EDUC 101 Module

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Philippine Education System Workbook

Ma. Theresa L. de Villa

University of the Philippines OPEN UNIVERSITY

Philippine Education System: Workbook By Ma. Theresa L. de Villa

Copyright © 2006 Ma. Theresa L. de Villa and the University of the Philippines Open University

Apart from any fair use for the purpose of research or private study, criticism or review, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means ONLY WITH THE PERMISSION of the author and the UP Open University.

Published in the Philippines by the UP Open University Office of Academic Support and Instructional Services 2/F National Computer Center C.P. Garcia Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 Telephone 63-2-426-1515 Email [email protected]

First printing, 2006

Layout by Cecilia Geronimo-Santiago

Printed in the Philippines

Table of Contents

Unit I – Education, Society and Development Module 1 Concepts on Education and Schooling; Socio-cultural Context of Education Objectives, 3 References, 10 Module 2 Education and Development; School and Community; Teacher’s Roles The Magna Carta for Public School Teachers Objectives, 11 Unit II The Philippine Education System Module 3 Historical Overview from the Pre-colonial Period to Post-Edsa I Years Objectives, 25 Pre-Colonial Period, 26 Spanish Colonial Period, 26 American Colonial Period, 27 Japanese Occupation, 28 Module 4 Governance and Management (Administrative and Organizational Structure, Financing, Planning and Policy Formulation, Issues and Problems) Objectives, 35 Unit III

Curricular Programs from Pre-school to Graduate

Module 5 Policies, Practices and Developments, Issues and Problems Objectives, 39 Early Childhood Care and Development, 39 Basic Education (Elementary and Secondary Levels), 44 The Alternative Learning System, 47 Vocational-Technical Education, 50 Tertiary and Graduate Education, 52

Module 6 Teacher Education in the Philippines History, Policies, Practices, Development Issues and Problems Objectives, 57 After EDCOM, 59 Initiatives on Teacher Education Reforms, 61 Unit IV Selected Topics Module 7 Education for Special Learners/Indigenous People’s Education/ Madrasah Education Objectives, 65 On Special Education, 65 Education for Special Learners/Indigenous Peoples Education/Madrasah Education, 69 On Indigenous Peoples Education, 69 On Madrasah Education, 73 Module 8 Language of Instruction and Language of Learning/Globalization and Education/ICT and Education Objectives, 77 On Globalization and Information and Communication Technology, 83 Module 9 Gender in Education/Media and Education/Special Subjects — NSTP/Scouting, Art, Music Objectives, 87 Towards a Relevant Social Transformation Through Education, 98

Unit I

Module 1


Unit I

Education, Society and Development

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2 EDUC 101: Philippine Educational System

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Unit I

Module 1


Module 1

Concepts on Education and Schooling; Socio-cultural Context of Education


n the recent past, the importance of education has been underscored both by the public and private sectors as reflected by the numerous undertakings and other activities initiated and/or supported by them. These sectors recognize the significant role of education in the development of the community, society and the nation as a whole. This module will focus on the concept of education as viewed by the different sectors of a community or society and the impact of education on their lives. It will examine education from a socio-cultural perspective.

Objectives After going through this module you will be able to: 1. Differentiate education from schooling; 2. Formulate a generalization on the concept of education and schooling from the perspective of representative sectors of a community/society; and 3. Formulate your own definition of education vis-a-vis schooling.

As a people, we have always taken pride in our educational attainment. A typical Filipino home displays prominently the diplomas and graduation pictures of family members. It does not matter whether these members graduated from preschool or elementary school. However, a family member who graduates from high school will have a bigger photograph, and an even bigger one and in full color (courtesy of the town’s or city’s well-known studio) for those who earned a college degree. The diplomas are framed and so are the photographs. These are placed in an area which any visitor in the house will not miss.

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4 EDUC 101: Philippine Educational System

Is an educated individual the same as a schooled individual? Is schooling the same as education? In our native language we have the terms may pinag-aralan and nakapag-aral. Is one who is nakapag-aral necessarily also a may pinag-aralan? Columnist Conrad de Quiros explains his view on one of these terms. There is much to be said for the folk wisdom that goes by the phrase may pinag-aralan. I really do not know how to translate it. It does suggest someone who has gone to school. We Filipinos also put a great deal of premium on academic credentials and... we do have a great deal of respect for professionals which are what you become when you walk away with a degree from college. But I don’t know that that is all the phrase says. Its expectations of civility and tolerance must suggest something more, something akin not just to knowledge or academic excellence but to judiciousness and wisdom. These are things you get not just from the classroom but from the streets, not just from the universities but outside of it. Life is the greatest school of all, experience is the greatest teacher there is. I should think the phrase may pinag-aralan encapsulates those things too. I’ve never regretted my decision to leave school. And to this day, I do think the horde that did so in my time became far more educated than their counterparts who stayed in school, earned a lot of letters after their names, and became lawyers and politicians, or worse, both. They became more may pinag-aralan than those who merely thought of themselves and their future. Indeed, in more ways than we can possibly think, or thank enough. Many of them did not live to see the fruits of their labors, perishing in the hills during martial law and after. Many more lived only to see a bitter harvest. But they did get to learn—and practice— the true essence of education. Which is to use knowledge for the betterment of

the community, which is to use learning to leave a better world for the children.

The expensive schools people go to do not always improve their stature. They often only make them look worse, by emphasizing the contrast between their height of academic achievement and their depth of ignorance. People who do this miss the point of learning, which has nothing to do with schools but doing the most for the least of one’s fellows. De Quiros, 2001

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Unit I

Module 1


Activity 1-1 1. In Mr. de Quiros’ opinion, what is the main difference between education and schooling? Do you agree with his opinion? Explain your answer.

2. According to the same article, what is learning?

3. In what ways can an individual get educated without going to school? Give specific examples.

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6 EDUC 101: Philippine Educational System

Activity 1–2 Interview five people in your community, each one representing the different sectors in your area. These may include farmers, fisherfolk, carpenters, market vendors, sidewalk vendors, street vendors, sales clerks, drivers, machine operators, househelpers, etc.Your interviewees need not be all adults. Get the following information: gender age highest educational attainment main reason/s for dropping out of school [for those who did] skills learned in school they find useful in their present work skills they learned outside of school concept/definition of education and its significance in life views on nag-aral and may pinag-aralan

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Unit I

Module 1


Activity 1-3 After completing Activity 1-3, answer the following questions: 1. What does your interview show about education and schooling as “agents for social transformation”?

2. Recall your own experiences as a student. Did these experiences reflect the statement that “schools serve society as agents of cultural transmission and the continuity of the status quo”? (Josefina R. Cortes, 1993).

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Activity 1-4 Based on your interview and your personal experiences as a student, define education.

SAQ 1-1 Read each statement. Write T if it is True, and F if False. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

“Education” and “schooling” are the same. Education is important to improve one’s quality of life. An educated individual has gone to school. A schooled individual may not be educated. People in a community have similar definitions of education.

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Unit I

Module 1


The years of research on education have resulted in “new and improved” approaches to teaching to produce better learners. Hence, education has been referred to as “the teaching-learning process”. In the late 1990s, however, the view on education has changed. Some educationists prefer to use learning not education. In other words, learning has replaced education in their vocabulary. Learning is as crucial as breathing. Learning is the process through which we become the human beings we are, the process by which we internalize the external world and through which we construct our experiences of that world. The focus on learning is not on the providers or processes Education has always reflected the forces which shape society. Jarvin, Holford and Griffin, 1998

Activity 1-5 As a student, do you agree that the term education should be replaced by learning? Explain your answer in a brief paragraph by giving specific examples based on your experiences and observations.

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ASAQ 1 1. F

2. T

3. F

4. T

5. F

References Cortes, J.R. (1993). Explorations in the theory and practice of Philippine Education. Foundations for Continuing Education (Forec). Holford, J., Jarvis, P., Griffin, C. eds. (1998). The theory and practice of learning. London: Kogan Page.

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Unit I

Module 1


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Unit I

Module 2


Module 2

Education and Development; School and Community; Teacher’s Roles; The Magna Carta for Public School Teachers


aving seen education from the viewpoints of the different sectors in your community, and from Western educationists, and from a sociocultural context, you will now examine the interrelationship between education and development. If a nation’s literacy level is an indicator of its economic level, what does the present state of Philippine economy say about our literacy level? The module will also discuss the role/s of the teacher in both the school and the community, and will take a closer view of The Magna Carta for Teachers. With the increasing demand for our skilled workers, nurses, teachers, engineers, doctors and other professionals worldwide, have we become the knowledge suppliers and/or the slaves of the world? Our country cannot compete with the more developed nations in terms of salaries, benefits and post-graduate training. The exodus has alarmed concerned citizens. Reports say that the number of students enrolling in nursing and edu-

Objectives After going through this module you will be able to: 1. Illustrate the interrelationship between education and development; between the school and the community; 2. Discuss the teachers’ roles in the school and the community and its development; and 3. Explain the significance of The Magna Carta for Teachers and critique its implementation.

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cation has considerably quadrupled due to the constant and increasing demand overseas. Hospitals in some provinces have stopped operations as there are no doctors nor nurses available. Colleges and universities even in Metro areas have been unable to keep their seasoned and competent teachers. Armed with their masters degrees (and a few with their doctorate degrees), the teacher-applicants have found work abroad, in some instances, in unwelcoming places. Filipino Teachers Abroad: Their Stories and Stories About Them Story 1 Let me go on the expose some darker sides of society concerning foreign teachers. I have a suspicion that some nonnative teachers sometimes get frustrated because they don’t really get the recognition they deserve. It is not unusual for Thai parents to look down upon non-farang teachers of English. It’s completely unrelated to the quality of the teachers involved and has everything to do with face. Parents will gain a huge amount of face when they can tell their family and friends that little Somchai is being taught by Mike, a fair-haired, blue-eyed farang teacher from the USA, compared to a very small amount of face when the teacher is brown-skinned Felicito from the Philippines Story 2 But her story is not unique. All the teachers share the similar if not difficult experiences of adjusting to life away from family, teaching in schools with students who would tend to ridicule them for their accent. They all share a common story of survival and triumph. During a year filled with daily frustrations and triumphs, culture shock and homesickness, the Filipino teachers turned to each other, Mercado was the elected leader of the group, organizing weekly Bible study sessions and prayer meetings.

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Unit I

Module 2


In the teachers’ personal lives, a lot happened in a year. Three couples in the group fell in love, with one marrying at Baltimore City Hall. One teacher spent six weeks in the hospital before giving birth to a premature baby. One was unable to return home for her mother’s funeral. Eileen Mercado’s roommate nearly died of pneumonia. Teacher Eileen saw her family on a Web camera almost daily, but her absence clearly took a toll on her children, particularly 3-year-old Adrienne, who started crying a lot and throwing tantrums. Earlier this month, when Mercado told her over the phone she’d be home soon, Adrienne ran outside and looked to the sky for her plane. She sobbed when she learned her mother wasn’t coming that day. Last week when the school was out for summer, most of the teachers took their much-needed break as well and went home to the Philippines. They will come back this August to fulfill the second year of their three-year contracts. This time. I think it won’t be as difficult for them since their families will be coming over to stay.

In her book, Explorations in the Theory and Practice of Philippine Education, 1965 – 1993, Dr. Josefina R. Cortes of the UP College of Education, quoted Harbison and Myers (exponents of the human capital theory) who stated that education is important to national development. Not capital, nor income, nor material resources constitute the ultimate basis for the wealth of nations.... human beings are the active agents who carry forward national development. Clearly, a country which is unable to develop the skills and knowledge of its people and to utilize them effectively will be unable to develop anything else (Cortes, 1993, p.32).

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Activity 2-1 What situations in your community prove or disprove the statement of Harbison and Myer on the direct correlation between education and development?

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Unit I

Module 2


Activity 2-2 1. Recall the teachers you fondly remember. List down the qualities that made them endearing not only to you but to the other students as well.

2. Share your list with other students in this class. As a team, make a composite listing of the qualities of an effective teacher.

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Activity 2-3 Based on your composite list, what do you think are the different roles of a teacher in school and in the community as a whole? Give at least two examples to show the active role of teachers in the development of the community. Write these as an anecdote.

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Unit I

Module 2


You and your classmates have given your own picture of an effective teacher. However, through the years, the teacher has been stereotyped as Miss Tapia, stern, strict, unsmiling, an old maid, with ultra-conservative manners and looks—hair neatly combed back and tied into a bun (no fringes), bespectacled, dressed in a long-sleeved and closed-neck dress that reaches three-inches below the knees, shod in closed black shoes, and carrying the ubiquitous big handbag and umbrella. Is this stereotype still true today?

Activity 2-4 Based on your observations, and on anecdotes and news heard, compare and contrast the teachers in the 1980s and at the present.

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Activity 2-5 Write a profile on the teachers today after interviewing two teachers in your community, one from a public school and another from a private school. Get the following information: gender age number of years in teaching roles and responsibilities actually given and performed as teachers

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Unit I

Module 2


Activity 2-6 After doing Activity 2-5, share answers with four (4) other members of the class. Make a composite listing of the roles and responsibilities actually given and performed as teachers.

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SAQ 1-1 Which statements are correct? 1. Countries with high levels of human resource development have high levels of economic growth. 2. Education and national development are positively correlated. 3. Education and economic development are closely intertwined. 4. Education oftentimes fails to make an impact on the economy. 5. The Philippines’ high literacy rate translates to an improved economy.

For Activities 2-7 to 2-9, you will need to have a copy of the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers (R.A. 4670). You can find this in your school library or on the Internet.

Activity 2-7 Case 1 Rhea is a young and personable teacher in a school in a coastal area. She teaches Science to Grade 5 students who have difficulty reading the Science textbook in English and comprehending the basic concepts. To solve this problem, Rhea decided to hold her class by the shore one Saturday. Her class enjoyed the change and were very participative since the class was conducted in the dialect. a. What possible violations did Rhea commit?

b. Can she invoke any provision in The Magna Carta for Public School Teachers to support her activities? If so, what are these?

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Module 2


Activity 2-7 continuation Case 2 Rey has a very strong religious background such that he never fails to pray and integrate Christian values in his lessons. He teaches Araling Panlipunan and Values Education. He often quotes Christian proverbs and asks his classes to start and end each class session with a prayer. Since he teaches at a public school, some of the students are surprised at the change. However, in time, his students get used to the routine. a. What problems may arise from Rey’s approach to teaching?

b. Did he violate any provisions in the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers? If so, what are these?

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Activity 2-7 continuation Case 3 After teaching at a private school for five years, Samuel gets accepted at a national high school as a Chemistry teacher. Aside from teaching, he coached the school team which won in the division science competition. During one of the pre-final events, Samuel found out about the DOST scholarship for science teachers. He filled out an application form but his principal refused to endorse this since Samuel has rendered service to the school for just over a year, and there are other teachers more qualified to apply. a. What should Samuel do?

b. Can he invoke provisions in The Magna Carta for Public School Teachers? If so, what are these?

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Unit I

Module 2


Activity 2-8 Interview two teachers in your community, one from a public school and the other from a private school. Ask them the following questions: 1. What provisions in the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers are you familiar with?

2. Which of these provisions have you benefited from?

3. What suggestions can you give regarding the implementation of the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers?

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Activity 2-9 Do you believe that all the provisions in The Magna Carta for Teachers will improve not only the status of teachers but also the state of Philippine education? What suggestions can you give for a better and more effective implementation?

ASAQ 1-1 Statements 1, 2, 3

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Unit II

Module 3 25

Module 3

Historical Overview from the Pre-Colonial Period to Post-Edsa I Years


e have seen the significance of education or learning on community and national development, and how education is viewed by the different sectors, which by and large, also reflect the socio-cultural context within which education or learning takes place. In what ways have these different concepts developed? This module will look at our education system from a historical perspective for a better understanding of the continuing malaise in the system, and hopefully, take part in improving the system as education students.

Objectives After going through this module you will be able to: 1. Trace the history of the Philippine Education System; and 2. Identify, describe and critique the significant changes implemented during each period.

At the beginning of each schoolyear, the problems that have beset the education system for years recur. These are problems such as shortage of classrooms, bloated classes, lack of teachers, lack of books, lack of chairs, and even ghost school staff. Some observers say that there are more serious problems: corruption, incompetent teachers and administrators, an irrelevant curriculum, and an indifferent community. And to make matters worse, there has been an exodus of competent teachers to other foreign countries where their monthly salary is higher and the benefits more and better.

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Newspaper reports say that due to the high cost of education, another kind of exodus has happened, that of students moving from private schools to public schools where cost is very minimal. This movement has unnecessarily bloated the public school population such that class size ranges from 60 to 100 students per class. This happens in densely populated areas. Imagine the problem a teacher has to face compounded by the lack of chairs or desks and books. Were these problems faced by our ancestors prior to the colonization period? What was the education system like during the pre-Hispanic times?

Pre-Colonial Period Philippine historians Teodoro Agoncillo and Renato Constantino have refuted reports that the country was “not civilized” and “primitive” before the arrival of the Spaniards. The existence of the alibata is one of the evidences of civilization. We had our own system of writing. To date, the Tagbanuas of Palawan and the Mangyans of Mindoro still use their own system of writing too. During those early times, writing implements included barks of trees and sharpened pieces of iron, palm leaves and bamboo nodes. Schools existed where children were taught reading, writing, religion and incantation, and self-defense. Most schools offered learning the Sanskrit and arithmetic. However, instruction was also done at home where parents and other elders in the household taught children obedience to elders, and loyalty to tribal laws and traditions (Agoncillo, 1990; Alzona, 1932).

Spanish Colonial Period With the arrival of the Spanish colonizers, there was a shift in the focus of education. Thru administrative orders, the alibata was replaced by the Romanized script and the Castilian language was mandated as the medium of instruction. More importantly, education was put under the control of the religious orders, specifically, the friars. However, the friars “brutalized the masses” that led to the establishment of the Frailocracy, one of the basic issues illustrated by Jose Rizal in his two novels. Schools were opened separately for boys and men, and for girls and women. The objectives of the opening of schools were to popularize education and to train “religious, obedient, and instructed teachers”. As such, courses included Christian doctrine, morality and history, reading and writing in Spanish, UP Open University

Unit II

Module 3 27

arithmetic and practical agriculture, rules of courtesy, and Spanish history. Girls in the elementary level had special courses on sewing, mending and cutting while those in high school had instrumental music (piano), painting and sketching, sewing and embroidery, and domestic science (Tiongson, 1990). The University of Sto. Tomas, then, was the only institution of higher learning offering courses such as medicine, pharmacy, midwifery, and jurisprudence and canons (law). It is interesting to note the problems that persisted at that time. One of these was the lack of equipment: desks, chairs, writing materials. Students were also often absent such that there were times when the classrooms were empty especially during the planting and harvesting seasons, during feastdays of secular officials and religious personalities, and during storms, and floodings. Corporal punishments were also given: pinching, beating with the use of the ruler, and paddling. During the brief period after the success of the Philippine revolutionaries against Spain, the leaders of the Republic tried to infuse nationalism in the education system. Tiongson reported that while the Malolos Constitution stipulated Tagalog as the national language, Spanish still dominated the curriculum.

American Colonial Period We are all familiar with the events that preceded the arrival of the Americans as the new colonizers, as well as that of the Thomasites, heralding the institution of English as the new medium of instruction. If the Spanish leadership used religion to take control of the colony, the American leadership used education. As part of its benevolent assimilation approach, the public school system was instituted making it obligatory for all children to go to school. This was welcomed by the parents as education was given free. English and Mathematics dominated the curriculum, and the teaching of religion was prohibited. In the high school, the study of Latin and Spanish classics were replaced by the study of English language and Anglo-American literature. Required courses included general science, algebra, geometry, physics and U.S. history and government. In 1908, the University of the Philippines (U.P.) was established through a charter. The U.P. curriculum was patterned after some American universities. The U.P. Charter states that the University was created “to realize the Filipino’s dream of a state institution of higher learning entirely free from clerical control.”

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Japanese Occupation Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere—this was the basic policy of the Japanese. Fully aware of the great impact of the two colonial periods on the Filipino psyche, the Japanese officials set out to “remold” the Filipino. According to Ricardo Jose (1998), the military administration outlined the basic principles of education in the Philippines. Some of these included the following: cut dependence on Western nations and instead, foster a New Filipino culture, spread the Japanese language and eventually end the use of English, focus on basic education and promote vocational education and inspire the people with love of labor. As a result, social sciences and literature were de-emphasized while vocational education and service to the country were given much focus. To win the sentiments of the Filipinos, the use of Tagalog was encouraged, specially in literature. This move was further bolstered with the installation of Jose P. Laurel as President of the Second Philippine Republic. He created the National Education Board to look into curriculum changes and develop a more relevant education program. His administration advocated the use of the national language and the teaching of Asian history and culture. He also mandated that only Filipinos should teach Filipino history. Jose considered such moves as President Laurel’s form of resistance against the Japanese.

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Activity 3-1 Which of the subjects you took up in the elementary and high school were influenced by the colonial system of education? Which of these subjects do you consider significant in preparing you for college work? for everyday life?

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Activity 3-2 Compare and contrast the text you have just read with the history of the Philippine education system found in the following website: What changes were implemented? What laws legislated these changes?

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Activity 3-3 Maraming Pilipino ay nananatiling ”walang pakialam, walang interes, at walang komitment.” May pagkamanhid na nagaganap kaugnay ng mga usapin sa moralidad kaya madalas inuunawa na lamang yaong mga bagay na di dapat palagpasin; ang kasamaan ay hindi nasusugpo dahil lubhang abala ang mga tao sa pagkayod ng ikabubuhay. Kung gusto nating tayo’y umunlad, hindi ito dapat magpatuloy. Sinipi mula sa Pinoy Times, Lunes, Marso 5, 2001, p. 4. Express your agreement or disagreement to the statement above. Give concrete examples. In what ways have colonial education developed this apathy or lack of interest? In what ways can the present system of education help solve this problem?

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SAQ 3-1 Answer the following questions briefly: 1. What system of writing was replaced by the Romanized script?

2. What basic tenets were children taught during the precolonial period?

3. What was the basic method of teaching during the Spanish and American colonial periods?

4. Why did Pres. Laurel’s administration advocate the use of the national language?

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ASAQ 3-1 1. 2. 3. 4.

alibata respect for elders and loyalty to tribal laws and practices memorization to resist Japanese colonization

Activity 3-4 Interview members of your community who were schooled during the American and Japanese occupations. Ask them about the songs they were required to sing. Tape these songs and if possible, transcribe them. Find out in what ways the songs impinged on the consciousness of the Filipinos.

Additional Reading The Continuing Miseducation of the Filipino (An Excerpt) by Renato Constantino.

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Unit II

Module 4


Module 4

Governance and Management (Administrative and Organizational Structure, Financing, Planning and Policy Formulation, Issues and Problems) Objectives


he previous module provided us with a brief overview of the history of the Philippine education system. This module will be on the governance and management of the system as reflected in its structure. Try to find out if the problems and issues emanate from the structure and how the system itself has evolved to provide solutions to recurring problems. With more than 600,000 teachers in its employ, the Department of Education is considered the biggest bureaucracy in the country. But this is just a small portion of the whole education system. Excluded in the statistics are the pre-school and the tertiary levels of education. Prior to 1990 when the Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) was organized, the Philippine education system was highly centralized. All the programs, personnel and financing from the elementary to the tertiary level were under the supervision of the Department of Education. In 1972, the Department was renamed

After going through this module you will be able to: 1. Enumerate and explain the features in the present educational system which could be traced to a historical period; 2. Differentiate the roles, responsibilities, and accountabilities of each section of the education structure; and 3. Identify the issues and problems of the governance and management of the Philippine Education System; 4. Propose workable ways to minimize or solve these problems. UP Open University

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Department of Education and Culture through Proclamation 1081. Regional offices were created and major organizational changes were implemented. Subsequently, the Education Act of 1982 created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports (later renamed Department of Education, Culture and Sports or DECS). The EDCOM was tasked to investigate the problems of Philippine education and implement the provisions in the 1987 Constitution. One of these was the restructuring of the system. Hence, the creation of the following: Commission on Higher Education (CHED), Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), Department of Basic Education (DepEd) and the Council for the Welfare of Children (CWC). In October, 2004, the Office of the President of the Philippines issued Executive Order No. 366, s. 2004 entitled “Directing a Strategic Review of the Operations and Organizations of the Executive Brach and Providing Options and Incentives for Government Employees who may be Affected by the Rationalization of the Functions and Agencies of the Executive Branch. This EO also known as the Rationalization Plan or Rat Plan directs all Department Secretaries to conduct “a strategic review of the operations and organization of all component units . . . for purposes of: a. focusing government efforts and resources on its vital/core services, and b. improving the quality and efficiency of government services delivery by eliminating/minimizing overlaps and duplication, and improving agency performance through the rationalization of service delivery and support systems, and organization structure and staffing.” Source:

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Unit II

Module 4


Activity 4-1 Visit the websites below and get acquainted with the four national bodies overseeing the education system of the nation. Find out about the following: Legal basis for their creation Mandate Organizational structure Policies Programs Present your findings in a chart. Post it on the discussion board.

Activity 4-2 Which of the four national bodies do you consider the most vulnerable to corruption? Explain your answer.

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Activity 4-3 Visit the following sites to find out the changes in the administrative and organizational structure as presented in the Rationalization Plan of these agencies. Show these in not more than ten (10) slides in Power Point Presentation. Remember each slide should not have more than five (5) lines and to cite your source/s.

Activity 4-4 Based on your personal experiences as a student, what are the issues and problems that have confronted each body? List at least three for each one and rank them. Suggest a solution for the topranked issue/problem.

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Module 5

Policies, Practices, Developments Issues and Problems


n the previous module, we studied the gover nance and management of the system as reflected in its structure. We also analyzed if the problems and issues emanate from the structure and how the system itself has evolved to provide solutions to recurring problems. In this module, we will examine the objectives of each level as embodied in the legal bases, thereby providing us with the basic framework for the curricular programs at the different levels namely, preschool, basic education (elementary and high school), vocational-technical education and tertiary.

Early Childhood Care and Development

Objectives After going through this module you will be able to: 1. Analyze the curricular programs at the different levels; 2. Identify and discuss the issues and problems in the curricular programs and their implementation; and 3. Propose workable ways to minimize or solve these problems.

All educational institutions shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral

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character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency. Section 3 (2), Article XIV, The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines 1987 Mathematics, history, astronomy, biology, geography, literature, music, Latin, psychology, government, citizenship, philosophy, reading, chemistry, art, reading, calculus, GMRC, algebra, geometry, poetry, microbiology, molecular biology . . . The list contains subjects which you have heard about but are not totally familiar with because they were not part of the curriculum when you were attending school. These were the subjects meant to contribute to the operationalization of the constitution’s mandate to all educational institutions. Recall the first time you attended classes. You were either three years old or six. If younger, you were lucky enough to have the opportunity to attend pre-school, either at a privately run center or at a public or barangayadministered center. What lessons did you have? How long did you stay in school? What skills did you learn? Did these skills help you adapt and “survive” your elementary school years? Let us now briefly review the restructuring of the Philippine education system as reflected in their legal bases. Focus on the curriculum as reflected in the objectives. After the EDCOM report was released in 1993, most of its recommendations were implemented. One of these was the creation of separate bodies to take charge of the different levels in the education system. Hence, Republic Act 8980 promulgated a comprehensive policy and a national system for Early Childhood Care and Development or the ECCD Act. The ECCD System includes health, nutrition, early education and social services programs that should provide for the basic holistic needs of young children from 0 to 6 years old. To ensure the promotion of their optimum growth and development, one of the programs to be institutionalized is

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the Day Care Service which can be community, church or school based. The objectives of the National ECCD System are: To achieve improved infant and child survival rates by ensuring that adequate health and nutrition programs are accessible to young children and their mothers from the pre-natal period throughout the early childhood years; To enhance the physical, social, emotional, cognitive, psychological, spiritual and language development of young children; To enhance the role of parents and other caregivers as the primary caregivers and educators of their children from birth onwards; According to the ECCD Act, the ECCD curriculum should focus on the children’s total development according to their individual needs and social background. Specifically, the curriculum has the following basic policies: It shall promote the delivery of complementary and integrative services for health care, nutrition, early childhood education, sanitation, and cultural activities; It shall use the child’s first language as the medium of instruction.

Activity 5-1 What are the high and low points in your experiences as a preschool child? In what ways were you able to overcome the problems?

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Activity 5-2 Observe a pre-school class. In what ways does the teacher operationalize the basic policies in the ECCD curriculum? You may use the following questions as guides: 1. In what way/s does the teacher begin the class session?

2. What is the sequence of activities?

3. What instructional materials are used?

4. Does the teacher integrate health care, nutrition and sanitation? Cite examples.

5. What medium of instruction is used?

6. In what way/s does the teacher end the class session?

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Activity 5-3 Compare and contrast the pre-school class you attended when you were young, and the pre-school class you observed. You may focus on the following points: subjects, skills, instructional materials and medium of instruction, number of hours per class session.

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Basic Education (Elementary and Secondary Levels) Ang daming dala ng bata!

The school teaches English well.

Madaming pinagaaralan

Di ko makita gamit nung calculus sa buhay ko.

The school can make children read in a month!

You can take the PEPT at age 18 or just be an OSY.

In the previous unit (Module 4), we saw how the education system of the country has been restructured to make it more efficient. What used to be the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) is now the Department of Education (DepEd). We also saw how the EDCOM recommendations were implemented basically to “decongest” the DECS, which, as a national body, is one of the biggest bureaucracies and therefore, prone to graft and corruption. The sports functions, programs and activities were transferred to the Philippine Sports Commission (PSC) and the functions related to culture were assumed by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA). As a result, DepEd has full responsibility over basic education programs and policies. Republic Act 9155 or the “Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001”spells out the framework of governance for basic education and renames the institution as the Department of Education. This legal document states that quality basic education is the right of all citizens and therefore, should be accessible to all “by providing all Filipino children free and compulsory education in the elementary level and free education in the high school level.” It also underscores the inclusion of alternative learning systems for out-of-school youth and adult learners who should be provided with skills, knowledge and values to become caring, self-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens. Noteworthy is the statement on “localization”, and that is “The State shall encourage local initiatives for improving the quality of basic education . . . shall ensure that the values, needs and aspirations of a school community are reflected in the program of education for the children, out-or-school youth and adult learners . . . and schools and learning centers shall be empowered to make decisions on what is best for the learners they serve”.

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However, despite these legal provisions, reports on students’ performance on the basic subjects as Math, Science and English has not been anything but dismal. Reports say that the Philippines ranked fifth and fourth from the last of 46 countries in the international assessment of the mathematics and science skills of 13- and 14-year old students. And the students’ performance in national achievement tests in these two subjects is the same—the students fared poorly with mean percentage scores falling below 50 percent. The result in the English achievement tests was even lower. Experts point out that one reason for this problem is the overloaded curriculum and the short education cycle (which is ten years) while many other Asian countries have either eleven or twelve years. To “decongest” the curriculum and give more time to the learning of English, Math and Science, DepEd implemented the Revised Basic Education Curriculum (RBEC). Moreover, cognizant of immediately responding to recurring problems, DepEd prepared The Education National Development Plan for Children (ENDP), 2000-2025 which aims “to provide the focus for setting local as well as national priorities in education.” The ENDP also considered the key goals set forth at the Jontien Conference in 1990 where the Philippines was a signatory to attain the goal of Education For All (EFA). The Conference defined basic learning needs such as literacy, oral expression, numeracy, problem-solving, as well as basic learning content: knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. These needs and content are essential for “human beings to survive, to develop their full capacities, to live and work in dignity, to participate fully in development, to improve the quality of their lives, to make informed decisions, and to continue learning.” On May 15, 2013, the President of the Republic signed into law Republic Act No. 10533 (An Act Enhancing the Philippine Basic Education System by Strengthening its Curriculum, and Increasing the Number of Years for Basic Education, Appropriating Funds Therefor and for other Purposes. This law is also known as the “Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013”.

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Activity 5-4 Find out the following information on the K to 12 Program: rationale salient features schedule of implementation You may refer to RA 10533 or the Department of Education website.

Activity 5-5 Interview any two of the stakeholders listed below. Find out their opinions on the implementation of the K to 12 Program, specifically on (1) the advantages and disadvantages, (2) problems met, and (3) suggested solutions. Stakeholders: student parent school administrator

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The Alternative Learning System Higher Education

Vocational -Technical Education

Formal Basic Education System

Alternative Learning System

The illustration above shows the relationship among the components of the Philippine Education System. Note that the Alternative Learning System (ALS) is the component that bridges the gap between Formal Basic Education and Vocational -Technical Education since it is designed to be “a parallel learning system that provides a viable alternative to the existing formal education instruction; further, it encompasses both the nonformal and informal sources of knowledge and skills” ( as defined in the Governance Act of Basic Education – RA 9155). To make the system operative, Executive Order No. 356 was released renaming the Bureau of Nonformal Education to Bureau of Alternative Learning System. This system has three major nonformal programs. These are: Basic Literacy Programs: community based program for non-literates (out-of-school children, youth, adults) Accreditation and Equivalency Program: certification of learning for out-of-school youth and adults, 15 years old and above, who are unable to avail of the formal school system, or who have dropped out of formal elementary or secondary education, therefore, have not completed ten years of basic education. Indigenous Peoples (IP) Education Program: a program that aims to develop an IP culture-sensitive core curriculum, learning materials and assessment tools and instruments. It must be underscored that the ALS curriculum is parallel and comparable to the formal school curriculum and has a set of learning competencies for learners in basic literacy, elementary and secondary levels. The following chart illustrates the similarities and differences between ALS and Formal Education System.

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Alternative Learning System

Formal Education System


Community Learning Centers



Facilitator/Instructional Manager - trained in ALS - college graduate (for A & E program) - HS graduate or lower (for Literacy Program)

Classroom Teacher - licensed - education graduate (BSE or BSEE)

Age Requirement None

6 years old and above


Same competencyies as Formal Education System 5 Learning Strands - Communication Skills - Critical Thinking and Problem Solving - Sustainable Use of Resources/ Productivity - Self-development and Sense of Community - Expanding World Vision

Same competencies as ALS 5 Major Subjects - English - Filipino - Math - Science - Makabayan

Learning Materials

Modules - self-paced - self-instructional - indigenous - integrated

Textbooks - teacher-facilitated





Basic Literacy Accreditation and Aquivalency (A&E)

Achievement Tests

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Activity 5-6 Do you believe that the K to 12 Program will improve the quality of basic education in the country? State your reasons.

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Vocational-Technical Education Vocational Technical (Voc-Tech) Education is under the supervision of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority. TESDA was created through Republic Act 7796, enacted in 1994. What is now considered as the Polytechnic Education System includes the Polytechnic Schools and Colleges and Post-Secondary Voc-Tech Education. Considered as post secondary and lower tertiary levels, vocational-technical courses were envisioned to offer non-degree programs that will prepare middle-level personnel and para-professionals for national industries. Hence TESDA is also mandated to develop trade skills standards and trade tests for local, international and foreign organizations. For instance, Filipinos desiring to work as “cultural performers” in Japan and elsewhere have to take a competency test in TESDA. Moreover, this body must develop and strengthen linkages between educational/training institutions and industry. An example of this linkage is one with the MERALCO Foundation which regularly offers short-term training courses. Exceptional trainees/graduates are absorbed into the workforce of the company, but since the programs are duly recognized and accredited by TESDA the trainees are eventually considered qualified by the local industry boards. Two important components of TESDA-recognized programs are the following: Apprenticeship: training within employment with compulsory instruction. Dual System Training: delivery system of quality technical and vocational education which requires training carried out alternately in two venues - in school and in the production plant. That is, the school provides the theoretical foundation and basic training, while the plant develops skills and proficiency in actual working conditions. As such, TESDA works closely with the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) which offers apprenticeship programs. In fact, the Secretary of DOLE sits in the TESDA Board.

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Activity 5-7 Visit the TESDA website ( and note the different programs offered. Which of these are the most popular in terms of demand?

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Activity 5-8 Do you agree/disagree to the mandate given to TESDA by the Executive Department to develop training programs for call centers? Explain your reasons.

Tertiary and Graduate Education The State shall protect, foster and promote the right of all citizens to affordable quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to ensure that education shall be accessible to all. The State shall likewise ensure and protect academic freedom and shall promote its exercise and observance for the continuing intellectual growth, the advancement of learning and research, the development of responsible and effective leader-

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ship, the education of high-level and middle-level professional, and the enrichment of our historical and cultural heritage. Section 2. Declaration of the Policy, Republic Act 7722 (An Act Creating The Commission on Higher Education, Appropriating Funds Therefor and for other Purposes) The policy clearly states that it is the State’s responsibility to protect, foster and promote the right to affordable quality education at all levels ... to ensure that education shall be accessible to all. The policy is also clear that education is the right of every Filipino citizen. Even if parents are not fully aware of this declaration and its contents, every Filipino parent dreams of a college degree for their children. In fact, a degree is seen as one of the ways by which households can escape from dire poverty. Tanging edukasyon lamang ang maipapamana namin at iyan ang isang bagay na di mananakaw ng sinuman. Tertiary or Higher Education includes all post secondary courses ranging from one-or two-year course to the four-year degree and professional programs, including graduate education offered in colleges and universities. The objectives of this main component of the Philippine Education System can be gleaned from the mission statement of The Commission on Higher Education (CHED). Higher Education shall be geared towards the pursuit of a better quality of life for all Filipinos by emphasizing the formation of those skills and knowledge necessary to make the individual a productive member of society and accelerate the development of high-level professionals who will search after new knowledge, instruct the young and provide leadership in the various fields required by a dynamic and self-sustaining economy. Higher Education shall likewise be used to harness the productive capacity of the country’s human resource base towards international competitiveness. Similar to the ECCD schools and Basic Education institutions, CHED institutions are of two general categories: public and private. Public Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are further classified by CHED as follows: State Universities ad Colleges (SUCs): chartered public higher education institutions established by law, administered and financially subsidized by the government; a few have fiscal autonomy while others don’t. Examples: UP, PNU, MSU – with fiscal autonomy

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Local Universities and Colleges (LUCs): established by the local government through resolutions or ordinance; financially supported by the local government concerned Example : Bataan State College CHED Supervised Higher Education Institutions (CSIs): non-chartered public post-secondary education institutions established by law, administered, supervised and financially supported by the government Example: Batangas State University The number of SUCs has grown to 111 (as of 2003 data) and this is attributed to two reasons: phasing out of CSIs and combining them with LUCs; and local politicians’ penchant for immortalizing their families. On the other hand, private higher education institutions are established under the Corporation Code and are governed by the special laws and general provisions of this Code. Non-sectarian institutions are duly incorporated, owned and operated by private entities that are not affiliated with any religious organization. Sectarian institutions are usually nonstock, non-profit but duly incorporated, owned and operated by a religious organization. Whether sectarian or non-sectarian, these private HEIs are expected to implement the policies and standards formulated by CHED. CHED requires the offering of subjects that cover the General Education Program. These are Language (English and Filipino), Mathematics, Natural Sciences (Physical and Biological), Social Sciences (Philosophy, Psychology, etc.), Arts and Humanities. Non-credit but required subjects are Physical Education (PE) and National Service Training Program (NSTP).

Centers of Excellence (COEs) and Centers of Development (CODs) are HEIs (both public and private) which have demonstrated the highest degree or level of standards along the areas of instruction, research and extension. They provide institutional leadership in all aspects of development in specific areas of discipline in the various regions by providing networking arrangements to help ensure the accelerated development of HEIs in their respective service areas.

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Activity 5-9 In what ways have your general education program subjects prepared or not prepared you for the major subjects you have taken? Give specific examples. What suggestions can you give to further improve and standardize the implementation of these GE programs?

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1. Commission on Education 2. Commission on Higher Education 3. Technical Education and Skills Development authority 4. Early Childhood Care and Development 5. Alternative Learning System 6. State Universities and Colleges 7. Revised Basic Education Curriculum 8. Education for All 9. Center of Excellence 10. National Service Training Program

ASAQ 5-1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.


6. 7. 8. 9. 10.


Acronyms are important in the study of the Philippine education system. What does each of the following acronyms mean?

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Module 6 Teacher Education in the Philippines History, Policies, Practices, Developments Issues and Problems


he previous module gave us an overview of the objectives of each level in the education system as embodied in the legal bases in their creation, thereby providing us with the basic framework for their curricular programs. Since teaching and the teacher are important factors at all levels, this module will discuss teacher education in the country—its brief history, some policies, practices, developments as well as some issues and problems.

Brief History

Objectives After going through this module you will be able to: 1. Discuss the history of teacher education in the Philippines; 2. Identify and discuss current issues and problems in teacher education; and 3. Propose workable ways to minimize or solve these problems.

Although teaching was done during the precolonial period and schools were established as formal institutions during the early years of the Spanish colonial period, there were no formal programs for teachers. It is possible that the Spanish colonizers trained teachers to teach the Christian doctrine only. However, in 1860 the Governor ordered the establishment of a normal school in Manila as a “seminary for teachers”. Three years later, laws for the establishment of normal schools for teacher training were passed. According to Lolita Garcia-Rutland, the requirements were: training for the teaching of industry and the arts, trainees should be open only to men, and they must learn to speak and write

58 Philippine Educational System

Castilian fluently (1955). Eventually, the Normal School for Teachers of Primary Instruction for the Natives of the Filipinas Islands was opened on May 17, 1864 under the administration of the Jesuits. It was named Manila Normal School. Since the trainees could not teach in schools for girls, normal schools for women were established. A certificate to teach was given to the graduate based on performance at an examination: sobresaliente (first), ascenso (second), and bueno (third). The graduates were required to render ten years of service to the government. You are all very familiar with the arrival of the Thomasites most of whom were military personnel assigned to teach as part of the program of benevolent assimilation, but instead they organized and supervised schools and had little time to do classroom teaching. The establishment of the public school system created the need for more teachers. In each town where there were many students, young men and women were organized into a teacher’s class where they were taught English, arithmetic, geography and history. After a few months, they were given assignments as teachers who used instructional materials prepared by the American colonizers (Rutland, 1955). Your grandparents might be able to tell you some stories of how teachers were during this period. With the growing number of schools and teachers, the Bureau of Education held in-service trainings for teachers. This was done to raise the educational qualifications of teachers. Soon, institutes and home study programs as well as night schools were organized. By the end of 1925, a four-year normal curriculum had evolved. In the period between 1901 to 1935, the Philippine Normal School (formerly the Manila Normal School) and the College of Education of the University of the Philippines were considered the leaders in high quality teacher education (Rutland, 1955). The UP College of Education required a two-year preparatory course at the College of Liberal Arts. Rutland adds that the 1950s saw the proliferation of the so-called diploma mills in teacher education institutions resulting to an over-supply of teachers. The present situation in the country is almost the same except for the fact that there is now an exodus of quality and qualified teachers out of the country.

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Activity 6-1 Which universities or colleges in your community offer teaching or education degrees? Outline the brief history of its college of education by taking note of the following: date of establishment, Vision, Mission and Goals, enrolment figures, degrees/courses offered. If you were the newly appointed Dean of a College of Education, what changes in the Teacher Education curriculum will you prioritize? Give the rationale.

After EDCOM Cognizant of the significant role of teaching in improving the quality of education in the country, EDCOM recommended important reforms in the teaching profession, some of which are as follows: Enactment of RA 7836, or an Act strengthening the regulation and supervision of the practice of teaching in the Philippines Prescribing Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) Increasing salaries of pubic school teachers with additional remuneration from the local government Enactment of RA 7784, or an Act Strengthening Teacher Education in the Philippines by establishing COEs and creating a Teacher Education Council (TEC) for the purpose

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It is likewise universally recognized that the teacher is the key to the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process by drawing out and nurturing the best in the learner as a human being and a worthy member of society. Thus, this Act aims to provide and ensure quality education by strengthening the education and training of teachers nationwide through a national system of excellence for teacher education. Our vision is a teacher education system whose mission is to educate and train teachers of unquestionable integrity and competence, and who are committed to their continuing professional growth and obligation to help their students grow as responsible individuals and citizens of the Philippines and of the world. Section 1 RA 7784

Activity 6-2 Recall the teachers you had—from pre-school to the most recent past—who exemplified the teachers described in the last paragraph of Section 1. Write a short personal letter to these teachers. Do cite specific situations to avoid generalization. You can use English or Filipino.

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Initiatives on Teacher Education Reforms To directly address the critical problems and issues relevant to teacher education, CHED issued Memorandum Order #11 on April 13, 1999. This memo outlined the Revised Policies and Standards for Teacher Education covering the basic principles and policies in operating a teacher education institution, and more importantly, the new teacher education curriculum. This was assessed by national and international organizations which launched Project CITE (Curriculum Initiative for Teacher Education). The proposed curriculum is composed of general education (40% or 68 units, professional education (30% or 51 units), and major/field of specialization (30% or 51 units). An additional feature is the provision for community exposure through field-based experiences and the inclusion of emerging technologies in the courses. The curriculum was pilot tested in selected COEs and CODs. Private corporations have extended help in the implementation of the program through computer donations and the training of teachers in computer skills. Teachers have been placed under the supervision of the National Educators Academy of the Philippines (NEAP) together with DepEd. CHED Memo No. 11 also includes retention and admission requirements which, hopefully, would improve the quality of teachers. It states that all teacher education institutions must have a system of selective admission and retention of students to ensure that those who enter the teaching profession possess a reasonably high level of scholastic achievement and the appropriate aptitudes, interests, and personality traits. . .. candidates shall have obtained in senior high school an average of at least 85% or its equivalent . . . Applicants with a lower average should pass a teaching aptitude test. The Presidential Commission for Education Reform (PCER) meanwhile, submitted several proposed reforms. Noteworthy among these are : 1) to provide college scholarships to graduating high school students excelling in Math, Science, and English, 2) to limit the number of TEIs only to those qualified based on criteria set, and 3) to restructure the teacher education curriculum. To address the issue on standardization and to rationalize the undergraduate teacher education in the country “to keep pace with the demands of global competitiveness”, CHED issued Memorandum No. 30 in 2004 which spelled out the revised policies and standards for undergraduate Teacher Education Curriculum and Memorandum No. 52 in 2007 which articulates the policies and standards for the administration of the

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Teacher Education curriculum. As a result, the National CompetencyBased Teacher’s Standard (NCBTS) was developed. This defined effective teaching using a single framework. Meanwhile, Memorandum No. 52 spelled out the minimum qualifications of a dean of a college of education, as well as of its faculty. It also set the requirements for the facilities and equipment including internet access. Source:

Activity 6-3 Interview a public school teacher to find out the following: soundness of pre-service preparation, and of in-service training, opinion/s regarding CHED recommendation on admission requirements to TEIs. Include a short paragraph expressing your own opinions and recommendations.

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SAQ 6-1 Read each statement. Write T if it is True or F if it is False. _____ 1. The pre-colonization teachers were trained by each barangay. _____ 2. The home was the first classroom. _____ 3. The Spanish colonizers taught the teachers how to teach Christian doctrines and the Castilian language. _____ 4. Segregation by gender was strictly observed. _____ 5. The Thomasites trained and supervised newly appointed Filipino teachers _____ 6. Pre-service training is under the supervision of DepEd.

ASAQ 6-1 1. F 2. T 3. F UP Open University

4. T 5. F 6. F

Unit IV Module 7 65

Module 7

Education for Special Learners/ Indigenous Peoples Education/ Madrasah Education


n this module, we will examine closely a range of topics considered “special”. We will talk about the needs of special learners, indigenization/localization of the curriculum and the Madrasah Education. We will look into issues which greatly impinge on the future of the education system as we, as a nation, continually struggle to make education truly Filipino without necessarily being myopic. These issues are constantly discussed but have not been fully understood nor given support to develop. This module will just give a general but comprehensive view of the topics and therefore will not discuss lengthily and in depth all the related features and issues.

On Special Education Mylene, a 13-year-old first year high school student, cannot finish any seatwork despite the extra time given by the teacher.

Objectives After going through this module you will be able to: 1. Explain the important features of education for special learners; 2. Explain the significance of indigenization and localization of curriculum and of the IPED and the Madrasah Education to community and national development 3. Identify the main features of Madrasah Education.

Six-year-old Harry cannot keep still and prefers to be alone. Gloria is 20 years old but has features unlike her siblings—flat face, upward slanting eye creases, small ears. Gino is three but can read and write short sentences and is quite adept at painting and drawing. UP Open University

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Darius is a junior student at the university; he goes to school using a pair of crutches; he had poliomyelitis when he was five years old. These are but a few examples of individuals with special needs and who, if they lived many years ago, would have been kept inside the house by parents who feared that they would cause embarrassment and shame to the family. These individuals would have been considered abnormal since they do not exhibit behavior that society considered normal. In fact, in the 17th century, these “abnormal” individuals were classified only into two: the idiots and the insane. However, in the 18th century, sensory-impaired individuals, like the blind and deaf, were recognized as members of society and therefore should also be taught skills. With epidemics, wars, as well as the occurrence of disastrous natural calamities, serious ailments and injuries produced individuals with disabilities, prompting scientists to do in-depth studies and tests on how they could be taught and therefore contribute still to society. Thus teaching procedures and instructional materials were developed especially for this group of people. There were many pioneers who studied and developed this field. Some names that have made significant contributions are the following: Maria Montessori who started the use of task analysis and manipulative materials Samuel Holm who founded the school for the blind Francis Dalton who proved through an experiment that a genius is solely the result of hereditary influences Alexander Graham Bell who invented the hearing aid Thomas Gallaudet who proposed a formal system for Special Education Let us now look at more recent developments in this field. According to a report (2002), Special Education in the Philippines began in 1907 when interest in exceptional and special cases of individuals started. After some years, institutions were established to assist persons with disabilities. Some of these institutions were The Jose Fabella Memorial School (1920), The National Orthopedic Hospital of the Crippled (1945) and the Elsie Gaches Village (1953). Not long after, the Department of Education recognized the need to include Special Education as a special concern. In 1965, the College of Education of the University of the Philippines began offering Special Education subjects and in 1978 as a major area of specialization in the undergraduate program. Other teacher education institutions (TEIs) soon followed because of the increasing UP Open University

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demand for special education teachers. As a separate area of specialization, special education has developed extensively over the years. Changes in the field of education parallel larger changes in society. Most important is the realization that individuals with special needs are equally important in society and need intervention programs. Legislative measures have been crafted and enacted that have made communities more aware of the needs of these individuals. Moreover, more disabilities and/or impairments have been scientifically described as well as treated or alleviated, due to improvement of medical knowledge. The vocabulary of special education has gone through some major changes too, because words used to label or identify persons with special needs should not convey messages and values which may have a stigmatizing effect on them. Hence, the term handicap has been replaced by disability, or impairment. Let’s now look at the definitions of some key terms in the field of special education. What follows is just a broad outline and is not a complete listing. The definitions are instructive but not definitive. Special Education: a specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of a child Learning Disability: a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using spoken or written language that results to inability to listen, think, speak, read, write or do mathematical calculations Hearing Impairments: inability to process linguistic information through hearing Giftedness: cognitive superiority, creativity and motivation that set the individual apart from the majority of other individuals of the same age Mental Retardation (MR): refers to sub-normal intellectual functioning; it is not a disease Autism Spectrum Disorder: a complex developmental disability and neurological disorder affecting the normal development and functioning of the brain in the areas of social interaction and communication skills Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a neurologically-based developmental disability manifested by inattentiveness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity Cerebral Palsy: a neurological disorder that causes permanent disorders of movement and position Down syndrome: a developmental disorder manifested in the physical appearance of the individual as well as delayed development in the social, emotional and intellectual areas; UP Open University

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Activity 7-1 What is your opinion regarding the mainstreaming of students with special needs, that is, including those with visual or hearing impairment in regular classes?

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Activity 7-2 Observe a special education class and note the features that make the class different from the typical classes you’re familiar with.

On Education in Cultural Communities and Indigenization of the Curriculum We are all familiar with the terms Westernization of education and Filipinization of education, the first one referring to the adaptation if not the “straight lifting” of curricular programs, teaching approaches, instructional materials, among others, from the West to the Philippines. The latter, on the other hand, refers to the adaptation of the same to Philippine culture and sensibilities. However, they are often done in terms of names of places, persons and objects. As a result, students or learners often get more confused and alienated from their own environment. Recognizing the need to make education more relevant, individuals, groups and organizations have done researches to improve the curriculum in response to the vast and fast changes taking place everywhere but more so because of the differing cultural landscapes among and within nations despite the impetus of globalization. The Philippines is one such nation whose cultural landscape is as varied and interesting as its people. Though we have a common cultural and linguistic history, the languages and dialects, beliefs and practices are very diverse. We, as educators, must not be disturbed by such differences. In fact, we must “not just tolerate but celebrate” such diversity. This celebration is meant to develop an UP Open University

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appreciation for a legacy, the definitive role of each community and its members (no matter the age and the educational attainment) in sustaining growth and development. Aware of such diversity and of the necessity to realign its curricular programs in education, the Department of Education has embarked on making basic education relevant and still responsive to global changes through the alternative learning system (which we discussed in an earlier module). Coupled with this is the component called Indigenous Peoples Education Program (IPED). Its major aim is to develop an IP culture-sensitive curriculum, learning materials and assessment tools and instruments. To strengthen this program, DepEd ORDER 62 s. 2011 was released in August “Adopting the National Indigeneous Peoples (IP) Education Policy Framework. The Administrative Order states that the Policy Framework is intended to be an instrument for promoting shared accountability, continuous dialogue, engagement and partnership among government, IP communities, civil society, and other education stakeholders.” This approach is supported by various studies. John Dewey’s research posits that learners are more motivated and interested in the learning task than on the output or result. This means that learners are just as focused on the process itself as on the result. Therefore, the learning process must build on the learners’ environment and experiences. Another basis is Paolo Freire’s concept of the literacy process as a “cultural action for freedom” which supports the idea of empowering learners to understand the real conditions of their existence and to work towards their transformation. Some educationists and philosophers refer to this concept as the liberating function of education. Ma. Luisa C. Doronila expounds on the same theory saying that since knowledge remains open-ended, it is always in the process of being constructed by learners “to make sense of their own life situations” (1996). Some recent studies on education in the Philippines also show that effective and relevant education is tied to development. The Philippine Human Development Report of 2000 underscored that basic education is most effectively delivered not in isolation but in conjunction with development efforts. Also, it concluded that the “one-size-fits-all” approach is too rigid, unresponsive and hierarchical to adapt itself to different local circumstances. Despite early efforts to implement one standard—same competencies, methodologies, evaluation system, instructional materials, etc. — national test results showed at the time that students in metro areas generally perform better than those in the CAR and ARMM areas.

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The studies of Alan Bernardo (1998), Ma. Luisa C. Doronila (1996) and of the UP-ERP-CIDS-DECS-CAR (2001) showed the importance of integrating community practices in the teaching-learning process. Cognizant of the marginalization of the indigenous peoples in the whole education process, the Department of Education issued DepEd Order No. 62 s. 2011 entitled “Adopting the National Indigenous Peoples (IP) Education Policy Framework.” Following is a sample of a part of a teaching module that incorporates indigenous knowledge in the DECS curriculum. Subject: Araling Panlipunan Year Level: 2nd to 4th Year TITLE: Ang Kahalagahan ng Tubig sa Pag-unlad ng Cordillera Pangkalahatang Layunin: Naipamamalas ang bahaging ginagampanan ng tubig sa pag-unlad ng kabuhayan sa Cordillera Introduksyon: Ang mga pangunahing kabihasnan ng sinaunang panahon, tulad ng Tsina at India ay naitayo at napatingkad ng tao dahil sa kalapitan ng mga ito sa ilog. Ang pinanggaligan ng tubig ay mahalaga sa agrikultura na pangunahing pinagkukunan ng kabuhayan ng tao at sa paglipas ng panahon ay kanyang nalinang at napaunlad upang maging matatag na paraan ng ikinabubuhay. Aralin 1. Ang sistema ng tubig sa ating mga payo Layunin: 1. Mahinuha ang kahalagahan ng tubig sa pag-unlad ng mga tirahan o pamayanan. 2. Makapaglarawan ng sariling kinaroroonang lugar at ang daloy ng tubig dito. Balik-aral: Ang mga kabihasnan sa mga ilog sa Asya tulad sa India at Tsina. Gawain: Field Trip

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Instruksyon: Magpunta sa pinakamalapit na rice terrace. Tingnan ang mga sumusunod: 1. Pinanggagalingan ng tubig 2. Sistema ng patubig para sa mga palay na nasa payo 3. Gaano kalayo sa pinaggalingan ng tubig ang mga tirahan ng mga tao Pagproseso ng Gawain: Talakayin 1. Sa payong ating pinuntahan, saan nanggagaling ang tubig na dumadaloy sa payo? Gaano kalayo ang tirahan ng mga tao sa pinanggalingan ng tubig? 2. Para sa mga nanggaling sa ibang lugar na may rice terraces, saan nanggagaling ang inyong tubig? Gaano kalayo ang tirahan ng mga tao sa pinagmumulan ng tubig? 3. Gaano kahalaga ang tubig sa agrikultura? 4. May pagkakaiba ba ang sitwasyon ng mga tao sa matandang Tsina at India?

Activity 7-3 1. What are the legal bases of DO 62? 2. What are its sic (6) policy statements?

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On Madrasah Education Madrasah is the Arabic term for school, the plural of which is Madaris. It was introduced in the Philippines in the 13th century by Makhdum Karim, the Arab missionary who built the first mosque in the country in Tubig Indangan, Simunul, Tawi-Tawi. It was in this mosque that the people in the area were taught Islam (Damansong-Rodriguez, 1992). In most communities in Mindanao (and even in Luzon and the Visayas), the Madaris are also the mosques where Quar’anic reading and the Arabic language are taught. Emphasis is on the life and teaching of the Prophet Mohammed, the Arabic system of reading and writing, harmony among people, values and peace according to the ways of Islam. As such, the Madrasah is revered both as an institution of learning and as a symbol of Islam. According to Damansong-Rodriguez (1992), the Madrasah system has twelve years of schooling with four years for each of the following levels: primary (Ibtida’i), intermediate (l’dade) and high school (Thanawi). A madrasah offering a complete twelve-year program is ma’ahad (plural is ma’ahid). If it only offers the primary or intermediate or both, it is called madrasah. The primary and intermediate curriculum includes eight subjects namely, Islamic Studies, Character Building, Arabic Language, Social Studies (Islamic history and geography), Mathematics, Science, English Language and Military and Physical Education. Similarly, the high school curriculum has the same subjects; however, Livelihood Education is taught in lieu of Character Building. To master the use of the Arabic language which is the language of the Q’uran, Arabic is used during exchanges between the teacher and the students, as well as among the students themselves. However, in the primary level, the medium of instruction is the local dialect, which is gradually used less in the high school level where the use of Arabic is encouraged. Similar to the problem that plagues some public schools, not all madaris can provide the complete program. A madrasah may offer only one or two years of primary, intermediate and/or secondary education. This is due to the lack of financial support, of qualified and trained teachers, of instructional materials, facilities and equipment.

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The madaris are privately owned but community-based. They are not financially supported by the government. A madrasah is managed by its owner/s and supported by a head teacher or principal, usually a senior ustadz or teacher. Financial support comes from the tuition of students and from donations from the community. Sometimes, though, some madaris are lucky enough to get support from countries in the Middle East in the form of infrastructure and instructional materials like books. According to Prof. Taha Basman (2002), exchange professors from Saudi Arabia and Egypt sometimes come to teach in some ma’ahid in Mindanao, and missionaries to teach in the madrasah. Students attend classes at the madrasah either on regular days (Monday to Thursday) or on “weekends” (Friday to Sunday). Although Muslims pray five times a day, Friday is the special day for worship. In an effort to help upgrade the madaris, legislators as well as Muslim leaders have initiated moves to integrate the Madrasah System into the Philippine Education System. Hopefully, such moves will help address some problems in education in Mindanao and completely remove the label and the misconception that the madrasah is “a breeding ground for terrorists”. After all, the Madrasah as an institution of learning has legal bases —RA No. 6734 or the Organic Act of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, and the Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act No. 14 or the Education Act of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (Tamano, 1996).

Activity 7-4 If you were a student in the Cordillera, in what ways would the above lesson be interesting and relevant to you?

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Activity 7-5 In what other ways can the Madrasah System be integrated in the Philippine Educational System?

SAQ 7-1 Which of the following statements directly refer to the indigenization of the curriculum? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The Arabic language is taught as regular subject. Local practices are used to explain concepts. Local teachers are encouraged to teach in their own localities. Classes are held outside of the formal school system. The learning process is built on and around the learners’ environment and experiences.

ASAQ 7-1 1



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Module 8

Language of Instruction and Language of Learning/ Globalization and Education/ Information and Communication Technology and Education Objectives


he fast-paced developments in science and technology have impinged on the developments in education. Borderless society, information highway, technology-driven economy—these are but a few of the terms widely used today. In what ways have these changes affected the country’s effort at making education relevant and meaningful to the greater number as well as maintain the integrity of a nation’s history and culture? This module will take a look at three interrelated issues affecting education—medium of instruction, globalization and information technology. Following is a transcription of an actual observation of a Grade 1 class at a laboratory elementary school in Quezon City.

After going through this module you will be able to: 1. Discuss the significance of the language of instruction or language of learning in the teaching-learning process; 2. Compare the different perspectives on globalization and their implications to education; 3. Explain the implications of information and communication technology to education; and 4. Identify and discuss the issues and problems related to the topics and their implications to the education system. UP Open University

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Teacher Class Teacher Class Teacher Class

: : : : :

Magandang umaga, mga bata. Magandang umaga po, Teacher Belen. Anong hugis o shape ang pantay o equal? Square! Circle! Magaling! Anong pagkain ang bilog? : Pizza Pie! (Teacher draws a big circle on the board) Teacher : Ilan kayo sa isang mesa? (Class is grouped with 5 students per table) Class : Lima po. Teacher : Halimbawa bawat isang mesa ay bibigyan ng isang pizza pie. Anong dapat gawin para lahat ay makakain ng pizza? Class : Hatiin po. (Teacher draws a vertical line in the middle of the circle) Ay! Dalawa lang! A student : Teacher, dapat paglimahin po. (Teacher draws lines from the center cutting the circle into five equal parts; she points at one part or slice) Teacher : Ito ay isa (writes 1) ng (draws a short line below it) lima (writes 5). Ito ay... (teacher points at another slice and the class recites in unison) Class : ...isa ng lima. (Teacher points at two slices.) Class : dalawa ng lima; . . . tatlo ng lima . . . apat ng lima . . . lima ng lima. Titser, isa na ulit (referring to the whole pizza pie) This lesson on fractions took barely ten minutes. If it were conducted in English it may have taken longer as the students grapple with the English language as well as with a new mathematical concept. The lesson illustrates that the teaching-learning process is basically a communication process where language plays a significant role (Cortes,1993). As such, Dina Ocampo (2006), in her report on a nationwide consultation regarding the issue, strongly suggests the use of the term language of learning as it is seen from the learners’ viewpoint and who, after all, should be active participants in the whole process. What are some of the most important arguments on the use of Filipino or of the home language as the language of learning? Let us look at the issue from a historical perspective and the concept of education and its role in development as discussed in Unit I. Though there were not enough written documents, history has assumed that the early periods of learning relied heavily on oral literature, and it is safe to assume too that the home language or the community language

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was used. With the development of the writing system, the language of learning remained the same. In the Philippines, we have the alibata as well as the writing forms that are still being used by the Hanunoos of Mindoro. The periods of colonization changed the landscape of learning as the language of the colonizers was forced on the people. The Spanish colonizers burned materials written in the traditional script which they referred to as “the work of the devil”. In the years 1894-1896, the Philippine Assembly passed a bill requiring the use of the native language as language of instruction in all public schools. In 1900 the Military Governor approved the same upon the recommendation of the Superintendent of Schools. Textbooks in the primary grades were in Ilocano, Tagalog, Visayan, Bicol, and English (de Villa, 2001). In 1906, Dr. David B. Burrow, the Head of the Department of Education, approved the offering of Tagalog as a required course in all vocational classes. Subsequently, a bill on the use of the language widely used in the country as language of instruction was submitted to the National Assembly. However, it was rejected by the Philippine Commission. Dr. Burrow was replaced by Mr. Frank White who immediately mandated the use of English as language of instruction. In 1925, the Monroe Commission did a survey on Philippine education. One of the recommendations was the use of the native tongue as the language of instruction. The recommendation was strongly supported by academic leaders notably by Dean Jorge C. Bocobo and Mr. Maximo Kalaw of the University of the Philippines. In the early 1930s the Commission on Public Instruction presented to the Legislature a bill on the use of Tagalog, Visayan, Ilocano, Pangasinense and Kapampangan in teaching together with English. Obviously, the use of the different Philippine languages was encouraged not only by Filipino leaders but by the Americans as well. A not-too-well known initiative was one done by Supt. Pedro Guia of Ilocos Norte. Since many instructional materials were burned or badly damaged during the war, Supt. Guia immediately exhorted his teachers to resume classes using Ilocano as language of instruction. After a few weeks, the school administrators and the teachers noted that the students learned faster. Observers from Manila came. The result of the experiment was read by Mr. Jose V. Aguilar, the Superintendent of Iloilo. He implemented the same experiment but on a wider scale (Grades 1 to 4 in 7 schools, one in the city, three in farming communities, three in fishing communities) using the scientific method. He had an experimental group and a control group. The result was similar to that in Ilocos Norte. The UP Open University

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children learned more and faster in their native or home language. Similar studies have been done in recent years including one by the EDCOM. No less than the Presidential Commission on Education Reforms (PCER) proposed expanding the options for the Medium of Instruction (MOI) for Grade 1 by including the use of the regional lingua franca or the vernacular. Justifications presented were as follows: Chronic dropout problem in many regions will be significantly reduced; traumatic effect of transition from the home to formal schooling will be significantly minimized; Children learn better and more quickly with the use of the lingua franca; The best way to learn a second and third language is to use the structures of the mother tongue. Meanwhile, Josefina Cortes (1993) had the following arguments: English is the universal language of diplomacy, commerce and science; Filipino can adequately meet requirements of formal schooling and intellectual discourse; After almost nine decades of using English as MOI, what advantages do we Filipinos have over our ASEAN neighbors today—economically, politically, culturally and socially?; The experience of European countries shows that English need not be the MOI in order for students to learn and speak it with some degree of proficiency; The use of English as MOI has stifled creative, analytic and abstract thinking, and encouraged rote memory learning among Filipinos. For the advocates on the use of Filipino as MOI or language of learning, they consider the Constitutional provision as the best argument–

Article XIV. Section 6 ...subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate, the Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the educational system.

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Breaking Development On July 14, 2009, the Department of Education issued an Order Institutionalizing Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MLE). The directive replaces the bilingual policy which mandates the use of English and Filipino as medium of instruction. This fundamental educational policy and program, which have validated the superiority of the use of the learner’s mother tongue or fish language in improving learning outcomes and promoting Education for All (EFA). Said policy will be implemented “in the whole stretch of formal education including pre-school and in the Alternative Learning System (ALS).” Enclosed with the Order is the MLE Bridging Plan.

Activity 8-1 In what language did you express yourself best (oral and written) in school? Cite a specific and “memorable” experience.

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Activity 8-2 Express your agreement or disagreement to one of the following observations: English as a MOI is neither beneficial nor practical... due to retirement, emigration and explosive population growth, there are too few teachers qualified to teach everything in English today. Manuel L. Quezon III, The Long View, PDI, Nov. 13, 2006 English should be looked at as a language of empowerment that will facilitate an awakening among our students when they use it to look critically at their place in the greater political, economic and social order. But before we decide what language of instruction will work best in the Philippines, we should ask the question: What is the language of the Filipino student’s dream? Pau M. Fontanos, “What’s the language of our students’ dreams? In Youngblood, PDI, January 28, 2006.

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Globalization and Information and Communication Technology Lately, as one goes over the newspapers’ classified ads, the pages are dominated by announcements from business process outsource (BPO) groups more widely known as call center companies. Streamers and billboards along densely populated areas scream the same. Even job fairs are no exceptions. Highly preferred are applicants fluent both in oral and written English, computer-literate, willing to work long hours, familiar with online technology, etc. Certainly, these were no different from the qualifications required of applicants 20 years ago but with a difference. Newly-hired employees (as agents, trainers) get to travel and cross oceans via the communication highway made possible by different technology forms. That “the world has shrunk” in terms of travel, communication, and trade, is not a recent development. The dominant nations’ thirst for more land, more power is, to use a cliché, as old as history. With the improvement of trade and commerce, expansionism included the establishment of multinational companies in colonized countries whose human and material resources were harnessed. The 1970s to the 1990s saw the rapid transformation and consolidation of the nations of the world—the World Trade Organization (WTO) from GATT, ASEAN, APEC, and the EU. A new word was coined to describe these events —globalization. It is a term that can be viewed from many different contexts and therefore, should be approached with caution and the recognition of many varied and emerging perspectives. To many, globalization is the process of integration of the world community into a common system, economically and socially. It encompasses international trade, migration and diplomacy (Taylor, 1997). A must be in state visits is the signing of trade agreements especially among states or nations where labor and material resources are needed. These documents are variously referred to as bilateral, multilateral, interdependence, or mutual agreements, etc. The recent agreement between the Philippines and Japan calls for the sending of caregivers and nurses to Japan whose elderly population has increased. The influx of temporary migrants to Japan, likewise, will increase and add to the number of Filipinos working in that country. On the other hand, there are more limited options for entry among those who are classified as cultural workers—musicians, dancers, entertainers. Another perspective looks at globalization as “the rapid economic restructuring and integration of various countries through the combination of technological advancement, the opening and dominance of markets, the UP Open University

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campaign for worldwide implementation of the neo-liberal development paradigm of deregulation and liberalization, and intensifying economic crisis and business competition (IBON, 1996). This perspective also views globalization as a phenomenon which may lead to greater inequality by favoring certain income groups over others, for example, skilled labor and owners of capital. This cautious view regards the organization of the WTO and the accompanying agreements as another form of colonialism. The agreements as well as the common rules cover not only trade in goods but also services (which include education) and intellectual property. The operationalization of such rules and agreements are reflected in the privatization of public service components as water, electricity, health and education. Meanwhile, the social scientists’ view refers to globalization as the transformation of time and space or “action at a distance” which happens via instantaneous global communication and mass transportation. Action at a distance refers to the “interconnectedness” of economic, political and cultural activities across the globe (Giddens, 1994). This is manifested everyday, especially in the urban and urbanized areas, where everyone is involved in social processes which are transnational in character: in offices, schools (through reading and/or sending e-mails), in libraries and homes (reading CD-ROM materials, watching movies shot on location in the Middle East or elsewhere via DVD, surfing the net in Internet cafes, eating hamburgers “cloned” in Beijing, Brussels, Bangkok, etc). The list is endless. These complex processes are considered uneven, or even chaotic. Taylor (1997) calls this a set of processes that make supranational connections economically, culturally and politically. Another view considers globalization as a social process in which the constraints of geography on social and cultural arrangements recede and in which people become increasingly aware that they are receding (Waters). As such, boundaries or territories “remain significant but not the most basic organizing principles for social and cultural life”. “Deterritorialization” has been strengthened by cyberspace. Economic globalization and new technologies have impinged on education as part of the cultural environment. The “compression of time and space” has certainly affected pedagogy and curriculum, administration and governance and all other related fields. Global technology forms such as the Internet, and World Wide Web, CD-ROMs, DVDs, satellite TV, etc. have created a wider and faster information superhighway which has also developed alternative systems in education. Likewise, a new breed of teachers has emerged. Moreover, overseas students no longer apply for cultural exchange reasons but for human resource development for the global labor market.

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Universities and colleges “internationalize” their campuses. Note the emergence of UK schools in the country, both in the basic education and tertiary levels: Thames Business School, Reedley International School to name a few. “Internationalization” of the teaching staff and of the curriculum has been done too. It is no wonder then that the best teachers of the country have emigrated not only to the US but to neighboring Asian countries like China. On the other hand, Asian countries, particularly South Korea, have established schools in the country. What ostensibly began as a program to train Koreans in English in the country has created an influx of Koreans nationwide. With the strong push for globalization, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have had a significant impact on education, more specifically in developing models for schools of the future. It must be remembered though that ICTs are tools. They are not the content of the curriculum. Distance and online learning are modes too, not the content. And with such great strides in these tools and modes of teaching and learning, the curriculum has to become more integrated and multidisciplinary. As such, teachers will have to have a basic understanding of many subjects. Specialization may take a backseat for a while. At this juncture, important questions arise: How do governments defend the traditional nation-building purposes of education when the very notion of nation is being reconstituted? To what extent should education policies be analyzed and crafted by departments other than the Department of Education? Will globalization “commodify” education? And more questions will arise.

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Activity 8-3 In what ways can the transition from the traditional to the ICTdriven approach to the teaching-learning process be made easier, and more effective?

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Module 9

Gender in Education Media and Education Special Subjects–NSTP/ Scouting, Art, Music


t this juncture in our course, we will continue to look at how changes in the local, national and international landscapes impact on the education system. Various organizations have called on stakeholders in education to participate actively in underscoring the importance of pushing for gender sensitivity through education and mass media. The latter has been the subject of researches, particularly the effects of media on the young. Meanwhile, the curriculum has similarly been reviewed, revised, rewritten, re-energized, re-engineered to include topics on areas considered important, relevant and “enriching”. These subjects are often considered as “incidentals” and are not grouped with the core subjects yet continue to be offered as requirements. What is the role of these areas of studies in education?

Objectives After going through this module you will be able to: 1. Discuss the significance of gender issues in promoting equity in the teaching-process and in the education system; 2. Identify and explain the role of mass media in education; 3. Explain the ways by which special subjects can be given equal importance in the curriculum; and 4. Identify and discuss the issues and problems related to the topics and their implications to the education system. UP Open University

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Ama, ang haligi ng tahanan. Pink is for girls, blue for boys Girls, please sweep the floor. Boys, husk the floor.

Man belongs to the whole universe. He should take care of it well.

Boys are good in math and should be engineers or doctors. Women do the household chores.

Consider the statements above. They are but a few of the concepts that are found in most textbooks despite efforts at promoting gender sensitivity, and the predominance of women in Philippine education. Moreover, teachers, whether consciously or unconsciously, practice sex-stereotyping in the classroom and outside of it. One of these practices is the segregation of the “sexes” in the seating arrangement and in the class list. Class competitions are also between boys and girls. Colors are similarly assigned based on gender — pink, red, and similar hues are used for girls, and blue for boys. Considered neutral are yellow and green. The textbooks are no different. A study done by Corazon Lamug in 1995 showed that very distinct stereotypes or males and females are portrayed in stories and pictures in elementary school Reading and Language textbooks. Females in the home setting do a variety of domestic related work such as cooking, washing clothes, sewing, cleaning the house, going to market, etc. Males, meanwhile, are shown as farmers and fishers, astronauts, geologists, carpenters, drivers, mechanics, dentists, etc. Men/ Males are stereotyped as rough, aggressive, strong, coarse and crude while women/females are cast as dependent, nurturing, weak, generous and emotional. Many concepts and objects are given a female “image” or terminology. A few of these are: virtues as justice and liberty, art and poetry, mechanized contraptions as boats and ships. However, powerful forces like time and death are male. Even advertisements of products meant for males use females as “appendages” who are treated as objects. Take a close look at ads for cigarettes, alcoholic drinks and cars. How often do we hear boys being reprimanded for crying: Hindi umiiyak ang lalaki! Ano ka? Bakla?. Such an attitude reflects lack of respect for an individual’s sexual preference, and it also shows that gays have been similarly stereotyped. The bakla or badaf are portrayed as beauticians,

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fashion designers, entertainment writers who engage in gossip, while the lesbian or tibo is seen as a security aide. Gender stereotyping in school reinforces views of female subordination (Miller and Swift, 1980). Fortunately, extensive researches and studies as well as efforts exerted to promote gender equity in education have produced very positive results. Publishers explicitly indicate gender equity as one of the basic principles writers must observe. Single-gender colleges and universities have become co-educational. Media have popularized the use of nonsexist terms as actors (not actor/actress), fisherfolks (not fishermen), persons (not men), chair/chairperson (not chairman), human resource (not manpower). Books and pamphlets on nonsexist writing have been produced. These have helped make the marked changes not only in language use but also in attitude. Below are some terms considered important to clarify issues related to the topic at hand. It must be remembered though that the terms and definitions are by no means exact and final. We expect to see changes and modifications as a result of more researches and studies done on the topic. 

Sex: biological characteristics and aspects of being man and woman; specifically refers to the hormones, the reproductive system and the capacity to conceive (for the woman) and to aid (for the man) in the reproductive process. Gender: culturally specific set of characteristics that identifies the social behavior of women and men and the relationship between them; refers to the socially differentiated roles, characteristics and expectations attributed by culture to women and men. Gender Identity: awareness of being male or female; this grows over time. Gender Roles: behavior expected of an individual based on sex and gender. Gender Bias: different views of males and female, favoring one over the other. Gender-fair Instruction: use of educational strategies, curriculum materials and instructor-learner interactions that counteract sex-role stereotypes. Gender Equity: set of behaviors and knowledge permitting educators to recognize equality in educational opportunities

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If you find yourself in a situation where the administration tends to be more male dominated, or you see situations of gender typing, what will you do? Following are a few suggestions from different organizations promoting gender equity: 

   

Be more sensitive to perceive the often subtle but powerful cumulative impact of instructional materials on the students’ understanding of the world by checking to see if textbooks and other materials present honest views on gender Watch for unintended biases in classroom practices Provide role models and be the role model Use gender-fair language Be more conscious of biased behaviors shown through verbal interactions, eye contact and body language Be an advocate of gender equity by initiating seminar-workshops on easy ways to reverse messages and behavior of inequity; this will more than make up for the lack of courses on the subject in teacher education institutions Seek the assistance of organizations that promote gender equity

Activity 9-1 Recall your years in elementary or high school. In what ways was gender inequity practiced? In what ways can gender equity be shown at home?

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Article XVI. Sec. 10. The State shall provide the policy environment for the full development of the Filipino capability and the emergence of communication structures suitable to the needs and aspirations of the nation and the balanced flow of information into, out of, and across the country, in accordance with a policy that respects the freedom of speech and of the press. This is the only provision in the Philippine Constitution that pertains to mass media, a communication tool that has evolved with technology and has become a potent force in national development. In fact, mass media has “educated” a greater number of people than formal institutions have. People learn from and are influenced more by radio, television, movies, newspapers, magazines, comic books, and more recently by non-print forms (via the computer) such as the CD, VCD, DVD and the Internet. Some sectors also claim that media are also largely responsible for the “moral and social pollution” of both young and old. In a symposium in 1991, it was the consensus of educators and civic leaders that media exert greater influence on the young than schools. Even today students have expressed preference for films, songs and power point presentations to a teacher’s lecture and question-answer approach to discussions. Thus teachers have included these media forms as part of their instructional materials. However, since there is a glut of these forms available, the teacher has to be extra judicious in selecting the materials in terms of relevance and appropriateness. It is an understatement to say that media mold public opinion and impinge on the consciousness not only of the individual but also of the nation as a whole. Rolando S. Tinio (1990) underscored this in a newspaper article, “The mass media . . . occupy more space in the life of the citizen than either government programs or school courses . . . they intrude, like it or not, into the home, the office and the classroom.” On the other hand, schools can take this as an opportunity to “further broaden the education of the masses” by encouraging teachers to include these forms as resources. School and media become partners in their social responsibility—educating the masses and popularizing issues and concerns. This has long been recognized by private organizations which teamed up with the Department of Education, the Department of Agriculture and media groups. In the early 1960s educational radio and TV programs were developed. Television-assisted instruction was implemented specially in science, mathematics and English. The school-on-the-air for farmers and fisherfolks was popularized in rural areas where the radio was used optimally.

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Media companies have long ago realized the importance of pushing forward their social responsibility through educational programs. Uncle Bob’s Show, Sesame Street, Batibot, Sineskwela are just a few of the pioneering programs. With the advent of cable TV, some channels are now fully dedicated to children’s shows, an improvement from the block of one to two hour shows for children that was the dominant programming style of the past. Such moves were motivated by the results of the functional Literacy and Mass Media Survey that among the mass media forms, radio has the highest proportion of exposure followed by the television. Though print media forms are still widely disseminated, they are threatened by nonprint media forms on the Internet. Some magazines have gone online, but of course, this can only be done in highly urbanized areas. One of the significant contributions of new media in education is distance learning which has been adapted by big universities in the country like the University of the Philippines.

Activity 9-2 Do print and electronic media represent reality? Explain your answer.

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Activity 9-3 Express your agreement or disagreement to the following statement: Mass media mirror the aspirations of a people because they are the mass which patronize the media.

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Abolishing the ROTC is shortsighted, unpatriotic; it endangers the country’s security.

Time and resources spent for military programs for students have become superfluous.

The call for the abolition of the ROTC (Reserve Officers’ Training Course) became louder and more insistent with the death of a student of a big private university in Metro Manila in 2001. The investigation allegedly uncovered the corruption which, some claim, has been “as old as the institution itself”. The Congressional hearing was not without the usual arguments. Nevertheless, the National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001 (RA 9163) was enacted and its Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) crafted and approved on April 2002 duly signed by the concerned government offices, through their heads of offices. These are the Department of National Defense, CHED and TESDA. The program seeks “to enhance civic consciousness and defense preparedness in the youth, by developing the ethics of service and patriotism while undergoing training in any of the three program components”, namely: Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC). Designed to provide military training to tertiary level students in order to motivate, train, organize and mobilize them for national defense preparedness. Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS). Programs or activities contributing to the general welfare and the betterment of life for the members of the community or the enhancement of its facilities, especially those devoted to improving health, education, environment, entrepreneurship, safety, recreation and morals of the citizenry. Literacy Training Service (LTS). Designed to train students to become teachers of literacy and numeracy skills to schoolchildren, out of school youth, and other segments of society in need of their services. Implementation began in SY 2002-2003 as a requirement for all male and female students enrolled in any baccalaureate or of at least two-year technical/vocational courses. Students should complete one NSTP component of their choice as a graduation requirement. The component shall be undertaken for an academic period of two semesters and given credit of three units per semester, for 54 to 90 training hours per semester. However, a summer program may be designed in lieu of the two-semester program. The IRR further states that “no fees shall be collected for any of the NSTP components except basic tuition fees which should not be more 50% of the charges of the school per academic unit.” UP Open University

Unit IV Module 9 95

Meanwhile, the scouting program is alive in many elementary and high schools (both public and private) nationwide. At the elementary level, the scouting program has two main groups: Boy or Senior Scouts and Girl Scouts. Each group has component programs based on the age of the children.

Activity 9-4 Given a choice, which component would you encourage your child/younger sibling to enroll in? State your reasons.

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96 Philippine Education System

In the secondary level, military training is offered to both boys and girls. It is called CAT (Citizens Army Training); however, the students may not enroll if they have undergone training and are members of the scouting movement. Although the scouting movement was started by an Englishman (Lord Robert Baden Powell), the scouting movement in the Philippines was brought to our shores by American service personnel and missionaries. According to records, the Boy Scouts of the Philippines (BSP) was established in 1910 by 2nd Lt. Sherman Kiser under the sponsorship of an American widow doing charity work in Sulu. In 1910, Kiser organized 28 Muslim boys into the Loirllard Spencer Troop. Eventually, the Philippine Council of the Boy Scouts of America was established in 1923, and was declared a public corporation on October 31, 1936 through Commonwealth Act No. 111. The Girl Scouts of the Philippines (GSP), meanwhile, began in 1918 with the organization of troops in Davao. Other troops were organized in places where American missionaries were. These troops were registered with the Girl Scouts of the United States of America. With the assistance of the BSP, and the leadership of Pilar Hidalgo-Lim and Josefa Llanes-Escoda, GSP was charted as a national organization under Commonwealth Act No. 542 on May 26, 1940. Following are the programs and Mission and Vision of the BSP and GSP: KID Scouting KAB Scouting Boy Scouting Senior Scouting

4–5 years old 6–9 years old 10–12 years old 16–24 years old

Twinkler Star Junior GS Senior GS Cadet

4–6 years old 6–9 years old 9-12 years old 12–16 years old 16–21 years old

Mission To promote through organization and cooperation with other agencies, ability of boys to do things for themselves and others, to train in Scout craft, to teach them patriotism, courage, selfreliance, and kindred virtues using methods common to Boy Scouts

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To help girls and young women realize the ideals of womanhood and prepare themselves for the responsibilities in the home, the nation and the world community

Unit IV Module 9 97

Vision To be the leading provider of progressive out-door-based nonformal education committed to develop morally straight, disciplined, concerned, selfreliant citizens in the best tradition of World Scouting

The Filipino girl and young woman—progressive, dynamic, pro-active, patriotic and God-loving.

For more information about the BSP and the GSP you may visit their websites.

Activity 9-5 Is the scouting program a better alternative to military training for young adults? Explain your answer.

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98 Philippine Education System

Towards a Relevant Social Transformation Through Education

The end of a text or of a book usually ends with a conclusion, an end; however, we cannot do the same for this text. The Philippine education system continues to evolve as does the community of which it is a vital part. That community may be local, regional, national, or global. Such dynamism has been reflected in the changes that have “transformed” the system. One of these is the gradual, albeit continuing decentralization of the system. Local government units, government organizations, people’s organizations and even the business and private sectors have partnered and coordinated in improving the system. The people have been “empowered” to participate actively in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of programs, and being accountable for all these and to all stakeholders. Indeed, society will transform for as long as the education system continues to evolve; and for as long as the people see the need for change and continue to participate in this change. To quote Prof. Ma. Luisa C. Doronila, a respected educationist: . . . in education, a similar transformation has been taking place, because the people themselves, through the growth of civil society, have taken initiatives to make education an arena of struggle and change in order that it will work for themselves and for societal development. . . the people have shown that this can be done by transforming education into an inclusive and comprehensive social process where everybody participates in its realization. Let us continue to be part of this transformation . . . of this realization.

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