Effecttive Academic Writing 1.pdf
Effective A cademic W riting 1 THE PARAGRAPH
ALICE SAVAGE MASOUD SHAFIEI
Effective A cademic W riting 1 THE PARAGRAPH
ALICE SAVAGE N orth H arris C o lleg e H ousto n , Texas
MASOUD SHAFIEl K ingw o o d C ollege K intjw o o d , Texas
OX-FORD VKI\ Kỉtsi I 'J nu-'iS
O X J -'O R D UNIVF.USITYI'RtSS 198 M adison A venue N ew York. NY 10016 USA G reat C la re n d o n S tree t. O xford 0 X 2 6D P UK O xford U niversity Press is a d e p a rtm e n t o f th e U n iv ersity o f O xford. Ii fu rth ers th e U niversity's objective o f excellence in research, scholarship, a n d e d u c a tio n by p u b lish in g w o rld w id e In O x fo rd New York
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS C over a n . R ichard D ie b en k o m O cean P ark * 1 2 2 . 19 S0 oil a n d c h arco al o n canvas; 100 in . x 8 0 5/8 in. (254 cm X204.79 cm ) San Francisco M useum o f M o d em A rt C h arle s H l a n d F am iliar F o u n d a tio n Fund p u rc h a se © E state o f R ichard D ieb en k o rn Stills photography lnM
A u ck lan d C a p e to w n D a re s S alaam H o n g Kong K arachi K uala L u m p u r M adrid M elb o u rn e M exico City N airobi New D elhi S h a n g h a i Taipei T o ro n to
C lockw ise fro m to p left: P u restix k /S u p ersto c k : 2. P h o to Edii Inc: David Young-W oltf. 2: P unch S tockjC om stock: 2; P u n ch Stock: 2: C orbis: David T u m ley , 30; P h o to Edit Inc.: David Young-WolfT, 52. P unch Stock/DGV' C arl R oessler, 76; S uperstock- D w ayne L. H arlan. 100; B race C o lem an Inc.: G.
W ith offices in
K rishnan, 122.
A rg e n tin a A ustria Brazil C hile C zech R epublic F ran c e G reece G u a tem ala H u ngary Italy J a p a n Poland P o rtu g al S in g ap o re S o u th K orea S w itzerlan d T h a ila n d T urkey U k rain e V ietn am
We would like to thank /bKowingfo r permission to reproduce these extracts unit adaptations o/ropvm rfllid material:
a n d 0Xf0RD ENGUSH a re re g is te re d tra d e m a rk s o f O xford U niversity Press
® O xford U n iv ersity Press 2007 N o u n a u t h o r i z e d p h o to c o p y in g All rig h ts reserv ed . No p a n o f th is p u b lic a tio n m ay be re p ro d u c e d , sto re d In a retriev al sy stem , o r tra n s m itte d , In a n y fo rm o r by a n y m eans, w ith o u t th e p rio r p e rm issio n in w ritin g o f O xford U n iv ersity Press, o r as expressly p e rm itte d by law. o r u n d e r te rm s ag reed w ith th e a p p ro p ria te c o p y rig h t cle aran c e o rg a n iz a tio n . E n q u irie s c o n c e rn in g re p ro d u c tio n o u tsid e I h e scope o f th e above sh o u ld b e s e n t to th e ELT R ights D e p a rtm e n t. O xford U niversity Press, a t th e a d d re ss above. You m u st n o t c irc u la te th is b o o k in an y o th e r b in d in g o r co v er a n d you m u st im p o se th is s a m e c o n d itio n o n a n y a cq u irer. Any w eb sites re fe rre d to in th is p u b lic a tio n are in th e p u b lic d o m a in a n d th e ir a d d resses a re p ro v id ed by O xford U niversity Press for in fo rm a tio n only. O xford U niversity Press d isclaim s a n y re sp o n sib ility fo r th e c o n te n t. E xecutive P u b lish er; Jan e t A itchison S en io r A c q u isitio n s Editor.* P ietro Along) Editor: Rob F reire A n D irector; M aj-Britt H agstead A n E ditor; R obin Fadool P ro d u ctio n M a n a g e r S h a n ta Persaud P ro d u ctio n C o n tro lle r: Eve W ong ISBN : 978-0-19-430922-6ISTUDENT BOOK) ISBN : 9784M 9*430882-31ANSWER KEY) P rin te d in H ong Kong 10 9 8 7 6
p. 31. G.S. S h a ra t C h an d ra , e x c e rp ts fro m Sari o f the Gods. C opyright © 1989 by G.S. S h a ra t C h an d ra. R ep rin ted wii h t h e p e rm issio n ol C otfee H ouse Press. M inneapolis. M innesota: p. 101. A dapted fro in S c u lik by |o e l Rogers. © 2006. w ith p e rm issio n o f G ra p h ic A n s Books, a n im p rin t o f G rap h ic A rts C e n te r P ublish in g C om pany; p. L23. F.xcerpis from "The G re e n M am ba" fro m Going Soiii by Roald D ahl. C opyright © 1986 by Roald D ahl R ep rin te d by p e rm issio n o f Farrar. S trau s a n d G iroux. L1.C
Acknowledgements We would like to thank David Olsher. without whom we would never have started this project. We want to give a special thanks to the editorial team: Rob Freire, Kathleen Smith. Kenna Bourke, and Scott Allan Wallick for their insight and expertise, and Pietro Alongi for his endless positivity and support. We would also like to gratefully acknowledge the work of Susan Kesner Bland. Last but not least, our gratitude to the following reviewers for their contribution to the project: Sharon Allerson, East LA Community College; Frank Cronin, Austin Community College; Kieran Hilu, Virginia Tech; Peter Hoffman, LaGuardia Community College; Carla Nyssen, California State I Jniversity Long Beach; Adrianne Ochoa; Mary O ’Neill, North Virginia Community College; Maria Salinas, Del Mar College. I would like to thank the administration, faculty, and staff of North Harris College for making it an inspiring place to work. I especially want to applaud the students of the ESL program. Your papers are full of delightful surprises and interesting insights. Thank you for allowing your work to be used to assist others. Finally. I wish to thank my husband. Masoud, and children Cyrus and Kaveh, for helping me balance work and home. I always look forward to seeing you at the end of die day. A.S. 1 would like to express my appreciation to everyone at Kingwood College for creating a great environment for teaching and learning. I am especially grateful to the ESL faculty for their insightful suggestions and to the ESL students for their generosity in sharing their writing. Lastly, and most importantly, I would like to thank my wife Alice ten working with me on this project and our sons Cyrus and Kaveh for adding so much color to our lives each and every day. M.S.
Contents I n t r o d u c t i o n ............................. ....................................................................................
Unit 1: The Sentence and the Paragraph__________________ PART 1: Stimulating Ideas . ................. .. .................................... The Paragraph Formatting a Paragraph
PART 2: Developing a Paragraph.................................................... Paragraph Organization The Topic Sentence Supporting Sentences The Concluding Sentence
PART 3: Unity and Coherence..........................................................
Unity within a Paragraph Coherence within a Paragraph PART 4:
Editing Your W ritin g .........................................................
Simple Sentence Structure Punctuation and Capitalization Fragments Run-on Sentences PART 5:
Putting It All Together...................................................... 24
Unit 2: Descriptive Paragraphs___________________________ PART 1: Stimulating Id eas......................... .............................. .. . 30 Reading Text: “Sari of the Gods" PART 2:
Brainstorming and O u tlin in g ...........................................
Descriptive Organization PART 3:
Developing Your Ideas...................................................... U sing S pecific L an g u ag e
Editing Your W ritin g .........................................................
Using Adjectives in Descriptive Writing Using Be to Describe and Define PART 5:
Putting It All Together......................................................
Unit 3: Example Paragraphs______________________________ PART 1: Stim ulating Ideas .............................................................52 Reading Text: “ Bumping into Mr. Ravioli" PART 2: Brainstorming and O u tlin in g ............................................ 55 Example Organization PART 3: Developing Your Ideas....................................................... Using Examples as Supporting Details
PART 4: Editing Your W ritin g .......................................................... 65 Forming and Using the Simple Present Subject-Verb Agreement PART 5: Putting It All Together....................................................... 69
Unit 4: Process Paragraphs_______________________________ PART 1: Stimulating Id eas............................................................... 76 Reading Text: “How to Fight Off a Shark" PART 2: Brainstorming and O u tlin in g ............................................ 79 Process Orga nization PART 3: Developing Your Id eas....................................................... 84 Using Time Order Words in Process Paragraphs PART 4: Editing Your W ritin g .......................................................... Using Imperatives Modals of Advice. Necessity, and Prohibition
PART 5: Putting It All Together.................................... .. ................ 95
Unit 5: Opinion Paragraphs______________________________ PART 1: Stim ulating Id ea s............................................................... 100 Reading Text: “City with a Gray-Green Heart” PART 2: Brainstorming and O u tlin in g ............................................ 103 Opinion Organization PART 3: Developing Your Ideas....................................................... 108 Using Reasons to Support an Opinion PART 4: Editing Your W ritin g .......................................................... 113 Using There Is/There Are to Introduce Facts Using Because o f and Because to Give Reasons PART 5: Putting It All Together...................... .. ..............................117 Contents
Unit 6: Narrative Paragraphs PART 1: Stimulating Id ea s........................... ..................................122
Reading Text: "The Snake-Man" PART 2:
Brainstorming and O u tlin in g ...........................................125
Narrative Organization PART 3:
Developing Your Id eas......................................................130
Using Sensory' and Emotional Details Showing Order of Events in Narrative Paragraphs Showing Simultaneous Events PART 4: Editing Your W ritin g .........................................................136
Forming and Using the Simple Past Forming and Using the Past Continuous PART 5: Putting It All Together...................................................... 142
Appendices_____________________________________________ Appendix I: The W riting P ro ce ss.....................................................147 Appendix II: Elements of Pun ctuatio n ............................................ 148 Appendix III: G lo s s a ry .................................... .. ..............................149 Appendix IV: Correlation to Grammar Sense 1 .............................. 152
Introduction Effective Academic Writing is a three-hook series intended to usher students into the world of academic writing. The goal of the series is to provide students and their teachers with a practical and efficient approach to learning the skills, strategies, anil knowledge that arc necessary for succeeding in content coursework. A parallel goal is to provide opportunities for students to explore their opinions, discuss their ideas, and share their experiences through written communication. By guiding budding writers through the experience of composing various types of paragraphs and short papers, w e hope to provide students with the tools and the confidence necessary for college success.
The Paragraph Book 1 of Effective Academic Writing, The Paragraph, introduces students at the high-beginning to low-intermediate level to the academic paragraph. The first unit provides a review of sentence structure and an introduction to developing and formatting an academic paragraph. Each of the following five units then addresses a particular rhetorical mode and provides user-friendly guidance to mastering the form. The hook also offers numerous opportunities for practicing relevant grammar points. All grammar presentations and practice are correlated to Grammar Sense I. Book 1 contains several features designed to support students in developing the skills that they need for college writing; • Each unit contains an authentic text to provide ideas and context for the assignment. • At strategic points in the unit, students read and analyze authentic student paragraphs to see how other students have written on the same or similar topics. • Each unit contains concise and effective language presentations designed to develop students’ understanding of rhetorical modes and to improve their grammatical accuracy. • Each unit offers useful writing outlines so that students can structure their writing and internalize the practice. • Each unit offers collaborative learning activities allowing students to work together and share ideas. • At relevant points in the unit, editing exercises and editing checklists are provided so that students can refine their writing. • Timed writing activities com e at the close of each unit to prepare students for in class writing. • A series of learner-friendly appendices are provided at the back of the book to encourage student independence. A glossary of common grammar terms for student reference is included.
Unit Organization Each unit introduces a them e and a writing task and then guides the writer through a five-pan process of gathering ideas, organizing an outline, drafting, revising, and ediung. As students write, they practice specifk •'kills and put language knowledge to work to produce a paragraph that follow.-, academic conventions. The rhetorical and language-related goals of the unit are identified on the opener page.
Part 1 Pan 1 opens with an image to spark interest as students begin thinking about the topic. This is followed by a short authentic text. Students answer questions about the text that will help them connect the writers ideas 10 their own knowledge and experience. They then move on to a freevvriting activity, an unstructured writing task in which they can explore the topic without worrying about organization or grammar. Part 2 In Pan 2 students are introduced to a specific rhetorical mode. They begin by brainstorming ideas and vocabulary that they will use to write their paragraph. They then learn about rhetorical organizational features and read and analyze a student paragraph. Finally, students produce an outline for the paragraph they will write later in the unit. Part 3 In Part 3 students develop the ideas from their outline and produce a first draft. This part opens with a second student paragraph for students to analyze. As they answer questions about the second student model, students review the organizational features learned in Part 2. They are then introduced to specific, level-appropriate language points that will help students shape and structure their writing. Students now write their first draft and. using a peer-review checklist, check each other’s writing for organization and clarity of ideas. Part 4 In Part I students edit their writing and produce a final draft. This pan focuses on particular grammar trouble spots relevant to the theme and the rhetorical style presented in the unit. Following the concise language presentation, students complete practice exercises to help them develop their grammar skills and build confidence. Students then move on to editing their own waiting, and produce a final draft. Part 5 The final part of the unit is titled 'Putting It All Together." This is the summary of the other parts of the unit. Through a series of skill exercises, students review the points covered in Parts 1—4. They are then given the opportunity to write a timed paragraph using a similar rhetorical focus, but on a different topic. Guidelines lor using their time efficiently are suggested. This part also provides students with a comprehensive checklist to review what they have written. The unit closes with suggested tasks for future writing thal can be used for more practice.
The Sentence and the Paragraph Unit Goals Rhetorical focus: * p arag rap h o rg an izatio n * formatting a paragraph j unity and co h eren ce in -i paragraph
Language focus: * simple semen«: sirucwne * cip ltn listth in ;md end p u n ctu jtiu n * Iragm enLs iind run-on sen [cnees
PART 1 S tim u la tin g
T hinking a b o u t t h e to p ic DLstu.s> ilit pictures with ;i partner. * Ijook ut the people writing. Wlut kind «f wnimg is each pLT1' n *
Afl' tJiL*y wriEjn^ for rollers i>r fur themselves?
* W lut ¡1 g r o u p h o w
o f s e n te n c e ^
o r g a n i z e
n lw h ji w r i te
d i e
t o p i c . in fa llo w
k in tfa
p a r a g r a p h s ,
In lL d t s c r ip t iv t p n ra g ra p h rlu'w iiCcr ÜL-vn i'V ' . or a tiling.
fn an e x a m p le p a ra g ra p h the w riter cwplut:-, exam ples,
2 L.nit 1: 'Hie Sentence and the Paragraph
* In .1 p ro c c s s p a ra g ra p h thi' w rfrtr ex p tíIins hiiw tic senKHi n :ii
:t 1KW wjiy?_____ ,_____
Rhetorical Focus The Topic Sentence The- ropfc s tn l t n ic ; is u su a lly thy lir>L o r secL.snd '■lj[iLeik l 1 L. ■■
paragraph It tn tn x k tco a new idea. li p itsen is ilie mpur ¡ituLissr ■ what the w rite r will a^y :tbtiLn the loplc. rrhls exp1;in:tiior; is . . . . c o n tr o llin g id e a
Read ¡be following topic sentences, in (^¡ehIi tint; i3-l- tupit i% hi] frien d . Tlie L/MiroHlng ideas explain whal t Li-_- w riter ■•■■■:.! ya The Tnpic. 'IlieM.- Control] Inp idcflS M l r h f re a d e r W' I.M h ■ei*>ei : ;:' ' r C MjpfwjrTing sen ten w stnplc can ItdImnn iidci My friend & ob.
A tii]>ii st-Tilence must not b e a simple fiict it .c *pei.-it'K ..'l'.-. controlling idiM must say w m vthing uJhilji Ltieiopu rj: .supixjrtL'd. developed, or derimriscTJTed In the -■If=;'" tT':- l -- "■ '[lie ' fnirf iliiFii- idea must atso not t>e too perietal. or ¡V- iujkc sen itn o e w 1>] Im? uncEeaft A surprise party is a kind of parly.
■■«; ae- +'?~
I here were 14 guests at my surprise bidhdsy par*
My d is m a l« gavt me an unforgettable surprise ^¿n-. ra r -
Thii JhIM lo p k S t'n li'n ce t% ifffe e liw
:! ir:=ri >Ji-'. tr' :“ i.
and Iwx a tnntraJhnw Wea eLi.H (.jh Ifc tieueki]xM
s e n tc n t'fc , T tie pcin^rjph will p ro k u b ly tt?H : "- -:■ " 6
L'jtiT I: The Scflflcnce .irnl 1tu- I'anjinipH
' r' :-
Identifying topics and controlling id9a?
In cji;h topic sen ten ce b elo w circle th e topic and u n d erlin e die controlling Idea. ] ‘i l i k i n g die Ln'si ^ my un?v>l(n-.r mmtre ■.kwlv. 2 My unt ]f hnd a frinlileninn experience ü* P ymunfl muí).
*, Test nii^sjjyn*: |iaa become pnjj (eenjjtuiv ■i Effective ctr™? in.iii.i^ínifnr tuqUire*» Jour cjsy síe| 'y Every college 'iHidL‘n[ *huuEd rula1ri computer course Eaercisei__ identifying effective topic sentences Id eacli jíü J ffio r below, (irclc thi.Ltopic mid u n d erlin e th e conlrolJiciK ¡dea. If the K fltence does not contain an effective controlling! i^ K1’ w rite oil X in th e hliink. For th e effective topic sentence*, w rite wtaal yon think I lie su p p o rtin g s c itfc n c n «-LU be nbont, ] ____i Sly tfuToiyi^viaaJfcijj-Ls^. hi^ p:M Tin* wrfCgr ivill a i^ gxjmplg* of wfly& iff ttfticft h¡3 dQCT#* is. klEd-HLpflKcnt^.
Fried rice in easy LOprepare if you fallow some simple steps.
S. ___ I .ini jruinft to write ub. Mosquiines will fly w ven l mik-s to find Ftw*J.
c. Only die.- female intj^uito bitei
d. Moduli oes ,lcv intt-resJin# insten.
2, ___ a. One o f my hobbies is listening tn international nuiilc, ___
h. I luve j Ui^je colkninn of world music rcetrfdinps,
____c. My friend* and I like to kmitxhice each other to new hntcmaiíoitil artists we discover, __
il. I enjoy guinfi to cwKVtts by
8 I mi J . The SenietK» ¡muI ibe E’amp-jph
iiiu s Il
un'- tnim different oiuntric*.
:i. 3 HJcc die way jVetjpfe dec* irjte theEr homes and stores ____ I), I enjoy [filing shopping in cold weather ____ c. I eiijo\ tin.- parties ;md celebration* o f ilie winter holiday ____ d, I really like the winter holidays.
i ____ a. My new apcuuiKiii tus I>ig dosets h My new apartment is perfect for my roommate and me ____ c. My new apartment Ls d ose to school and work ____ (I. My new apartment is ntrt tcx> expensive for students.
Rhetorical Focus The Concluding Sentence The con clu d in g or final, .sentence of a paragraph usually rem inds the reader o f the topic ami controlling idea o f the paragraph. The concluding sentence* restates »he main idea. Topic sentence I love the cokx red.
\ like to Sue life in a strong way, so I thmk. I will always admire The color red. In addition to restating the main idea, the concluding sentence may; • warn the reader. If you do not follow these steps, you may not get the grade that you want.
• make a prediction The automotive industry will change, and soon everyone will be driving pollution-free cars
• give an opinion about th e topic Some people might disagree, but I think lamb is the best meat for grilling.
.Sometimes w riters signal the condudinji sentence by using the phrase In conclusion. In conclusion, (earning a second language has many advantages
Part 1 9
Id en tifyin g supporting sentences and concluding sentences
Kl' uuir everur.* in San Anionki.
10 I nlr I: The Sentence and the I’an p ip h
I '■-L [ i s 3___EHamming concluding senten ce s
Circle the word i I ilu best d e s c rlx s each o f the a^nduding sentences below. 1. If v 3U rttlJow Lliew: MtfT.-, VIHi vriWnever 1osc yOUf keys :i$yin. a. (pfwlkriinn)
2. Sutdenbs whu a a; not careful *iidi L'redit curds enn go into tlefcn quicJtty a.
3. Vcnicc, Italy, « th e most beautiful city in the world. ■.a j. Y ou
hi I l>e a b le [n> pnicttiCe :l b e a u tifu l [Kifier i r a n e wiLli Only 3 ItLtle bit
of practice. a.
5; Hhcre are nun?) reasons why movie a. ii
j i ^lI L ike
i^oNuriiiiiv c. warning
T ile dew^rt i*. : l heyulifiLl h)UI danf^eiOUS pLa-ce
b ik e , so (.h ■y n u r rc'Sii^ri-h
[im t Ui p r e p a r e LUEvMJy.
p re d ic tio n
o p in io n
w a rn in g
In Part 3 you will * feam about unity and coherence in paragraphs.
I1:1it 1 11
Unity and Coherence Good K f ld e n k Writers follow specific Steps to m ake su re th e ir w riting Is lw ih clear mid accurate, They jj£t he r, ifrp tn la;. an d develop idea*. Tliey w rite drafts, som etim e* twro o r m ore. W hen th e y revise each draft. Rood w riters look fur unity, co hcrencc, and Kranuiijiilcal problem s.
Rhetorical Focus Unity within a Paragraph A pjjapraph muSf liave unity \ paragraph has unity when all flic stTtfencvs sup|x)n a single idem •T he paragraph niusi have one eontrnJJinj; iilea in ibe (* s u p p fu tin ji .'■ etiiences m t^ i s y p p u n ■t e s p la in th e tw n ln u llin ^ id e a w ith
l-\.m i p ie s ,
d e ra ils , ste p s, n r d e fin itio n s . O th e r w is e . th e
p .m ijir jp h w ill r ;n lx-
I m m ii o n e s ir ijje id e a
* The concluding sentence should restate the idea in the topic senifriLe. Otherwise the main idej might not be clear. T o p ic s e n te n c e
Supporting sentences She oi’ten lees travelers stay in her home She has hosted many stucent* temporarily. S*ie sends money io her Umiiy m Chile every mcnih to r-plp ■hem with their bills. Site always br-rigs flowers or food to her v pros when they are sick or have a need
Concluding sentence Mata^n* is one of the mosi generous people I Vnow
Nqhf (hut j ]] the sentences are about Macaremis jienerosiu. A sentence alxnjt the way slie looks or atxiut Ihlt iLih w ill noi support the unity of the paragraph unless it ^Mnehtnv relates ti»Macarvrui's generrwlty.
l.'nit I: Ilie Sentence ;ind the Paragraph
Reading a student paragraph Hratt l h e paragraph. ’W'liere did [he pink * h e e p c o m e from ?
T h e P in k S h e e p Many years uu;u. a
yil'L came lo me in an imcrcsiing way.
When E wji* hi sm:ill boy, 1cloyed playing in my garden. One day, [ found ii hole in the watl nf my garden. It was near the ground, so I could not sec thiouiih the hole, hul t knew that b&lpd the wall was my neighbor'^ garden. Who mode [hat hulc? 1 felt really interesk’d, so 1 used rocks to make the hole winter, One duy, when I was iryinj tn break shroug h Ihe wall, I noticed □ small band j]>|*?ar from the hole. The hand was holdiiit! a rubber slwep. It was. pink and it had wide eyes- J ^ujzln ihm rubber sheep. Then I pushed my fivnriie wooden truck through the hole n» -i\\c id that child on the uiher side. Sometime* 1 btiuglu ipys with my luck> New Year money, A lung lime Imer. ^hen I was nld enciu^h io go nut. I went around the coincr to Jind Ihe child who gave nte that special gift, but nobody wy> in that house. My neighbor said ihm a girl tiscd 10 live there, qntl she w is [lie sluuc aye as me. 1 never found hi.-]. I>lil her gift has a special meaning tor me.
A nalyilng a student paragraph for unity
En n is* 2
E xam ine th e oi'g an izallo n o f th e p a ra g ra p h b y a n s w e rin g Ihe q u e stio n s below . T h en c o m p a re yxmr mU^LIB w ld i a p a rtn e r. L
C ir c le
IIk - t o p i c a n d
L in d e d iile
z u r l C m l l i n f ; it l e j
1 Aftur you read Lhf controlling idea, Jwhat did yc m ir\pt-ei tin.' supporting idww t o
e x p la in . U r iie
y tiiL r J f m W e r i n y o u r o w n
w o id s .
,5 OiKrscntenot:m the paiajtraplt is olF-tople and doe* ne* jsupixnr the? unity ni iIII- p jn ^ ju p h (Jkiw j IIiill through ft> Why doe* lhis s e m e n « hurt (he unity o l rhe paragraph!* tonic your explanation below
R ccocjntzintj u n ity in s u p p o r tin g s e n te n c e s
Read (he loEluwinf; lo p k sen ten c es, h i l ;i t k t k i / J m j.\t [u N t h le n ie n c e below chat m ippQ rts th e to p ic acnti-ncc. 1, t am .m ocRanJzcd perxjn /
,.i M)1 d isk l« dlw^t .4 nth» aifd tic^t
b. i hrWe ,i iysirrrt i" * ' H^urtLZinH ^I1^ p-ipct*, atk\ 3 can jlw;iy> fintl whai l ntsed.
____ C. I Feel uii( i niil'i rJuh:L- when I .im in J *itTJ n^tLem ironiiKiil / _ (I My friends always watil mu- l*.? Iit.-Ipi Them pm lEiL'ir l ¡'■wrt.-is rn order
¿, Twenty tfuodions i^an ewsj ____ Li. The [Kison w ho jp " n '
to play w hen you are uavelin^. itiilh i
j person. place. ur fjijoct,
____ b Sometimes people [ravel by car. >i »u enjoy spcniljng rime \viih?
Language Focus______________ _______________ _____________ Punctuation and Capitalization • l l i t find word in a sentence j* always capitalized. The wedding lasts Ick sewral tEays
* A complete strrHtrntx1cin end In j fX'ri'>d. A good speech begins with a joke
• A question ends with ;i question nutrk Do you enjoy learning about the world?
■ O a jtlo n a lh writers use an vxclamution mark rt i give emph:isls to ,j ACntenraI looked down and siding dtross my tare foot was a giant green mjmbal
ZO [mil I The Sememe ;ind the Pjrcgnipli
Identifying end punctuation
Read the paragraph, In each scatcocc, underline the subject and circle \ amimd cadi end punctuation.
Summer by the Sea My favor?ienieiiiorvrjs)aboijt in> lamily^Jl happened ;i long time aito before my brother got married and moved out. My parents had seven children, All seven o f us piled in one car lor a summer holiday by (he beach. Wc traveled in that crowded ear tor [wo days! Finally we arrived ji a small house near ihc bcach. It had othj bit; room with many beds and an other room for Ciling and conking. The kids spem all day oulside. Wc played tocetliei in lEll- water. Sometimes, my mother made a picnic dinner. We sal on the sand lo cat and watch the sun go down,. One night w i broughi out blankets and slefH by the water. I loved Ihat lime. We talked and looked at the stjirs unliJ late at nijiht. Tiiis wonderful summer holiday was ihe best time of my life.
Language Focus Fragments livery sentence must have :i subject ami ;; verb and express a complete idea. A sentence that is missing a subject or .1 verb is inctiriipletc. Il is tjlle tl .1 frag m e n t. Incorrect
I like Minneapolis is a cfean city. (subject is misstng)
I like Minneapolis, ft is a clean city,
They successlul. (verb is mn&ng)
They are successful.
Part 1 21
Identifying and correcting fragments Decide whether each fragment below Is m issing a subjeci o ra verb. Then rewrite it SO [hal it is c o r r m . I Some J'i hxI t cry spicy, &t?ma food ¿a ugrv apicv.______________________________________ — Qifii cm- Favtnile vejje[jl>kj
3. Is tery hrijjn in ilie afictnoon
4, 'lakes ;i nap far m u or thitc hutirtv,
l>. Eula ricc, ■r
fi. There EkiWeff in llle nmtket.
Language Focus R u n -o n Se n te n ce s Two w flic iiiii tli.nl mn together wiihoui c o n ta purijmuilton betwevn [hem J if called n in o n s c n lc d « » . One ro oorrei.r .. nm-on sentence Ls Ut put :i period k n v e e n the st'nlcm vs Armther wuy is to add n com ma und :i conncctinii w oitl
I received a le:tFr 'T w*as from my s>ster (no punctuation between ftf/o sentences)
I received 3 letter. It was from my sister.
They laughed, I felt better. (comma alone bertveen Two senieriMSj
They laughed, and I (elt better (connecting word added)
Utnii 1: Tin'Scntein.^1.ind the l*ai-jjyiaph
id entifyin g and co rrectin g run-on sentences C!urr« .1 the ftjMowing mn-un w nEi nCi's by rew riting Jic m utk I hi: blanks belon-.
I ] Jin :■ full-unwi situdtriT, t live in .1
jfwutnmol near campus *¿3 * campus,____
_j_gm j fnjh -r-ma ^tuJcnt-. and I lii/g in a
2. "¡1K-A: :i(t' mic.f living tmdetneath myhtjuse they m a tp s Iru ofnr mm;.11 nijju ■i 1 us^-dtn l-1! ritv -incl vegem IjIl-s for hrtMkf:LSI niM11 lmLCelV.iliiml milk ► I Ju nrrt drfV'L\ 1 ride (Ik- bus. 5.
] ;HH w i n j j m o n e y fi w a h ic y e k Lt
a h ' ■Warn Hj Ihiv :L t:iiils:r.i
E diting for fra g m en ts and run-on s e n te n c e s C o r r c t .1 Llit1 III r e t f c i ^ m c u tf. ;n u l Im * illlM H I CiTOfB in I h r f o D o ^ iilg
p an grap h . I>o nol forget l o i i i * appropriate punctuation and capitalization.
My Hotel Job My molher’s cousin owned ;i holek and I worked there us ¡1 young man, I enjoyed ihrs w o it very much.
mnny tmcrc+iiins |\:oplc.
One lime ;i family CHrtlt to stay In the hotel- Th.i;y ¿1 djuiiihtL’r, she tvas my j*gc. We met often anti tulked abuui our lives. I invited her to my house lo meei my family, She lold us ahoul her life in the Unhed ¡Himes. We shared eiur a x io m s uith her, Later m> mother told me something unfoFgjeltab-le. She said. ,rl know that you ate going to live in America." My mother a vetv smart woman, she was ri^ht. 1 uatne
America 10 search 1'or my friend, i am still looking.
In Pait 5 you will ♦ review the elements or 0 oaragriph, * review unity anC coherence. » review comerting fragments and am-on «ntencei.
to n a 21
Putting It All Together Exercise 1
Identifying the elem ents of a paragraph
Bead tin; jjarag rap h . T h en l.dR-l th e lo r n u ttin g elem en ts o f th e p a ra g ra p h . L'sc th e w o n t in th e b o \ , a. margin
b. double spacing
Mv Grandfather the Baker
-> My tjrundfnther Jus li lot of respect in our community. He is ihe
owner o f a bakery tailed "The Family Bread Factory." The bakery lias been his profes-sion since he was young. He started
iiiii ihere ¡i[
ihe age o f 13, He learned many recipes. The most delicious and secret recipe uses oatmeal and other ingredients th;u only he know.';, This 4.
bread made him famous. Nowjidays he makes some bread only once in
a while because his legs bother him. and he get> tired easily. Instead, he sits at a table, und the people o flh c town come to buy bread and to pay tlicir respectv Even m e admires him very much because he is an honest and hardworking man.
Identifying topic sentences and_sujpporting^entences
For each set o f w n l c n n i, w rite 7S' next to the topic sen ten ce Uiitt states th e rople and prov ides a con trollin g idea. Wrlic,W next to tlitr supporting sentences. 1_____ _
The cjlendars anr iliHerent.
____ h, The weekend starts on Friday Instead o f Syturiby, ____ C, "(lie lime is diJTvft-iïl Iwcaine my country drv* no) MKnv Gavnwich time ___ 2.
d. Then.1:ire wnK' very specific dJffarvrvce.s between tny p:m of die world jml die weMetT» counLrit'S a. I \vu> Ir.iwhny in Irw Angeles to visil my cousin,
___ h. My plane was dcbyed.
I wa* «tick at ilie ulrport.
____c. 1 experienced a strange tolncklw cc J.ist year. _ 24
d. T heard my math teacher from my o)d hnm ctnun calling m* name
1 nil I: 1’heNenutfwc and the Paragraph
1 ____ :t 3 like several d iln » al»ut my English class.
___ Li. L a m m e d in ^ m a n y n e w Irien tls Iro m (_liifc.-ront C utinlries ___ C, F.very d a y HTle:tm flew W Unb, and I keep llttfffl in
___ tl Sonieiimes WV pUy SPmci ^nd kiu^h during the L'Liss (¡jit*: i ___ a You can im r The IntcoKl to find n grail ¡.hu I of infrjrmatuiti, but ji y o u tin ncfl h a v e Llm- rij^ln skills, y o u r j n w a ste :i M o r liifle.
_ _ b. 'Lhe Interact can he incredibly useful if yjju kivw here»' jo
um + . Ii.
. c. There are (ippoitumlies tn buy anil .sell products on 1bL" Internet, bin yati have to lcnow the proper way in send money, ____ d. The Internet is a (-riod plucc ttJ find a Job ftff people wbu know how to use search engines.
Evaluating concluding sentences Read [be parajjrji p hs helow . Then read [he co n clu d in g itiH cna-ii th a t follow and decide w h ich o n e w o rk s bccL Cpp> the K u te n c e you choose int£ th e p a m ^ ra p h T
There They Are! *r I
fee] happy whenever I ;im stuntfinj: beside u tmin lrjcl; tacause
[ am wailing for someone who is close to me. t vtas the youn^csl clitld In im family. so
older lumber* ynd sisters left home before
[ dkl. However, they always relumed for vacations and holidays. M\ mother and father arid I were always ai die irjin "nation to yreei them. I enjoyed the smell o f the irain ami Lhe rqjiirjmj; noise it made us the bi^
black engine pulled into the Matjon. I would jump up and down Lr\ine to see while everyone crowded »round [be rlrjt.irv “Tberc lhev are!“ rny rum her would cry. I would ran to jump into the arms of im beloved brother or siste r _______________________________________________
... In cmtcliusii in ] ;ih\ay; ii,id an enjoyable hisii wiih my brother» and sis:crs. "■ In vr melus ion. my «'luile famih likes irtin st.irtnrs Vow 1 ;itn ?il adult, hut ! still feel jV cafidles ïlei*.I I rvsfi flowers Cl'Wy^’hpnL y Ht.-
I.iK' to Ins. own hirthitiy p:my ____
l Tl îe jipiii-ts danted 1'IcfCnftue :md mjJka _
Identifying and correcting fragments
IlL-eidc whrfrfKT c u l l fr o m e n t b elow Is iUls>iJ)K^ suhjtcl Or a verb. Then rewrite it correctly* E Sunkierdy fell down
J. lliLh a trnpieul dlm nK
' I walking Ivside 1Lilt j.i k-o wElIi mv Ix>t friend.
-i Mi-Jü an imj*>rl3Jil d,iy fur mo.
Identifying and correcting run-on sentences to r r c tt ilie follow ing run -011 sen ten ces by rewrfilnji them on die hlank> below* 1 We
v m ic tw d d
2 Vie liiiii e
ir w a s
ulx>m ;i dinosaur i l u t lost its mother
Itunm i nvxm lesHvul every yea I ltiiiu r cily, [hew -ire
kiosk* with ncxxlle soup jm l frther dcLfcinus food
3 . J hud to siop _ni isiijj « i sehiN it for ;< while, my f;Mlirj wanted m e to help lllin w ith h is b u s in e s s .
■i Rice putkHnji i?i delicious and «tsy to make il is tfntal fi >r piirttes, loo.
[.'till ] T lieSen ttn re anti the l^.inifiraph
Descriptive Paragraphs Unit Goals Rhetorical focus: ' descriptive Qnygpfefltton
Language focus: * ufiinj; sp cfiilf lunjiLiiLftc ■ usiii£ adjectives in d c & rlp rirc w riting
■ u&lnv be iu Jciiin: ;md describe
Stimulating ideas_______________________________ In A descriptive paragraph, lhe writer uses word-, that create an Image and help ihc reader sec, toik'h, frvl, sm ell, or taste the mpic il» i lie or she is describing-
Thinking about the topic
Discuss th e p icture w ith a p n rtn tf. * HOw i* lfie w i.jinail dressed'
• Where i%she? ■ Have ytiU ever st-en someone i !r s »h I Ihis way? II >■>. where?
Reading about the topje
F rap u llai* a. yoiniH Indian bride, She an d h e r husband, Shekar, arc niuviii^ to New York, w h ere be has a job w ith si 1 ^ . com pany. PrnpuUa m ust decide how she will d ress in h e r new country: in w estern pants a n d skiriKH or in a sari, the traditional dress For In d ian w om en. Why Is th e sari so special to FmpuJIa?
l nil 1 Destfipiivi- rarojftfpltt -
Sari of the Gods En route t o New York on the jum bo, Shekai had dixreetiy opened up the conversation ¿bout what she'd wea* once 1hey were in America. At the mention of skins she had flared up so defiantly he had io leave the seat For Prapulla, it was no: c o n v e n i e n c e but convention Lhat made the difference She hati always prized her S 3 m s , especially on the occasions when she wore her weddinq san with !s blue, hand-spun silk and its suer border on which mages ot the gods had been embroidered She remembered ihe day she had shopped for the sari, n had been a week before he* wedding The enure family had gone to the silt bazaar artd spem The day looking fo' the pedecl one They had at last found it in the only hand-spun sari shop in the market The merchant had explained that the weaver who had knitted the gods into its border had died soon after, Taking his craft w th hrm This was his last san, his partna gift lo some lucky bride Shdiil
C h o n d f i, C.
S Jrr $ t r A f O o d i
M in n e a p o lis '
to ffe e
H w s ?
F re iS i,
I9 B 9
___ rr= i
r o u t e
f u m
h o ;
U t ty :
w -.* y
i d i i i v n U n n : a 1P.ldllMin.lJ V\;i} n f h r fia v tn R ijt
L lJ it d
h p ljit :
> U k r
h a * a a r i .lit O fw n n i i l f k t i U t i l l ih o j i\ SlJDp*
i h j i n j j 'H im c il lt n ^ '
p r is m
t d n -M J m
'i i m
w n v c n
r t h ln n
a n d S tjlls
‘. j l i L i l i k -
c r a f t ! j l i i : i 1 y n r --kill
K in d
chi- l-J jíc k l e r « l : i l t c i w j i c d b> > c w n n :^ u n h
jlf p U r n .'
^ m im ih
la h rtc
Und ersta n d in g th e te x t W r it e
T f o r tr u e o r F F o r fa ls e f o r e a c h s ta te m e n t.
P r :i p y ]| j
e n t
H t io p p u ij'
f o r
w e d d in g suri w a s m a d e b y h a n d
}. FV .ip u lb i's w e d d m jt i i n m
p u l b
T h e
j n u n
s a ri
h e r
s j r i
i t h
h e r
f a m
w h ite .
P r ip L i]]j" f i
th e last o n e
w e t k J i n f i
e d d i n g
i t o l d
h e r
^ Ih :
L u c k y
Jil th e Miire.
Responding to the te *t Write y o u r a n s w e rs for e a c h q u e s tfn n in lull s e n te n c e s . T hen d iscu ss y o u r a n s w e rs w ith a p artn er ] Prjpullfl is jy.imj? tl-w huslrand. How d o es her husband w:mt hei 10 dress? Vtliy tli>yuo ihink mu?
2. W hat d o you think Ampulla will w ear Jn N ew York? W hy d o you tliink so?
W h y is p r.ip u lh s w e d d in g >*in important to tier?
F re e w r it in g
Write for ten minutes on (he topic below, Express yourself as well as you can. Don’t worry about mistakes, PfcpuHa lias speeial nwmorivs and I H ln p .ilviut her wedding Sli n ix\’ial to you.
- Wliat does it Itiok tike? • HOw' did you iiet it? • \\ hy is. it important loyiiu?
• How docs ii nuke you feeP