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C

lassical onversations

®

ESSENTIALS of the English Language SUPPLEMENT

Part III: Gear

dialectic discussions for classical communities

Fourth Edition

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

This downloadable format is available for sale only through Classical Conversations bookstore (www.ClassicalConversationsBooks.com). If you have received a copy through any other reseller or venue, it is in violation of copyright law. Honoring copyright: it is a matter of integrity! Classical Conversations works diligently to keep costs down and provide helpful resources for your family’s home school, such as this electronic download. This downloadable file is copyrighted, which means that unauthorized reproduction or sharing of this electronic file is prohibited. This includes sharing this file or a printout of this file with other families or groups, even within your own community. Rather, encourage your friends who would like this resource to honor copyright and invest in this helpful and convenient download by purchasing it for their family. Permission is granted to make copies within your own home for your family.

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392

Essentials of the English Language

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

GEAR

PART III:

Each of the Grammar Mastery Charts included in this section is paired as a Master chart and Student chart. Glossary of Abbreviations.............................................................................................394 Scope and Sequence: Grammar Mastery Charts....................................................395 THE FIRST TRAIL: Loading the Grammar.............................................................397 Sentence Classification (Chart A)...................................................................  398 112 Model Sentences: Simple (Chart B)............................................................400 Verbs (Chart C)........................................................................................................402 Principal Parts of Verbs (Chart D)......................................................................404 Nouns (Chart E)......................................................................................................406 Pronouns (Chart F).................................................................................................408 112 Model Sentences: Compound (Chart G)..................................................410 Conjunctions (Chart H).........................................................................................412 Adverbs (Chart I)....................................................................................................414 Prepositions and Interjections (Chart J)............................................................416 Verb Anatomy —To Be (Chart K).......................................................................418 Adjectives (Chart L)...............................................................................................420 112 Model Sentences: Complex (Chart M)......................................................422 Verb Anatomy—To Have (Chart N).................................................................424 Verb Anatomy—To Play (Chart O)....................................................................426 112 Model Sentences: Compound-Complex (Chart P)................................428 Verbals (Chart Q).....................................................................................................430 THE SECOND TRAIL: Dialectic Discussions..........................................................432    Weekly Practice Sentence Overview.................................................................433    Analytical Task Sheet—Blank..............................................................................435    Quid et Quo Worksheet, Basic Format—Blank..............................................437    Quid et Quo Worksheet, Detailed Format—Blank.......................................439

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

Essentials of the English Language

393

GL O S S A RY O F A B B R E V I AT I O N S AJ AP AV C Cd Cd-Cx Cx D DO E Imp Int I IO NDA OCA OCN OP P PA PN PNA PPA Pr S SN SP Vh Vi Vl Vt 394

Adjective Appositive Adverb Conjunction Compound (Sentence) Compound-Complex (Sentence) Complex (Sentence) Declarative (Sentence) Direct Object Exclamatory (Sentence) Imperative (Sentence) Interrogative (Sentence) Interjection Indirect Object Noun of Direct Address Object Complement Adjective Object Complement Noun Object of the Preposition Pronoun Predicate Adjective Predicate Nominative Possessive Noun Adjective Possessive Pronoun Adjective Preposition Simple (Sentence) Subject Noun Subject Pronoun Verb—helping Verb—intransitive Verb—linking Verb—transitive

Essentials of the English Language

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

S C O P E A N D SEQUENCE:

G R A M M A R M A S T E RY C H A RT S WEEK

1 2 3

CHARTS

WEEK

  A: Sentence Classification  B: 112 Model Sentences: Simple

CHARTS

13

  E: Nouns   F: Pronouns

  M: 112 Model Sentences: Complex   A: Sentence Classification   E: Nouns   F: Pronouns   H: Conjunctions   I: Adverbs   L: Adjectives

4

  A:  Sentence Classification*   B:  112 Model Sentences: Simple   C:  Verbs   D:  Principal Parts of Verbs   E:  Nouns   F:  Pronouns

14

  A: Sentence Classification   E: Nouns   H: Conjunctions   I: Adverbs   L: Adjectives   M: 112 Model Sentences: Complex

5

  A:  Sentence Classification   B:  112 Model Sentences: Simple   C:  Verbs   D:  Principal Parts of Verbs   E:  Nouns   F:  Pronouns

15

  N: Verb Anatomy—To Have   K: Verb Anatomy—To Be

16

  E: Nouns   F: Pronouns   N: Verb Anatomy—To Have

6

  G: 112 Model Sentences: Compound   H: Conjunctions

17

  L: Adjectives   M: 112 Model Sentences: Complex   N: Verb Anatomy—To Have

18

  A: Sentence Classification   M: 112 Model Sentences: Complex   N: Verb Anatomy—To Have

19

  O: Verb Anatomy—To Play   D: Principal Parts of Verbs   N: Verb Anatomy—To Have

20

  J: Prepositions   O: Verb Anatomy—To Play

21

  P: 112 Model Sentences: CompoundComplex   Q: Verbals   H: Conjunctions

22

 eview all: Work on mastering charts and R information

23

 eview all: Work on mastering charts and R information

24

Review all: Work on mastering charts and information

  C: Verbs   D: Principal Parts of Verbs

7

  I: Adverbs   E: Nouns

8

  J: Prepositions   E: Nouns   G: 112 Model Sentences: Compound   I: Adverbs

9

  K:  Verb Anatomy—To Be   C:  Verbs   D:  Principal Parts of Verbs   E:  Nouns

10

  L:  Adjectives   C:  Verbs   D:  Principal Parts of Verbs   G: 112 Model Sentences: Compound   K:  Verb Anatomy—To Be

11

  C:  Verbs   D:  Principal Parts of Verbs   K:  Verb Anatomy—To Be

12

  C:  Verbs   D:  Principal Parts of Verbs

*Grammar Mastery Charts displayed as gray indicate review.

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

Essentials of the English Language

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396

Essentials of the English Language

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

THE FIRST TRAIL OF ESSENTIALS:

LOADING THE GRAMMAR Whenever you learn any subject, you begin by loading the grammar: inputting the vocabulary and facts related to that subject. In English grammar, there are a lot of terms to define, lists to memorize, and charts that show the relationships between the ideas. This is like looking at the individual pieces of a puzzle, then putting the pieces of the puzzle together. In order to help you to load the grammar of the English language, all the terms, lists, and charts have been put in a format that many Essentials students have used successfully. The first chart (called Sentence Classification, Chart A) is like the box of the puzzle: the whole picture of grammar. All the other charts are like individual pieces of that puzzle. Each chart that needs to be memorized is in this section of the guide. The completed chart is called a “Master” chart. Each master is followed by a “Student” chart which is blank. Put all the charts into page protectors, then use a dry erase marker to fill in the student chart. At first, you will look closely at the master chart in order to fill in the student chart, but if you concentrate and pay attention while filling in the charts, you will soon be able to fill in the student chart without looking at the master. You should spend about 20 minutes a day studying the charts this way. Keep practicing over time, and you will be able to write out all the master charts onto blank paper from memory. When you can do that, you will be a grammar “master,” and you will be well prepared to tackle any language. The charts are listed by the week that they are introduced by your Essentials tutor. Once a chart is introduced, practice it every day for at least a week, then, once a week, review all the charts either by reciting them aloud or filling in all the student charts that have been assigned thus far. Every day spend about 20 minutes on Grammar Mastery charts, then spend about 20 minutes on the second trail of Essentials: Dialectic Discussions.

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

Essentials of the English Language

397

A

S E N T E N C E C L A S S I F I C AT I O N

Master

Introduced Week 1

112 Different Types of Sentences can be created by combining the four structures × four purposes × seven patterns.

4 structures

Simple

Compound

Complex

(FANBOYS)

(www.asia.wub, who/which)



4 purposes

Declarative (.)

Subject

S

Exclamatory (!)





Verb-transitive

Direct Object

Vt

DO

Jesus

loves

Subject

Verb-linking

Predicate Nominative

Vl

PN

Subject

S

Jesus 8 Parts of Speech: 5.  Conjunction (C)

2.  Pronoun (P)

6.  Interjection (I)

3.  Verb (V)

7.  Preposition (Pr)



Subject

S

is

me

God

Verb-linking Predicate Adjective

Vl

is

PA

holy

Verb-transitive Indirect Object

Vt

Jesus

made

Subject

Verb-transitive

IO

me

Direct Object

DO

crown a

1.  Noun (N)

Vi

Subject

Jesus

Verb-intransitive

wept

S

7 patterns

Imperative (. !)

(FANBOYS) + www.asia.wub, who/which

Jesus

S

Interrogative (?)

Compound Complex

4.  Adverb (AV) 8.  Adjective (AJ)

S

5 Parts of a Sentence: 1. Subject (S) 4.  End Mark (. ? !) 2.  Verb (V) 5.  Complete Sense 3.  Capital Letter



Essentials of the English Language

DO

OCN

Jesus

calls

himself

Master

Subject

Verb-transitive

Direct Object

Object Complement Adj.

Vt

DO

OCA

S

Jesus 398

Vt

Direct Object Object Complement Noun

calls

himself

holy

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

A

S E N T E N C E C L A S S I F I C AT I O N

Student

Introduced Week 1

112 Different Types of Sentences can be created by combining the four structures × four purposes × seven patterns.

7 patterns

4 purposes

4 structures

8 Parts of Speech: 1. 

5. 

2. 

6. 

3. 

7. 

4. 

8. 

5 Parts of a Sentence: 1.

4. 

2. 

5. 

3. 

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

Essentials of the English Language

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400

Master

Essentials of the English Language

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia

®

Is Jesus holy? or Who is holy?

S-Vl-PA

Did Jesus make me a crown? or Who made me a crown? Jesus call himself Master? or Who called S-Vt-DO-OCN Did himself Master? Jesus call himself holy? or Who calls himself S-Vt-DO-OCA Did holy?

Is Jesus God? or Who is God?

Does Jesus love me? or Who loves me?

S-Vt-DO

S-Vl-PN

S/Imp.

Did Jesus weep? or Who wept?

S-Vi

Interrogative (?)

Jesus made me a crown! Jesus calls himself Master! Jesus calls himself holy! Weep. Love me.

S-Vt-IO-DO S-Vt-DO-OCN S-Vt-DO-OCA S-Vi S-Vt-DO

Make me a crown. Call yourself master. Call yourself holy.

S-Vt-DO-OCN S-Vt-DO-OCA

Be holy. S-Vt-IO-DO

S-Vl-PA

Be God.

Jesus is holy!

S-Vl-PA

S-Vl-PN

Jesus is God!

Jesus loves me!

S-Vt-DO S-Vl-PN

Jesus wept!

S-Vi

Essential Sentence

Structure: S - Simple, Cd - Compound, Cx - Complex, Cd-Cx - Compound-Complex

S/Imp.

S/Imp.

S/Imp.

S/Imp.

S/Imp.

S/Imp.

S/E

S/E

S-Vt-DO-OCA Jesus calls himself holy.

Jesus made me a crown.

S-Vt-IO-DO

S/E

S/E

Jesus is holy.

S-Vl-PA

S/E

S/E

S/E

Structure/ Pattern Purpose

S-Vt-DO-OCN Jesus calls himself Master.

Jesus is God.

Jesus loves me.

S-Vt-DO

S-Vl-PN

Jesus wept.

Essential Sentence

S-Vi

S-Vt-IO-DO

Introduced Week 1

A simple sentence consists of one independent clause and expresses a complete thought. (An independent clause contains one subjectpredicate pair, though the subject or the predicate, or both may be compound.)

1 1 2 M O D E L S E N T E N C ES

Imperative (.!)

KEY: Purpose: D - Declarative, E - Exclamatory, Int. - Interrogative, Imp. - Imperative

S/Int.

S/Int.

S/Int.

S/Int.

Declarative (.)

S/Int.

S/Int.

S/Int.

S/D

S/D

S/D

S/D

S/D

S/D

S/D

Structure/ Pattern Purpose

Simple Structure

B

Exclamatory (!)

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia

®

Essentials of the English Language

401

Student

Introduced Week 1

Essential Sentence

Essential Sentence

Structure: S - Simple, Cd - Compound, Cx - Complex, Cd-Cx - Compound-Complex

Structure/ Pattern Purpose

A simple sentence consists of one independent clause and expresses a complete thought. (An independent clause contains one subjectpredicate pair, though the subject or the predicate, or both may be compound.)

1 1 2 M O D E L S E N T E N C ES

KEY: Purpose: D - Declarative, E - Exclamatory, Int. - Interrogative, Imp. - Imperative

Structure/ Pattern Purpose

Simple Structure

B

C

VERBS

Master

Introduced Week 2

A verb is a word that asserts an action, shows a state of being, links two words together, or helps another verb. (V) Ask, “What is being said about the subject?”

4 VERB TYPES Intransitive

Transitive Linking

Helping

Jesus wept.

An intransitive verb does not transfer the action from the subject to an object. Test: If there is no direct object, the verb is intransitive. A transitive verb transfers the action from the subject to an object. Test: The verb is followed by a noun which does not re-name the subject. A linking verb makes an assertion by joining two words. Test: The verb can be replaced with “=” without changing the meaning.

Jesus loves me. Jesus is God.

feel, become, remain, taste, seem, appear, look, sound, stay, smell, grow, am, are, is, was, were, be, being, been A helping verb helps another verb assert action, being, or existence. Test: There will be another verb in the sentence. do, does, did, has, have, had, am, are, is, was, were, be, being, been, may, must, might, should, could, would, shall, will, can

Jesus was weeping.

4 VERB ATTRIBUTES Person Number Voice

Mood

1st (I or we)        2nd (you)        3rd (he, she, it, or they) Singular or Plural Active (subject performs the action)

I love.

Passive (subject receives the action)

I am loved.

Indicative

Makes a statement or asks a question

Imperative

States a command

Beds get messy while you sleep. Did you make your bed? Make up* your bed.

Subjunctive

Implies condition contrary to fact or expresses a wish

If only your bed were made. I wish my bed were made.

*In this sentence,“make up” is a compound verb. Consider “up” part of the verb rather than a preposition since there is no object of the preposition.

12 VERB TENSES: TIME (3) × FORM (4) Form:                Time:

Present

Past

Future

Simple

I play.

I played.

I shall play.

I have played.

I had played.

I shall have played.

I am playing.

I was playing.

I shall be playing.

I have been playing.

I had been playing.

I shall have been playing.

Perfect   form of “to have” + past participle Progressive   form of “to be” + present participle Perfect Progressive  form of “to have” + “been” + present participle 402

Essentials of the English Language

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

C

VERBS

Student

Introduced Week 2

A verb is

4 VERB TYPES

4 VERB ATTRIBUTES

12 VERB TENSES: TIME (3) × FORM (4) Form:                Time:

Present

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

Past

Future

Essentials of the English Language

403

D

Master

P R I N C I PA L PA R T S O F V E R B S

5 PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS

Introduced Week 2

Infinitive

Present

Past

Present Participle Past Participle

“to” + verb

present form

verb + “-ed”

verb + “-ing”

verb + “-ed” or “-en” or “-t”

to play

play(s)

played

playing

played

IRREGULAR VERBS Infinitive

Present

Past

Present Participle Past Participle

to be

am, are, is

was, were

being

been

to do

do, does

did

doing

done

to rise*

rise(s)

rose

rising

risen

to raise*

raise(s)

raised

raising

raised

to lay

lay(s)

laid

laying

laid

to lie

lie(s)

lay

lying

lain

to set

set(s)

set

setting

set

to sit

sit(s)

sat

sitting

sat

to beat

beat(s)

beat

beating

beaten

to break

break(s)

broke

breaking

broken

to write

write(s)

wrote

writing

written

to shake

shake(s)

shook

shaking

shaken

to bring

bring(s)

brought

bringing

brought

to go

go, goes

went

going

gone

to know

know(s)

knew

knowing

known

to ride

ride(s)

rode

riding

ridden

to drink

drink(s)

drank

drinking

drunk

to draw

draw(s)

drew

drawing

drawn

to fall

fall(s)

fell

falling

fallen

to forget

forget(s)

forgot

forgetting

forgotten

   *To rise means to get up from a lying, sitting, or kneeling posture. To raise means to move to a higher position or to elevate. To raise is a regular verb, but is shown here for comparison to to rise.

404

Essentials of the English Language

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

D

Student

P R I N C I PA L PA R T S O F V E R B S

5 PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS Infinitive

Present

Introduced Week 2

Past

Present Participle

Past Participle

Past

Present Participle

Past Participle

IRREGULAR VERBS Infinitive

Present

to be to do to rise to raise to lay to lie to set to sit to beat to break to write to shake to bring to go to know to ride to drink to draw to fall to forget ©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

Essentials of the English Language

405

E

NOUNS

Master

Introduced Week 3

A noun names a person, place, thing, activity, or idea. (N)

To find a subject noun (SN), ask, “Who (verb)?” or “What (verb)?” For other usages, see the Question Confirmation.

NOUN USAGES ...the roles or jobs a noun can have in a sentence. Parent Note: On the EEL Practice Sentence Sheets, possessive pronouns are labeled as adjectives as this is the “job” they play in the sentence. Quid et Quo drills out the details. Teaching Tip: The first letters of the first five jobs of a noun spell “SPIDO.” Pronounce it “speedo” to make it memorable.

Latin Noun Cases:

Subject Noun (SN)

Indirect Object (IO)

Nominative Genitive Dative

Direct Object (DO)

Accusative

Object of the Preposition (OP)

Ablative

Possessive Noun Adjective (PNA)

Predicate Nominative (PN) Object Complement Noun (OCN) Noun of Direct Address (NDA) Appositive (AP) Examples

NOUN ATTRIBUTES ...ways to describe a noun. Parent Note: Some nouns can also be described as being masculine, feminine, or neuter, but in English, gender does not affect the ending as it does in many other languages.

406

Common

non-specific

dog

Proper

specific, requires a capital letter

Rover

Singular

one

dog

Plural

more than one

dogs

Concrete Abstract

can be experienced with the five senses paw concept, quality, or condition that cannot loyalty be experienced with the five senses

Collective

a group composed of members

pack (of dogs)

Compound

two words joined together

doghouse

Essentials of the English Language

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

E

NOUNS

Student

Introduced Week 3

A noun

NOUN USAGES ...the roles or jobs a noun can have in a sentence.

Examples:

NOUN ATTRIBUTES







...ways to describe a noun.

















©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

Essentials of the English Language

407

F

PRONOUNS

Master

Introduced Week 3

A pronoun replaces a noun in order to avoid repetition. (P) To find a subject pronoun (SP), ask, “Who (verb)?” or “What (verb)?”

PERSONAL PRONOUNS: Subjective (Nominative) Pronouns

Objective Pronouns

Possessive Pronouns

Subject Predicate Nominative

Direct Object Object of Preposition Indirect Object

Independent: Subject Predicate Adjective Direct Object Object of Preposition

Modifiers: Show possession and function as Adjective

Indirect Object Direct Object Object of Preposition Predicate Nominative

I

me

mine

my

myself

you

you

yours

your

yourself

3rd Person masculine

he

him

his

his

himself

3rd Person feminine

she

her

hers

her

herself

3rd Person neuter

it

it

(not used)

its

itself

1st Person

we

us

ours

our

ourselves

2nd Person

you

you

yours

your

yourselves

3rd Person

they

them

theirs

their

themselves

______ will go.

Tom saw ______. The car is ______.

That is _____car.

(Subject) saw

Use for:

PLURAL

SINGULAR

1st Person 2nd Person

Test

Possessive Pronoun Adjectives

He drove ______.

Reflexive Pronouns

___________.

OTHER PRONOUNS: Demonstrative Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns

this, that, these, those who, whom, whose, which, what all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, more, most, neither, nobody, none, one, other, several, some, somebody, someone, such

Relative Pronouns who, whom, whose, whoever, whomever, that, which, what, whatever 408

Essentials of the English Language

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

F

PRONOUNS

Student

Introduced Week 3

A pronoun

PERSONAL PRONOUNS: Subjective (Nominative) Pronouns

Use for:

Subject Predicate Nominative

Objective Pronouns

Possessive Pronouns

Direct Object Object of Preposition Indirect Object

Independent: Subject Predicate Adjective Direct Object Object of Preposition

Possessive Pronoun Adjectives

Modifiers: Show possession and function as Adjective

Reflexive Pronouns

Indirect Object Direct Object Object of Preposition Predicate Nominative

SINGULAR

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person masculine 3rd Person feminine 3rd Person neuter

PLURAL

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person Test

OTHER PRONOUNS: Demonstrative Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns Relative Pronouns ©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia ®

Essentials of the English Language

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410

Essentials of the English Language

©2011 Classical Conversations MultiMedia

®

Master

Jesus loves me, so He loves you. Jesus is God, and He is King. Jesus is holy, for He is alive.

S-Vt-DO

S-Vl-PN

S-Vl-PA

Cd/D

Cd/D

Cd/D

Is Jesus God, or is He King? Is Jesus holy, and is He alive?

S-Vl-PN

S-Vl-PA

Cd/Int.

Cd/Int.

Cd/Imp.

Cd/Imp.

Cd/Imp.

Cd/Imp.

Cd/Imp.

Cd/Imp.

Cd/Imp.

Cd/E

Cd/E

Cd/E

Cd/E

Cd/E

Cd/E

Cd/E

S-Vt-DO-OCA

S-Vt-DO-OCN

S-Vt-IO-DO

S-Vl-PA

S-Vl-PN

S-Vt-DO

S-Vi

S-Vt-DO-OCA

S-Vt-DO-OCN

S-Vt-IO-DO

S-Vl-PA

S-Vl-PN

S-Vt-DO

S-Vi

Structure/ Pattern Purpose

John, give me hope, and Paul, tell me a story. John, consider me a servant, but Paul, call me a saint. John, consider me holy, but Paul, consider me depraved.

John, be holy, yet Paul, be merciful.

John, preach the gospel, and Paul, love the poor. John, be a witness, but Paul, be a servant.

John, weep, but Paul, sing.

Jesus made me a crown, so He gave me a family! Jesus calls himself Master, but He calls me friend! Jesus made me holy, so He made us joyful!

Jesus is holy, for He is alive!

Jesus is God, and He is King!

Jesus loves me, so He loves you!

Jesus wept, yet He sang!

Essential Sentence

KEY: Purpose: D - Declarative, E - Exclamatory, Int. - Interrogative, Imp. - Imperative Structure: S - Simple, Cd - Compound, Cx - Complex, Cd-Cx - Compound-Complex

Cd/Int.

Cd/Int.

S-Vt-IO-DO

Did Jesus make me a crown, and did He give me a family? Jesus call himself Master, and did He call S-Vt-DO-OCN Did me friend? Jesus make me holy, or did He make me S-Vt-DO-OCA Did merciful?

Does Jesus love me, and does He love you?

S-Vt-DO

Cd/Int.

Cd/Int.

Did Jesus weep, and did He sing?

S-Vi

Cd/Int.

Cd/D

Cd/D

S-Vt-IO-DO

Jesus made me a crown, so He gave me a family. S-Vt-DO-OCN Jesus calls himself Master, but He calls me friend. calls himself holy, and I call Him S-Vt-DO-OCA Jesus wonderful.

Jesus wept, yet He sang.

Essential Sentence

S-Vi

Cd/D

Introduced Week 6

A compound sentence consists of at least two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (a semicolon may be used in some cases).

112 MODEL SENTENCES

Cd/D

Structure/ Pattern Purpose

Compound Structure

G

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Essentials of the English Language

411

Student

Compound Structure

G

Introduced Week 6

A compound sentence consists of at least two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (a semicolon may be used in some cases).

112 MODEL SENTENCES

H

CONJUNCTIONS

Master

Introduced Week 6

A conjunction is a word used to connect words, phrases, or clauses together. (C)

COORDINATING  conjunctions connect grammatically equal words or groups of words such as compound subjects, compound verbs, or compound sentences. Remember: FANBOYS. for

and

nor

but

or

yet

so

SUBORDINATING  conjunctions introduce adverbial subordinate clauses and relate them to the word they modify. They are used in complex sentences. Remember: www.asia.wub. when

while

where

.

as

since if

although

More subordinating conjunctions: after how though as if in order that until as long as lest whenever as soon as so that wherever as though than why before that but that

.

whereas

unless because

Examples: We play when we are young. When we are young, we play. Since we are young, we play. We play because we are young. We play before we eat. Note: some of these words can also be used as prepositions.

CORRELATIVE   conjunctions always come in pairs and connect words of equal importance. either/or Examples:

neither/nor

both/and

either Tom or Sue neither Tom nor Sue both Tom and Sue

subordinate clauses and relate them to the word they modify. They are used in complex sentences. who whose

whom which

Example: The boy who cried wolf was not being truthful.

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not only/but also

not/but

whether Tom or Sue not only Tom but also Sue not Tom but Sue

RELATIVE PRONOUNS  introduce adjectival

that

whether/or

Essentials of the English Language

CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS accordingly although besides consequently furthermore

hence however indeed moreover meanwhile

nevertheless similarly still therefore thus

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CONJUNCTIONS

Student

Introduced Week 6

A conjunction is

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A DV E R B S

Master

Introduced Week 7

An adverb modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. (AV) Adverbs answer the questions:

How?    When?    Where?    Why? How often?

How much?

To what extent?

Under what condition?

Degrees of Adverbs:

Types of One-Word Adverbs: SIMPLE

one-word adverb, no suffix

FLEXIONAL

adjective + -ly

AFFIRMATIVE

yes, certainly

NEGATIVE

no, not, never

POSITIVE

swiftly

COMPARATIVE

more swiftly

SUPERLATIVE

most swiftly

Types of Multi-Word Adverbs: PHRASE

The boy ran in the field.   Where did the boy run? in the field

CLAUSE

The boy ran when his friend called him. When did the boy run? when his friend called him

NOTE: Sometimes a noun can be used as an adverb.

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(We ran home. We ate pizza yesterday.)

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A DV E R B S

Student

Introduced Week 7

An adverb modifies Adverbs answer the questions:

Types of One-Word Adverbs:

Degrees of Adverbs:

Examples:

Examples:

Types of Multi-Word Adverbs: Examples:

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PREPOSITIONS

Master

Introduced Week 8

A preposition relates a noun or pronoun to another word. (Pr) Prepositions are always followed by a noun which is called the “object of the preposition.” The preposition, its object, and the modifiers between them create a “prepositional phrase.” Parent Tip: While studying this list, take a moment and teach your student about alphabetical order.

about

concerning

past

above

down

regarding

across

during

since

against

except

through

along

for

throughout

amid

from

to

after

among

toward

around

in

at

inside

under

atop

into

underneath

like

until

near

up

before behind

upon

below

of

beneath

off

with

beside

on

within

between

onto

without

beyond

out

but

outside

by

over

Note: sometimes two or more words can act as a preposition: according to due to in addition to up to ahead of because of by way of in back of in case of in front of in spite of instead of out of with the exception of except for along with away from Note that some of these words can act as adverbs when they are not followed by a noun. For example: outside used as a preposition: I went outside the house. outside used as an adverb: I went outside.

INTERJECTIONS An interjection is a word or phrase used as a strong expression of feeling or emotion. (I)

An interjection is set apart from the sentence by either an exclamation mark or a comma. Oh! My dog has fleas!

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PREPOSITIONS

Student

Introduced Week 8

A preposition

a___________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ b___________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

c___________________ d___________________ ____________________

p___________________ r___________________ s___________________

e____________________ f___________________ ____________________

t___________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

i___________________ ____________________ ____________________ l___________________ n___________________ o___________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

u___________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ w___________________ ____________________ ____________________

INTERJECTIONS An interjection is

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I am.

3rd Person Plural

They

2nd Person Plural You (all)

We

They are being.

You are being.

We are being.

He/She/It is being.

3rd Person Singular He/She/It

1st Person Plural

You are being.

I am being.

Present

They are.

You are.

We are.

2nd Person Singular You

I

They

1st Person Singular

3rd Person Plural

2nd Person Plural You (all)

We

He/She/It is.

3rd Person Singular He/She/It

1st Person Plural

You are.

I

2nd Person Singular You

1st Person Singular

Present

They were being.

You were being.

We were being.

He/She/It was being.

You were being.

I was being.

Past

being Future

They will be being.

You will be being.

We shall be being.

He/She/It will be being.

You will be being.

I shall be being.

Future

They will be.

You will be.

We shall be.

He/She/It will be.

You will be.

I shall be.

PROGRESSIVE TENSE (form of “to be” + present participle)

They were.

You were.

We were.

He/She/It was.

You were.

I was.

Past

SIMPLE TENSE

was, were

am, are, is Present

been

Past Participle:

They had been.

You had been.

We had been.

He/She/It had been.

You had been.

I had been.

Past

They will have been.

You will have been.

We shall have been.

He/She/It will have been.

You will have been.

I shall have been.

Future

Introduced Week 9

They have been being.

You have been being.

We have been being.

He/She/It has been being.

You have been being.

I have been being.

Present

They had been being.

You had been being.

We had been being.

He/She/It had been being.

You had been being.

I had been being.

Past

They will have been being.

You will have been being.

We shall have been being.

He/She/It will have been being.

You will have been being.

I shall have been being.

Future

PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE (form of “to have” + “been” + present participle)

They have been.

You have been.

We have been.

He/She/It has been.

You have been.

I have been.

Present Participle:

To Be

PERFECT TENSE (form of “to have” + past participle)

(Use the infinitive form to name a verb) 

INDICATIVE MOOD, ACTIVE VOICE

V E R B A N ATO M Y: Past:

Master

Present:

K

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Student

I

We

We

3rd Person Plural

They

2nd Person Plural You (all)

1st Person Plural

3rd Person Singular He/She/It

2nd Person Singular You

I

They

1st Person Singular

3rd Person Plural

2nd Person Plural You (all)

1st Person Plural

3rd Person Singular He/She/It

2nd Person Singular You

1st Person Singular

Present:

K

Present

Present

Past

SIMPLE TENSE

Past

PROGRESSIVE TENSE (form of “to be” + present participle)

Past:

Future

Future

Present Participle:

Future

Introduced Week 9

Present

Past

Future

PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE (form of “to have” + “been” + present participle)

Past

PERFECT TENSE (form of “to have” + past participle)

Past Participle:

To      

Present

(Use the infinitive form to name a verb) 

     MOOD                 VOICE

VE R B A NATOM Y:

L

ADJECTIVES

Master

Introduced Week 10

An adjective modifies a noun or pronoun by describing, qualifying, or limiting. (AJ)

Adjectives answer the questions:

What kind?

Which?



How many?

Whose?

Types of One-Word Adjectives: DESCRIPTIVE

tell “what kind?” beautiful, glorious, honest, crimson, smooth, brave, etc. DEGREE

POSSESSIVE

LIMITING

strong (positive), stronger (comparative), strongest (superlative)

tell “whose?” Possessive Noun Adjectives

the girl’s smile, the book’s cover

Poss. Proper Noun Adjectives

Joshua’s book, Timothy’s diligence

Possessive Pronoun Adjectives

my, your, his, her, its, our, their

tell “how many?” or “which?” Article adjectives

a, an (indefinite articles); the (definite article)

Number

one car, a million books

Demonstrative

This book is wonderful.

Indefinite

Some books are on the shelf.

Interrogative

Which book was on the shelf?

Types of Multi-Word Adjectives: PHRASE

The boy in the field chased the cat. Which boy? The boy that is in the field.

CLAUSE

The boy who played baseball chased the cat. Which boy? The boy who played baseball.

NOTE: Sometimes a noun can be used as an adjective.

   What kind of collar? dog collar   What kind of light? porch light 420

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ADJECTIVES

Student

Introduced Week 10

An adjective

Adjectives answer the questions:

Types of One-Word Adjectives: tell “what kind?” beautiful, glorious, honest, crimson, smooth, brave, etc.

tell “whose?”

tell “how many?” or “which?”

Types of Multi-Word Adjectives:

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Master

Cx/E Cx/E

Jesus, who is man, is God. Jesus, who is good, is holy.

Cx/Imp. Cx/Imp. Cx/Imp.

Does Jesus, who wept tears, love me? Is Jesus, who is man, God? Is Jesus, who is good, holy?

S-Vt-IO-DO (S-Vt-IO-DO)

S-Vt-DO-OCA (S-Vt-DO-OCA)

S-Vt-DO-OCN (S-Vt-DO-OCN)

S-Vt-IO-DO (S-Vt-IO-DO)

S-Vi (S-Vi) S-Vt-DO (S-Vt-DO) S-Vl-PN (S-Vl-PN) S-Vl-PA (S-Vl-PA)

S-Vt-DO-OCA (S-Vt-DO-OCA)

Make me a crown, when I give you my heart. Make me a saint, as you make me an heir. Make me holy, while you make me loving.

Be selfless, while I am selfish.

Be King, since You are God.

Love me, because it changes me.

Weep, if you love.

Jesus, who made you a home, made me a crown! Jesus, who calls himself Master, made me a saint! Jesus, who calls himself holy, made me holy!

Jesus, who is good, is holy!

Jesus, who is man, is God!

Jesus, who wept tears, loves me!

Jesus, who laughed, wept!

Essential Sentence

Structure: S - Simple, Cd - Compound, Cx - Complex, Cd-Cx - Compound-Complex

Cx/Imp.

Cx/Imp.

Cx/Imp.

Cx/Imp.

Cx/E

Did Jesus, who laughed, weep?

Jesus, who calls himself holy, made me holy.

Did Jesus, who made you a home, make me a crown? Did Jesus, who calls himself Master, make me S-Vt-DO-OCN (S-Vt-DO-OCN) a saint? Did Jesus, who calls himself holy, make me S-Vt-DO-OCA (S-Vt-DO-OCA) holy?

S-Vi (S-Vi) S-Vt-DO (S-Vt-DO) S-Vl-PN (S-Vl-PN) S-Vl-PA (S-Vl-PA)

S-Vt-DO-OCA (S-Vt-DO-OCA)

Cx/E

S-Vt-DO-OCN (S-Vt-DO-OCN)

Cx/E

Jesus, who wept tears, loves me.

Cx/E

Cx/E

Jesus, who laughed, wept.

S-Vi (S-Vi) S-Vt-DO (S-Vt-DO) S-Vl-PN (S-Vl-PN) S-Vl-PA (S-Vl-PA) S-Vt-IO-DO (S-Vt-IO-DO)

Structure/ Pattern Purpose

Essential Sentence

Jesus, who made you a home, made me a crown. Jesus, who calls himself Master, made me a S-Vt-DO-OCN (S-Vt-DO-OCN) saint.

S-Vi (S-Vi) S-Vt-DO (S-Vt-DO) S-Vl-PN (S-Vl-PN) S-Vl-PA (S-Vl-PA) S-Vt-IO-DO (S-Vt-IO-DO)

Introduced Week 13

A complex sentence is a sentence that consists of at least one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause (www.asia.wub).

112 MODEL SENTENCES

KEY: Purpose: D - Declarative, E - Exclamatory, Int. - Interrogative, Imp. - Imperative

Cx/Int.

Cx/Int.

Cx/Int.

Cx/Int.

Cx/Int.

Cx/Int.

Cx/Int.

Cx/D

Cx/D

Cx/D

Cx/D

Cx/D

Cx/D

Cx/D

Structure/ Pattern Purpose

Complex Structure

M

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Student

Introduced Week 13

Essential Sentence

Essential Sentence

Structure: S - Simple, Cd - Compound, Cx - Complex, Cd-Cx - Compound-Complex

Structure/ Pattern Purpose

A complex sentence is a sentence that consists of at least one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause (www.asia.wub).

112 MODEL SENTENCES

KEY: Purpose: D - Declarative, E - Exclamatory, Int. - Interrogative, Imp. - Imperative

Structure/ Pattern Purpose

Complex Structure

M

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We

3rd Person Plural

They

2nd Person Plural You (all)

We

They are having.

You are having.

We are having.

He/She/It is having.

3rd Person Singular He/She/It

1st Person Plural

They had.

You had.

We had.

He/She/It had.

You had.

I had.

Past

SIMPLE TENSE

They were having.

You were having.

We were having.

He/She/It was having.

You were having.

I was having.

Past

Future

having

They will be having.

You will be having.

We shall be having.

He/She/It will be having.

You will be having.

I shall be having.

Future

They will have.

You will have.

We shall have.

He/She/It will have.

You will have.

Present

They had had.

You had had.

We had had.

He/She/It had had.

You had had.

I had had.

Past

Future

Introduced Week 15

They will have had.

You will have had.

We shall have had.

He/She/It will have had.

You will have had.

I shall have had.

PERFECT TENSE (form of “to have” + past participle)

had

Past Participle:

To Have

They have been having.

You have been having.

We have been having.

He/She/It has been having.

You have been having.

I have been having.

They had been having.

You had been having.

We had been having.

He/She/It had been having.

You had been having.

I had been having.

Past

They will have been having.

You will have been having.

We shall have been having.

He/She/It will have been having.

You will have been having.

I shall have been having.

Future

PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE (form of “to have” + “been” + present participle) Present

They have had.

You have had.

We have had.

He/She/It has had.

You have had.

I have had.

Present Participle:

I shall have.

PROGRESSIVE TENSE (form of “to be” + present participle)

You are having.

I am having.

Present

They have.

You have.

We have.

2nd Person Singular You

I

They

1st Person Singular

3rd Person Plural

2nd Person Plural You (all)

1st Person Plural

He/She/It has.

3rd Person Singular He/She/It

I have.

You have.

I

Present

had

Past:

(Use the infinitive form to name a verb) 

INDICATIVE MOOD, ACTIVE VOICE

V E R B AN ATO M Y:

2nd Person Singular You

1st Person Singular

has, have

Present:

N

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Student

I

We

We

3rd Person Plural

They

2nd Person Plural You (all)

1st Person Plural

3rd Person Singular He/She/It

2nd Person Singular You

I

They

1st Person Singular

3rd Person Plural

2nd Person Plural You (all)

1st Person Plural

3rd Person Singular He/She/It

2nd Person Singular You

1st Person Singular

Present:

N

Present

Present

Past

SIMPLE TENSE

Past

PROGRESSIVE TENSE (form of “to be” + present participle)

Past:

Future

Future

Present Participle:

Future

Introduced Week 15

Present

Past

Future

PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE (form of “to have” + “been” + present participle)

Past

PERFECT TENSE (form of “to have” + past participle)

Past Participle:

To      

Present

(Use the infinitive form to name a verb) 

     MOOD                 VOICE

VE R B A NATOM Y:

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We

3rd Person Plural

They

2nd Person Plural You (all)

We

They are playing.

You are playing.

We are playing.

He/She/It is playing.

3rd Person Singular He/She/It

1st Person Plural

They played.

You played.

We played.

He/She/It played.

You played.

I played.

Past

They were playing.

You were playing.

We were playing.

He/She/It was playing.

You were playing.

I was playing.

Past

Future

They will be playing.

You will be playing.

We shall be playing.

He/She/It will be playing.

You will be playing.

I shall be playing.

Future

They will play.

You will play.

We shall play.

He/She/It will play.

You will play.

Present

They had played.

You had played.

We had played.

He/She/It had played.

You had played.

I had played.

Past

They will have played.

You will have played.

We shall have played.

He/She/It will have played.

You will have played.

I shall have played.

Future

Introduced Week 19

They have been playing.

You have been playing.

We have been playing.

He/She/It has been playing.

You have been playing.

I have been playing.

Present

They had been playing.

You had been playing.

We had been playing.

He/She/It had been playing.

You had been playing.

I had been playing.

Past

They will have been playing.

You will have been playing.

We shall have been playing.

He/She/It will have been playing.

You will have been playing.

I shall have been playing.

Future

PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE (form of “to have” + “been” + present participle)

They have played.

You have played.

We have played.

played

Past Participle:

To Play

PERFECT TENSE (form of “to have” + past participle)

He/She/It has played.

You have played.

I have played.

playing

Present Participle:

I shall play.

PROGRESSIVE TENSE (form of “to be” + present participle)

You are playing.

I am playing.

Present

They play.

You play.

We play.

2nd Person Singular You

I

They

1st Person Singular

3rd Person Plural

2nd Person Plural You (all)

1st Person Plural

He/She/It plays.

3rd Person Singular He/She/It

I play.

You play.

I

Present

SIMPLE TENSE

played

Past:

(Use the infinitive form to name a verb) 

INDICATIVE MOOD, ACTIVE VOICE

V ER B A NATO M Y:

2nd Person Singular You

1st Person Singular

play

Present:

O

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Student

I

We

We

3rd Person Plural

They

2nd Person Plural You (all)

1st Person Plural

3rd Person Singular He/She/It

2nd Person Singular You

I

They

1st Person Singular

3rd Person Plural

2nd Person Plural You (all)

1st Person Plural

3rd Person Singular He/She/It

2nd Person Singular You

1st Person Singular

Present:

O

Present

Present

Past

SIMPLE TENSE

Past

PROGRESSIVE TENSE (form of “to be” + present participle)

Past:

Future

Future

Present Participle:

Future

Introduced Week 19

Present

Past

Future

PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE (form of “to have” + “been” + present participle)

Past

PERFECT TENSE (form of “to have” + past participle)

Past Participle:

To      

Present

(Use the infinitive form to name a verb) 

     MOOD                 VOICE

VE R B A NATOM Y:

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S-Vt-DO-OCN (S-Vt-

Did Jesus, who made you an heir, make me a saint, and did He make me His son?

KEY: Purpose: D - Declarative, E - Exclamatory, Int. - Interrogative, Imp. - Imperative

t-DO-OCA (S-Vt-DO- Did Jesus, who made you kind, make me holy, Cd-Cx/Int. S-V OCA) / S-Vt-DO-OCA and did He make us joyful?

OCN

Cd-Cx/Int. DO-OCN) / S-Vt-DO-

Did Jesus, who made you a home, make me a crown, and did He give me a family?

Jesus, who made you kind, made me holy, and He made us joyful!

Jesus, who made you an heir, made me a saint, and He made me his son!

Jesus, who made you a home, made me a crown, and He gave me a family!

Jesus, who is good, is holy, and He is alive!

Jesus, who is man, is God, and He is King!

John, consider me holy, while God makes me joyful, but Paul, consider me depraved. Structure: S - Simple, Cd - Compound, Cx - Complex, Cd-Cx - Compound-Complex

t-DO-OCA (S-Vt-DOCd-Cx/Imp. S-V OCA) / S-Vt-DO-OCA

John, consider me a servant, as God makes me an heir, but Paul, call me human.

John, weep, because you love, and Paul, sing. S-Vt-DO (S-Vt-DO) / S-Vt- John, preach the gospel, because it DO changes people, and Paul, love the poor. S-Vl-PN (S-Vl-PN) / S-Vl- John, be a witness, since you are a believer, PN and Paul, be a servant. John, be holy, because He is holy, yet Paul, S-Vl-PA (S-Vl-PA) / S-VlPA be merciful. S-Vt-IO-DO (S-Vt-IO-DO) John, give me hope, when I give Jesus my / S-Vt-IO-DO heart, and Paul, give me grace.

S-Vt-DO-OCA (S-Vt-DOOCA) / S-Vt-DO-OCA

S-Vt-DO-OCN (S-Vt-DOOCN) / S-Vt-DO-OCN

S-Vt-IO-DO (S-Vt-IO-DO) / S-Vt-IO-DO

S-Vl-PA (S-Vl-PA) / S-VlPA

S-Vl-PN (S-Vl-PN) / S-VlPN

t-DO-OCN (S-Vt-DOCd-Cx/Imp. S-V OCN) / S-Vt-DO-OCN

Cd-Cx/Imp.

Cd-Cx/Imp.

l-PA (S-Vl-PA) / S-VlCd-Cx/Int. S-V Is Jesus, who is good, holy, and is He alive? PA

t-IO-DO (S-Vt-IOCd-Cx/Int. S-V DO) / S-Vt-IO-DO

Cd-Cx/Imp.

Cd-Cx/Imp.

Is Jesus, who is man, God, and is He king?

l-PN Cd-Cx/Int. S-V (S-Vl-PN) / S-Vl-PN

t-DO Cd-Cx/Int. S-V (S-Vt-DO) / S-Vt-DO

Jesus, who laughed, wept, yet He sang!

Essential Sentence

S-Vt-DO (S-Vt-DO) / S-Vt- Jesus, who wept tears, loves me, and He DO loves you!

S-Vi (S-Vi) / S-Vi

Pattern

Cd-Cx/Imp. S-Vi (S-Vi) / S-Vi

Cd-Cx/E

S-Vt-DO-OCA (S-Vt-DO- Jesus, who made you kind, made me holy, and OCA) / S-Vt-DO-OCA He made us joyful.

Cd-Cx/D

Did Jesus, who laughed, weep, yet did He sing? Does Jesus, who wept tears, love me, and does He love you?

Cd-Cx/E

Jesus, who made you an heir, made me a saint, and He made me His son.

S-Vt-DO-OCN (S-VtDO-OCN) / S-Vt-DOOCN

Cd-Cx/D

Cd-Cx/E

S-Vl-PA (S-Vl-PA) / S-VlJesus, who is good, is holy, and He is alive. PA

Cd-Cx/D Cd-Cx/E

Cd-Cx/E

Jesus, who is man, is God, and He is king.

S-Vl-PN (S-Vl-PN) / S-Vl-PN

Cd-Cx/D

Jesus, who made you a home, made me a crown, and He gave me a family.

Cd-Cx/E

Jesus, who wept tears, loves me, and He loves you.

S-Vt-DO (S-Vt-DO) / S-Vt-DO

Cd-Cx/D

S-Vt-IO-DO (S-Vt-IODO) / S-Vt-IO-DO

Cd-Cx/E

Jesus, who laughed, wept, yet He sang.

S-Vi (S-Vi) / S-Vi

Cd-Cx/D

Cd-Cx/D

Structure/ Purpose

Essential Sentence

Structure/ Pattern Purpose

Cd-Cx/Int. S-Vi (S-Vi) / S-Vi

Introduced Week 21

A compound-complex sentence consists of at least two independent clauses (like a compound sentence) and at least one subordinate clause (like a complex sentence).

112 MODEL SENTENCES

Compound-Complex Structure

P

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Student

Essential Sentence

KEY: Purpose: D - Declarative, E - Exclamatory, Int. - Interrogative, Imp. - Imperative

Structure/ Pattern Purpose

Introduced Week 21

Pattern

Essential Sentence

Structure: S - Simple, Cd - Compound, Cx - Complex, Cd-Cx - Compound-Complex

Structure/ Purpose

A compound-complex sentence consists of at least two independent clauses (like a compound sentence) and at least one subordinate clause (like a complex sentence).

112 MODEL SENTENCES

Compound-Complex Structure

P

Q

VERBALS

Master

Introduced Week 21

A verbal is a verb that is used as another part of speech.

Infinitive

An infinitive is to + a verb used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. To fly is my desire. To fly is the subject noun.

To

fly is

desire my

Gerund

A gerund is a present participle verb form used as a noun.

Flying is my desire. Flying is the subject noun.

ing

Fly

is

desire my

Participle

A participle is a verb usually ending in -ed, -en, -t, or -ing used as an adjective.

Flying machines are fascinating. Flying tells what kind of machine, so it is an adjective in this sentence.

machines

are

fascinating

F

lying

NOTE: Gerunds and infinitives can be used in any noun role: direct objects, predicate nominatives, etc.

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Q

VERBALS

Student

Introduced Week 21

A verbal is

My example:

My example:

My example:

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THE SECOND TRAIL OF ESSENTIALS:

DIALECTIC DISCUSSIONS

During dialectic discussions, students use the six analytical tasks as a guide to analyzing sentences. The sentences are listed by week. The Analytical Task Sheet is used as a tool to help students focus on the six tasks. Typically a student should copy the Grammar Mastery charts first as that information will be used on the practice sentences. They are found at the front of this section because they will be used every week. First-Tour Students: The first two sentences for each week are the easiest. First-tour students should concentrate on those sentences, going through the assigned tasks with a parent. Most students enjoy working on one sentence a day on the whiteboard with a parent, discussing the options as they go. Students can look over Sentences 3–5 and classify them by structure, purpose, and pattern and stop there. The student and/or parent can create additional sentences that follow the same pattern for extra practice. When introduced, students can begin to use Quid et Quo for more prompts for describing and classifying the words of a sentence. Second-Tour Students: Second-tour students should be able to complete all the tasks on the first three sentences and classify Sentences 4 and 5. They should make up some sentences similar to the first sentence for extra practice. They may be able to complete all the tasks on all the sentences discussing the options with a parent as they work together on the whiteboard. Students can use Quid et Quo for more prompts on describing and classifying the words of a sentence. Third-Tour Students: Third-tour students should be able to complete all the tasks on all five sentences with assistance from a parent, working together on the whiteboard. They should also be looking for similar sentence patterns in the literature they read or in the Bible or in poetry. Parents can find and share additional sentences for practice on Classical Conversations Connected, the online forum and file-sharing site for CC families. Students can use Quid et Quo for more prompts for describing and classifying words of a sentence.

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W E E K LY P R AC T I C E S E N T E N C E S

Semester 1

1. Use the Analytical Task Sheet to analyze each sentence. 2. Use the Practice Sentence Sheets following the weekly lessons to check your answers. Week 1 No sentences Practice Grammar Mastery Charts

Week 8 1.  Who loved me, and who died? 2.  Did Dad love me, and has he brought presents? 3.  Jesus loved me, and He died? 4.  Who loved obeying, and who died in my place? 5.  Who loved to bless me, and who died for me?

Week 2 No sentences Practice Grammar Mastery Charts Week 3 1.  Jesus wept. 2.  Oh! Jesus wept! 3.  Tom jumped. 4.  Wow! Sally and Jim skipped! 5.  Jesus, our most wonderful Lord, has wept for all of us. Week 4 1.  Weep. 2.  Dance. 3.  Yell. 4.  Sincerely weep. 5.  Weep with the joy of the Lord.

Week 9 1.  Our Lord is God, so Jesus is my Savior. 2.  The boy is my brother, so he is my friend. 3.  The bear is a carnivore, and it is a mammal. 4. Our Lord is a holy God, so Jesus became my wonderful Savior. 5. The One, who saved me, is a holy God, so I became His disciple. Week 10 1.  Jesus is holy, for He is just. 2.  The boy is kind, so he is content. 3.  The bear is large, and he is angry. 4.  The Creator of the universe is holy, for He is always just. 5. The Creator of the universe is marvelous, for not any artist is always perfect.

Week 5 1.  Who wept? 2.  Did Jesus weep? 3.  Jesus wept? 4.  Did Jesus pray often for me? 5.  Did the weeping Jesus pray?

Week 11 1.  Jesus is holy, for He is God! 2.  The boy is kind, so he is my friend! 3.  The bear is a carnivore, and he is hungry! 4. The bear and the lion are carnivores, and they seem hungry! 5. The dancing bear is a circus creature, and he looks ravenous!

Week 6 1.  Jesus loves me, so Jesus loves you. 2.  Jesus loves everyone, and He expects peace. 3.  Jesus greatly loved me, and He died for me! 4.  Jesus wanted to weep, but He also wanted to rejoice. 5.  Jesus wept and sang loudly. Week 7 1.  John, preach the Gospel, and Paul, love the poor. 2.  Play, and we shall work tomorrow. 3.  Jane, empty the trash cans, and Jack, dust the furniture. 4.  Love the true King, and you will never experience fear again. 5.  Sally, clean the house, and Tom, help Mother.

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Week 12 1.  Who is God, and who loves me? 2.  Is Jesus holy, and does He save people? 3.  The Spirit is God, and He loves me? 4. The Holy Spirit is one part of the triune God, and He loves the whole world? 5. Is the loving family part of God’s kingdom, and are they a light to the whole world?

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WEE K LY P R AC T I C E S E N T E N C E S Week 13 1.  Jesus, who died for me, made me a crown. 2.  The man who sells ice cream gave me a scoop. 3.  The cat gave me, who feeds him, a scratch! 4. Jesus, the Lord of Lords, who died for me, made me a beautiful crown! 5.  Loving Jesus, who died for me, made all who obey a crown. Week 14 1. Make all who believe a crown. 2.  Quickly give the boy who bit me a punishment. 3.  Offer your friend who is visiting some cake. 4.  Give all of the saints who believe a gold crown. 5.  Bring all of the children who laugh a special cookie. Week 15 1.  Did Jesus, who died for me, make me a crown? 2.  Will the boy who bit me send me an apology? 3.  Will your friend serve us some cake when we visit tomorrow? 4. Did John Wesley, who was saved by our singing Savior, write me a hymn that praises God? 5. Did Martin Luther King, Jr., who was revered by his dedicated followers, give the world a speech that praised freedom? Week 16 1.  Jesus, who saved us, made me a saint. 2.  The boy who eats jam elected me captain. 3. Your friend called me “Rascal” when he visited yesterday. 4. Jesus Christ, our Lord, who saved us, made me a believing saint. 5. Jesus, Lord and Savior, who established the world, created me a saint. Week 17: 1.  Jesus, who loves us, makes me holy! 2.  The boy who bit me painted the yellow kitchen green! 3.  Your friend made me happy although I was not feeling well! 4.  Jesus, who loves to help children, appointed me holy! 5.  Jesus, who wants all to be saved, considers me holy! Week 18 1.  Make me, who is unworthy, a saint. 2.  Paint the house, which is ugly, white. 3.  Call me, who made my friends miserable, a traitor. 4.  Consider me a gourmet because you find my pizza delicious. 5.  Consider me, who loves and prays for you, a good friend. Week 19 1.  Who made me a saint so that I shall live forever? 2.  Who created you a sister so that you may bless others? 3.  Who made him captain so that we shall win games? 4.  Who appointed him mayor when we were out of town? 5.  Who appointed him mayor when voting was illegal in town?

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Semester 2

Week 20 1.  Who made me holy so that I shall live forever? 2.  What made the cooks happy so that they baked cakes? 3.  What made her happy when he arrived home early? 4.  Who painted the ugly wall yellow so that it looks incredible? 5.  Did I paint the ugly wall yellow while I was sleep-walking? Week 21 1.  Jesus, who watches him, wept, for He loves to find lost sheep. 2.  The boy who made the team jumped, so he broke his leg. 3. My brother, who loves sports, yelled, but he enjoyed the game while he watched it on TV. 4. My father, the carpenter, who works hard for a living, yelled, but he enjoyed watching the game. 5. My mother, who owns a quilt shop, sews, but she would rather read books. Week 22 1.  Jesus, who rose, is King, and He is glorified. 2.  The girl who made the team is my friend, so I am joyful. 3. My father is hilarious when he tells jokes, and I am often his inspiration. 4. The bookcase which fell on the floor is Sally’s piece of furniture, so Sally is angry. 5. The car which won the race is my friend’s automobile, so she is feeling beside herself with joy. Week 23 1. Jesus gave me, who is undeserving, life, and He gave me peace that passes understanding. 2. The squirrel which climbed the tree threw me a peanut, so I gave him water. 3. My new boat sprang leaks when I sailed it, so the seller refunded me my money. 4. The town hall which caught on fire gave the firemen fits, yet they tried to douse the flames. 5. The local YMCA which collapsed in the fire gave the councilmen headaches, yet they tried to repair the damage. Week 24 1. Jesus, who rose from the grave, made me an heir, and He made me wonderful. 2. The wind, which was cold, made our lake rough, but we still chose to sail. 3. My boat quickly began to sink since it had developed a leak, and the situation made me frightened. 4. The apples which were green made our stomachs ache, but we still enjoyed them. 5. Tom and Sally, who were married in April, gave us hope, for we had chosen them role models for our lives.

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A N A LY T I C A L TA S K S H E E T q Copy the Grammar Mastery chart for the week before doing the Analytical Tasks, as the information from the chart will be used in the tasks.

Dictate Sentence

2

Check Mechanics

3

Question Confirmation

TASK

TASK

1

TASK

q  Is there a subject? q  Is there a verb? q  Does it begin with a capital letter? Using the Question Confirmation pro-

cess, identify the job/role of each word in the sentence and label each word in the gray box above the sentences. Once the words are labeled, you can classify the sentence by identifying the structure, pattern(s), and purpose.

q  Does it have an end mark? q Words spelled correctly? q  Does it make complete sense? q  Other punctuation and capitalization?

STRUCTURE: q Compound (FANBOYS connecting clauses)

q Complex (www.asia.wub or who/which clause)

q  Simple (neither) q Compound/Complex

TASK

(both)

4

PATTERN:

q S-Vi q S-Vt-DO q S-Vl-PN q S-Vl-PA q S-Vt-IO-DO q S-Vt-DO-OCN q S-Vt-DO-OCA

PURPOSE:

q Declarative (.) q Exclamatory (!) q Interrogative (?) q Imperative (. or !)

Diagram Confirmation

q  Diagram the sentence in the space below:

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TASK

A N A LY T I C A L TA S K S H E E T

5

(continued)

Modification Confirmation

q  Rewrite by Purpose: (If the sentence is not simple, use the first independent clause for this task.) D E C L A R AT I V E :

E X C L A M AT O R Y :

I N T E R R O G AT I V E :

I M P E R AT I V E :

q  Rewrite by Structure: (If the sentence is not simple, use the first independent clause for this task.) SIMPLE:

COMPOUND:

COMPLEX:

COMPOUND-COMPLEX:

q  Rewrite with modifiers: (Add adverbs, adjectives, phrases, and clauses.)

q  ADVANCED TASK Rewrite by Voice (Change from active voice to passive voice.)

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PREP. PHRASE: adverbial, adjectival

INTERJECTION

CONJUNCTION: coordinating, subordinating, correlative, conjunctive

Affirmative, Negative

Simple: positive, comparative, superlative

Person: 1st, 2nd, 3rd

Number: singular, plural

Form: simple, perfect, progressive, perfectprogressive

Tense: present, past, future

Type: intransitive, transitive, linking, helping

Limiting: articles, numbers, other pronouns

Possessive

Other Pronoun: demonstrative, interrogative, indefinite, reflexive, relative

  Gender: masc., feminine, neuter, common

  Number: singular, plural

  Person: 1st, 2nd, 3rd

Personal Pronoun:

concrete, abstract, collective, compound

Type: common, proper

Number: singular, plural

Write the sentence, one word per block.

Label the usage (job or role) of each word.

S-Vi

Sentence Pattern(s):

S-Vl-PN

Exclamatory

S-Vt-DO

Declarative

Sentence Purpose:

Compound

Quid et Quo Basic Format

Simple

6

Sentence Structure:

TASK

NOUN

PRONOUN

ADJECTIVE

VERB

®

ADVERB

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S-Vl-PA

S-Vt-IO-DO

Interrogative

Complex

S-Vt-DO-OCN

Imperative

Compound-Complex

S-Vt-DO-OCA

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Essentials of the English Language

VERBAL: gerund, participle, infinitive

PREP. PHRASE: adverbial, adjectival

INTERJECTION

CONJUNCTION: coordinating, subordinating, correlative, conjunctive

Affirmative, Negative

Flexional: positive, comparative, superlative

Simple: positive, comparative, superlative

Type: intransitive, transitive, linking, helping Tense: present, past, future Form: simple, perfect, progressive, perfect progressive Number: singular, plural Person: 1st, 2nd, 3rd Voice: active, passive Mood: indicative, subjunctive, imperative

Limiting: articles, numbers, other pronouns

Possessive

Descriptive: positive, comparative, superlative

Personal Pronoun:   Case: nominative, objective, possessive   Person: 1st, 2nd, 3rd   Number: singular, plural   Gender: masc., feminine, neuter, common Other Pronoun: demonstrative, interrogative, indefinite, reflexive, relative

Number: singular, plural Type: common, proper concrete, abstract, collective, compound

Write the sentence, one word per block.

Label the usage (job or role) of each word.

S-Vi

Sentence Pattern(s):

S-Vl-PN

Exclamatory

S-Vt-DO

Declarative

Sentence Purpose:

Compound

S-Vt-IO-DO

Interrogative

Complex

S-Vl-PA

Quid et Quo Detailed Format

Simple

6

Sentence Structure:

TASK

NOUN

PRONOUN

ADJECTIVE

VERB

®

ADVERB

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S-Vt-DO-OCN

Imperative

Compound-Complex

S-Vt-DO-OCA

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