ElecSteelsMagnAlloys Brochure En

December 5, 2017 | Author: jmacarro | Category: Heat Treating, Sheet Metal, Transformer, Annealing (Metallurgy), Varnish
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Guide to electrical steels and magnetic alloys

Guide to electrical steels and magnetic alloys ArcelorMittal’s global offer

Product selection guide

4

About ArcelorMittal

6

ArcelorMittal: transforming tomorrow

8

Global presence

10

A commercial office in your region

12

Service offered by our steel service centres

14

Technical support by R&D

16

Products Non-oriented electrical steels (NO) Grain-oriented electrical steels (GO) Varnishes for electrical steels (VA) Magnetic alloys (MA) Magnetic parts (MP)

20 40 42 44 48

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Product selection guide This selection guide will help you select the best ArcelorMittal steel grade for your particular application: • Non-oriented electrical steels (NO) • Grain-oriented electrical steels (GO) • Magnetic alloys (MA) • Magnetic parts (MP) Having identified your particular market, you can select your type of application in the table below. Alongside each application you will find a reference to the product data sheet we recommend.

Domestic appliances Small domestic appliances

NO1 NO2

Motors

NO1 NO5 NO7

Transformers

NO1

Controlled temperature pans

MA1

Laundry & dishwashers

Motors

NO5

Refrigeration

Compressor motors

NO5

Traction motors

NO1 NO2

Self-induction coils

NO1 GO1

Marine engineering

Propulsion engines

NO1 NO2

Heavy wheeled vehicles

Mining trucks wheel motors

NO1 NO2

Automotive

Alternators

NO6

Generators

MA2

Current sensors

MA1 MP1

Torque sensors

MA1 MP1

Linear actuators for electromagnetic injection Dashboard indicators & watches Electrical and hybrid vehicle traction motors and alternators Wheel hub motors

MA1

Mechanical engineering

Traction

4

Microwave oven transformers

Cooking devices

Railways Further in this guide, you will find the product data sheets with a general description for each product: • Main properties • Advantages • Applications • Recommendations for use • Feasibility tables

Reference

MA1 NO1 NO2 NO3 NO1 NO2

Product selection guide Aeronautics & military Power generation High power/weight devices

Reference

Industry

Generators

MA2 MP1

Ventilation / airco

Motors for air fans

NO1 NO5

Transformers

MA2 MP1

Electrical equipment

Low-voltage transformers

NO1

Motors

MA2 MP1 MA2

Welding equipment transformers Contactor cores

NO1

Linear actuators

NO1

Electricity meter cores

NO1

Electrohydrostatic actuators MA2

High efficiency devices

Reference

Electromechanical actuators Motors

MA2 MP1 MA1 MA2 MP1

Micromotors

MA1 MP1

Micro-motors

NO3 MA1 MP1 NO1 NO2

Sensors

Synchroresolvers

MA1 MP1

Shielding of power lines and transformers for the distribution of electrical power Magnetic shielded rooms

Magnetic shielding

Magnetic shielded rooms

MA1

Cryogenic magnetic shielding

MA1

MA1

Lighting

Ballasts

NO1 NO2

Shielding of electrolysis cells

GO1

Cold storage

Compressor motors

NO1 NO5

Current and potential transformers Power transformers

NO1 NO2 GO1 MP1 GO1

Current sensors

MA1 MP1

Distribution transformers

GO1

Relays

MA1 MP1

Electrical engineering Electrical safety

Building industry Partition walls and panels

Armour plating

NO1

Lighting

Ballasts

NO1 NO2

Cold storage

Compressor motors

NO1 NO5

Industrial motors

Medium-power motors

NO1 NO2 NO5 NO6

High-power motors

NO1 NO2

Generators

Medium-power generators

NO1 NO2

Wind power

Medium- and high-power generators Medium- and high-power generators

NO1 NO2

Hydro or turbine power stations

NO1 NO2 NO8 NO9 GO1 5

6

About ArcelorMittal ArcelorMittal is the world’s largest and most global integrated steel company, with over 326,000 employees in more than 60 countries. It has led the consolidation of the world steel industry and today ranks as the only truly global steelmaker.

ArcelorMittal is the number one supplier in all major global markets, including automotive, construction, household appliances and packaging. Its industrial presence in Europe, Asia, Africa and America gives the Group exposure to all the key steel markets, from emerging to mature – an exposure it continues to enhance through its three dimensional growth strategy of product diversity, geographical reach and vertical integration. With crude steel production of 103.3 million tonnes, representing around 10% of world steel output, ArcelorMittal generated revenues of US$ 124.9 billion in 2008.

Innovation and cooperation Innovation plays a key role at ArcelorMittal. Not only is it the largest steelmaker by volume but ArcelorMittal also offers the broadest range of steel grades, advanced products, steel solutions and cutting-edge technologies. Close cooperation with customers – involving mutual trust, an open-minded approach and permanent exchanges of personnel – further drives innovation and assists in the development of products and solutions that sustain their competitive edge.

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ArcelorMittal: transforming tomorrow We know that our position in the steel industry brings unique responsibilities. We are committed to setting globally recognised standards with the needs of future generations in mind.

Our goal is to provide the leadership that will transform tomorrow’s steel industry. We have a clear vision of the future, underpinned by a consistent set of values:

Sustainability We are guiding the evolution of steel to secure the best future for the industry and for generations to come. Our commitment to the world around us extends beyond the bottom line, to include the people in whom we invest, the communities we support and the world in which we operate. This long-term approach is central to our business philosophy.

Quality We look beyond today to envision the steel of tomorrow. Because quality outcomes depend on quality people, we seek to attract and nurture the best people to deliver superior solutions to our customers.

Leadership We are visionary thinkers, creating opportunities every day. This entrepreneurial spirit brought us to the forefront of the steel industry. Now, we are moving beyond what the world expects of steel.

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10

Electrical steels production plants

Products*

Online information on

ArcelorMittal Eisenhüttenstadt

NO

Germany

www.arcelormittal.com/fce

ArcelorMittal Florange

NO

France

www.arcelormittal.com/fce

ArcelorMittal Fos-sur-Mer

NO

France

www.arcelormittal.com/fce

ArcelorMittal Gent

NO

Belgium

www.arcelormittal.com/fce

ArcelorMittal Frýdek-Místek

GO

Czech Republic

www.arcelormittal.com/fce

ArcelorMittal Sestao

NO

Spain

www.arcelormittal.com/fce

ArcelorMittal St Chély d’Apcher

NO

France

www.arcelormittal.com/fce

ArcelorMittal Inox Brasil

NO/GO

Brazil

www.arcelormittalinoxbrasil.com.br

ArcelorMittal Hennepin

CRML

USA

www.arcelormittal.com

ArcelorMittal Hamilton

CRML

Canada

www.arcelormittal.com

Magnetic alloys production plants

Products*

ArcelorMittal Imphy

MA

France

www.arcelormittal.com/stainlessandnickelalloys

ArcelorMittal Montargis

MP

France

www.arcelormittal.com/stainlessandnickelalloys

ArcelorMittal Imhua

MP

China

www.arcelormittal.com/stainlessandnickelalloys

Online information on

Steel service centres

Online information on

ArcelorMittal Distribution Solutions Italia, Monza

Italy

www.arcelormittal.com

ArcelorMittal Distribution Solutions Italia, Marcon

Italy

www.arcelormittal.com

ArcelorMittal Distribution Solutions France, Reims

France

www.arcelormittal.com

ArcelorMittal Stainless and Nickel Alloys Service Clichy

France

www.arcelormittal.com/stainlessandnickelalloys

ArcelorMittal Inox Brasil Serviços Campinas

Brazil

www.arcelormittalinoxbrasil.com.br

Research centres

Products*

Online information on

ArcelorMittal R&D Industry Gent

NO/GO

Belgium

www.ocas.be

ArcelorMittal Imphy

MA

France

www.arcelormittal.com/stainlessandnickelalloys

ArcelorMittal Inox Brasil

NO/GO

Brazil

www.arcelormittalinoxbrasil.com.br

ArcelorMittal East Chicago

CRML

USA

www.arcelormittal.com

*

NO: Non-oriented electrical steels CRML: Cold rolled motor laminations GO: Grain-oriented electrical steels MA: Magnetic alloys MP: Magnetic parts



Electrical steels production plant Magnetic alloys production plant Steel service centre R&D centre

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Global presence 11

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Electrical steels: central commercial offices

Location

Address

E-mail

Europe

France (Paris)

5, rue Luigi Cherubini, F-93212 La Plaine Saint-Denis (Paris) - France

[email protected]ormittal.com

South America

Brazil (São Paulo)

Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 1355, 20 andar, Jd Paulistano, 01452-919, São Paulo, SP - Brazil

[email protected]

North America

USA (Chicago)

[email protected]

Other regions

Luxembourg

One South Dearborn Street Chicago IL, 60603 USA Toll free phone: 1-800-422-9422 19, avenue de la Liberté, LU-2930 Luxembourg

Magnetic alloys: central commercial offices

Location

Address

E-mail

Europe & South America

France (Paris)

5, rue Luigi Cherubini, F-93212 La Plaine Saint-Denis (Paris) - France

[email protected]

North America

USA (Norristown)

[email protected]

Asia

Hong Kong

Pinebrook Business Center I; 2650 Eisenhower Avenue - Building A - Suite 102A, Norristown, PA 19403 Room 1601, 16/F Tower 1, China Hong Kong City, 33 Canton Rd, Tsimshatsui Kowloon

[email protected]

[email protected]



Electrical steels: Central commercial office . Electrical steels: Local commercial office . Magnetic alloys: Central commercial office / Magnetic alloys: Local commercial office /

A commercial office in your region 13

Service offered by the ArcelorMittal steel service centres The steel service centres within ArcelorMittal Distribution Solutions offer a wide range of activities and services for electrical steels:

Activities • Slitting coils in all possible widths • Cutting sheets to length • Punching laminations, either as such or assembled into stacks, with or without thermal post-treatment • Applying a cupper winding or injecting aluminium into the rotor or stator slots • Fitting of axles into the machines

For the locations of the steel service centres, see page 10. For further information about the product range and the service offered, please consult the overview of the commercial contacts on page 12.

Service ArcelorMittal Distribution Solutions can provide customers with the magnetic, mechanical and thermal properties of the magnetic materials used. Backed up by ArcelorMittal Group expertise in electrical steels, the steel service centres are able to provide a wide range of “tailor-made” solutions as well as “just-in-time” deliveries. In addition, the steel service centres also offer customers assistance in selecting the best material and process for their application.

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ArcelorMittal R&D has proven experience in: • Modelling and design of electromagnetic systems • Optimised electrical steel grade selection • Advanced material characterisation techniques • Tailor-made magnetic measurement tools for laboratory or production line

Improve your efficiency ArcelorMittal R&D validates numerical simulations by comparing these with the results of in-house experiments. Our laboratories are fully equipped to assess the electromagnetic properties of your materials or magnetic cores. In addition to standard measurements based on Epstein frames and single sheet testers, we can perform advanced characterisation using your specific magnetic circuit or your excitation conditions (PWM, harmonics etc). Our engineers and researchers have experience in modelling electromagnetic behaviour of electrical machines, transformers or other systems. ArcelorMittal R&D has many years of experience in optimising designs, providing cost saving solutions with enhanced efficiency. ArcelorMittal R&D can deliver a detailed report listing all simulations and experiments as well

Technical support & services offered by ArcelorMittal’s network of Research & Development centres as a clear interpretation of results obtained and recommendations for further improvement. We help you, for example, to identify the best combination between the electrical steel grade and your equipment design, resulting in lower energy dissipation and enhanced permeability at reduced cost.

Easy monitoring of your product performance and rapid quality control ArcelorMittal R&D can supply standard or tailormade advanced magnetic measuring systems (AMMS) available in different configurations: • “AMMS Lab” for laboratory testing • “AMMS Online” for continuous characterisation of electromagnetic properties of steel strip All devices ordered include on-site installation, training and maintenance plan.

ArcelorMittal R&D offers a full package of R&D services In addition to our co-design and co-engineering services in the field of electrical machinery, ArcelorMittal R&D also offers: • R&D partnership • Rapid prototyping • Problem solving • Metallurgical processing • Material characterisation • Training We offer advanced technology and innovative research within a framework of confidentiality.

Your benefits: Full range of services • Co-development of new products based on combining optimised design and selection of the most appropriate electrical steel grade • Advanced material characterisation methods in our laboratory • Cost saving numerical finite element modelling of electromagnetic behaviour of your applications (large materials database with for example magnetic properties) • Quality control by means of advanced magnetic measurement systems Proven materials expertise • Extensive knowledge of electrical steel grades, grain-oriented and non-oriented • Expertise in various fields of application: power generation, asynchronous machines, permanent magnet applications, electromagnetic valves and actuators, automotive applications, transformers Skilled staff and top class equipment • In-house laboratory assessment tools • Associated technologies, including advanced characterisation techniques in the field of chemistry and physical testing For an overview of the ArcelorMittal R&D centres in this area, see the overview on page 10.

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Products Non-oriented electrical steels (NO) NO1 Fully processed conventional grades NO2 Fully processed high permeability and high thermal conductivity grades NO3 Fully processed high frequency grade NO4 Fully processed high strength grades NO5 Semi-processed grades, including Cold Rolled Motor Laminations NO6 Semi-processed high permeability grades NO7 Steels with guaranteed punchability Easy Punch NO8 Cold rolled pole sheet grades NO9 Hot rolled pole sheet grades

20 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38

Grain-oriented electrical steels (GO) GO1 Grain-oriented conventional grades

40

Varnishes for electrical steels (VA)

42

Magnetic alloys (MA) MA1 Iron-nickel alloys MA2 Iron-cobalt alloys

44 46

Magnetic parts (MP)

48

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NO1 Fully processed conventional grades

To supply the required level of traction for this huge mining truck, four electrical motors are needed: one for each wheel.

20

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO1

Fully processed conventional grades Fully processed electrical steels as delivered have guaranteed magnetic properties. These are obtained through careful selection of the most appropriate alloying content – in particular silicon – in combination with the most suitable thermomechanical production processes. ArcelorMittal’s state-of-the-art production facilities are equipped with in-line magnetic measurement systems, for optimal process control. Apart from the maximum loss and minimum polarisation data cited by the standards, ArcelorMittal supplies full magnetic characterisation curves regarding losses, polarisation, permeability and apparent power at different frequencies. Other machine design parameters such as mechanical properties at different temperatures and thermal behaviour are also available on request.

Advantages These conventional grades are available in a full product range, so that a grade can be selected according to the specific requirements of each application, from the low alloy grades with the advantage of excellent magnetic permeability, thermal conductivity and punchability to the alloyed grades with the advantage of very low losses, even at higher frequencies. A wide range of coatings is available, allowing further enhancement of punchability, reduction of interlaminar losses and improvement of corrosion protection.

Applications Fully processed steels are designed for the manufacture of magnetic circuits for motors, transformers and other electrical equipment. The principal application fields are electrical engineering, electricity production, domestic appliances, automotive and building industries.

The thin lowest loss grades such as the ­M230‑30A, M210‑35A or the M235-35A are of particular interest for high-efficiency or high-power density machines. For high-speed machines in particular, optimal compromises between mechanical strength and low eddy current losses have been worked out. Thicker low loss grades are the choice for large power generators: their high utilisation rate demands the highest possible machine efficiency (hence low losses), with reasonable punching and assembly costs (hence 0.65 mm or 0.50 mm thickness). Thanks to the low coercive field and remanence level of low loss fully processed grades, these steels also are preferred for the production of contactors. Low loss fully processed steels are also beneficial for shielding applications at low frequencies.

Recommendations for use The properties mentioned above are obtained without heat treatment after stamping. The material as delivered possesses all the required magnetic properties. >> See next page for the feasibility tables.

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NO1 Fully processed conventional grades feasibilities

EN 10106:2007

JIS C2552:2000

Thickness

0.30 mm

0.35 mm

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

1.00 mm

0.35 mm

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

Grades

M200-30A

M210-35A

M230-50A

M310-65A

M600-100A

35A195

50A230

65A800

M230-30A

M235-35A

M250-50A

M330-65A

M700-100A

35A210

50A250

65A1000

M250-35A

M270-50A

M350-65A

M800-100A

35A230

50A270

M270-35A

M290-50A

M400-65A

M900-100A

35A250

50A290

M300-35A

M310-50A

M470-65A

M1000-100A

35A270

50A310

M330-35A

M330-50A

M530-65A

M1300-100A

35A300

50A350

M350-50A

M600-65A

50A400

M400-50A

M700-65A

50A470

M470-50A

M800-65A

50A600

M530-50A

M1000-65A

50A700

M600-50A

50A800

M700-50A

50A1000

M800-50A

Grades in italic: not included in standard (yet)

M940-50A Grades in italic: not included in standard (yet)

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ASTM A 677/A677M:1999 (former AISI)

CEI/IEC 60404-8-4:1998

0.35/0.36 mm

0.64/0.65 mm

0.35 mm

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

1.00 mm

M230-50A 5

M310-65A 5

M600-100A 5

0.47/0.50 mm

36F145 (M15)

47F165 (M19)

64F200 (M19)

M195-35A 5

36F155 (M19)

47F180 (M22)

64F210 (M22)

M210-35A 5

M250-50A 5

M330-65A 5

M700-100A 5

M270-50A 5

M350-65A 5

M800-100A 5

36F165 (M22)

47F190 (M27)

64F225 (M27)

M235-35A 5

36F175 (M27)

47F200 (M36)

64F235 (M36)

M250-35A 5

M290-50A 5

M400-65A 5

M900-100A 5

47F210 (M43)

64F250 (M43)

M270-35A 5

M310-50A 5

M470-65A 5

M1000-100A 5

47F240 (M45)

64F275 (M45)

M300-35A 5

M330-50A 5

M530-65A 5

M1300-100A 5

47F280 (M47)

64F320 (M47)

M330-35A 5

M350-50A 5

M600-65A 5

47F400

64F500

M400-50A 5

M700-65A 5

47F450

64F550

M470-50A 5

M800-65A 5

M530-50A 5

M1000-65A 5

36F185 (M36)

Not exact equivalences

M600-50A 5 M700-50A 5 M800-50A 5 M940-50A 5 Grades in italic: not included in standard (yet)

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NO2  Fully processed high permeability and high thermal conductivity grades feasibilities

No standards available Thickness

0.30 mm

0.35 mm

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

Grades

M190P-30A

M195P-35A

M330P-50A

M470P-65A

M330P-35A

M350P-50A M400P-50A M400XP-50A M470P-50A

24

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO2

Fully processed high permeability and high thermal conductivity grades The fully processed high permeability electrical steels have guaranteed magnetic properties significantly superior to the requirements of the standards, particularly regarding their polarisation and permeability levels. The specific chemical composition of ArcelorMittal’s products and our thermomechanical processes result in enhanced structures and textures, which are the key to obtaining steep magnetisation curves with high saturation levels. Full magnetic characterisation curves are available on request, as well as mechanical and thermal data. The thermal conductivity of these steels is higher than the conductivity of the fully processed conventional grades, so the heat generated in the machine due to the losses can be more easily evacuated.

Advantages

Applications

The high permeability levels of these grades allow a reduction of the magnetising current required for a given air gap flux. This increases the efficiency of the machine and also makes it possible to increase its specific power output. High thermal conductivity levels are important, since they facilitate heat evacuation from the machine. A wide range of coatings is available, allowing further enhancement of punchability, reduction of interlaminar losses and improvement of corrosion protection.

High permeability is particularly useful for applications such as ballasts and motors, because it makes it possible to build machines meeting the most stringent environmental regulations. High efficiency induction motors (e.g. EFF1 of the CEMEP classification or Premium NEMA machines) can be achieved by increasing the amount of copper used, which generally leads to a larger machine, but the use of higher permeability grades can help to avoid this volume expansion. High thermal conductivity is a significant advantage for large machines, where the heat balance can be a significant power limiting factor. High thermal conductivity is a significant advantage for large machines with high frequencies.

Recommendations for use The properties mentioned above are obtained without heat treatment after stamping. The material as delivered possesses all the required magnetic properties.

These qualities generate not only an increased efficiency, but also a higher specific power rating, which is an important aspect for traction motors, like this ICE-3 high-speed locomotive.

25

NO3 Fully processed high frequency grade feasibilities

EN 10303:2001

CEI/IEC 404-8-8:1991

Thickness

0.20 mm

0.20 mm

Grades

NO 20

NO 20

This type of electrical steel is mainly used when miniaturisation is unavoidable, for instance for aeronautics or medical applications. This piece is used for a breathing aid.

26

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO3

Fully processed high frequency grade This fully processed high frequency grade has guaranteed magnetic properties in accordance with the standards for medium frequency applications, concerning specifically thin electrical steels for use at frequencies of above 100 Hz. The manufacture of such thin steels – down to 0.20 mm – is particularly demanding for the cold rolling process, especially because the magnetic performance requires a high silicon content, which render the material more brittle. ArcelorMittal’s production facilities are equipped with high performance gauge, tension and flatness control systems to meet this challenge. The standards require guaranteed loss levels at 400 Hz, but ArcelorMittal can supply full magnetic characterisation curves at various frequencies. Furthermore, mechanical properties at different temperatures and thermal behaviour are available on request.

Advantages

Applications

The high frequency electrical steel is designed to have very low loss levels, especially at high frequencies. These properties are a result of the thin gauge of this material (0.20 mm), its particular chemical composition and its specific thermomechanical processing. We offer this grade with a C5 coating, for its excellent behaviour at high temperatures, which will also allow machine repairs, and for its insulating properties.

This grade is designed for high-speed rotating machines (100 to 5 000 Hz). It allows minimisation of losses due to higher harmonics and clearly increases machine efficiency in the case of non-sinusoidal power supply. This thin fully processed grade is also used when weight and volume reduction are of major importance, such as in medical, automotive or aviation applications. The higher speed applications are also more demanding in terms of mechanical behaviour, which is why our NO 20 grade has been optimised both for yield strength and for eddy current behaviour.

Recommendations for use The properties mentioned above are obtained without heat treatment after stamping. The material as delivered possesses all the required magnetic properties.

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NO4 Fully processed high strength grades feasibilities

No standards available Thickness

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

Grades

M470YS-50A

M500YS-65A

The high strength values, combined with a good level of magnetic properties, make these grades particularly suitable for high-speed rotating machines.

28

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO4

Fully processed high strength grades Fully processed high strength grades have not only guaranteed magnetic properties but also guaranteed mechanical properties. A typical characteristic of these grades is the higher strength values compared to the conventional grades, both at room temperature and at higher temperature operating conditions. These are obtained through adequate modifications in ArcelorMittal’s fully processed electrical steel production process, resulting in an optimal combination of magnetic and mechanical performance. Full magnetic characterisation curves at different frequencies as well as thermal behaviour data are available on request.

Advantages

Applications

These high strength grades withstand stronger mechanical forces than the conventional grades. They are therefore an excellent compromise when both high mechanical strength and low magnetic losses are required. A wide range of coatings is available, allowing further enhancement of punchability, reduction of interlaminar losses and improvement of corrosion protection.

The high strength values, combined with low losses and good permeability, make these grades particularly suitable for high-speed rotating machines. The yield strength is a particularly important property when the teeth have to withstand both strong electromagnetic forces and the mechanical forces resulting from high-speed operation. Rotors with imbedded permanent magnets in synchronous machines and the teeth of machines with concentrated windings will also benefit from higher mechanical strength.

Recommendations for use The properties mentioned above are obtained without heat treatment after stamping. The material as delivered possesses all the required magnetic properties.

29

NO5 Semi-processed grades, including Cold Rolled Motor Laminations feasibilities

EN 10341:2006

ASTM A683/A726:2005

Thickness

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

0.70 mm

0.80 mm

Grades

M340-50K

M390-65K

M1000-70K

M1200-80K M1300-100K

1.00 mm

M390-50K

M450-65K

M450-50K

M520-65K

M560-50K

M630-65K

47D330

64D290

M660-50K

M800-65K

47D380

64D360

M890-50K

M1000-65K

M1050-50K

M1200-65K

M1800-100K

0.56 mm 0.64/0.65 mm

47S190/47D190

56D260

64S220

47D215

56D310

64S230

47D270

56D380

64D260

0.71/0.70 mm 0.79/0.80 mm 71D410

79D450

71D480

79D540

71D550

79D610

64D430 64D490 Not exact equivalences; other CRML gauges and loss/perm levels available

Grades in italic: not included in standard (yet)

CEI/IEC 60404-8-3:2005 Thickness

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

0.70 mm

0.80 mm

1.00 mm

Grades

M340-50K5

M390-65K5

M1000-70K5

M1200-80K5

M1300-100K5

M390-50K5

M450-65K5

M450-50K5

M520-65K5

M560-50K5

M630-65K5

M660-50K5

M800-65K5

M890-50K5

M1000-65K5

M1050-50K5

M1200-65K5

Grades in italic: not included in standard (yet)

30

0.47/0.50 mm

M1800-100K5

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO5

Semi-processed grades, including Cold Rolled Motor Laminations As delivered, semi-processed electrical steel grades do not have guaranteed magnetic properties. After the laminations are punched, they need to be heat-treated by the customer to develop their magnetic properties. This final annealing treatment reduces losses and improves permeability and polarisation, as a result of recrystallisation, grain growth and for certain grades also decarburisation. The semi-processed standards describe reference annealing cycles which allow the development of these properties. These reference cycles are applied in ArcelorMittal’s labs to validate the ability of our materials to achieve the required magnetic performance.

Advantages

Applications

The punchability of the semi-processed grades has been optimised by the application of an optimised final skin-pass reduction, after the cold rolling and annealing process. Skin-passing produces a controlled surface roughness, ensuring good material behaviour in the punching presses. This roughness also prevents the strips from sticking in the customer’s final annealing treatment. Regarding the magnetic performance, the skin-pass also plays an important role by stimulating grain growth during the annealing process. These semi-processed grades are available non-insulated. The last process step of the (decarburising) annealing treatment carried out by the customer provides a suitable atmosphere and the right thermal conditions for blueing: the formation of an oxide film, which creates the required surface insulation layer.

Non-alloyed semi-processed electrical steels are designed for small industrial motors, ventilators and domestic appliances such as washing machine motors, microwave oven transformers and refrigerator compressors. Alloyed semi-processed electrical steels are designed for similar higher efficiency versions of these applications, as they have lower losses while the permeability remains at a good level.

Recommendations for use The punching process needs to be carried out with an appropriate lubricant, which must be selected carefully, especially in the case of the alloyed semi-processed grades.

These steels are designed for domestic appliances, such as washing machine motors, for small industrial motors, ventilators and this electric drill.

31

NO6 Semi-processed high permeability grades feasibilities

No standards available Thickness

0.50 mm

0.65 mm

Grades

M560P-50K

M700P-65K

This textured grade has proven to enhance the efficiency of industrial motors.

32

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO6

Semi-processed high permeability grades The semi-processed high permeability grades have guaranteed superior magnetic properties compared to those of the standard semi-processed grades, especially at 45° to the rolling direction. As for the standard semi-processed grades, the high permeability grades need a final annealing treatment by the customer, carried out after punching the laminations.

Advantages

Applications

The semi-processed high permeability grades allow core weight reduction and increased efficiency of motors and transformers. The improved efficiency achieved reduces machine operating costs and at the same time makes them more environmentally friendly.

These grades are designed for motors, generators, transformers, convertors and ballasts where higher efficiency is required. These are available in two gauges: the 0.50 mm type is called M560P-50K and the 0.65 mm type M700P-65K.

Recommendations for use Considering the very high polarisation level of these semi-processed high permeability grades at an angle of 45° to the rolling direction, it is preferable to design the punching process in such a way that the direction of magnetisation of the part is as nearly parallel as possible with this 45° direction.

33

NO7 Steels with guaranteed punchability Easy Punch feasibilities

No standards available

34

Thickness

0.5-1.2 mm

Grades

Easy Punch

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO7

Steels with guaranteed punchability Easy Punch The Easy Punch grade has guaranteed mechanical properties and roughness. Magnetic properties are not guaranteed, as they are not optimised in this product. Should the application require enhanced magnetic performance, other electrical steel grades in ArcelorMittal’s product range are recommended.

Advantages

Applications

This Easy Punch grade is designed for excellent punchability and stackability, thanks to appropriate mechanical properties and roughness. It is therefore eminently suitable for automatic stacking and assembling techniques. The excellent punchability is achieved by means of a final skin-pass treatment, which produces high Re/Rm values (typically over 0.9). Easy Punch also features excellent weldability qualities.

The Easy Punch grade is designed for small machines for intermittent use: • Automotive equipment such as alternators, windscreen wipers, window opening motors • Small domestic appliances such as coffee grinders, mixers • Small hand-tools such as drills

Recommendations for use The punching process needs to be carried out with an appropriate lubricant. Customers will not normally apply heat treatment after punching. Heat treatment is an option to increase the magnetic performance of Easy Punch.

The Easy Punch grade is designed for excellent punchability and stackability, ideal for this alternator.

35

NO8 Cold rolled pole sheet grades feasibilities

EN 10265:1995

JIS C2555:2000

CEI/IEC 60404-8-5:1989

Thickness

0.65 mm

1.00 mm

0.65 mm

1.00 mm

0.65 mm

1.00 mm

Grades

250-65-TF 183

250-100-TF 183

PCYC 250

PCYC 250

250-65-TF 183

250-100-TF 183

400-65-TF 180

400-100-TF 180

PCYC 400

PCYC 400

400-65-TF 180

400-100-TF 180

The cold rolled pole sheet grades are designed for large high-speed machines, because of their excellent combination of mechanical strength and magnetic performance, which makes them perfect for industry applications.

36

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO8

Cold rolled pole sheet grades Cold rolled pole sheet grades are classified according to their yield strength as described by the standards. Apart from guaranteed mechanical properties, they also have guaranteed magnetic properties, but unlike other electrical steel grades, their magnetic properties are determined under direct current (DC) conditions. Full magnetic characterisation curves in DC and also at various frequencies are available on request, as well as thermal data.

Advantages

Applications

The high yield strength values allow these grades to withstand strong electromechanical forces. Apart from excellent DC magnetic properties significantly superior to the requirements of the standard, they also perform well regarding loss and induction levels at 50 Hz AC conditions, thanks to their special chemical composition. A wide range of coatings is available, allowing further enhancement of punchability, reduction of interlaminar losses and improvement of corrosion protection.

The cold rolled pole sheet grades are designed for large high-speed machines, because of their excellent combination of mechanical strength and magnetic performance.

Recommendations for use The properties mentioned above are obtained without heat treatment after stamping. The material as delivered possesses all the required magnetic properties.

37

NO9 Hot rolled pole sheet grades feasibilities

EN 10265:1995 Thickness

1.5-5.0 mm

2.0-5.0 mm

2.5-5.0 mm

Grades

250-...-TG 180

400-...-TG 179

600-…-TG 178

300-...-TG 180

450-…-TG 179

650-…-TG 178

350-...-TG 179

500-…-TG 179

700-…-TG 178

550-…-TG 178

JIS C2555:2000 1.5-5.0 mm

2.0-5.0 mm

2.5-5.0 mm

PCYH 250

PCYH 400

PCYH 600

PCYH 300

PCYH 450

PCYH 650

PCYH 350

PCYH 500

PCYH 650

PCYH 550

CEI/IEC 60404-8-5:1989 1.5-5.0 mm

2.0-5.0 mm

2.5-5.0 mm

250-...-TG 180

400-...-TG 179

600-…-TG 178

300-...-TG 180

450-…-TG 179

650-…-TG 178

350-...-TG 179

500-…-TG 179

700-…-TG 178

550-…-TG 178

Non-oriented electrical steels

NO9

Hot rolled pole sheet grades Hot rolled pole sheet grades are classified according to their yield strength as described by the standards. Apart from guaranteed mechanical properties, they also have guaranteed magnetic properties, but unlike other electrical steel grades, their magnetic characterisation is determined under direct current (DC) conditions.

Advantages

Applications

The high yield strength values allow these grades to withstand strong electromechanical forces. The DC magnetic properties are excellent and significantly superior to the requirements of the standard. Hot rolled pole sheet grades are available noninsulated. They can be supplied in their hot rolled state or pickled.

Hot rolled pole sheet grades are designed for large high-speed machines, because of their excellent combination of mechanical strength and good magnetic performance. The good magnetic properties are of major importance for the performance of the pole pieces, whereas the excellent mechanical properties are needed for the rims.

Recommendations for use The properties mentioned above are obtained without heat treatment after stamping. The material as delivered possesses all the required magnetic properties.

Transformers benefit optimally from the excellent longitudinal magnetic properties of grain-oriented electrical steels.

39

GO1  Grain-oriented conventional grades feasibilities

EN 10107:2005

JIS C2553:2000

Thickness

0.23 mm

0.27 mm

0.30 mm

0.35 mm

0.23 mm

0.27 mm

0.30 mm

0.35 mm

Grades

M110-23S

M115-27S

M130-30S

M140-35S

23G110

27G115

30G130

35G145

M125-27S

M140-30S

M150-35S

27G125

30G140

35G155

M130-27S

M150-30S

M165-35S

27G130

M140-27S

Not included in standard (yet); not exact equivalences in 0.35 mm

Grades in italic: not included in standard (yet)

ASTM A876:2003 (former AISI)

CEI/IEC 60404-8-7:2008

Thickness

0.23 mm

0.27 mm

0.30 mm

0.35 mm

0.23 mm

0.27 mm

0.30 mm

0.35 mm

Grades

23H070 (M3)

27H074 (M4)

30H083 (M5)

35H094 (M6)

M110-23S5

M115-27S5

M130-30S5

M145-35S5

23G045 (M3)

27G051 (M4)

30G058 (M5)

35G066 (M6)

M125-27S5

M140-30S5

M155-35S5

M130-27S5

M150-30S5

Not exact equivalences

M140-27S5 Not included in standard (yet); not exact equivalences in 0.35 mm

Transformers benefit optimally from the excellent longitudinal magnetic properties of grain-oriented electrical steels.

40

Grain-oriented electrical steels

GO1

Grain-oriented conventional grades ArcelorMittal grain-oriented electrical steels are produced to achieve low core losses and high magnetic permeability. These are obtained through a tight control of the ArcelorMittal production process, designed to streamline the strength of the Goss texture. The combination of an optimal texture and structure allows obtaining excellent typical magnetic properties. Grain-oriented electrical steels are mainly used in highly efficient transformers and generators due to its excellent magnetic properties in the rolling direction.

Advantages

Applications

The use of grain-oriented steel in transformers is advantageous thanks to the very low core loss in the rolling direction. This means more efficient transport of energy from the production site to the consumption site. These conventional grades are available in a range of thicknesses and loss levels, enabling customers to select the most appropriate grade to meet the specific requirements of each application. ArcelorMittal’s high quality products range from 0.35 mm thickness up to 0.23 mm and are supplied with coating ASTM C5 over ASTM C2 to ensure high electrical resistance.

The main application of grain-oriented steel is in the core of transformers (power, distribution, current etc), used for transmission and distribution of electrical energy. These steels are also used for hydro- and turbogenerators for the generation of electrical energy. The use of grain-oriented steels in this type of equipment improves their efficiency, contributing to the reduction of energy losses in the electrical system.

Recommendations for use For wound cores, ArcelorMittal recommends applying a stress relief annealing treatment. It is important to remove oil, grease or any organic compound to prevent carbonisation of the electrical steel. Maximum care during handling is desirable to avoid re-introduction of stresses. The properties mentioned above are measured either by Epstein or SST measurement equipment. The standards specify that stress relief annealing should be applied after the samples have been cut, depending on the measuring device. 41

VA   Varnish for non-oriented and grain-oriented electrical steels feasibilities

Coating type

Typical gauges

CEI/IEC 60404-1-1:2004 EN 10342:2005

Functionality

ASTM

(per side)

EC-3

C-3

1 - 4 µm

The resins' chemical composition yields special advantages such as a high elasticity and a very strong adhesion. A coating thickness of less than 1 µm generates the additional advantage of excellent weldability, whereas a varnish of 4 µm and above assures good interlaminar insulation.

EC-4

C-4

0.5 – 1 µm

This varnish will withstand normal stress annealing temperatures, but may result in some reduction of the surface insulation resistance.

EC-5-N

C-5

1 - 4 µm

This varnish was designed to maintain its dielectrical properties during the repair of damaged copper windings. Additionally, the mineral part of the coating provides high thermal conductivity. The combination of resins and mineral products achieves a good compromise between punchability and weldability.

EC-5-G

C-5

2 - 4 µm

This varnish is selected to have good adherence and to withstand normal punching and cutting operations. It does not affect and is unaffected by transformer oil.

EC-6

C-6

2 - 10 µm

The mineral elements have been selected to reduce punching tool wear and favour punching oil retention. They also enhance the rigidity of the varnish, which minimises dimensional changes under high pressure/temperature. This varnish is particularly recommended for use with contactors, to permit a higher flutter frequency whilst reducing noise.

The major impact of varnish is to provide interlaminar insulation and to improve punchability of the steels.

Non-oriented and grain-oriented electrical steels

VA

Varnish for non-oriented and grain-oriented electrical steels Electrical steel varnishes for non-oriented are designed to enhance the behaviour of fully processed electrical steels. Their major impact is to provide interlaminar insulation and to improve the punchability of the steels. Each type of varnish has its specific properties: insulation level, punchability effect, corrosion protection, temperature resistance and weldability, hence it is the material used that determines the optimal varnish selection. For grain-oriented grades, the major impact is to provide increased surface insulation resistance, through a thin inorganic coating. This type 5 coating (EC-5-G) is applied on top of the glass film (type 2), which is obtained in the high temperature annealing process step, as a result of the reaction of the steel surface with the annealing separator. Advantages The EC-3 type varnish is based on synthetic resins, resulting in a varnish with excellent lubricating properties for the punching process: the coated sheet can be punched without the need of an additional lubricant. It is particularly recommended with automatic stacking processes.

The EC-4 type varnish is a coating formed by phosphating followed by a curing treatment at elevated temperature. This type of coating is used in applications requiring moderate levels of surface insulation resistance. The EC-5-N type varnish (for non-oriented) is a pigmented varnish, made with thermostable resins, mineral products and pigments. The type of mineral products and the amount used have been selected to obtain a coating with excellent temperature resistance during lengthy thermal treatments, which is of particular interest where stress relieving annealing is required after punching. The EC-5-G type varnish (for grain-oriented) is a pigmented varnish, predominantly composed of phosphates. Apart from its electrical insulation properties, this coating has the advantage of withstanding stress relief annealing, which allows restoring the magnetic properties of the grain-oriented steels at the cut edges, for optimal steel performance.

The EC-6 type varnish is also a pigmented varnish, but especially suitable for high power rotating machines, thanks to its high electrical insulation level. This varnish is particularly recommended for use with contactors, to permit a higher flutter frequency whilst reducing noise.

Applications These coatings are used for fully processed grades, as well as for pole sheets in the cold rolled version, in a wide range of electrical applications such as rotating machines, transformers and contactors. The coatings used for grain-oriented fully processed grades are especially used for power transformers, requiring high efficiency and operating continuously. For these applications it is important to have a double coating system, with the phosphate layer on top of the glass film.

Recommendations for use The raw materials used have a chemical composition – both in liquid or cured varnish state – which does not require specific protective measures during the processing of the coated steels or their use within the application. 43

MA1 Iron-nickel alloys feasibilities

Typical coercive force A/m

Typical permeability

Heat treatment

Heat treatment

Thickness

Saturation induction

Resistivity at 20°C

Curie point

Density

Grades

mm

Tesla

μΩ.cm

°C

g/cm3

2h - 1050°C

Supra36

0.1 - 3*

1.3

75

230

8.1

6

Supra50

0.1 - 3*

1.6

45

450

8.2

3

150 000

Mumetal

0.1 - 3*

0.8

60

420

8.7

0.6

450 000

Phytherm

0.1 - 3* * Other dimensions on demand **For specific values, please contact us.

Between 30 and 260°C**

4h - 1150°C

2h - 1050°C

4h - 1150°C

30 000

Magnetic alloys

MA1

Iron-nickel alloys Iron-nickel alloys are delivered in a semiprocessed state. After the laminations are punched, they need to be heat-treated by the customer to develop their magnetic properties. This final annealing treatment reduces losses and improves permeability, as a result of recrystallisation, grain growth and also decarburisation. Reference cycles of heat treatment are applied in ArcelorMittal’s labs to validate the ability of our materials to achieve the required magnetic and mechanical performances.

Advantages

Applications

Iron-nickel alloys have a very low coercive force. Compared with a standard iron-silicon alloy, the coercive force of the 50% Ni alloy (Supra50) is 10 times lower. This ratio can be increased to over 100 by using an 80% Ni alloy Mumetal. Because of their low coercive force, iron-nickel alloys are mainly used for high-precision sensors. Iron-nickel alloys also have a very high magnetic permeability (more than 350 000 for heattreated 80% Ni alloys).

Low coercive force applications are for example watch stepping motors, high-precision sensors (e.g. for electrical safety), synchroresolvers and relay parts. High permeability applications are for example magnetic shielding and very high-precision sensors. For this application, the Mumetal alloys (80% Ni alloys) can be used. Low loss applications are mainly motors for very high efficiency applications, and also for highfrequency applications (over 400 Hz). The Phytherm controlled Curie temperature alloys are ideal for the production of cooking pans.

The magnetic losses are also much lower than with a standard iron-silicon alloy. With its saturation induction of 1.6T, Supra can be used as a substitute for iron-silicon alloys in most applications. Reducing magnetic losses increases the global efficiency of the device.

Recommendations for use Magnetic properties are dependent on the heat treatment. This is an important step of the industrial route.

Iron-nickel alloys are used for electrical safety applications and watch parts.

45

MA2 Iron-cobalt alloys feasibilities

Feasibilities

Properties

Thickness (mm)

Thickness

Saturation induction

Resistivity at 20°C

Curie point

Density

Typical coercive force A/m Heat treatment 2h 3h 725°C 850°C

Grades

Min

Max

Typical

mm

Tesla

μΩ.cm

°C

g/cm3

AFK1

0.1

3

0.4

0.1 - 3*

2.4

20

980

8

200

95

AFK502R

0.1

3

0.2 0.35

0.1 - 3*

2.35

40

900

8.12

100

60

* Other dimensions on demand

Typical magnetic losses 1.5T-50 Hz Heat treatment 2h 3h 760°C 850°C

Typical magnetic losses 2T-400 Hz Heat treatment 2h 3h 760°C 850°C

4 3

2.3

85

75

Magnetic alloys

MA2

Iron-cobalt alloys AFK iron-cobalt alloys are delivered in a semi-processed state. After the laminations are punched, they need to be heat-treated by the customer to develop their magnetic properties. This final annealing treatment reduces losses and improves permeability, as a result of recrystallisation, grain growth and also decarburisation. The magnetic and mechanical properties are dependent on grain size and heat treatment. A compromise can be found by adapting the heat treatment parameters. Reference cycles of heat treatment are applied in ArcelorMittal’s labs to validate the ability of our materials to achieve the required magnetic and mechanical performances.

Advantages

Applications

AFK iron-cobalt alloys have the highest known induction rating at saturation. They are designed for devices with a high power to weight ratio. Taking this into account right from the design phase can reduce the volume of the magnetic parts of machines by up to 30% (motors, generators, transformers etc). AFK iron-cobalt alloys can be supplied with a magnesium methylate coating to provide electrical insulation. Alternatively, AFK iron-cobalt alloys can be supplied without coating. In this case, an additional heat treatment can be applied, leading to the formation of an oxide film which will create the required surface insulation layer.

Since AFK iron-cobalt alloys can reduce the volume of the magnetic parts of the devices (motors, generators, transformers etc), they are particularly suitable for aeronautic and space applications or any other application where weight saving or low volume is important.

AFK iron-cobalt alloys can save up to 30% of the volume of the magnetic parts and are used in motor/generator application in aeronautic applications.

Recommendations for use Magnetic and mechanical properties are dependent on heat treatment. This is an important step in the industrial route.

47

MP1 Magnetic parts feasibilities

Thickness

Saturation induction

Resistivity at 20°C

Curie point

Density

Typical coercive force

Typical permeability at 10 kHz

Grades

mm

Tesla

μΩ.cm

°C

g/cm3

A/m

H.m-1

Nanophy®

0.02

1.25

135

600

7.35

less than 1

Losses B=0.2T F=20 kHz W/kg

50 000

500 000

200*

2 000

* 200 and 300 under development

Grades used for lamination FeNi

Supra36 Supra50 Mumetal (Permiphy) Phytherm

FeCo

AFK1 AFK502R

FeSi

(for example NO 20) Other grades on request

0.5

Magnetic alloys

MP1

Magnetic parts For 50 years ArcelorMittal Stainless and Nickel Alloys Components has designed and manufactured magnetic parts: • Rotors and stators lamination and stacks for motors (iron-nickel and iron-cobalt alloys) • Thermal parts (bimetal) • Toroidal cores: nanocrystalline (Nanophy®), FeSi and FeNi • Laminations for transformers and power electronics • Stamped precision magnetic parts Customers can rely on a steady know-how in activities linked to magnetism, stamping and heat treatment (up to 1200°C). These magnetic parts, manufactured in France (Amilly) and China (Foshan), are certified according to ISO 9001/2000, ISO 14001/2004 and pending aeronautic EN 9100.

Advantages Stamping • Raw material from different suppliers • Stamping from automatic press shop (15 to 100 tonnes) with different metal thicknesses (0.05 to 2.5 mm) • Design and manufacture of specific tools • Use of progressive and compound dies for tapping • Finished parts with specific operations (tumbling, grinding, lapping, cleaning etc) Heat treatment By applying the right temperature with the right cycle under the right atmosphere the parts are delivered perfectly in line with customer’s expectations. Cores Consistent quality and capability to customise cores in different fields such as electrical safety, common mode chokes, filters, transformers, current sensors, impulse and high yielding convertors. Nanophy® is an absolute must for the new high-tech application areas with a wide range of permeabilities.

Newly the availability of low permeability nanocrystalline cores opens new application fields in the area of impulse and high yielding convertors. Flexible shielding for low frequencies Nanophylm® is a new generation of flexible shielding and markers.

Applications Magnetic parts are used in various products: • Electrical motors • Transformers - Power - Signal - Impulse - Amplifier • Circuit breakers • Ground fault interrupters • Current sensors • Chokes • Low frequency shielding • Markers

49

Credits for pictures ArcelorMittal and: Cover: Tom D'Haenens p. 2-38-51: ArcelorMittal Inox Brasil p. 14: Pauwels N.V. - Tom D'Haenens p. 16: ArcelorMittal R&D Gent p. 18: Eozen p. 20-24-28-36: Siemens p. 39: Voith p. 41: Pauwels N.V. - Tom D'Haenens p. 42-44-46: Philippe Vandenameele p. 48-49: ArcelorMittal Stainless and Nickel Alloys Components

Copyright All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission in writing.

ArcelorMittal's electrical steel was used to manufacture the hydro generator for the hydroelectric Tucuruí Dam in Brazil.

ArcelorMittal 19, avenue de la Liberté L-2930 Luxembourg

ELSMACWI –5/2009

www.arcelormittal.com

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