability method namely convenience sampling was adopted. For my study I have selected Non-probability method in which I selected convincing sampling method.
(B) FIELD WORK: Survey was done in cadbury The data was collected over a period of 45 days within using well structured questionnaire. The respondents were contacted at their respective retail outlets in various parts of the city. Editing: Editing is the process of examining errors when there is some inconsistency in the responses as entered in the questionnaire or where it contains partial or vague answers. Coding: Coding is necessary to carryout the subsequent operations of tabulating and analyzing data. If coding is not done, it will not be possible to reduce a large number of heterogeneous responses into meaningful categories with the result that the analysis of data would be weak and ineffective and without proper focus. Tabulation: Tabulation comprises sorting of the data into different categories and counting the number of cases that belong to category the simplest way to tabulate is to count the number of responses to one question. This is called univeriate tabulation. Where two or more variables are involved in tabulation, it is called bivariate or multivariate tabulation. In marketing research projects and generally both types of tabulation are used.
3.3 PARAMETER USED For grading the responses Likert scale was used and five responses were given the numerical grades in the following way. RESPONSES
SA = strongly agree
A = agree
NO = no opinion
DA = disagree
SDA = strongly disagree
Tabular representation of feedback Question no.
responses responses responses responses responses Obtained out as SA
Following parameter was used to decide the level of motivation. Score gained on likert scale
Level of motivation
On the basis of the above scales and parameters it is found that in Cadbury the level of motivation is lying in the range of poor. For finding the factors behind this unexpected result another survey was done in the form of interviews to know the view of management about the above and the responses were gathered during the formal discussion.
3.4 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE RESPONSES ( PIE CHARTS ) QUESTION ( 1)
QUESTION ( 2)
QUESTION ( 4)
QUESTION ( 5)
QUESTION ( 6)
QUESTION ( 8)
QUESTION ( 10)
QUESTION ( 11)
QUESTION ( 12)
Do you ?
1. Thank personally, timely, often & sin cerely
2. Take time to meet and listen to staff
3. provide feedback
4. Encourage new ideas and initiative
5. Explain how employee fits into organization’s
6. Involve employees in decisions
7. Provide ownership in their work 8. Recognize, reward, and promote based on Y performance 9. Give chance to learn new skills
10. Celebrate successes !!!!
11. Encourage teem work
The above response were given on the basis of availability of the plan for each in the table.
Chapter 4 Conclusion and Suggestions
4.1 FINDINGS According to the four ARCS categories and determines whether subjects are under or over motivated in each case. • ATTENTION – People may be bored and not paying attention OR they may be over stimulated by requirements and are paying attention to too many things at once. • RELEVANCE – People may have been placed in jobs in which they have no intrinsic interest, or jobs that hold no promise of advancement on their desired career paths. By contrast, unnecessary mistakes can result when one’s career path depends solely on one’s success with a specific task in a current job. • CONFIDENCE – Can be too high or too low, Low confidence people may have the skills but may lack the persistence when the tasks become challenging. High confidence people may have less skill or ability than they think making them cocky. A result is resitance to learning and making mistakes without noticing or understanding that they have done so.
SATIFACTION- Dissatisfaction can result from expectations that were too negative or positive. For this reason, it is most appropriate to talk about satisfaction potential when doing audience analysis. When people are put into an undesired situation, their satisfaction potential is often low, no mater how god the experience proves to be. By contrast, those who believe a given job opportunity is going to be perfect in every way are often disappointed with the reality.
4.2 SUGGESTION Following is the guideline suggested for the organization Developing a Motivational system. This chapter provides an overview of major influences on motivation, as well as guideline for designing motivational systems. It describes the major components of human motivation that must be considered in the process of either selecting appropriately motivated people or creating a motivating environment. It also describes a problem solving approach to developing motivational conditions. The material incorporates the systems approach used in the ARCS model but extends it to the environment of performance improvement. Motivated Person A person who is motivated to work, for example, is one who: Finds sources of variety and curiosity in the job regards the job as personally meaningful and as contributing to the fulfillment of important goals finds challenges in the work has the confidence to be stimulated by these challenges and gains feelings of satisfaction and respect in addition to extrinsic rewards. Motivation Can be viewed from a holistic perspective – as one of the factors that influence human performance and that can be positively influenced by the design of a motivational system. Is not really a nebulous, uncontrollable human characteristic can be seen as a manageable part of a comprehensive approach to improving and sustaining desirable human performance. Role of motivation of Performance Motivation is one of three major influences on performance; capability and opportunity are the other two. The amount and quality of a person’s performance are determined by whether s/he has these kinds of stimuli and
support. Elements of all three must be present for people to have a positive level of performance. 1.
internal motivation and motivational support from the environment (motivation)
knowledge and skills needed to do the job (capability)
tools, resources, conducive working conditions, feedback, and other environmental factors that make it possible to do the job properly and well (opportunity).
Basic Concepts and Terminology When considering a process of either selecting appropriately motivated people or creating a motivating environment, the HP technologist should understand three assumptions that underlie systematic motivational design. 1. people’s motivation can be influenced by external events. 2. motivation of performance is a means, not an end. 3. systematic design and implementation can predictably and measurably influence motivation. Components of Motivation (ARCS Model) Holistic approachs like the ARCS model are grounded in the research literature on human motivation and its ability to integrate successful practices within motivational categories. The systematic motivational design process has been validated in numerous contexts. The four major categories and a number of subordinate ones can be used to represent the components of human motivation:
Developing a Motivational System The ARCS model is an example of how to develop a holistic motivational system for workplace and classroom settings. Motivational systems must solve
motivation problems AND sustain desirable levels of motivation. There are following steps organized in.
Steps in Motivational Design 1. Course information 2. Audience information 3. Audience analysis 4. Course analysis 5. Objectives and measures 6. Preliminary design 7. Final design 8. Development and testing. 9. Analysis 10. Design 11. Implementation and evaluation
4.3 LIMITATION & METHODOLOGY Attention : Strategies for arousing and sutainign curiosity and interest Perceptual Arousal What can I do to capture their interest ? Learn : Ask question; create paradox; stimulate inquiry . Work : Provide stimulation. Relevance : Strategies that link to learner’s / employee’s needs, interests, and motives Goal Orientation how can I best meet my learner’s /employee’s need? Learn: Develop goals with learners, demonstrate utility of instruction . Work: Develop the perception of being best at something: set goals with employees
learners/employees with appropriate choices, Responsibilities, and influences ? Learn: Use authentic exercises; match individual and group activities to learning styles. Work: Use competition based on standards defined by benchmarks or internal expectations. Familiarity how can I tie the instruction to the learner’s /employee’s experience? Learn: Use concrete examples and analogies to relate material to learner’s lives. Work : Provide ways for employees to work cooperatively to achieve goals. Confidence : Stratetgies that help students/employees develop positive expectations.
Performance Requirements How can I assist in building a positive expectation for success? Learn: Explain learning requirements, criteria for success and assessments Work: Share control in where worker can be responsible for achieving goals
Success : Opportunities How will the learning experience support or enhance the student’s/employee’s beliefs in their competence? Learn: Provide frequent and varied experiences that increase learning success Work: Build your belief that you can lead your employees to success (Selffulfilling prophecy) Personal Control how will the learners/employees clearly know their success is based upon their. Effots and abilities? Learn: Give learners chance to make decisions and help them associate success to effort and ability. Work: Set challenging but achievable goals and quotas Satisfaction : Strategies that provide extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcement ofr effort. Natural Consequences How can I provide meaningful opportunities for learners/employees to use their newly acquired knowledge/skill? Learn: Give learners opportunities to use new skills in natural, authentic settings.
Works: Give employees feedback related to their personal growth and meaningfulness of effort. Positive Consequences What will provide reinforcement to the learner’s/employee’s success? Learn: Use praise, positive feedback when appropriate, symbolic rewards, and incentives. Work: Use symbolic rewards that are recognized and valued by other; use incentives. Equity how can I assist the students/employees in anchoring a positive feeling about their. Accomplishments? Learn: Use fair testing and grading practices, and be sure tests are authentic. Work : Provide incentives and feedback consistently and fairly.
4.4 CONCLUSION When large sums of money are at stage, employees are discouraged from sharing thoughts and ideas with their peers. Instead, individuals are keeping their tentative thoughts to themselves, trying to work out soething really rewarding. This situation causes a focus on the reward rather than on being innovative. Further, the obvious risk is that the employee may never arrive at he groundbreaking conclusion on her own, without intetaction and dialogue with other humans. This motivates the following proposal: p1: Abandon extrinsic motivation in form of financial compensation. Creativity requires an organizational culture that fosters openness, sharing, and interaction. To establish and maintain such a culture, top management must “walk the talk” and officially recognize and encourage such behaviour. Management should further show that risk-taking and failure is okay. They must understand “the distinction between intelligent failure and stupid mistakes”. The reward mechanism must be such that all ideas are recognized, since they all contain something potentially good. While e do not want to reward mistakes, we should still acknowledge and encourage the imagination that underpins them. This leads to proposition 2:P2: Officially recognize creative initiatives and achievements since this is reward in itself. Most people are prepared to do far more than any manager can possibly ask for if only they are intrinsically motivated by genuine interest in the work. Frontline-employees are confronted with new customer. Requirements and notices new business opportunities much earlier than does management. By the time an emerging trend has reached top executive level, been converted to official corporate strategy, and communicated back to the employees, it may be too late. Instead, seize the opportunity by empowering
the frontline-employees to act autonomously according to proposition 3:P3: Encourage entrepreneurship by allowing and supporting user-initiated activities. When deadlines and budgets are cut so tight that the employees barely manage to do what is expected they have very small chances of beign truly creative. Creativity requires people to do unexpected things and go beyond what is planned for. This can be summarized as in our final proposal:
Money and Employee Motivation Abstract – Research consistently substantiates the effectiveness of financial incentives on job performance, although companies need to consider the issue of job quantity versus quality and also be aware of the limitations of financial incentives. Employees can have vastly different motives for acquiring wealth – including using money to fulfill psychological needs. Thus, it is not surprising that money alone is less an effective motivator for employees than when it is used in conjunction with non-financial reinforcements. We review the nuances of financial incentives and make basic recommendations that can form the basis of best practice compensation and incentive policies. “Acceptance is more important to me than money”
Understanding Materialism Materialism is defined simply as when a person values money, wealth and possessions over other things in life. Studies have consistently shown that a materialistic focus in life is associated with a lower psychological well-being. Even though individuals who are very poor financially demonstrate increased
happiness when their income rises, intensity of desire for wealth remains negatively correlated with psychological wellbeing.
Financial Incentives in the Workplace No one works for free, nor should they. While pursuing money based on negative motives can lead to a poorer psychological well-being, this is not the same as pursuing money to provide securityand comfort for oneself and family. Obviously, employees want to earn fair wages and salaries, and employers want their workers to feel that is what they are getting. To that end, it is logical that employees and employers alike view money as the fundamental incentive for satisfactory job performance. “Show me the money, show me respect and show me attention or show me the door.”
QUESTIONNAIRE 1. My job is interested. a. SA b. A c. NO d. DA e. SDA 2. My boss is supportive. a. SA b. A c. NO d. DA e. SDA 3. The work I do is recognized and appreciated by superiors. a. SA b. A c. NO d. DA e. SDA 4. My job contains responsibilities. a. SA b. A c. NO d. DA e. SDA
5. Working conditions are good in premises. a. SA b. A c. NO d. DA e. SDA 6. There are opportunities to grow and learn new a. SA b. A c. NO d. DA e. SDA 7. My job is secure a. SA b. A c. NO d. DA e. SDA 8. My salary is at par with others in the industry a. SA b. A c. NO d. DA e. SDA
9. I have the authority up to some extent a. SA b. A c. NO d. DA e. SDA 10. Co-workers are supportive. a. SA b. A c. NO d. DA e. SDA 11. I get the feed back of my performance and try to improve it. a. SA b. A c. NO d. DA e. SDA A questionnaire was prepared after discussing with the management. The questionnaire was based upon the need hierarchy theory of motivation given by fallow. SA = strongly agree A = agree NO = no opinion DA = disagree SDA = strongly disagree
BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS AND PERODICALS : 1. ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR BY STEPHANS ROBINSON 2. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT BY ASHWATHAPA 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY BY C.R. KOTHARI 4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY BY S. THANULINGUM 5. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT BY LUTHANS
WEB SITES VISITED www.goolge.com www.cadbury.com www.motivation.com