Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary Vol 1
Descripción: Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary is a dictionary for you to learn the symbols and definitions of the langua...
>1B f^ AN
EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHIC DICTIONARY. WITH AN INDEX OF ENGLISH WORDS, KING LIST AND GEOGRAPHICAL LIST WITH INDEXES, LIST OF HIEROGLYPHIC CHARACTERS. COPTIC AND SEMITIC ALPHABETS, ETC.
M.A. AND LiTT.D., Cambridge; M.A. and D.Litt., Oxford; D.Lit., Durham; SOMETIME SCHOLAR OF CHRIST'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, AND TYRWHITT HEBREW SCHOl.AU KEEPER OF THE EGYPTIAN AND ASSYRIAN ANTIQUITIES, BRITISH MUSEUM. ;
TWO VOLUMES) VOL.
LONDON JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, 1920.
List of Authorities quoted or referred to List of Hieroglyphic Characters Coptic, Semitic,
and Persian Cuneiform Alphabets
Egyptian Dictionary List of Kings'
List of Countries, Cities, Towns, etc.
Index of English
Index of Kings' Names
Index of Geographical Names
Greek, Hebrew, Assyrian, Syriac
Arabic, etc List of Coptic
List of non-Egyptian
Hebrew, Assyrian, Syriac, Arabic, List of
Hieroglyphic Characters in the
Messrs. Harrison and Sons; with Appendix.
Fount of 1315
be taken for granted that, from the time when Akerblad, Young and Champollion le Jeune laid the foundation of the
science of Egyptology in the
quarter of the nineteenth century
down to the present day, every serious student of Egyptian texts, whether hieroglyphic, hieratic or demotic, has found it necessary to compile in one form or another his own Egyptian Dictionary. In these days
when we have
at our disposal the
hundred years by the unceasing and their immediate Labours of Birch, Lepsius, Brugsch, Chabas, Goodwin, E. de p^"^!^ followers Rouge and others we are apt to underrate the difficulties which lexicothey met and overcame, as well as to forget how great is the debt S^'^P^^^^. which we owe to them. I therefore propose, before passing on to describe the circumstances under which the present Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary has been produced, to recall briefly the labours of the " famous men " who have preceded me in the field of Egyptian lexicography, and " who were honoured in their generations, and were the glory of their times." The Abbe J. J. Barthelemy (1716-1795) as far back as 1761 Akerblad and inscriptions Zoega's showed satisfactorily that the ovals in Egyptian uy i discoveries, which we call " cartouches " contamed royal names. Zoega
has been acquired during the toil
(1756-1809) accepted this view, and, developing
stated that the
them were alphabetic letters. Had Akerblad (1760-1819) and S. de Sacy (1758-1838) accepted these facts, and wofked to develop them, the progress of Egyptological They failed, howscience would have been materially hastened. ever, to pay much attention to the hieroglyphic inscriptions of which copies were available, and devoted all their time and labour
to the elucidation of the enchorial, or demotic, text on the Rosetta
Stone, the discovery of which had roused such profound interest
of the day.
Their labours in connection
were crowned with
Akerblad belongs the credit of being the
a " Demotic Alphabet," and to give the values of Coptic letters, but neither he nor
de Sacy seems to have sus-
pected the existence of a hieroglyphic alphabet. Both these eminent scholars produced lists, or small vocabularies, of demotic '
Rosetta Stone, vol.
Akerblad and de Sacy. of
words, and added translations of them which are surprisingly
both were able
to read correctly the
Greek royal names, failure to
when they were compiled.
correct considering the period
demotic equivalents of several
Alexander, Ptolemy and Berenice.
apply the method by which they achieved such success
suggested that their scholarly minds revolted at the absurd views, theories Kircher, Jablonski,
and statements about the Egyptian hieroglyphs made
by Athanasius Kircher (1601-1680), Jablonski (1673-1757),
Guignes (1721-1800), Tychsen (1734-1815) and others, and the suggestion is probably correct. After the publication of his
famous " Letter " to
de Sacy,^ Akerblad seems to have dropped
his Egyptological studies.
events, he published nothing
Sacy, though he did not consider that he had
wasted the time that he had spent on the demotic text on the Rosetta Stone, refrained from further research in Egyptology, and nothing of importance was effected in the decipherment of the
Egyptian hieroglyphs until Dr. Thomas Young (June 13th, 1773May loth, 1830) turned his attention to them.
Young's Hieroglyphic Alphabet and Vocabulary. Thomas Young and the Rosetta Stone.
to study the inscriptions
on the Rosetta own statement, succeeded in a few translating both the demotic and the hieroglyphic
Stone, and, according to his
His translations, together with notes and some remarks
on Akerblad's Demotic Alphabet, were printed in Archceologia for 1815, under the title " Remarks on Egyptian Papyri and on the Inscription of Rosetta." With respect to the Egj^ptian Alphabet " he says, I had hoped to find an alphabet which would enable me to read the enchorial inscription. But I gradually compelled had been to abandon this expectation, and to admit the conviction that no such alphabet would ever be
had never been
next three or four years he
striking progress in the decipher-
both demotic and hieroglyphic characters. The results of his studies at this period were published in his article Egypt, of
which appeared pcBcLia
of the It
fourth volume of the Encyclo-
was accompanied by
containing inter alia a hieroglyphic vocabulary of 218 words, a '
V Inscription Egyptienne de
de Sacy, Paris (Imprimerie de la Republique Fran^aise) and Strasbourg, an (1802), 8vo.
plate containing the
Introduction. " supposed enchorial,
demotic alphabet," and " specimens of
phrases." The Vllth Section of the letterpress contained the Young's " Rudiments of a Hieroglyphic Vocabulary," and thus Young Hieroglyphic
Egyptian Vocabularies. In this article, which formed a most important and epochmaking contribution to Egyptology, Young gave a list containing a number of alphabetic Egyptian characters, to which, in most cases, he assigned correct phonetic values, i.e., values which are accepted by Egyptologists at the present day. In fact, he showed
became the "father"
of English compilers of
rightly grasped the idea of a phonetic principle in
the reading of Egyptian hieroglyphs, the existence of which had
been assumed and practically proved by Barthelemy and Zoega, and applied it for the first time in the decipherment of .
His application of the Phonetic
Egyptian hieroglyphs. This seems to me to be an mdisputable principle. fact, which can easily be verified by any one who will take the " trouble to read Young's article, Egypt, in the " Supplement to the EncyclopcBdia Britannica and study his correspondence and papers which John Leitch reprinted in the third volume of Young's the Miscellaneous Works of the late Thomas Young, M.D., F.R.S., gnceTith'^'
Those whom such evidence will not satisfy may consult the five volumes of his papers that are preserved in the In the first British Museum (Additional MSS. 27,281-27,285). volume (Add. 27,281) are all the principal documents dealing with his work on the Rosetta Stone, and in the second (Add. 27,282) will be found his copies of a series of short vocabularies of Egyptian London, 1855.
Without wishing in any way to reopen the dispute as to the merits and value of Young's work in comparison with that of ChampoUion, it may be pointed out that scholars who were contemporaries of both and who had competent knowledge of Egyptology couple together the names of Young and ChampoUion, and place Young's name first. Thus Kosegarten groups Young, words.
Birch speaks of the " discoveries of ChampoUion and Peyron^ and Tattam says that the Dr. Young and M. ChampoUion "^ sculptured monuments and papyri of Egypt have long " engaged ;
contemporary opinions on
endeavoured to Young's decipher them, tUl our indefatigable and erudite countryman, discovery. Dr. Young, and, after him, M. ChampoUion, undertook the task."''
the attention of the Learned,
Debitas vero gratias refero Youngio, ChampoUiono, Peyronio, viris praeclarissimis, quo quoties aliquid ad hoc studiorum genus pertinens abiis sciscitarem, '
semper et promte quae desiderarem mecum communicaverunt. De Prisca Aegyptiorum Litteratura Commentatio prima. Weimar, 1828, p. iv. - Sketch London, 1838, p. 3. of a Hieroglyphical Dictionary.
great value and importance of Young's application of the
phonetic principle to Egyptian hieroglyphs has been
with characteristic French terseness and accuracy by Chabas,
the distinguished Egyptologist,
wrote, " Cette id6e fut, dans
lux de la science."' Curiously enough Young did not
la realite, le fiat
a continued application of his phonetic principle to Egyptian inscriptions other than those on the Rosetta Stone, but seems to
have been content to leave
further application and development
ChampoUion le Jeune.^ And for some reason he made no attempt to add to the Egyptian Vocabulary containing 218 words wliich he published in his article Egypt in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, to
he did, his additions were never printed. On the other hand, he devoted himself to the preparation of a Demotic Dictionary and
work occupied the last ten years of his life. The " Advertisement " is of considerable interest, for it shows that it was only his inability to decide upon the system of arrangement that ought to be employed in an Egyptian Dictionary, that prevented him from publishing the work during his lifetime. His difficulty is described this
by him thus " From
the mixed nature of the characters employed in the
written language or rather languages of the Egyptians, to determine
what would be the best arrangement
if they were all perfectly clear in their forms, and perfectly well understood at present, however, so many of them remain unknown, and those which are better known assume so diversified an appearance, that the original difficulty is greatly increased. Every methodical arrangement, however arbitrary, has the advantage of bringing together such words as nearly resemble each other and it appears most likely to be subservient to the purposes of future investigation, to employ an imitation of an alphabetical order, or an artificial alphabet, founded upon the resemblance of the characters to those of which the phonetic value was clearly and correctly determined by the late Mr. Akerblad; and to arrange the words that are to be interpreted :
Alphabetic arrangement of the Dictionary.
according to their places in this in each instance, not
the composition of the word, but the most radical, or the most '
Inscription de Rosette, p.
character that enters into
which appears to be in
Dr. Young's Egyptian Dictionary printed in Rudiments
of an Egyptian Dictionary, which formed an Appendix to Tattam's Coptic Grammar. London, 1830, 8vo, and was reprinted by Leitch. op. cit., p. 472 ff.
5 ^ J
? J C
sometimes that which distinguished.
merely the most readily ascertained or
although Young was the
to apply the phonetic, or
alphabetic, principle to Egyptian hieroglyphs,
from the above that he failed to see its value in arranging Egyptian words in a dictionary. Speaking of Champollion's alphabet, which was in reality his own with modifications and considerable he says
of phonetic characters
often be of use in assisting the
memory, but it can only be applied with confidence to particular cases when supported in each case by the same kind of evidence that had been employed before its invention. His communications have furnished many valuable additions to this work, all of which have been acknowledged in their
So then rejecting
alphabetic, characters, and Champollion's develophe drew up his " Rudiments of the Egyptian Dicthe ancient Enchorial Character," intending the work
appear as an Appendix to the " Coptic Grammar," which Henry Tattam was then writing. Whilst the printing of the
Rudiments " was in progress he work was so great that in spite "
Kosegarten's es imony.
but his interest in the
of his illness he continued to
pages for the lithographer and to correct the proofs.
he had passed for press six sheets, i.e. 96 pages, death overtook him, and Tattam corrected the last 14 pages (pp. 97-110) of proof, saw them through the press, and compiled an Index to the work, which appeared with Tattam's " Coptic
Writing to M. Arago on July 4th, 1828, Young says, " Now of the nine letters which I insist that I had discovered, M. ChampoUion himself allows me five, and I maintain that a single one would have been sufficient for all that I '
wished to prove
the method by which that one was obtained being allowed to
be correct, and to be capable of further application. analysis of the Egyptian system,
I insist, is
true foundation of the
the great fact of the original identity
of the enchorial with the sacred characters, which
discovered and printed in
Criiicum No. VI, pp. 155-204], and which M. ChampoUion probably rediscovered, and certainly republished in 182 1 besides the reading of
had completely ascertained and published in 1814, and the name of Cleopatra, which Mr. Bankes had afterwards discovered by means of the information that I had sent him out to Egypt, and which he asserts that he communicated indirectly to M. ChampoUion [see H. Salt, Essay on Dr. Young's and M. Champollion's Phonetic System of Hieroglyphics, London, 1825, and whatever deficiencies there might have been in my original alphabet, p. 7] supposing it to have contained but one letter correctly determined, they would and must have been gradually supplied by a continued application of the same method to other monuments which have been progressively discovered and made the
public since the date of
Thomas Young, M.D.,
F.R.S., Vol. Ill,
of the late
V \.>#«^J ^, i
Chatnpollion's Table of Hieroglyphic relative
and Demotic phonetic
des Hieroglyphes Phonetiqties.
paraphrase Kosegarten's words,
contains a valuable and well-arranged collection of
important groups of enchorial characters hitherto deciphered. These Young selected from enchorial texts which had been published
himself, and by Champollion and Kosegarten, and from which he had received from Champollion describing the
contents of unpublished papyri at Paris.
progress of Egyptology suffered a severe set-back
May loth, 1830, and by the death of March 4th, pollion on 1832, and there was no scholar sufficiently advanced in the science to continue their work. With the exception of books and papers of a polemical character, some authors championing Young's system of phonetics, and others loudly proclaiming the superior merits of that of Champollion, and others advocating the extraordinary views of Spohn and Seyffarth (1796-1885), no important work on Egyptological decipherment appeared for several years. Soon after the death of Champollion a rumour circulated freely among the learned of Europe to the effect that the great Frenchman had left in manuscript, almost complete, many works which he was preparing for press when death overtook him, and that these were to appear shortly under death of Young on
Egyptology retarded by the death of
Young and Champollion.
by the Cham-
Champolhon-Figeac (i 778-1 867). was widely known that Champollion had been engaged for
the editorship of his brother, It
In his Observations on the Hieroglyphic and Enchorial Alphabets (Coptic p. ix ff.) Tattam describes briefly and accurately the various steps in
He shows that Young was the first Ptolemy and Berenice, that Bankes, with the help of Young, discovered the name of Cleopatra, and says that the system of letters thus discovered was " taken up, and extended, by M. Champollion, and afterwards He then gives the Hieroglyphic by Mr. Salt, our late Consul-General in Egypt." Alphabet as constructed from the researches of Young, Bankes, Champollion and the early history of Egyptian decipherment. to read correctly the
Salt. ' Das Werk (Nro. 2), mit welchem der treffliche Young Laufbahn und zugleich sein Leben beschlossen hat, tnthalt
wichtigsten bisher erklarten enchorischen Schrift-
Er hat diese Sammlung aus den von ihm selbst, von Champollion, und von mir bekannt gemachten enchorischen Texten ausgewahlt, aber auch
aus noch nicht herausgegebenen Pariser PapyrusroUen benutzt. Er leitete den Druck und die Corrcktur dieser Schrift, welchc ihm sehr am Herzen lag, und die gleichsam sein Vermachtniss iiber die Aegyptischen Untersuchungen liefert, noch auf seinem letzten Krankenbette, Als er bis zur g6sten so schwer ihm auch zuletzt das Schreiben schon ward. briefliche Mittheilungen Champollion's
mit der Correktur gelangt war,
fur wissenschaftUche Col. 771.
ereilte ihn der
die Indices besorgte daher Kri'.ik,
Jahrgang 1831, Bd.
die Correktur der
Hy. Tattam. II,
PHONETiCK Alphabet '" i
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page of ChampoUion's Dictionnaire Agyptien.
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