Edith Stein - ¿Qué es la Filosofía?

August 29, 2018 | Author: Centro Pieper | Category: Knowledge, Essence, Truth, Certainty, Reason
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Descrição: Esta destacada obra de Edith Stein, publicada originalmente en 1929, crea un diálogo ficticio entre Edmund Hu...

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Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

HELUG PUHLD

'PMDUM UHQHPM [email protected] EH FM @QX^,

¹]xì hp fm Jlfipijâm9 Xdm `idzhqpm`lðd hduqh Hebxde   Gxpphqf | Uibíp eh M}xldi

Uqmex``lðd ehf Mfhbíd m `mqoi eh Jqmx Eiqiuhm P`gbleu | Eq$ Jlehf Bm`lhf

@hduqi Slhshq

"13=1" guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  =

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

HELUG PUHLD

'PMDUM UHQHPM [email protected] EH FM @QX^,

¹]xì hp fm Jlfipijâm9 Xdm `idzhqpm`lðd hduqh Hebxde   Gxpphqf | Uibíp eh M}xldi

Uqmex``lðd ehf Mfhbíd m `mqoi eh Jqmx Eiqiuhm P`gbleu | Eq$ Jlehf Bm`lhf

@hduqi Slhshq

"13=1"

guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  1

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

Âdel`h Dium Sqhzlm ehf @hduqi Slhshq

5

¹]xì hp Jlfipijâm9

Xdm `idzhqpm`lðd hduqh Hebxde Gxpphqf | Uibíp eh M}xldi Helug Puhld………$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

:

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$ 7 L$ Fm Jlfipijâm `ibi `lhd`lm hpuql`um$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ < LL$ Qm~ðd Dmuxqmf Dmuxqmf | Piaqhdmuxqmf$ Piaqhdmuxqmf$ Jh | @idi`lblhdui @idi`lblhdui$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$ =0 LLL$ Jlfipijâm @qâul`m @qâul`m | Jlfipijâm Jlfipijâm Eiobíul`m Eiobíul`m $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$ =: LZ$ Jlfipijâm Uhi`ìduql`m Uhi`ìduql`m | Jlfipijâm Jlfipijâm Hoi`ìduql`m Hoi`ìduql`m $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

Z$ Iduifioâm | Bhumjâpl`m$ Bìuieip Bìuieip Hbsâql`ip | Hleìul`ip$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ =7 ZL$  Fm `xhpulðd eh fm ‖  Lduxl`lðd‒  $ Bìuiei Jhdibhdifðol Jhdibhdifðol`i `i | Bìuiei $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$ =<  Hp`ifípul`i  Hp`ifípul `i$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

. . .

`hduqislhshqCobmlf$`ib

guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  0

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

Dium Sqhzlm ehf @hduqi Slhshq Hpum ehpum`mem iaqm eh Helug Puhld& sxafl`mem iqloldmfbhduh hd = gm`hq ldzhpulom`lidhp mxuðdibmp | plpuhbíul`mp; | ehpsqh`lmamd uiei fi iuqi$ Hpui fh `mxpmam oqmd elpoxpui m xpuhe$ M`uxmfbhduh hp hd hffip eideh bl jlfipijâm ph gm sxhpui eh biem& ehpsxìp eh plofip }xh ph gmaâm `idzhqulei hd smqmelobm eh ehpsqh`li | `mâei hd hf ifzlei$ Di iapumduh smqm xpuhe& Hp`ifípul`m | Uibíp eh M}xldi pid uìqbldip }xh ehahd phq uibmeip `id qhpshui$ @id `hquh~m gi| fh sqhi`xsm | fh lduhqhpm m xpuhe }xh px jlfipijâm j lfipijâm | bl jlfipijâm ph hwsqhphd eh biei `fmqi& | }xh phmd dâulembhduh ehflblumemp fm xdm eh fm iuqm ¹@ðbi sieqâm |i hd eip smfmaqmp hwsfl`mqfh hpui9 Emei fi sh`xflmq eh hpuh hd`xhduqi dxhpuqi& guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  ?

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

pifmbhduh hp siplafh gm`hqfi þdl`mbhduh hd jiqbm aqhzh | m oqmdehp qmpoip$

G> \i hp`x`gmqì `ibi mfxbdi qhpshuxipi fmp smfmaqmp ehf bmhpuqi$ Plhdui fm blpbm mdplheme pifhbdh }xh phduâm hd ulhbsip smpmeip& `xmdei hp`x`gmam m bl bmhpuqi Jqmd~ Aqhdumdi$

L

 $ Fm Jlfipijâm `ibi `lhd`lm hpuql`um

U> Jqmd~ Aqhdumdi$ M}xâ |m uhdhbip xd sxdui eh smqulem$ Di hp hd pâ ehf uiei jí`lf hd`iduqmq xd `mbldi ehpeh hf bxdei eh px shdpmblhdui gm`lm hf bâi$ Plhbsqh bh fi mjlqbmqid blp mfxbdip$ Shqi m}xâ gm| |m xdm `idhwlðd$ Xpuhe blpbi hd pxp qh`xhqeip eh Aqhdumdi fi gm hpai~mei& ld`iqsiqmdei eh ìpuh hf hpulfi | biei eh uqmumq fmp `xhpulidhp jlfipðjl`mp$ Hf shdpmblhdui eh Aqhdumdi | px biei eh hdphýmq fh bipuqð m xpuhe }xh fm jlfipijâm sieâm phq mfoi eljhqhduh eh xdm ldohdlipm | mbhdm `gmqfm ld`msm~ eh pmulpjm`hq fmp bíp mfump hwlohd`lmp `lhduâjl`mp m fmp }xh xpuhe& `ibi bmuhbíul`i& hpumam m`ipuxbaqmei m sfmduhmq ¹Shqi eh eðdeh pxqoh hd Aqhdumdi hpm moxeh~m ldjfhwlafh ehf `xqpi eh fip shdpmblhduip& }xh m xpuhe hd hf íbalui jlfipðjl`i fh smqh`lhqid umd dxhzip }xh fi muqmsmqid9 ¹Eh eðdeh m}xhffm `fmqleme `qlpumfldm eh fm jiqbm`lðd eh `id`hsuip9 ¹]xì iuqm `ipm hqm hpum jiqbm eh jlfipijmq }xh xdm ghqhd`lm i smuqlbidli eh fm Hp`ifípul`m9 Sxhp mxd}xh Aqhdumdi ploxlð px `mbldi sqisli& `qh`lð hd dxhpuqm hp`xhfm | hd dxhpuqm jiqbm eh shdpmblhdui m`xýð px hpsâqlux; ¡hf sqisli | hf px|i& Sqijhpiq Gxpphqf- @id hpui di ph sqiex`h dldoþd emýi m px sqislm mxuidibâm$ Xe$ `ibsqhdeh& siq pxsxhpui& }xh |i di mfxei m dldoþd `iduhdlei eh hdphýmd~m$ @xmdei ph gmafm eh biei umd `iqqlhduh eh xdm ‖Sglfipisglm Shqhddlp‒& ph qhjlhqh xdi m xd plpuhbm eh hdphýmd~m `hqqmei | |i `qhi }xh hpui hqm fi }xh m Xe$ fh jmpulelmam& `xmdei pxp mezhqpmqlip fi ianhumamd$ Shqi ‖Sglfipisglm Shqhddlp ‒& plodljl`m m ehbíp iuqm `ipm> bh qhjlhqi mf hpsâqlux ehf ohdxldi jlfipijmq& hf `xmf zlzh hd `mem jlfðpiji zhqemehqi; hpui hp& hd }xlhd hpuí lbsxfpmei siq xdm lqqhplpulafh dh`hpleme lduhqliq eh ldemomq hf ‖ ‖‒‒ 'fioip, i fm qmuli eh hpuh bxdei$

Hpuh hpsâqlux fi uqmh mf bxdei `ibi siuhd`lm }xlhd dm`lð jlfðpiji$ Hf zhqemehqi jlfðpiji ‖ehah‒ gmahq dm`lei jlfðpiji& smqm eh`lqfi m bl bmdhqm$

Fm Siuhd`lm ph hfhzm mf M`ui `xmdei hffm hd`xhduqm m xd jlfðpiji bmexqi; m xd bmhpuqi$ Mpâ dip hpuqh`gmbip fmp bmdip siq piaqh uiemp fmp jqiduhqmp eh hpsm`li | ulhbsi$ Sfmuðd& Mqlpuðuhfhp | Pmd Moxpuâd& blp bmhpuqip  ‐ siq siq jmziq& dðuhfi alhd> di pðfi Mqlpuðuhfhp& pldi umbalìd Sfmuðd | Moxpuâd ‐ 

guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  7

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

ldhzlumafhbhduh bh ffhzmqid m jlfipijmq `id hffip | m xdm `idjqidum`lðd pmfxemafh shqbmdhduh$ Mpâ umbalìd xpuhe uxzi pxp bmhpuqip$ Mfoxdip eh hffip jxhqid bhd`lidmeip siq xpuhe `fmqmbhduh$ \i qh`xhqei m Ehp`mquhp& Gxbh | xdm zh~ bíp m Aqhdumdi$ Iuqip ldjfx|hqid hd xpuhe m uqmzìp eh `mdmfhp i`xfuip& pld }xh xpuhe fi mezlqulhqm$ M ìpuip& shquhdh~`i |i$ Siq fi umdui& hd hpuh sxdui hpumbip sfhdmbhduh eh m`xhqei> `xfulzmq fm jlfipijâm `ibi `lhd`lm hpuql`um& `ibi elni xpuhe$ Xdi ehah uhdhq `xlemei mf hwsqhpmqph eh hpuh biei& sxhp umbalìd uxzi fm ehpoqm`lm eh `idzhqulqph hd xdm smfmaqm eh biem& }xh umdui fip mum`mduhp `ibi fip ehjhdpiqhp& bmflduhqsqhumqid m px bmdhqm$ Dipiuqip shdpmbip ehalembhduh& hd fm mdmfioâm }xh ulhdh fm jlfipijâm `id `xmf}xlhq iuqm `lhd`lm$ Dipiuqip isldmbip pifmbhduh }xh fm jlfipijâm di hp xdm `ipm ehf phdulblhdui | eh fm jmdumpâm; xd ehflqli eh mfui zxhfi& pldi xdm `ipm eh fm qm~ðd phqlm | eh biei qloxqipi$ Mbaip uhdhbip fm `idzl``lðd eh }xh hf ‖ ‖‒‒ lbshqm hd uiei fi }xh hp m``hplafh m

dxhpuqi `idi`lblhdui$ Ehp`xaqlq smpi m smpi | `mem zh~ bíp mfoi eh hpuh ‖‒& ‒& hp dxhpuqm blplðd $ Hf `idi`lblhdui ehah sqi`hehq phoþd hf sqld`lsli i jxdembhdui eh fm bíp hpuql`um gidhpuleme lduhfh`uxmf$ Piaqh fip fâbluhp }xh hpuíd hpumafh`leip hd hpuh bìuiei hd jxd`lðd ehf ehp`xaqlblhdui ehf ‖ ‖‒& ‒& pld exem& dxhpuqmp lduhqsqhum`lidhp sieqâmd

elzhqolq$

LL

 $ Qm~ðd Dmuxqmf | Piaqhdmuxqmf$ Jh | @idi`lblhdui

U> Qhpsh`ui eh fm jxhq~m eh fm qm~ðd dipiuqip dxd`m ghbip exemei$ Px sqlbhq oqmd fioqi& Sqijhpiq Gxpphqf& jxh }xh ehp`xaqlð hf hp`hsul`lpbi hd uieip pxp elpjqm`hp biehqdip | hdìqol`mbhduh mqqhbhulð `iduqm ìf$ Shqi ‖fioip‒ 'i qmuli, dxd`m plodljl`m smqm xpuhe iuqm `ipm }xh fm qm~ðd dmuxqmf& hd umdui }xh smqm bâ m}xâ ph lbsidh fm phsmqm`lðd hduqh ‖Qm~ðd Dmuxqmf‒ | ‖Qm~ðd Piaqhdmuxqmf‒$ Xpuhe gm fhzmdumei ehjhdplzmbhduh fm bmdi | `ibi mjlqbmdei }xh |i fh gh bmfhduhdelei$ Hpum sqiuhpum |i fm hpshqmam$ Xpuhe }xlhqh eh`lq }xh fi }xh hdulhdeh siq Qm~ðd hpuí bíp mffí eh fm `iduqmsipl`lðd eh fi dmuxqmf | piaqhdmuxqmf$ Ìpump phqâmd eljhqhd`lm`lidhp hbsâql`mp$ Xpuhe di gmafð eh fm qm~ðd ehf gibaqh& dl eh fm eh xd phq i hduh piaqhdmuxqmf& pldi eh fm qm~ðd `ibi umf& eh fm `xmf ph ehahqâm gmafmq& pld fip emýip }xh fh `mxpmqâm uiem eljhqhd`lm`lðd hbsâql`m$ Shqi fm ‖@qâul`m Uqmp`hdehdumf‒ hd hf phdulei }xh xpuhe }xlpi emqfh& di jxh bl uhbm& dl bl ianhulzi$ \i plhbsqh bh gh i`xsmei& `ibi xpuhe el`h& eh biei ldohdxi& eh fmp qhmflemehp$ Shqi pl |i& mgiqm& bh `ifi`i hd hpuh sxdui guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  <

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

eh zlpum  ‐ ¹| ¹| siq }xì di ehalhqm gm`hqfi9 ‐  ehai eh`lq> ‖pâ& hp siq `lhqui  siplafh eh`lq mfoi piaqh fm hphd`lm eh fm qm~ðd `ibi umf> fm —Qmuli eh fm Qmuli’‒& siq eh`lqfi eh mfoxdm jiqbm$ @ipm ìpum }xh di hp mjh`umem siq fm

eljhqhd`lm hwlpuhduh hduqh fip elpulduip phqhp `iodip`hduhp$ Di iapumduh ehahbip meblulq | ehbmq`mq fm flblum`lðd eh dxhpuqip `idi`lblhduip$  Dipiuqip ehahbip eh biei ldhfxelafh uqmamnmq `id ‖dxhpuqip ðqomdip‒ eh

`idi`lblhdui$ Di siehbip flahqmqdip eh hffip `ibi di siehbip pmfumq piaqh dxhpuqm sqislm pibaqm$ Pl alhd m dipiuqip dip hp shqblulei uhdhq `idi`lblhdui eh fm hpuqx`uxqm eh fip hpsâqluxp pxshqliqhp& di dip hp `id hpui m``hplafh& fi }xh fh hp m``hplafh m hffip$ M hpuh gh`gi plhbsqh fi gh uhdlei hd `xhdum | `id oqmd uqmd}xlfleme$ Xpuhe smquh ehf pxsxhpui gh`gi eh }xh smqm dxhpuqm qm~ðd di gxalhqm fâbluhp$ Siq `lhqui }xh fm umqhm eh fm qm~ðd hp ldjldlum | hf sqi`hpi ehf `idi`lblhdui hp ldjldlui$ Fm qm~ðd ph elqloh eh biei lbsfm`mafh gm`lm fm zhqeme sfhdm$ Hpuh hp hf qxbai `idex`uiq }xh phýmfm hf `mbldi$ Iuqi `mbldi gm`lm fm bhum& di bhqh`h phq `idplehqmei ehpeh hf sxdui eh zlpum eh px jlfipijâm$ \i pi| eh fm isldlðd& eh }xh siq `lhqui& hpuh hp hf `mbldi$ \ emei }xh ìpuh hp ldjldlui& dxhpuqm qm~ðd dxd`m ffhomqí m fm bhum mapifxum$ Pifmbhduh sieqí m`hq`mqph m hffm eh biei oqmexmf$ @id hpui umbalìd ph sqxham hf dh`hpmqli `mqí`uhq jqmobhdumqli eh uiem fm jlfipijâm gxbmdm$ Mgiqm ph dip lbsidh bl oqmd ‖shqi‒> dxd`m sxhei `id`hehq }xh fm

zhqeme di phm iuqm `ipm }xh xdm lehm }xh ehalhph qhmfl~mqph hd xd sqi`hpi ldjldlui& siq fi umdui& dxd`m hp xdm uiumfleme$ Fm zhqeme mapifxum ‖Hp‒$ Gm|

xd `idi`lblhdui }xh fm mamq`m uiumfbhduh& }xh di hp xd sqi`hpi ldjldlui& pldi }xh hp fm sfhdluxe ldjldlum& hpumafh | msm`lafh$ Hpuh hp hf `idi`lblhdui elzldi$ Hffm& fm pmalexqâm ldjldlum elzldm& sxheh smqul`lsmq ehpeh px sfhdluxe m fip iuqip hpsâqluxp$ Siq `lhqui& fhp smqul`lsm& phoþd fm bhelem eh px `msm`leme eh `ibsqhdplðd$ Umf smqul`lsm`lðd sxheh m`iduh`hq eh elpulduip bieip$ Hf `idi`lblhdui dmuxqmf hp pðfi ‖xd `mbldi‒$ Fhp pid uqm~meip

fâbluhp ehuhqbldmeip& }xh fxhoi phqíd bhd`lidmeip$ Hf hpsâqlux gxbmdi hpuí mgiqm `ibsqibhulei hd hf shqhoqldmnh eh hpum zlem& ¡| ffhomqí mfoxdm zh~ m fm bhum& m fm smuqlm `hfhpulmf- Ffhomei m fm bhum mamq`mqí uiei; uiei fi }xh fh hp mph}xlafh `ibi hpsâqlux gxbmdi 'di ffhomqí m uiemp fmp sqijxdelemehp elzldmp& fmp }xh pðfi pid mamq`memp uiumfbhduh siq Elip,$ Hf hpsâqlux zhqí uiei hd xdm þdl`m lduxl`lðd$ Bx`gmp eh fmp `ipmp }xh hf hpsâqlux zhqí hduid`hp& |m fh pid uqmdpblulemp siq fm Qhzhfm`lðd m jld eh mphoxqmq hf `mbldi$ Hpui hf hpsâqlux gxbmdi fi msqhghdeh& fi `msum hd fm jh& fm `xmf hp xd phoxdei `mbldi hd hpuh shqhoqldmnh uhqqhdi& nxdui mf ehf `idi`lblhdui dmuxqmf& smqm mf`md~mq hf pmahq$ Umdui hpui& fi }xh `idi`hbip mgiqm& `ibi fi }xh `qhhbip& phqí `idi`lei eh iuqm bmdhqm hd fm bhum$ Fm bhelem siplafh eh dxhpuqi pmahq& exqmduh hpuh shqhoqldmnh uhqqhdi& dip hpuí ehuhqbldmei | di siehbip uqmpsmpmq fmp jqiduhqmp$ Mpâ blpbi hpuí guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  =3

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

ehuhqbldmei fi }xh hp mf`md~mafh siq hf `idi`lblhdui | fi }xh hp mf`md~mafh siq fm jh$ Hd uìqbldip ohdhqmfhp& siehbip eh`lq }xh pid ianhui eh jh& m}xhffip }xh jxdembhdumfbhduh fh pid ldm``hplafhp m dxhpuqi `idi`lblhdui gxbmdi$ Pld hbamqoi& bx`gmp `ipmp }xh pid smqul`lsmemp siq qhzhfm`lðd sieqíd phq qh`idi`lemp siq si`ip& i hd mfoxdip& `id ldpxjl`lhduh phoxqleme$

G> Dxd`m ph bh i`xqqlð elp`xulq hf ehqh`gi m fm jh$ Hffm hp fm ldpumd`lm `ibshuhduh hd hf íbalui qhflolipi& `ibi fi pid fip phduleip hd hf íbalui eh fm hwshqlhd`lm hwuhqliq$ Mehbíp& |i plhbsqh gh ehnmei malhqum& umbalìd& fm siplalfleme eh xdm `iduhbsfm`lðd zlplidmqlm `ibi jxhduh eh hwshqlhd`lmp qhflolipmp$ Shqi hd fm mdmfioâm sfmduhmem mf `iblhd~i hpuí lbsfâ`lum fm ploxlhduh mjlqbm`lðd> fm jh hp xdm ldpumd`lm `ibshuhduh smqm fm qhflolðd | di smqm fm jlfipijâm$ Fm uhiqâm eh fm jh hp `ibi fm hwshqlhd`lm eh fm uhiqâm phdplulzm 'i bhniq> phdpiqlmf,& di ianhui eh m`uip hpsh`lmfhp& pldi ehf `idi`lblhdui qm`lidmf& hf `xmf sxheh lduhqhpmqph siq ìpuip `ibi siq iuqip m`uip siplafhp$ Slhdpi }xh dipiuqip dip hduhdehbip hd fm uhqbldifioâm> `xmdei eloi ‖`idi`lblhdui qm`lidmf‒ di bh hpui| qhjlqlhdei m dldoþd

bìuiei hd hpsh`lmf `ibi hf eh fmp `id`fxplidhp fðol`mp& hd isipl`lðd mf bìuiei lduxlulzi$ Phqâm bíp sqh`lpi pl elnhqm> ‖`idi`lblhdui qm`lidmf dmuxqmf‒ eh biei mapifxumbhduh ohdhqmf& `ibi xpuhe ph hwsqhpm Smeqh$

U> Dipiuqip dip hduhdehbip$ \i umbsi`i gh sielei hzlumq hpum eiafh m`hs`lðd eh fm ‖qmuli‒$ G> Shqi pâ ehai ldplpulq hd }xh fm jlfipijâm eh fm qhflolðd ehah phq `idplehqmem `ibi ianhui eh fm qm~ðd& di eh fm jh$ Bh qhplpui m m`hsumq bíp }xh dxd`m }xh uhdom }xh zhq `id mfoi }xh di phm qhflolðd$ \ fi }xh xpuhe elni& jqmd`mbhduh bh smqh`lð uhdhq fm jldmfleme eh lduqiex`lq fm jh hd hf íbalui eh fm qm~ðd | }xh ìpum uhdeqâm xdm mxuiqleme eh`lplzm hd hf `idi`lblhdui eh `xhpulidhp uhðql`mp$ U> Xpuhe phýmfm hf sxdui `qâul`i$ Hd hjh`ui& di ph uqmum eh xdm `xhpulðd jlfipðjl`m hpsh`lmf& pldi eh fm ehbmq`m`lðd eh fip fâbluhp eh fm qm~ðd dmuxqmf | `id hpui loxmfbhduh eh xdm jlfipijâm eh sxqm qm~ðd dmuxqmf$ ]xh fip fâbluhp eh fm qm~ðd ehalhqmd phq ehbmq`meip& mduhp }xh hffm sxelhqm maiqemq ehuhqbldmei mpxdui& umbalìd fi elni Kmdu$ Shqi m ìf `ibi m uiem fm jlfipijâm biehqdm& ph fh lbsidâm `ibi hzlehduh }xh hqm `ipm eh fm qm~ðd dmuxqmf mxuðdibm blpbm& ehbmq`mq pxp sqislip fâbluhp$ \i m}xâ sieqâm sfmduhmq fm sqhoxdum eh pl hffm& fm qm~ðd& smqm siehq pifx`lidmq hpum `xhpulðd di ehahqâm uhdhq xd sxdui eh msi|i& }xh phoþd Mq}xâbhehp& ehalhqm hpumq jxhqm eh hffm& | mehbíp& ¹`ðbi phqâm siplafh ffhomq mffâ9 Shqi |i di bh }xlhqi `ibsqibhuhq `id hpui$ Dxd`m gh uqmumei hpum `xhpulðd hd blp hp`qluip& sxhp guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  ==

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

hffi hpumam qhpxhfui pld umf bìuiei `qâul`i$ Umf bìuiei }xh hw`fx|h fm jh& hp siq `ibsfhui `ibsqhdplafh& pl fm m`hs`lðd eh jh hp uhdlem `ibi xd phdulblhdui i mfoxdm iuqm `ipm lqqm`lidmf$ Pl fm jh plodljl`mph smqm bâ umfhp `ipmp& umbsi`i |i fm ehnmqâm smqul`lsmq hd `xhpulidhp jlfipðjl`mp$ Shqi fm jlfipijâm hp umbalìd smqm bâ& `ipm eh fm ‖ Qmuli‒ hd hf bíp mbsfli phdulei }xh mamq`m umdui fm qm~ðd dmuxqmf `ibi fm piaqhdmuxqmf$ Shqi fxhoi eh fi }xh elnh mduhqliqbhduh& zh xpuhe }xh fm jh& smqm bâ& di hp mfoi hd mapifxui lqqm`lidmf$ Hpui hp mfoi }xh di uxzlhqm }xh zhq smqm dmem `id fm zhqeme i fm jmfpheme$ Siq hf `iduqmqli> hp xd `mbldi gm`lm fm zhqeme | sqh`lpmbhduh& hd sqlbhq uìqbldi& hp xd `mbldi gm`lm zhqemehp }xh dip hpumqâmd zhememp& | hd phoxdei uìqbldi& hp hf `mbldi bíp phoxqi gm`lm fm zhqeme; sxhp xdm `hquh~m bm|iq }xh fm }xh em fm jh di gm|$ Bíp mþd> smqm hf gibaqh hd ‖pumux zlmh‒& di gm| xd `idi`lblhdui eh loxmf `hquh~m& `ibi fi }xh hp sqisli m fm jh& m shpmq eh phq xdm `hquh~m mþd di fioqmem siq hf elp`xqpi qm`lidmf$ @id hpui omdm fm jh smqm fm jlfipijâm xd eiafh plodljl`mei$ Fm jlfipijâm }xlhqh fm zhqeme hd xd íbalui fi bíp mbsfli | mamq`mulzi siplafh$ Pl fm jh mfxbaqm zhqemehp }xh di sxhehd phq mf`md~memp siq iuqip `mbldip& hduid`hp fm jlfipijâm di sxheh qhdxd`lmq m hpump zhqemehp eh jh& pld qhdxd`lmq m px sqhuhdplðd m fm ‖zhqeme xdlzhqpmf‒ | pld hwsidhqph mf shfloqi

eh }xh umbalìd hd hf ldzhdumqli eh `idi`lblhduip }xh uhdom& ph p h fh ehpfl`h fm jmfpheme$ Hd fm qhfm`lðd iqoídl`m eh uiem fm zhqeme& `mem `ibsidhduh `iqqh hf qlhpoi eh }xhemq bmf smqmei& `xmdei ph `iqum fm qhfm`lðd `id hf uiei$ Mpâ  qhpxfum }xh& eh gh`gi& fm jlfipijâm hpuí hd xdm ehshdehd`lm bmuhqlmf qhpsh`ui eh fm jh$ Hpui i`xqqlqí hd umdui }xh fm jlfipijâm mpxbm fmp zhqemehp eh fm jh `ibi hf þfulbi `qluhqli$ Siq fi umdui qhpxfum xdm ‖ehshdehd`lm‒ jiqbmf eh fm

jlfipijâm qhpsh`ui eh fm jh$ Xpuhe gmaqí diumei }xh& hd hpuip `ibhdumqlip& hf dibaqh eh fm jlfipijâm blpbm uhdâm xd eiafh plodljl`mei$ Hffm hp mjh`umem siq fm phsmqm`lðd eh fm qm~ðd hd dmuxqmf | piaqhdmuxqmf$ Jqmd`mbhduh ph sieqâm gmafmq eh jlfipijâm dmuxqmf | jlfipijâm piaqhdmuxqmf& `ibi ehf blpbi biei hp gmaluxmf `fmpljl`mq fm uhifioâm hd dmuxqmf | piaqhdmuxqmf$ Gm| xd gmahq eh zhqemehp hf `xmf hp m``hplafh m fm qm~ðd dmuxqmf$ Smqm ehflblumq pxp jqiduhqmp di mf`md~m fm qm~ðd dmuxqmf siq pâ pifm& pldi }xh m}xâ ehah `id`xqqlq fm qm~ðd piaqhdmuxqmf$ Hd }xì jiqbm ehahd lbaql`mqph mbamp sieqâm m`fmqmqph i elp`xulqph fxhoi `id bíp ehumffh$ Mehbíp& hf ehahq eh fm qm~ðd piaqhdmuxqmf& hp hwmbldmq fmp zhqemehp ldelzlexmfhp& }xh pid omdmemp siq fm qm~ðd dmuxqmf$ Fm qm~ðd piaqhdmuxqmf ulhdh xdm hphd`lmf lbsiqumd`lm> fm eh sqiuhohq m fm qm~ðd dmuxqmf ehf hqqiq | fm eh `ibsfhumq eh biei umdolafh fmp zhqemehp eh fm qm~ðd dmuxqmf& | ìpump pid fmp eh fm `ibsqhdplðd qm`lidmf ehf bxdei; hp eh`lq> fmp eh xdm bhumjâpl`m$ \ m hpui ph elqloh eh biei ehjldlulzi& |m phm eh biei ph`qhui i bmdljlhpui& fm lduhd`lðd eh uiem jlfipijâm$ Hpui pðfi sxheh phq fioqmei `idnxdumbhduh siq fm qm~ðd dmuxqmf | fm qm~ðd piaqhdmuxqmf$ Hf `mqí`uhq si`i `fmqi& `mpl mapuqxpi eh fm jlfipijâm guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  =1

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

`iduhbsiqídhm& hf `mqí`uhq lqqhzhqhduh eh umduip shdpmeiqhp biehqdip gm`lm fm bhumjâpl`m& ph hwsfl`m siq fi mduhqliqbhduh hwsxhpui$ Fm hzmfxm`lðd jlfipðjl`m eh fmp zhqemehp eh fm jh& hp hd `mbali& | mehbíp& umqhm i ehahq eh fm qm~ðd dmuxqmf$ M fm uxuhfm eh fm qm~ðd piaqhdmuxqmf& di ehah uhdìqphfm `ibi xd biei shqbmdhduh eh bhelq | `ibsmqmq$ Fm qm~ðd dmuxqmf& lfxbldmem siq fm jh& siq qhofm ohdhqmf uqmdplum `mbldip siq pâ blpbm }xh hpuíd hd `idpidmd`lm `id fm zhqeme piaqhdmuxqmf& | pðfi hd `mpip eh exem& qh}xhqlqíd xd hwmbhd `id`qhui$ Mehbíp ehai eh`lqfh& }xh hd blp hp`qluip& mshdmp hd`iduqmqí mfoi piaqh fi }xh m`mai eh eh`lq qhpsh`ui eh fm qhfm`lðd hduqh jh | qm~ðd$ Uiei hpui; uiei fi el`gi& hqm smqm bâ& xd sxdui eh smqulem hzlehduh$ Mgiqm gmafi mpâ& | sfmduhi hpump qhjfhwlidhp& emei fi dh`hpmqlmp }xh pid smqm hduhdehqph `id fip shdpmeiqhp biehqdip$

G> Fm memsum`lðd m hpum jiqbm eh shdpmq& bh hwloh xdm qhiqlhdum`lðd umd qmel`mf& }xh hd hpuh bibhdui di ehphi bmdljhpumq dmem mf qhpsh`ui$ Pðfi ehphi jiqbxfmq xdm sqhoxdum> ¹Pl fm jh hp hf þfulbi `qluhqli eh uiem iuqm zhqeme& `xíf hp hf `qluhqli smqm }xh fm jh phm fhoâulbm omqmduâm eh `hquh~m9 U> Hqm ldhwiqmafh }xh xpuhe sfmduhmqm hpum sqhoxdum$ Alhd sxhei eh`lq> ‖fm jh ph omqmdul~m m pâ blpbm‒$ Umbalìd sieqâm eh`lq> Elip }xh dip em fm

qhzhfm`lðd& dip omqmdul~m px zhqeme$ Shqi hpi phqâm hf iuqi fmei eh fm blpbm `ipm$ Sxhp pl }xlplìqmbip uibmqfip `ibi gh`gip phsmqmeip& ph ffhomqâm m xd ‖@lq`xfx Zlulipxp‒ sxhpui }xh dipiuqip hd fm jh ffhombip m uhdhq fm `hquh~m eh Elip$ Hf qh`xqpi eh fmp sqxhamp eh fm hwlpuhd`lm eh Elip& siq bhelip jlfipðjl`ip& umbsi`i m|xemqâm& sxhpui }xh hffip ph plqzhd ehf `idi`lblhdui dmuxqmf$ Siq hffip ph omdm umd pifi fm `hquh~m ehf `idi`lblhdui dmuxqmf | di fm sh`xflmq `hquh~m eh fm jh$ M hpui& pifi sxhei mqoxbhdumq& }xh smqm hf `qh|hduh& fmp zhqemehp eh fm jh ulhdhd xdm umf `hquh~m& }xh uiem iuqm `hquh~m ph qhfmulzl~m$ Hf `qh|hduh di sxheh gm`hq iuqm `ipm }xh mamdeidmq uiei `idi`lblhdui }xh msmqhduhbhduh hpuí hd `iduqmel``lðd `id fm jh$ Fm hpsh`âjl`m `hquh~m eh fm jh hp xd qhomfi eh fm oqm`lm$ Hf hduhdelblhdui | fm zifxdume ulhdhd }xh pm`mq fmp `idph`xhd`lmp eh hffi$ M fmp `idph`xhd`lmp uhðql`mp `ibshuh `idpuqxlq xdm jlfipijâm ehpeh fm jh$

LLL

 $ Jlfipijâm @qâul`m | Jlfipijâm Eiobíul`m

U> Xpuhe `ibsqhdeh }xh fm m`uluxe jxdembhdumf eh xd jlfðpiji }xh sqi`heh eh umf sxdui eh smqulem& ehah phq `ibsfhumbhduh eljhqhduh m fm ehf jlfðpiji `iduhbsiqídhi& }xlhd `md`hfm fm jh | sqhuhdeh guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  =0

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

`iduhdumqph pifmbhduh `id hf `idi`lblhdui dmuxqmf$ Dipiuqip uhdhbip ehpeh xd sqld`lsli fm `hquh~m mapifxum }xh ph dh`hplum smqm `idpuqxlq xd heljl`li pxpuhdumafh$ Xpuhehp ehahd axp`mq sqlbhqi umf sxdui eh smqulem& | siq fi umdui hp mapifxumbhduh iazli }xh hd fm jlfipijâm biehqdm fm `qâul`m ehf `idi`lblhdui ph `idzlhquh hd fm elp`lsfldm jxdembhdumf | }xh fip sqld`lsmfhp hpjxhq~ip eh fip oqmdehp jlfðpijip ehaâmd hpumq elqloleip m hffi$ Hpui umbalìd fh smpð m Xpuhe$ M smqulq eh `xhpulidhp hpsh`lmfhp& xpuhe jxh xqolei i sqhplidmei m qhuqi`hehq smpi m smpi smqm mphoxqmqph eh xd bìuiei mapifxumbhduh `idjlmafh$ Xpuhe axp`ð hflbldmq uiei fi }xh sxelhqm phq jxhduh eh hqqiq$ Xpuhe qhdxd`lð m uieip fip qhpxfumeip ehf shdpmblhdui bhelmui i ldelqh`ui | sqhuhdelð gm`hq xpi pifmbhduh eh `lq`xdpumd`lmp ldbhelmump i elqh`ump$ Axp`ð ehp`mqumq hf hdomýi eh fip phduleip& hd umdui }xh lbslelð fm hwshqlhd`lm dmuxqmf | ehpmqqiffð xd bìuiei eh dhum jhdibhdifioâm& `iduldxmdei fm exem bhuðel`m eh Ehp`mquhp& flahqmdei fm `qâul`m eh fm qm~ðd eh Kmdu eh pxp si`i `qâul`ip `ibsidhduhp$ Mpâ ffhoð xpuhe m sfmpbmq fm ‖hpjhqm ehf `id`lhduh uqmp`hdehdumf sxqljl`mei‒& `ibi `mbsi eh ldzhpulom`lðd eh px ‖Sqlbm"sglfipisglm‒$ Di iapumduh& umbsi`i `id hpui sxei xpuhe uqmd}xlfl~mqph$ Xpuhe ehp`xaqlð ‖uqmp`hdehduhp‒ hd hpum hpjhqm& | gmpum gi| xpuhe hpuí i`xsmei hd mfldhmq ehduqi eh hpuh `mbsi xd íbalui eh sxqm ldbmdhd`lm$ Hpui hp xd biei eh `idi`lblhdui hd hf }xh xdi hpuí mapifxumbhduh `id px ianhui | siq fi umdui hpuí m qhpoxmqei eh uiem exem$ Fh hp m xpuhe |m phoxqmbhduh `fmqi& }xh |i di `idplehqh mf`md~mafh hpum bhum$ Hf lehmf ehf `idi`lblhdui& `ibi |i m`mai eh `mfljl`mq& ph qhmfl~m hd hf `idi`lblhdui eh Elip> smqm Ìf& phq | `idi`hq hp xdi& shqi smqm dipiuqip& mbaip ph phsmqmd$ Di ehah `qhhq xpuhe siq hpui& }xh |i `idplehqi ehpsqh`lmafh px bìuiei `qâul`i$ Hpuh hp siq `lhqui xd elp`hqdlblhdui | iqehd eh fip bhelip eh `idi`lblhdui$ Hpum hp xdm jxhq~m bhuðel`m `ibi }xl~í& dxd`m ph `idi`lð mduhp& pl ph sqi`heh `id hf qloiq umd qmel`mf hd px hbsfhi& `ibi hd zhqeme& xpuhe blpbi fi gl~i$ Smqm xdm hdphýmd~m hd hf phdulei eh xd umf iqehd | elp`hqdlblhdui eh fip bhelip eh `idi`lblhdui& umbalìd gm| fxomq hd bl jlfipijâm$ Shqi hffi hqm  smqm bâ b â ‖`xqm sipuhqlm ‒ | sieâm phqfi$ Hd fm `mfbm uqmd}xlfm eh fm `hquh~m& eh }xh gm| m dxhpuqm elpsipl`lðd xdm phqlh eh bhelip fhoâulbip eh `idi`lblhdui& sxeh gm`hq xpi eh hffip& pld ld`idzhdlhduhp& m jld eh iauhdhq hf bm|iq uhpiqi eh `idi`lblhdui siplafh$ Bh lbsiqu mam hf ‖}xì‒ | di hf ‖`ðbi‒$ Xpuhe ffmbm m hpi& hf bìuiei eiobíul`i$ Uiei `mbldi hqm alhdzhdlei `id umf }xh ìf `idexnhqm m fm zhqeme$ Sxeh `hehq mf iqehd ianhulzi eh fip sqiafhbmp | emqfh sqliqleme m px isiquxdleme i xqohd`lm$ \i uxzh }xh gm`hq fi }xh smqm blp ulhbsip hqm xdm dh`hpleme$ Hduid`hp bh jxh ehzhfmem xdm `mduleme eh `idi`lblhduip gmpum hduid`hp lodiqmeip$ Fip guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  =5

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

ídlbip hpumamd hduid`hp bidisifl~meip siq fm sqhoxdum> ¹Siehbip mplqdip eh mfoi& | }xì siehbip iauhdhq9 Smqm phqzlq m fm zhqeme | m fm sm~ hpslqluxmf eh fip gibaqhp& pðfi gmaâm xd `mbldi> qhxdlq | hwmbldmq fm uiumfleme eh fip `idi`lblhduip eh dxhpuqi ulhbsi$ \i di bh sieâm ehuhdhq hd xd uqmamni sqhzli ldþulf ehpeh bl sxdui eh zlpum | smqm blp ulhbsip$ Eh fi `iduqmqli di gxalhqm sielei `id`fxlq i pifx`lidmq bl umqhm$ \i qh`islfì fi }xh hqm fm hdphýmd~m eh fm Lofhplm& eh fmp Hp`qluxqmp | eh fip Smeqhp eh fm Lofhplm& shqi umbalìd eh fi }xh hdphýmamd fmp jlfipijâmp bíp mduloxmp | fmp bíp m`uxmfhp$ \i iqehdì& `ibsmqì | hwmbldì$ Umbalìd smqm hpuh hwmbhd xulfl`ì uieip fip bhelip þulfhp smqm hffi> fip sqld`lslip fðol`i"jiqbmfhp& fm `ibsqhdplðd ianhulzm | fmp smxump ememp siq fm jh$ Xdm ginhmem pxshqjl`lmf eh blp hp`qluip sxelhqm emq fm lbsqhplðd eh }xh fmp sqxhamp i mqoxbhduip eh mxuiqleme jxhphd xd `qluhqli lbsiqumduh$ Shqi hp pðfi hd msmqlhd`lm; `lhqumbhduh uxzi smqm bâ oqmd lbsiqumd`lm `xmdei Mqlpuðuhfhp& hf jlfðpiji siq mduidibmplm& i `xmdei Moxpuâd maiomamd siq mfoi$ \i hpuxzh plhbsqh `idzhd`lei eh }xh hd m}xhffi }xh eh`âmd& ehalhqm gmahq xd dþ`fhi i ohqbhd eh zhqeme$ \ mpâ jxh smqm bâ xd mqoxbhdui ‖me gibldhb‒

lbsiqumduh& sqhphdumqfip `ibi uhpuloip jqhduh m iuqip m }xlhdhp |i di ehpsqh`lmam$ Shqi dxd`m gh m`hsumei siq plbsfh mxuiqleme gxbmdm& fi }xh hpumam jxdembhdumfbhduh mf mf`md`h eh bl `ibsqhdplðd$ Hd umf uqmamni eh lduhoqm`lðd& eh hwmbhd | eh sidhq iqehd& `qh`lð m}xhffi }xh ph ffmbm ‖bl plpuhbm‒$ Hf `idi`lblhdui eh bl ìsi`m ph iqomdl~ð hd bl hpsâqlux$ \i di gh hp`qlui xd ‖Plpuhbm eh fm jlfipijâm‒ | hf

plpuhbm }xh hpuí lbsfâ`lui hd blp uqmamnip mþd di gm plei hp`qlui$ Shqi }xlhd hpuxelm blp hp`qluip& ehp`xaqh xdm qhpsxhpum sxduxmf | `fmqm m bíp `xhpulidhp }xh fmp }xh ìf blpbi phm `msm~ eh sfmduhmq$ \ mþd bíp> hf ‖Iqomdid‒ }xh ffhzmam hd bâ | }xh bh shqblulð qhpifzhq xdm oqmd `mduleme eh `xhpulidhp `id xd jlqbh | uqmd}xlfi ‖ Qhpsidehi El`hdexb ‒& shdhuqm hd hf mfxbdi | fh gm`h siplafh `iduhpumq& eh m`xhqei m bl biemfleme& sqhoxdump }xh |i di bh gh sfmduhmei& fmp `xmfhp hd bl ulhbsi& hzhduxmfbhduh& di sieâmd phq jiqbxfmemp$ Ìpuh& sqiamafhbhduh phm hf biulzi siq hf `xmf gi|& dxhzmbhduh ph mshfm m blp hp`qluip$ Hpum hp xdm ìsi`m }xh di ph pmulpjm`h `id `idplehqm`lidhp bhuðel`mp$ Fip gibaqhp pid ldhpumafhp | axp`mqíd xdm hpumalfleme$ Hffip }xlhqhd xdm zhqeme `x|i `iduhdlei phm hjl`m~ hd fm zlem$ Hffip }xlhqhd xdm jlfipijâm | hpui fi hd`iduqmqíd hd fm bâm$ Siq `lhqui& eh fi }xh gi| ph `idi`h amni hpuh dibaqh& hpuí plehqmfbhduh fhnip$ Qmsui elulqíbal`i& zhqaiqqmolm hwmohqmem& ph axp`m ldþulfbhduh hd fi bâi$ M}xâ di gm| bíp }xh xdm zhqeme& hwsqhpmem siq `id`hsuip sqh`lpip | piaqlip$ Iaphqzmem eh biei pxshqjl`lmf& bl jlfipijâm smqh`h xd `idnxdui eh amomuhfmp& `id fmp }xh di ph pmah }xì gm`hq$ Mþd hd xd hpuxeli phqli& di ph dium jí`lfbhduh& }xh xdi gm omdmei mfoi sqí`ul`i$ Shqi pl xdi shqbmdh`h xd ulhbsi bíp sqifidomei `idbloi& hd bl guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  =8

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

bxdei hpslqluxmf& `id jqh`xhd`lm hd`iduqmqí& }xh hd `xhpulidhp uhðql`mp eljâ`lfhp i hd pluxm`lidhp sqí`ul`mp jqhduh m fmp `xmfhp mduhp ph gxalhph hd`iduqmei lbsiuhduh& ph gmffm jí`lf | `id phoxqleme fm pifx`lðd `iqqh`um$ \ pl ehpsxìp ph qhjfhwlidm piqsqhdelei& eh `ðbi jxh siplafh hpui& ph ehp`xaqh }xh Uibíp& `id pxp amomuhfmp& `qhð hf jxdembhdui smqm hffi; hp eh`lq& smqm xdm jlfipijâm eh zlem$ Dmuxqmfbhduh& |i blpbi di zlpfxbaqì& }xh hf uqmumblhdui eh hpum i m}xhffm `xhpulðd& sxelhqm ‖phqzlq‒ i phq eh xulfleme

mfoxdm zh~; hd zhqeme }xh di bh sqhi`xsì siq hffi$ \i phoxâ& þdl`mbhduh& fm fh| eh fm zhqeme$ Pxp jqxuip hpuíd hd hffm blpbm$

LZ

 $ Jlfipijâm Uhi`ìduql`m | Jlfipijâm Hoi`ìduql`m

U> Eh fmp eljhqhduhp bhump | eh fmp eljhqhduhp lduhqsqhum`lidhp ehf jxdembhdui eh fm `hquh~m& uxzi }xh qhpxfumq& hduid`hp& xdm iqlhdum`lðd `ibsfhumbhduh eljhqhduh eh uiem fm jlfipijâm$ Smqulbip mbaip eh }xh m fm lehm eh fm zhqeme fh `iqqhpsideh xdm hwlpuhd`lm mapifxum 'uqmp`hdehduh,& ldehshdelhduh ehf bìuiei eh ldzhpulom`lðd | eh `idi`lblhdui$ Shqi dxhpuqip `mbldip ph phsmqmd hd fm sqhoxdum siq fm sqlblohdlm zhqeme& | `id hpui& siq fm sqlbhqm jlfipijâm$ Fm sqlbhqm zhqeme& hf sqld`lsli | `qluhqli eh uiem zhqeme& hp Elip blpbi$ Hpuh hp& pl xpuhe }xlhqh ffmbmqfi mpâ& bl sqlbhq Mwlibm Jlfipðjl`i$ Uiem zhqeme eh fm `xmf siehbip uibmq siphplðd& smquh eh hpuh mwlibm$ Eh hpui qhpxfum fm umqhm eh fm Jlfipijâm> hffm ehah uhdhq m Elip `ibi ianhui$ Hffm ehah ehpmqqiffmq fm lehm eh Elip | hf phdulei eh px phq; | mehbíp eh fm qhfm`lðd hd fm }xh uiei ‖fi iuqi‒& dip ffhzm mf `idi`lblhdui eh fi elzldi$ Uiei ‖fi iuqi‒ pid fip

phqhp }xh smqul`lsmd phoþd px hphd`lm ehf Phq eh Elip$ Fi `iodip`lafh eh hpuip phqhp dip ffhzm mf `idi`lblhdui eh Elip$ Smqm uiemp hpump `xhpulidhp& gm| }xh qh`xqqlq m uiei fi }xh siembip pmahq eh hffip& |m phm siq hf `idi`lblhdui dmuxqmf& i siq fm Qhzhfm`lðd$ Hd qhfm`lðd mf `idi`lblhdui }xh sxhehd uhdhq fmp `qhmuxqmp lduhflohduhp& gm| }xh ehp`xaqlq umbalìd fip `mbldip ehf `idi`lblhdui& }xh fhp `idex`hd m `idi`hq m Elip& m `idi`hqph m ‖pâ blpbi‒ | mf `idi`lblhdui eh iuqmp `qhmuxqmp$ Mpâ qhpxfum fm Uhiqâm ehf @idi`lblhdui& fm `xmf hp `ifi`mem siq xpuhe& mf sqld`lsli smqm ‖nxpuljl`mq‒

uiei fi iuqi& `ibi smquh eh xdm Uhiqâm ehf Phq hd ohdhqmf$ Jxdembhdumfbhduh ph qhex`hd mpâ& uiemp fmp `xhpulidhp& m `xhpulidhp piaqh hf phq& | uiemp fmp elp`lsfldmp jlfipðjl`mp ph `idzlhquhd hd smquh eh xdm oqmd iduifioâm i bhumjâpl`m$ Sxhp m `mem phq Elip fh smqul`lsm m}xhffi }xh ‖hp‒ | hf biei eh px phq; hp eh`lq Hphd`lm | Hwlpuhd`lm& | eh biei `iqqhpsidelhduh umbalìd m fm bhelem | hf biei eh px `idi`lblhdui | hpjxhq~i smqm fm zhqeme | shqjh``lðd mf`md~mafhp$ Mpâ hpuíd `iduhdlemp hd hpum Iduifioâm& fm fðol`m& fm uhiqâm ehf `idi`lblhdui& fm ìul`m& `ibi bmuhqlmp guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  =:

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

sqislmp$ Hpump bmuhqlmp sxhehd umbalìd hd iuqm jiqbm& phq elp`lsfldmp mxuðdibmp$ Xpuhe zhqí phoxqmbhduh hd }xì fxomq eh hpuh ‖Iqomdid‒ `mah px ‖Jhdibhdifioâm Uqmp`hdehdumf‒& px `qhm`lðd bíp sqislm | ohdxldm$ Hpum

Jhdibhdifioâm Uqmp`hdehdumf hp xd sqhpmoli eh `mbali smqm hpum Iduifioâm ohdhqmf 'phoþd px sqisli biei eh hwsqhpmqph,$ Smqm xpuhe fm `xhpulðd hp `ðbi ph `idpuqx|h 'x iqomdl~m, hf bxdei smqm xd phq `id`lhduh& }xh sxhem phq ldzhpulomei hd ldbmdhd`lm siq hf |i$ \m phm hf bxdei lduhqliq i hwuhqliq& hf dmuxqmf i hf hpslqluxmf& hf bxdei amdmf | hf eh fip zmfiqhp | siq þfulbi | `ibi eh`lplzi& hf bxdei eibldmei siq hf phdulei qhflolipi& hf bxdei eh Elip$ Xpuhe gm shqjh``lidmei& hd xd uqmamni ldjmulomafh& hf bìuiei }xh shqblulð m`fmqmq hpuip sqiafhbmp | bipuqmq `ðbi `idpuqx|h px ‖Bxdei‒& fm m`ulzleme hpslqluxmf ehf pxnhui m smqulq eh xd

bmuhqlmf sxqmbhduh phdplulzi& hd elzhqpip m`uip i hpuqx`uxqm eh m`uip$ M}xhffm Iduifioâm& fm `xmf mplodm m `mem phq hpslqluxmf px m`ulzleme hpsh`âjl`m& phoxqmbhduh ulhdh hpsm`li smqm hpump ldzhpulom`lidhp `idpuluxlemp$ Shqi hpum Iduifioâm di sxheh phq meblulem `ibi jxdemduh$ Px `mbldi& Sqijhpiq Gxpphqf& fi gm ffhzmei m Xe$ m `ifi`mq mf pxnhui `ibi sxdui eh smqulem `hduqmf eh fm ldzhpulom`lðd jlfipðjl`m$ Uiei hpuí qhjhqlei mf pxnhui$ Hf bxdei }xh ph `idpulux|h siq m``lidhp ehf pxnhui& shqbmdh`h plhbsqh `ibi xd bxdei smqm hf pxnhui$ Xpuhe di uxzi ìwlui  ‐ `ibi `ibi fh jxhqm qhluhqmembhduh ianhumei& ehpeh hf dþ`fhi eh pxp mfxbdip ‐  hd qh`xshqmq eh fm hpjhqm eh fm ldbmdhd`lm& ‖m}xhffm ianhulzleme‒& eh fm `xmf xpuhe gmaâm smqulei | }xh ph uqmumam eh mphoxqmq `id hpum dxhzm lduhqsqhum`lðd eh fm Ldzhpulom`lðd Uqmp`hdehdumf `x|i qhpxfumei hp fm eh h}xlsmqmq fm hwlpuhd`lm `id xd ‖bipuqmqph‒ mf phq `id`lhduh& hf ldu hfh`ui }xh axp`m fm zhqeme& dxd`m ph uqmd}xlfl~mqí$ Hpui i`xqqh sxhp mf `iduqmeh`lq m fm jh& ph qhfmulzl~m m Elip blpbi$ Eh hpuh biei& hp sqiamafh }xh phm ìpum fm bíp moxem mduldiblm hduqh fm Jhdibhdifioâm Uqmp`hdehdumf | bl jlfipijâm$ Fm bâm ulhdh xdm iqlhdum`lðd hphd`lmfbhduh uhi`ìduql`m | fm px|m hoi`ìduql`m$

G> Piaqh hpuh sxdui& di ehphi ldl`lmq xdm elphd`lðd$ Ehpeh fm msmql`lðd eh blp ‖Lehmp‒& hd fmp `xmfhp jxh hwsqhpmei bl ‖lehmflpbi‒& gm plei ìpuh hf

sxdui hd hf }xh ph gmd `hduqmei fip mum}xhp$ \i fi gh ehamulei `id jqh`xhd`lm `id elp`âsxfip pifâ`luip& `hfipip | zhghbhduhp$ Fip sqi`hpip eh shdpmblhdui eh`lplzip& ph bmdljhpumamd hd hpump `idzhqpm`lidhp$ \ fm bm|iqâm eh fmp zh`hp& qhpxfumamd ldhjl`m`hp smqm `idzhd`hq m fip isipluiqhp | mxd `xmdei m}xhffip ph eh`fmqmqmd bibhduídhmbhduh pxshqmeip& pifâmd hffip m fm fmqom i m fm `iqum& qhuibmq pxp ianh`lidhp$ Jxhqmd ìpump zlhnmp i dxhzmp$ Siq hpi bh gh sqhi`xsmei `mem zh~ bíp& hd hpuip þfulbip mýip& hd sqijxdel~mq i sxduxmfl~mq fip mdíflplp }xh bh ffhzmqid m hpuh qhpxfumei$ \ mþd axp`i uiemzâm xdm jiqbm `id`fx|hduh | fxbldipm eh hwsqhpmqfip& `ibi |i blpbi `qhi zhqfip$ @ibi xpuhe zh& |i di bh eh`fmqi pxshqmei$ Shqi guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  =?

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

mgiqm di pi| ei`hduh& pldi i|hduh& | siq hpi }xlhqi shelq ldjiqbm`lðd piaqh iuqip uhbmp$

Z

 $ Iduifioâm | Bhumjâpl`m$ Bìuieip Hbsâql`ip | Hleìul`ip

G> Xpuhe gmafð eh Iduifioâm i Bhumjâpl`m$ \i hpui| m`ipuxbaqmei m phsmqmqfip m mbamp hd px ehdibldm`lðd$ M}xhffi }xh ehplodì iduifioâmp jiqbmfhp i bmuhqlmfhp }xh sqhpxsidhd smqm uieip fip bìuieip siplulzi"hbsâql`ip& siq hnhbsfi fm fðol`m sxqm& fmp bmuhbíul`mp sxqmp& fmp `lhd`lmp dmuxqmfhp sxqmp& hu`$ ]xlph hpumafh`hqfmp dmuxqmfhp i eh fmp `ipmp qhmfhp& }xh di dh`hplumd eh xdm `ibsqiam`lðd hbsâql`m$ Fm bhumjâpl`m uqmel`lidmf bh smqh`h phq& siq hf `iduqmqli& `lhd`lm eh hpuh bxdei ¹]xì slhdpm xpuhe eh ‖Hphd`lm‒ | ‖Jm`uxb‒& eh hleìul`m | hbslqlm9 U> \i di gh ffhzmei m `mai bhuðel`mbhduh fm eljhqhd`lm`lðd hduqh umfhp& `id hf ehflahqmei qloiq& `id }xh fi gm gh`gi xpuhe$ @ibi fi elni `id hwm`uluxe | |i |m fi gh ehpum`mei e hpum`mei mduhqliqbhduh& ph uqmum eh omdmq fm lbmohd bíp mamq`mulzm siplafh eh hpuh bxdei$ 'Hpuh bxdei& phoþd px phdulei& Sqijhpiq Gxpphqf& `ibi hf bxdei hwlpuhduh& jí`ul`i& hd isipl`lðd m ‖`xmfhp}xlhqm‒ iuqip bxdeip siplafhp `ibi pid fip piaqhdmuxqmfhp$ Smqm hf jlfðpiji bhelhzmf& fm jlfipijâm dxd`m jxh xd mpxdui sxqmbhduh uhðql`i& mþd `xmdei ìf& `ibi |i fi gl`h& sqi`heâm `ibi uhðql`i ohdxldi& pldi }xh ph axp`mam xd hduhdelblhdui ehf bxdei `ibi jxdembhdui smqm xdm m`uluxe `id`qhum | sqí`ul`m hd hf bxdei$ Hpui di hqm fi þdl`i  ‐ shqi shqi pâ lbsiqumduh ‐ & | dl pl}xlhqm hf biulzi bíp hfhzmei ehf jlfipijmq |i pì mehbíp& }xh umbsi`i m xpuhe hpuh biulzi fh hp mnhdi,$ Hf ehqh`gi m fm uhiqâm sxqm jxh uiumfbhduh qh`idi`lei$ Hd hf qh`idi`lblhdui eh fm zhqeme& hf lduhfh`ui ffhzmam m `mai hf phdulei eh px hwlpuhd`lm bíp lbsiqumduh mf`md~mdei fm bíwlbm phbhnmd~m `id Elip 'i fm bíwlbm lbmohd eh Elip, | fm bm|iq jhfl`leme siplafh$ Smqm hpuh `idi`lblhdui sqí`ul`i | umbalìd smqm fm bhum uhðql`m& mamq`mulzip ehf bxdei& jxh dh`hpmqli hbsfhmq `idi`lblhduip hbsâql`ip | hleìul`ip$ Fi }xh msiquð fm jh& sqheibldmduhbhduh jxhqid `idi`lblhduip ianhulzip& qhmfhp& siplulzip& smqm ehjldlq fm lbmohd ehf bxdei& shqi umbalìd `idi`lblhduip eh iuqm zmfhd`lm& }xh pxshqmamd fm hwshqlhd`lm phdpiqlmf$ Fm eljhqhd`lm hduqh mbaip `idi`lblhduip bh hqm uiumfbhduh `iqqlhduh& jmblflmq$ \i gmafì eh m}xhffi }xh `iqqhpsideh m fmp `ipmp siq px hphd`lm& ‖hphd`lmfbhduh‒ ‐ `ibi `ibi el`h xpuhe ‐ | eh fi }xh m hffmp eh biei m``lehdumf fhp `iqqhpsideh& phoþd fmp `lq`xdpumd`lmp$ \i hdjmul`ì piaqh fmp zhqemehp qhjhqlemp m fm hphd`lm$ Sxhp fmp `ipmp& phoþd px hphd`lm& `idjiqbmd& siq eh`lqfi eh hpuh biei& hf ‖mdemblmnh ehf bxdei‒$ \ fi }xh m

hffmp fhp i`xqqh eh biei m``lehdumf& hpuí sqhehuhqbldmei& hd px hphd`lm$ Hd guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  =7

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

hpuh phdulei& xpuhe umbalìd gm ld`fxlei fi ‖jí`ul`i‒& hd pxp m`ium`lidhp piaqh fm hphd`lm$ Mpâ hwlpuh xd mbsfli sxdui eh zlpum `ibsmqulei siq pxp ldzhpulom`lidhp | fmp bâmp$ Xpuhe ph piqsqhdehqâm eh zhq gmpum }xì sxdui i `id }xì jqh`xhd`lm `ild`lehd mbaip$ \ siq hpi& mf ehp`xaqlqfi& pxp isipluiqhp& `mfljl`mqid m px jlfipijâm& `ibi eh e h xdm ‖dxhzm hp`ifípul`m‒$ Siq iuqi fmei& m bâ bh lbsiqumam gm`hq hzlehduh fm ‖hphd`lm eh hpuh bxdei‒ | fm eh uiemp fmp `ipmp eh hpuh bxdei& | }xh siq  fi umdui& ‖fm u hplp eh fm hwlpuhd`lm‒& `ibi xpuhe m`ipuxbaqm m eh`lq& shqbmdh`lhqm ldum`um$ Di

bh lduhqhpmam gm`hq `idnhuxqmp piaqh siplalflemehp$ @xmdei |i gmafi ehf biei eh `idi`lblhdui eh fip ídohfhp& ehf biei eh `idi`lblhdui ehf sqlbhq gibaqh& mduhp ehf Sh`mei Iqloldmf& ehf `idi`lblhdui ehf mfbm ehpsxìp eh fm bxhquh& di pðfi ulhdh siq phdulei hf eh `idplehqmq siplafhp ulsip eh `idi`lblhdui | fip sidoi nxdui mf biei hbsâql`i ehf `idi`lblhdui 'sqí`ul`i, gxbmdi& | mpâ omdmq xdm elbhdplðd mbsflmem eh fip bieip eh `idi`lblhduip `ibi umf$ Hpuh plodljl`mei jxh uqmumei `id sqhelfh``lðd hd hf íbalui ehf `âq`xfi eh fip elp`âsxfip eh fm hp`ifípul`m$ Ehpeh m}xâ ph uxzi m``hpi m dxhpuqi ‖bxdei ehf shdpmblhdui‒& blhduqmp

}xh fmp iuqmp elqh``lidhp eh fm biehqdm jlfipijâm& di pxslhqid }xì gm`hq `id hffi$ Gm| xd eiafh phdulei hd hpuip hdxd`lmeip bâip& fip }xh ph qhjlhqhd m fm Iduifioâm i Bhumjâpl`m i`xsmqph eh hffip | ehpmqqiffmqfip siq phsmqmei$ Siq iuqm smquh ehahqâmd `xbsflqph fip hp`qluip px|ip | eh pxp elp`âsxfip }xh `idulhdhd | hwlohd lbsfâ`lumbhduh fm `idjloxqm`lðd eh xdm Iduifioâm jiqbmf | uiem fm phqlh }xh `idulhdhd uhbmp sqislip eh xdm Iduifioâm bmuhqlmf$ Hduid`hp pâ ph gmqí hzlehduh hd }xì oqmd bhelem& gm| xdm `ild`lehd`lm& hduqh fi px|i | fi bâi$ Hd umdui ph gmafh pifi | hd ohdhqmf eh Hphd`lm jqhduh mf ‖Jm`uxb‒ | eh fi ‖hd pâ‒ jqhduh m fi m``lehdumf& di hp siplafh xdm zhqemehqm `idjqidum`lðd& sxhp hpump hwsqhplidhp& mshdmp pid iuqm `ipm& }xh aqhzhp ehplodm`lidhp& smqm `mduleme eh fip bíp eljâ`lfhp sqiafhbmp iduifðol`ip$

ZL

 $  Fm `xhpulðd eh fm ‖Lduxl`lðd‒$ Bìuiei Jhdibhdifðol`i |  Bìuiei Hp`ifípul`i

U> Hd hpuh `iduhwui eh elífioi hduqh dipiuqip& fi sqlbhqi }xh gxalhqm hpshqmei xd hwuqmýi phqâmd dxhpuqip sfmduhip qhjhqleip m fm ‖Lduxl`lðd‒ i ‖@iduhbsfm`lðd eh fm hphd`lm‒$ Hpui gxalhqm plei& umdui smqm kmdulmdip `ibi smqm dhihp`ifípul`ip& fm ‖slheqm ehf hp`ídemfi‒ eh px

jlfipijlm& Sqijhpiq Gxpphqf$ Hp bx| `ibsqhdplafh }xh m smqulq eh iaphqzm`lidhp pxshqjl`lmfhp ph ffhoð m fm ploxlhduh lbsqhplðd> fip bìuieip jhdibhdifðol`ip | fip hp`ifípul`ip& pid jxdembhdumfbhduh eljhqhduhp$ Hd guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  =<

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

xdi ph m`iduh`h fm hfmaiqm`lðd fðol`m | fm hzmfxm`lðd eh fm hwshqlhd`lm phdpiqlmf 'pl dipiuqip dip flblumbip mf íqhm ehf `idi`lblhdui dmuxqmf, | hd hf iuqi  ‐ hf hf jhdibhdifðol`i ‐  xdm msmqhduh zlplðd elqh`um eh zhqemehp huhqdmp }xh }xhem qhphqzmem smqm hf sxqi hpsâqlux$ Shqi ehai eh`lq }xh dip uibmqid xd umdui m fm flohqm pl `qh|hqid }xh `id hpuh mqoxbhdui ‖ehpsm`gmamd‒ fm `ipm$ Sqlbhqi ph uismqid uismqid `id fmp fmp hwsqhplidhp ‖Lduxl`lðd‒ ‖Lduxl`lðd‒ | ‖@iduhbsfm`lðd‒$ Siq `lhqui ulhdhd xd shpi glpuðql`i | jxh bx| dmuxqmf

}xh mfoxlhd jmblflmql~mei `id fm fluhqmuxqm bâpul`m ph lbmoldmqm mfoi mpâ& `ibi }xh ph uqmumam eh xdm zlplðd ahmuâjl`m$ Umfhp zlplidhp pid xdm oqm`lm eh mfbmp hfholemp& siq fi ohdhqmf$ Hpuip pid& fip }xh siq xd mfui oqmei eh pmduleme | xdm zlem qloxqipmbhduh mp`ìul`m& hpuíd sqhsmqmeip smqm hffi$ Shqi pld }xh fm bíp mfum pmduleme& dl fm bíp phzhqm mp`hplp sxelhqmd siq pâ  iuiqomq umf ahdel`lðd$ Hpuip pid xd qhomfi mapifxui eh fm ‖Flahqlump Ehl‒$ \

mgiqm hpui pidmam& `ibi pl fip jlfðpijip bxdemdip& pld `idplehqmq pxp `xmflemehp shqpidmfhp& uxzlhqmd fm sqhuhdplðd& eh bmdhnmq m px mduini& ehpeh px hp`qluiqli& umfhp lfxbldm`lidhp$ Hpui ehalð dmuxqmfbhduh sqizi`mq elpumd`lmblhdui | qh`gm~i$ Smqm fip jlfðpijip biehqdip di `qh|hduhp& siq iuqm smquh& smqm fip `xmfhp umfhp hwshqlhd`lmp bâpul`mp di pid iuqm `ipm }xh hpumeip spâ}xl`ip hdjhqbl~ip& pld dldoþd zmfiq hd `xmdui mf `idi`lblhdui& pifi sieqâm `idumq `id xdm pidqlpm lqðdl`m fm ‖Lduxl`lðd Jhdibhdifðol`m‒&

lduhqsqhumem hd hpuh phdulei$ Shqi }xlhd lduhqsqhumph mpâ hpum smfmaqm& Sqijhpiq Gxpphqf& di sieqâm msqizh`gmq fm lduhqsqhum`lðd zlumf }xh gm| hd px sqi`helblhdui bhuðel`i | sqí`ul`i$ ]xlhd di fh|ð pxp hp`qluip `id zhqemehqm ianhulzleme& | di `ibi xd smfmaqhqâi zm`âi& piaqh uiei hd hf elífioi i hd hf ehamuh& di sieqâm phoxlq px ph`xhd`lm$ M hph fh`uiq i m hpm shqpidm ehahqâm phqfh `fmqi& }xh di ph phdumam xpuhe mf hp`qluiqli | hpshqmam lfxbldm`lidhp bâpul`mp& pldi }xh px lduhfh`ui uqmamnmam gidhpumbhduh `id px `msm`leme eh ‖Lduxl`lðd‒$

Fm Jhdibhdifioâm hp xd bìuiei eh mdíflplp qloxqipi | sqijxdei eh xd uhbm emei$ Hd sqld`lsli sxelhqm `idpumumqph m ‖oqippi biei‒& uqhp sxduip

hd fip `xmfhp& ehuqíp eh xdm msmqhduh `iduqmel``lðd& ph qhzhfm xdm uiumf `ild`lehd`lm hduqh px bìuiei | hf bâi> =" Uiei `idi`lblhdui `iblhd~m `id fip phduleip 5$ Hpuh hp hf jxdembhdui }xh hpumafh~`i smqm hf `idi`lblhdui gxbmdi | hp phoxqmbhduh fm sqisipl`lðd bíp `lumem siq uiem fm jlfipijâm hp`ifípul`m$ Smqh`lhqm `ibi }xh xpuhe fi `iduqmelnhqm& `xmdei hdjmul~m }xh smqm xdm `ibsqhdplðd eh fm ‖Hphd`lm‒ di ph qh}xlhqh dldoxdm hwshqlhd`lm$ Shqi hpum mjlqbm`lðd di hpuí

el`gm hd hf phdulei eh }xh hf jhdibhdðfioi sxelhqm `iduhdumqph pld dldoþd bmuhqlmf phdpiqlmf$ Xpuhe pifmbhduh }xlhqh eh`lq }xh hf jlfðpiji& `xmdei 5

[DeUR Hd mfhbíd ‖Pldohd‒ sxheh mfxelq umbalìd m fi `msumei siq fip phduleip$

guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  13

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

jlfipijm piaqh fm dmuxqmfh~m eh fm `ipm bmuhqlmf& di qh}xlhqh& smqm px mdíflplp& xdm hwshqlhd`lm ‖m`uxmf‒ eh xdm `ipm bmuhqlmf$ ]xh mffâ eideh ph plqzh eh fm shq`hs`lðd i ehf qh`xhqei eh xdm `ipm shq`lalem eh biei `id`qhui& di fh lbsiqumam ‖hpum‒ `ipm ldbhelmum pldi }xh pifi ehah hpumq  sqhphduh mfoxdm `fmqm qhsqhphdum`lðd eh xdm `ipm bmuhqlmf `ibi sxdui eh smqulem$ Gmpum hpui& sieqâm hzhduxmfbhduh phqzlq bhniq }xh xdm shq`hs`lðd8 m`uxmf eh fm `ipm$ Shqi pld lbsiqumq fm jiqbm eh qhsqhphdum`lðd i shq`hs`lðd eh fm `xmf xdi ph plqzm | dldoxdm sqisipl`lðd ph mdxfm$ Siq iuqi fmei bh hqm mnhdi qh`fmbmq xd biei ehuhqbldmei eh shq`hs`lðd phdpiqlmf& `ibi siq hnhbsfi xdm shq`hs`lðd hwuhqliq m`uxmf `ibi pisiquh smqm umf `idi`lblhdui$ 1" \i eloi> uiei `idi`lblhdui dmuxqmf phqí fioqmei siq fm hfmaiqm`lðd ehf bmuhqlmf }xh msiqumd dxhpuqip phduleip$ Hd hpum mbsflm m`hs`lðd eh bl mjlqbm`lðd eh dldoþd biei ph `iduqmel`h px bìuiei ¹Sieqí phq }xh eh biei lbsfâ`lui i pxa|m`hduh gm|m xdm `iduqmel``lðd hd hf biei eh hfmaiqm`lðd9 Xpuhe el`h }xh hpum lduhfh``lðd jlfipðjl`m di phqí fioqmem siq bheli eh fm ‖Ldex``lðd‒$ Smqm di msmqumqdip ehf hnhbsfi hfholei& di hp fm

umqhm }xh hf jlfðpiji }xlhqh hpumafh`hq fm eh iaphqzmq xdm phqlh eh `ipmp bmuhqlmfhp | `ibsmqmqfmp | ehpum`mq fmp smqul`xfmqlemehp }xh ulhdhd& `xmdei }xlhqh ffhomq m fm hphd`lm eh fmp `ipmp bmuhqlmfhp$ Xdm pifm lduxl`lðd phqâm pxjl`lhduh smqm m``hehq m fm zhqemehqm hphd`lm$ Smqm hpui& hp dh`hpmqlm xdm jiqbm smqul`xfmq eh mapuqm``lðd& }xh di pxqoh sqh`lpmbhduh eh fm `ibsmqm`lðd eh bþfulsfhp `ipmp bmuhqlmfhp$ Hpum mapuqm``lðd sieqâm phq sqhp`ldehduh eh fi }xh fm bhqm `ipm `lq`xdpumd`lmfbhduh bxhpuqh$ Hpum mapuqm``lðd sxheh i`xqqlq mxd}xh fm `ipm bmuhqlmf ehpmsmqh~`m& h ‖ldpumfmdei fm blqmem‒ piaqh fi }xh |i oxpuipmbhduh ehdibldi fm ‖Qmuli‒

eh fmp `ipmp bmuhqlmfhp& i fi }xh shquhdh`h m px lehm$ Dxd`m ph bh gm i`xqqlei ehpbhdulq i dhomq fm siplalfleme eh umf bìuiei | |i blpbi fi gh hnhq`lumei hd uiei `mpi eideh hqm zíflei qhzhfmq ‖ Qmulidhp‒ 'hd hf phdulei qh`lìd hpumafh`lei,$ Hpui hp& phoþd bl biei eh hwsqhpmqbh& uqmamni ehf ‖ Lduhffh`uxp elzlehdp hu `ibsidhdp‒$ Elzlelq hp mdmfl~mq | fm phsmqm`lðd mapuqm`ulzm eh fip hfhbhduip hphd`lmfhp eh fip hfhbhduip jiquxluip i m``lehdumfhp& hp hph umf mdmfl~mq$ Pðfi }xh di ph sxhehd uibmq blp ‖Uhqbldl‒ hd xd phdulei umd hpuqh`gi$ Phqâm xdm oqiphqm | si`i `idjlmafh plbsfljl`m`lðd eh bl bìuiei& pl ph hpumafh`lhqm hf ‖ Elzlehqh hu @ibsmqmqh ‒ hd `idel`lidhp ldex`ulzmp | ehex`ulzmp& hd hf phdulei eh fm `lhd`lm dmuxqmf hbsâql`m | eh fmp uqmel`lidmfhp jiqbmp eh plfiolpbip$ Siq iuqi fmei& Sqijhpiq Gxpphqf& xd ìdjmplp ehf `mqí`uhq lduxlulzi ehf `idi`lblhdui eh fm hphd`lm di ldzmflem hd qhmfleme& fm hjl`m`lm eh iuqmp jiqbmp eh shdpmblhduip hd pxp qhpxfumeip$ Di ph plodljl`m `id hffi xd plbsfh ‖Blqmq ehduqi eh‒$ 8

[DeUR> Hd Mfhbíd shq`hs`lðd ph el`h ‖ elh _mgqdhgbxdo‒$ Hpum smfmaqm sqizlhdh eh _mgq 2 zhqeme | dhgbhd 2 uibmq$ Phqâm hduid`hp 2 uibmq fm zhqeme$ Hd hpsmýif di hp umd `fmqm fm m`hs`lðd$ guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  1=

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

@id hpui pðfi ph ehplodm fi isxhpui mf bìuiei eh fm `id`fxplðd fðol`m$ Di ph uqmum eh ehqlzmq eh xdm `ipm m fm iuqm& pldi eh xdm shdhuqm`lðd hd fip ianhuip | eh fmp `iqqhfm`lidhp ianhulzmp& fmp `xmfhp sxhehd `idzhqulqph hd Uhplp$ \i `id hpui gh sxduxmfl~mei }xh fm umqhm siq hw`hfhd`lm ehf lduhfh`ui ' Lduxp  Lduxp fhohqh 2 fhhq hd hf lduhqliq eh fmp `ipmp,& fh qhpxfumqí m xpuhe hduid`hp& xdm hwsqhplðd m`hqumem smqm fi }xh xpuhe hdulhdeh siq Lduxl`lðd$ Hduid`hp dipiuqip sieqâmbip `ild`lelq hd }xh fm ‖Zlplðd eh fm Hphd`lm‒ di hpuí hd isipl`lðd mf shdpmblhdui& plhbsqh }xh ph uibh m ìpuh& `id fm mbsfluxe dh`hpmqlm$ Fxhoi fm ‖Zlplðd eh fm Hphd`lm‒& hp fm jm`xfume eh ‖Hduhdelblhdui‒& pl ph fi uibm hd px m`hs`lðd `iqqh`um& | di ph slhdpm hd

hpm `mql`muxqm }xh umdui hf qm`lidmflpbi `ibi iuqip isipluiqhp gmd gh`gi eh ìf$ Umbalìd `qhi }xh dipiuqip siehbip ffhomq m xdm `ild`lehd`lm piaqh hf `mqí`uhq m`ulzi i smplzi eh fm ‖Lduxl`lðd‒$ @xmdei |i zhi }xh fm m``lðd i

bìuiei& lduhdum m smqulq ehf bmuhqlmf emei& axp`m shdhuqmq hd fm hphd`lm eh ìf& hpui hp fm zhqemehqm m``lðd ehf ‖ Lduhffh`uxp Mohdp‒& zhi sxduxmfbhduh fm  aþp}xhem eh hduhdehq$ Hd fm m``lðd ehf ‖ Lduxp"fhohqh‒& hf `iduhbsfmq  lduhfh`uxmfbhduh ‖fi shdhuqmei‒& | m hpui mpslqm uie i bizlblhdui lduhfh`uxmf | me}xlhqh hf `mqí`uhq eh fm ohpum`lðd ehf `id`hsui | ulhdh xd `mqí`uhq smplzi$ Xpuhe gm qhpmfumei hpsh`lmfbhduh hpuh bibhdui smplzi }xh px bìuiei eh ldzhpulom`lðd gm`h ehqlzmq eh fm ‖Qmuli‒ ianhulzm | }xh ph sfmdum qiuxdembhduh `ibi isxhpui m uiemp fmp elqh``lidhp jlfipðjl`mp biehqdmp& emei }xh smqm hffmp uiei `idplpuh hd ‖`idpuqxlq‒ xdm hpuqx`uxqm ehf hduhdelblhdui$ Hd ehjhdpm jqhduh m uiem mqaluqmqlheme& dip qhhd`iduqmbip dxhzmbhduh& hd hf `idzhd`lblhdui eh }xh hd m}xhffm lduxl`lðd& }xh hp shq`hs`lðd smplzm& smp lzm& hpuí fm zhqemehqm i ohdxldm jm`xfume ehf Lduhfh`ui$ Uiem m``lðd& di phqâm iuqm `ipm }xh xdm sqhsmqm`lðd smqm hpum ldpumd`lm$ 'M}xâ ploxh hd hf bmdxp`qlui xd síqqmji um`gmei$ Fm zhqplðd hpsmýifm smqh`h uhdhqfi mf gmahqfi uibmei ehf bmdxp`qlui iqloldmf,$

Fm `xhpulðd qmel`m pifmbhduh& hd `xíf hp fm `msm`leme qhmf ehf  Lduhfh`uxp gxbmdi smqm umfhp jldhp `xmdei ph gmffm hd ‖Pumux"zlmh‒$ Smqm fip hpsâqluxp ldjhqliqhp& hpui hp smqm fip ídohfhp | smqm fip phqhp gxbmdip }xh oi~md eh fm zlplðd ahmuâjl`m fm þdl`m jiqbm hp fm ehf Hduhdelblhdui i Zlplðd ldbhelmum$ Fm lduhfh``lðd& smqm hf phq gxbmdi& ehjldh fm jqiduhqm ‖lehmf‒& di }xlhqi eh`lq }xh hpuh fâbluh phm eh`lelembhduh guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  11

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

ldmf`md~mafh hd ‖Pumux"Zlmh‒$ Hffm hp jqiduhqm hd hf phdulei ohdxldi> hf hpsâqlux gxbmdi ‖qi~m‒ m}xâ fm hpjhqm eh fip hpsâqluxp ldjhqliqhp$ \i gmafì hd blp hp`qluip& `id jqh`xhd`lm eh xd ‖ Lduhffh`uxp Sqld`lsliqxb Sqld`lsliqxb‒> smqm fm…

'Fm `iduldxm`lðd jmfum$ Fm ploxlhduh ginm ffhzm dxhzmbhduh hf dþbhqi 87,$

@id hpum sqlbhqm mjlqbm`lðd qhpsh`ui eh fm plodljl`m`lðd eh ‖Lduxl`lðd‒&

piaqh fm `xmf sxelìqmbip `ild`lelq& di }xhem mþd eh`lelei pl |i m`hsumqm | meblulhqm fi }xh Xpuhe hdulhdeh pxapumd`lmfbhduh siq Lduxl`lðd$ Di }xhem eh`lelei pl |i sxhei meblulq fm Lduxl`lðd `ibi xd `idi`lblhdui mf mf`md`h ehf ‖ Lduhffh`uxp‒ gxbmdi hd ‖Pumux"Zlmh‒$ Smqm uhdhq `fmqleme hd hpuh uhbm ehahbip sqhoxdumqdip | sidhq jqhduh m dxhpuqip inip fm `xhpulðd eh fm ‖Ldbhelmuh~‒ eh fm ‖Lduhfh``lðd‒$ Eh fm ldbhelmuh~& sxheh gmafmqph hd

phduleip bx| eljhqhduhp$ Sxheh `iddiumq }xh fm lduhfh``lðd sxheh mf`md~mqph pld bíp dl bíp | }xh hffm di qh}xlhqh xd uqmamni sqhzli oqmexmf smqm fioqmqfm$ Umf ldbhelmuh~ |i fm muqlaxâ mf ‖ Lduhffh`uxp Sqld`lsliqxb‒& }xh phqâm fm lduhfh``lðd eh fmp zhqemehp jxdembhdumfhp }xh |m`hd `ibi ldghqhduhp mf hpsâqlux gxbmdi$ Fmp ‖zhqemehp jxdembhdumfhp‒ di ph ehqlzmd

eh dmem& pldi }xh eh hffmp ph ehqlzm uiei fi ehbíp | pid fip bhuqip smqm bhelq uiem zhqeme ehqlzmem$ @xmdei `mfljl`i m hpump zhqemehp `ibi ‖lddmump‒& di gh }xhqlei eh`lq iazlmbhduh }xh hf phq gxbmdi fmp qh`idi`h

ehpeh hf ldl`li eh px hwlpuhd`lm$ Shqi ìf hpuí hd siphplðd eh hpuh `idi`lblhdui ldghqhduh eh biei gmaluxmf$ \i ffmbi m hpum jiqbm eh hwlpuhd`lm i sqhphd`lm& i bhniq mþd `ibi zhqemehp lddmump }xh hpuíd m elpsipl`lðd ehf `idi`lblhdui$ Hd `xmdui fm lduhfh``lðd ph sidh hd bizlblhdui& hwlpuh fm siplalfleme eh elqlolq m hffmp fm blqmem | ffhzmqfmp mf ‖m`ui‒$

Hd isipl`lðd m hpum lduhfh``lðd ldbhelmum& hpuí fm lduhfh``lðd bhelmum eh zhqemehp gmffmemp | ehqlzmemp ehf `iduhdlei eh fm zlem `id`lhduh$ Fm zhdumnm ehf `idi`lblhdui ldbhelmui hp }xh eh gh`gi di hpuí hwsxhpui m hqqiqhp& `ibi fi sieqâmd hpumq fip `idi`lblhduip bhelmuip$ Fm ldbhelmuh~ eh fip sqld`lslip di }xlhqh eh`lq }xh hffip phmd fip }xh uhbsiqmfbhduh hpuìd hd sqlbhq fxomq i bhniq el`gi }xh phmd fip }xh uhdomd bm|iq zlohd`lm$ Pl dipiuqip }xlplìqmbip mjldmq fi `iduqmqli hduqmqâmbip hd ` idi`lblhdui siq bheli `idjfl`ui `id dxhpuqi sipuxfmei ‖ehf `iblhd~i ehf `idi`lblhdui eh fip phduleip‒$ Fi sqlbhqi }xh ffhomqí m phq `idi`lei phqíd fmp `ipmp

hzlehduhp | smuhduhp$ Di ph iauhdeqí dldoþd sqizh`gi i zmflem`lðd& pl mf `idi`lblhdui phdpiqlmf ph fh iuiqom bm|iq zlohd`lm& siq px xal`m`lðd uhbsiqmf$ guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  10

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

Fi ianhulzi | `id`qhui pid fip sqld`lslip eh fm sqlbhqm zhqeme$ Hpui }xlhqh eh`lq }xh m}xhffi }xh mf phq gxbmdi fh hp mf`md~mafh | `iodip`lafh eh biei dmuxqmf& pid hffmp fmp sqlbhqmp zhqemehp$ Uibmei eh biei mapifxui& Elip blpbi hp fm  sqlbhqm zhqeme$ Fip sqld`lslip | fm ‖Fx~‒ ehf hduhdelblhdui& }xh pid fm jxhq~m lbsxfplzm ehf `idi`lblhdui }xh dip ‖gmd plei ememp‒& hp fm sqlbhqm zhqeme qh`lalem oqmuxlumbhduh | }xh siqumbip hd dipiuqip | }xh hp fm ‖Lbmohd eh fm Zhqeme Huhqdm‒$

Smqh`h }xh m}xhffi }xh xpuhe ehdibldm ‖Zhqemehp Hphd`lmfhp‒& `iqqhpsideh m fi }xh |i ffmbi ‖Sqld`lslip‒$ Hduid`hp xpuhe hwloh }xh hpump zhqemehp `ibsqhdelemp elqh`umbhduh& iazlmbhduh di ehahqâmd phq ehqlzmemp eh iuqmp zhqemehp$ Xpuhe fhp muqlax|h fm `idel`lðd eh phq ldm``hplafhp m `xmf}xlhq biei eh hwshqlhd`lm | hduid`hp fmp ffmbm ‖m  sqliql‒$ Gmaqâm siq fi umdui }xh hwmbldmq pl uiei m}xhffi }xh xpuhe ehdibldm ‖Zhqeme Hphd`lmf‒& ulhdh qhmfbhduh hf `mqí`uhq eh ‖Sqld`lslip‒$

G> Uqmel`lidmfbhduh ph gmd hduhdelei `ibi sqld`lslip& þdl`mbhduh fip hduhdeleip `ibi ‖Sqld`lslip Fðol`i"Jiqbmfhp‒$ Hpuh hp xd sxdui eh zlpum mapifxumbhduh flblumei$ M fmp zhqemehp di pifmbhduh shquhdh`hd ‖Sqld`lslip‒ lbsfâ`lui p hd hffmp& pldi }xh umbalìd eh ìpump sxhehd umbalìd ehqlzmq iuqip Sqld`lslip }xh di pid mzmfmeip siq fip ‖Sqld`lslip Fðol`i" Jiqbmfhp‒& hd `xmdui m px `iduhdlei$ Mpâ |i gh `ifi`mei hd hf íbalui ehf `idi`lblhdui sqí`ul`i& hf ‖Alhd‒ `ibi fi axhdi sqld`lsmf& hp eh`lq& `ibi

mfoi }xh ph bmdljlhpum `ibi iqloldmqlmbhduh dxhpuqi& flaqh eh hqqiqhp& ldhwiqmafh$ Fm eljhqhd`lm bíp `fmqm siplafh hpuí hd hf íbalui eh fmp bmuhbíul`mp hd eideh& nxdui m fip sqld`lslip ehqlzmeip& hpuíd fip Mwlibmp eh eideh ph ehex`hd fip uhiqhbmp$ Hp siq `lhqui xdm `xhpulðd `iduqizhqulem& }xh m}xâ di siehbip qhpifzhq& pl fip Mwlibmp eh fmp bmuhbíul`mp pid uhplp qm~idmafhp | pl hffip ph elpuldoxhd eh fmp uhplp | pl  ‐ siq siq eh`lqfi eh mfoþd : biei ‐  ìpump hpuíd sqhehpuldmemp m phq Mwlibmp$ Mehbíp gmaqâm }xh ldzhpulomq pl& | hd }xì bhelem& iuqip uhbm i mpxduip shqbluhd xdm ‖mbsflm`lðd‒ mwlibíul`m$ Plhbsqh jxl eh fm isldlðd eh }xh hd jlfipijâm

uhdhbip }xh zìqdipfm `id xdm bxfuluxe eh mwlibmp& eh biei }xh hffm dxd`m sxheh `idzhqulqph hd xdm zhqeme mwlibíul`m$ Eh biei ldelp`xulafh bh smqh`h }xh> =, gm| }xh eljhqhd`lmq hduqh lduhfh``lidhp ldbhelmump | zhqemehp ehqlzmemp; 1, }xh fmp lduhfh``lidhp ldbhelmump ph hd`xhduqmd ehjldlemp siq px `iduhdlei; 0, }xh hf `iduhdlei eh hpump sqisipl`lidhp eh hpump uhplp uhplp sqh`lpmp& hp hp xdm ‖hzlehd`lm lduhfh`uxmf‒ lduhfh`uxmf‒ | di hp xdm hzlehd`lm

phdpiqlmf | }xh siq fi umdui& umbsi`i px `iduhdlei& mf bhdip eh biei smq`lmf& sxheh ffhomq m siehq ehqlzmqph ehqlzmq ph eh fm hwshqlhd`lm phdpiqlmf$ :

[DeUR> M`fmqhbip }xh hd pxp `iblhd~ip Gxpphqf jxh xd bmuhbíul`i$ Eh m}xâ }xh hpuip síqqmjip pxhdhd m lbshdhuqmafhp$ Siq hpui& uhdombip hd `xhdum }xh hd hpuh hnhbsfi gmafm xd bmuhbíul`i$ guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  15

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

U> Fi sqlbhqi& dmuxqmfbhduh& sxhei meblulqfi pld bíp$ Hd `xmdui m fi phoxdei& }xlhqi eh`lq }xh gm| pxapumd`lmfbhduh zhqemehp `x|i `iduhdlei hp iazli& eh `mqí`uhq hzlehduh$ Hd hpui shdpð xpuhe siq `lhqui& `xmdei hd  sqlbhqm ldpumd`lm gmafð eh ‖zhqemehp hphd`lmfhp‒$ Shqi hffmp di pid iazlmp&

hp eh`lq& elqh`umbhduh hzlehduhp& hd hf phdulei qh`lìd `ibhdumei$ Hpui hp> di pid elqh`umbhduh m``hplafhp mf `idi`lblhdui gxbmdi hd ‖Pumux"Zlmh‒& pldi }xh ehahd phq hfmaiqmemp$ ]xh hpum hfmaiqm`lðd di ehahqâm lduhqsqhumqph `ibi ‖Ldex``lðd‒& |m ph fi gh meblulei lbsfâ`lumbhduh& hf }xh

fmp zhqemehp hfmaiqmemp di ehahd px fholulbleme m fm hwshqlhd`lm& eh bmdhqm }xh xpuhe  sxheh ffmbmqfmp ‖m sqliql‒ hd hpuh phdulei$ Fm ‖blpbm ldbhelmuh~‒& `ibi mf ‖ Lduhffh`uxp Sqld`lsliqxb‒ fm gh meblulei smqm hf hpsâqlux gxbmdi& þdl`mbhduh hd xd pifi sxdui> hf `idi`lblhdui xdlzhqpmf ehf alhd 'hd isipl`lðd m fi }xh hd hf `mpi ldelzlexmf hp axhdi | ehphmafh,$ Hpuh `idi`lblhdui xdlzhqpmf ehf alhd hp `ibi xd shquqh`gi eh dxhpuqi hpsâqlux& `ibi ldjmflafh h ldhwiqmafh& `ibi xd ‖m sqliql‒ smqm hf

`idi`lblhdui sqí`ul`i& `ibi fi pid fip sqld`lslip fðol`ip smqm hf `idi`lblhdui uhðql`i$ @ibi ldbhelmumbhduh `lhqui mxd}xh di eiumei eh dh`hpleme eh fip Sqld`lslip& zmfh smqm bâ hf gh`gi eh fm sqislm hwlpuhd`lm$ Umbalìd m hffm fm siphhbip elqh`umbhduh& pld bíp& pld ehqlzmqfm eh iuqm `ipm i hfmaiqmqfm$ Pld hbamqoi ehahbip qh`idi`hqfh m fm sqislm hwlpuhd`lm  ‐ ehf ehf blpbi biei }xh fi gm`hbip qhpsh`ui eh fip Sqld`lslip ‐  }xh hffm di hp uhbsiqmfbhduh fi sqlbhqi }xh ph ffhzmqí m `mai$ Fm sqlblohdlm m``lðd hpuí '`hduqmem, i elqlolem piaqh fip ianhuip hwuhqliqhp | eh biei `ibi qhjfhnmei& ph omdm hpuh `idi`lblhdui ` idi`lblhdui eh fm sqislm hwlpuhd`lm$ M hpum hwshqlhd`lm eh fm sqislm hwlpuhd`lm& fh `mah i fh `iqqhpsideh ldbhelmuh~ hd iuqi phdulei> `idi`lblhdui ldbhelmumbhduh& sxheh plodljl`mq i }xhqhq eh`lq `idi`hq pld bhelip; hpui hp& di pld xdm hfmaiqm`lðd `iodlulzm sqhzlm& pldi pld xd bheli 'i ldpuqxbhdui, }xh hd hpuh m`ui& jxd`lidh mxuibíul`mbhduh$ Hduqmd hd `idplehqm`lðd bhelip eh uqhp `fmphp> =, fm fx~ ehf hduhdelblhdui& hd zlquxe ehf `xmf& dipiuqip `idi`hbip; 1, Hpsh`lhp& bhelmduh fmp `xmfhp hf hduhdelblhdui qh`idi`h fmp `ipmp 'hpui hp& di pðfi `ipmp bmuhqlmfhp& pldi ‖qhp‒& pxapumd`lmfbhduh qhmfhp,; 0, ianhuip eh fm

hwshqlhd`lm& siq bheli eh fip `xmfhp iuqip ianhuip ian huip eh hwshqlhd`lm& `ibi siq hnhbsfi lbíohdhp qhjfhnmemp hd xd hpshni | hjh`uip eh umf âdeifh& }xh dip qhbluhd m pxp `mxpmp sqlbhqmp$ Hf sqlbhq bheli hp qh}xhqlei smqm uiei `idi`lblhdui gxbmdi$ Shqi bhelip ehf phoxdei | uhq`hq ulsi di pid qh}xhqlafhp smqm hf `idi`lblhdui eh fm sqislm hwlpuhd`lm$ Hpui hp> |i di qh`idi~`i bl sqislm hwlpuhd`lm 'Emphld, m uqmzìp eh fmp Hpsh`lhp$ Pl alhd hd `lhqui phdulei ph em siq pxsxhpui fm sqhhwlpuhd`lm eh fmp Hpsh`lhp& siq}xh  ‐  `ibi |m ph gm el`gi ‐ fm sqislm hwlpuhd`lm di hp fi sqlbhqi }xh |i `idi~`i& | siq}xh hd hf ulhbsi& hf sqlbhq `idi`lblhdui gxbmdi& }xh hp hf eh fmp `ipmp hwuhqliqhp& hp xd `idi`lblhdui m uqmzìp eh fmp Hpsh`lhp$ guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  18

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

Hf `idi`lblhdui eh fi }xh hp hf mfbm& hp eh`lq ehf mfbm `ibi umf& eh px sqislm dmuxqmfh~m& umbsi`i hp xd `idi`lblhdui m uqmzìp eh fm Hpsh`lh& shqi pâ hp xd `idi`lblhdui }xh pxqoh eh fm sqislm Hpsh`lh$ Hp eh`lq> eh fm dmuxqmfh~m eh hpum Hpsh`lh 'fm ehf mfbm,& }xh hpuí hd jxd`lðd eh fm hwshqlhd`lm eh `ipmp hwuhqliqhp& hffm ph `idjlqbm m pâ ehpeh hf `idi`lblhdui ehf bxdei hwuhqliq eh fip ianhuip$ Hf hpsâqlux gxbmdi mpâ `idi`h px sqislm dmuxqmfh~m$ Hpuh `idi`lblhdui& hp siq fi umdui& qhjfhni | bhelmui$ Qhjfhni | bhelmui& pl alhd eh biei mfoi eljhqhduh& hp hf `idi`lblhdui eh fm âdeifh eh fm sqislm mfbm$ Xd `idi`lblhdui bhelmui hd hf phdulei eh xd `idi`lblhdui phoþd fm Hpsh`lh hp& `ibi |m ph gm bhd`lidmei& hf `idi`lblhdui ehf bxdei hwuhqliq$ M}xâ gm| }xh eljhqhd`lmq hf `idi`lblhdui phdpiqlmf }xh `msum fi bmdljlhpui eh fi hwuhqliq& hp eh`lq& phoþd pxp m``lehduhp& | hf `idi`lblhdui lduhfh`uxmf& }xh shdhuqm hd fm hphd`lm& hd fi lduhqliq eh fm `ipm qhmf$ Fm Hpsh`lh hduhdelafh i `ibsqhdplafh& hpui hp fm ‖ psh`lhp lduhfflolalflp ‒  siq bheli eh hpuh ‖ Lduxp"fhohqh‒& gmqí siplafh fm hfmaiqm`lðd ehf bmuhqlmf `msumei siq fip phduleip$ Hpum hp fm umqhm ehf ‖ Lduhffh`uxp mohdp ‒$ 'Pl jxhph

dxhpuqm lduhd`lðd ffhomq m xd m`xhqei piaqh fm shq`hs`lðd ianhulzm | hf `idi`lblhdui qm`lidmf dmuxqmf& ehahqâmbip sxduxmfl~mq fi }xh ph gm eh hduhdehq siq Hpsh`lhp phdpiqlmfhp i hpslqluxmfhp$ Shqi siq hf bibhdui pifi hp zíflei ehuhqbldmq hf bþfulsfh phdulei eh bhelmuh~ h ldbhelmuh~,$ Hf `idi`lblhdui eh fm hphd`lm eh fmp `ipmp& hp siq fi umdui bhelmui hd hf phdulei eh fm bhelm`lðd i lduhqzhd`lðd eh fm Hpsh`lh$ Hf `idi`lblhdui eh fm Psh`lh hd pâ di hp siq iuqm smquh xd `idi`lblhdui m uqmzìp eh fm Psh`lh$ Shqi hffm hp bhelmum hd hf sqlbhq phdulei 'eh fm hfmaiqm`lðd,; hf hpsâqlux gxbmdi ‖ld Pumux Zlmh‒& di hpuí iqloldmqlmbhduh hd siphplðd eh fm Psh`lh `ibi fi hpuíd fip ídohfhp$ 'Smqm fip ídohfhp& `ibi smqm Elip | uieip fip hpsâqluxp ahmuip& di hwlpuh m}xhffm sqlbhqm bhelmuh~$ Smqm hffip hf `idi`lblhdui di ph `id}xlpum smpi m smpi$ M hffip uiei hp m``hplafh pld bíp$ Shqi hd hf phoxdei phdulei& hf `idi`lblhdui }xh ulhdhd fip ídohfhp | fip ahmuip eh fmp iuqmp `qlmuxqmp& umbalìd hp xd `idi`lblhdui bhelmui; hpui hp& xd `idi`lblhdui m uqmzìp eh fm Psh`lh$ Fm ldbhelmuh~& hd uiei phdulei& hp sqislm ehf `idi`lblhdui elzldi,$ Hf `idi`lblhdui eh fm Hpsh`lh& hp hd pâ  qhjfhwlzi$ @ibi uhq`hq íbalui ehf `idi`lblhdui gxbmdi qhpsh`ui ehf bxdei lduhqliq | hwuhqliq& hduqm hd `idplehqm`lðd hf `idi`lblhdui eh Elip& eh px hwlpuhd`lm | eh px Phq$ Hf `idi`lblhdui }xh uhdhbip eh Elip  ‐ pl pl dip flblumbip mf sqi`hpi ehf `idi`lblhdui gxbmdi ‐  di pðfi hp bhelmui hd hf phdulei eh fm hfmaiqm`lðd& pldi umbalìd bhelmui hd hf phdulei ehf `idi`lblhdui fioqmei m uqmzìp eh fmp Hpsh`lhp$ Umbalìd hpuí uqmdpblulei siq bheli eh iuqmp qhmflemehp; eh fmp `qlmuxqmp$ Hf gibaqh `idi`h eh biei guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  1:

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

dmuxqmf fm hwlpuhd`lm eh Elip& pifi siq pxp hjh`uip$ Xd `idi`lblhdui eh fm hphd`lm elzldm& di hwlpuh pxapumd`lmfbhduh smqm hf `idi`lblhdui gxbmdi dmuxqmf$ Hd `mbali pðfi hp siplafh ehuhqbldmq fip muqlaxuip eh fm hphd`lm elzldm siq bheli eh fm qhmfleme eh fmp `qhmuxqmp$ Xd `idi`lblhdui siplulzi eh fm hphd`lm elzldm di hp siplafh smqm hf `idi`lblhdui dmuxqmf ehf phq gxbmdi$ Siq iuqm smquh& þdl`mbhduh eh biei dhomulzi& hp siplafh ehjldlq fip muqlaxuip eh fm hphd`lm eh Elip& m uqmzìp ehf `mbldi }xh dip em hf `idi`lblhdui eh fmp `qhmuxqmp$ Hf `idi`lblhdui siplulzi eh fm hphd`lm elzldm& `ibi Elip fi `id`heh hd fm ‖ zlpli ahmuljl`m‒ hp ldbhelmui hd isipl`lðd mf `idi`lblhdui bhelmui eh fm hfmaiqm`lðd$ Hpui umbalìd m`iduh`h jqhduh mf `idi`lblhdui m uqmzìp eh fmp Hpsh`lhp& sxhp Elip di phqí `idi`lei& `ibi hd hf `mpi eh fmp `qhmuxqmp& siq xdm Psh`lh smqul`xfmq$ Elip hp ianhui | jiqbm eh fm ‖ zlpli ahmuljl`m ‒$ S hqi ld`fxpi hf `idi`lblhdui }xh ph ulhdh hd ìpum& di hp umd ldbhelmui& `ibi Elip ph zh m pâ blpbi$ Elip ‖hp‒ fm fx~ | smqul`lsm ‖eh‒ hpum fx~ m fip ahmuip& shqi hd eljhqhduh bhelem |

oqmei& eh m`xhqei mf oqmei eh smqul`lsm`lðd }xh m fm `qhmuxqm fh gm plei emem  siq Elip @qhmeiq$ Pðfi Elip blpbi ‖hp‒ hf `idi`lblhdui& hd hf `xmf

`ild`lehd sfhdmbhduh | ph mþdmd `idi`lblhdui | ianhui$ Uibmei ehduqi eh hpuh smqíbhuqi& uiei `idi`lblhdui gxbmdi hp dmuxqmfbhduh bhelmui& |m phm hd xd phdulei i hd hf iuqi eh fm smfmaqm$ Shqi umbalìd hd fm ldbhelmuh~ }xh hp sqislm ehf `idi`lblhdui eh fip ahmuip& }xh ffhomd m px siphplðd pld hpm m`ulzleme sqioqhplzm& ‖qi~m‒ hpuh `idi`lblhdui m fip Sqld`lslip$ Di m``heh

hf `idi`lblhdui gxbmdi m fm sfxqmfleme eh `idi`lblhduip siplafhp piaqh fm hphd`lm$ \ mpâ bx`gip }xhemd ‖m hpsmfemp‒ eh fm `iduhbsfm`lðd eh fip  ahmuip$ Px `iduhbsfm`lðd di hp ‖`mqm m `mqm‒$ Fip ahmuip `idi`hd fm

hphd`lm eh fmp `ipmp hd umdui }xh hffip `iduhbsfmd hd Elip pxp mq}xhulsip; hp eh`lq& pxp lehmp$ Di gm| exem siplafh }xh hpump lehmp `iduhbsfmemp pid fmp lehmp eh fm `ipmp qhmfhp hd px zhqeme$ Hduqh dipiuqip ph em fm elp`qhsmd`lm hduqh fm Hpsh`lh eh fmp `ipmp& `ibi fmp hfmaiqm hf ‖ Lduhffh`uxp mohdp‒ | fm hphd`lm eh fmp `ipmp ‖hd pâ‒$ Sxheh m`iduh`hq }xh hf nxl`li `mlom hd hf ehpm`lhqui eh `ifi`mq xdm Hpsh`lh `ibi Hpsh`lh eh ‖hpum‒ `ipm hd

smqul`xfmq$ 'Hpuh ehpm`lhqui fh pmfh mf smpi m xpuhe& hd `xmdui xpuhe qhdxd`lm mf hbsfhi eh fmp zhqemehp hphd`lmfhp eh fm qhmfleme& | ph flblum mf íbalui eh fmp Hpsh`lhp hd pâ& gm`lìdeifi þdl`mbhduh ehpeh hf sxdui eh zlpum ‖dihbíul`i‒ | di ehpeh hf eh fm iduifioâm,$ Siq fi umdui fm `iduhbsfm`lðd eh fip ahmuip mamq`m uiem fm hphd`lm& hd xdm plbsfh `iduhbsfm`lðd> ‖ xdi lduxlux ‒$ Smqm hf `idi`lblhdui gxbmdi& ph elpoqhom fm zlplðd lduxlulzm eh fm hphd`lm eh fm hfmaiqm`lðd gh`gm hd amph m fmp bmdljhpum`lidhp eh fm blpbm$ Pl alhd fm zlplðd lduxlulzm hpuí elqlolem m fm uiumfleme eh fm hphd`lm& eh gh`gi m hpum lduhd`lðd fh hpuí emei& pifmbhduh xdm `iduhbsfm`lðd smq`lmf eh fm hphd`lm$

guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  1?

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

Fmp hwsqhplidhp smq`lmfhp eh fmp hphd`lmp ehpeiafmd i phsmqmd& fi }xh hpuí `iduhdlei hd fm plbsfh `iduhbsfm`lðd | `iduqmpumd hwsfâ`lumbhduh hpuh i m}xhf qmpoi$ @id hpui ph mf`md~m smqm fmp smquhp `idpuluxulzmp  ‐ | siq fi umdui umbalìd smqm hf uiei ‐ xd oqmei eh `fmqleme bm|iq$ Shqi hd qhhbsfm~i eh fm lduxl`lðd plbsfh& ph em xd sqi`hpi mdmfâul`i | dxd`m ph gm`h sqhphduh fm uiumfleme hd xdm lduxl`lðd& mapifxumbhduh sfhdljl`mduh$ Mpâ fh qhpum þdl`mbhduh `ibi phdulei m fm ldbhelmuh~ m fmp zhqemehp hphd`lmfhp> =, fm isipl`lðd m umf ldbhelmuh~& fm `xmf hwlpuh hd hf `idi`lblhdui eh fmp qhmflemehp m uqmzìp eh pxp hjh`uip; 1, fm hzlehd`lm i fm lduhfh``lðd jqhduh m xd shdpmq | m xd pmahq zm`âip$ Gh ehel`mei axhdm smquh ehf hp`mpi ulhbsi eh }xh elpsidâmbip& m fm `xhpulðd eh fm ldbhelmuh~ siq}xh hffm hp hpsh`lmfbhduh `iduqizhqulem$ Hpum `xhpulðd di }xhem `id`fxlem `id fi el`gi gmpum giqm$ Di iapumduh sieqâm }xhemq |m `fmqmbhduh phdumei }xh fm `xhpulðd eh fip bìuieip hp`ifípul`i | jhdibhdifðol`i di sxheh }xhemq ~mdnmem `id xd smq eh jqmphp gh`gmp$ Di ehahd hp`mulbmqph hpjxhq~ip hd mjqidumq& siq mbamp smquhp& mdíflplp  smqul`xfmqhp ‖ldþulfhp‒ smqm ffhomq m}xâ | mffí& m xd qhmf hduhdelblhdui& hduhdelblhdui& `ibi

`idel`lðd sqlbhqm smqm hf `idi`lblhdui eh fmp qhfm`lidhp qh`âsqi`mp eh mbamp sipuxqmp jlfipðjl`mp$ Gi| pðfi bh hqm eh lbsiqumd`lm qhpmfumq mfoxdip sxduip jxdembhdumfhp& fip `xmfhp sxelhqmd emq xd ‖oifsh eh zlpum‒ piaqh hf hpsâqlux eh px jlfipijâm | fm bâm$ M uâuxfi eh qhpxbhd eloi> mbaip `idplehqmbip `ibi umqhm sqld`lsmf eh fm jlfipijâm iauhdhq xdm `ibsqhdplðd ehf bxdei& | hd fi siplafh xdlzhqpmf& alhd jxdemem$ Xpuhe  axp`m hf sxdui eh smqulem ‖mapifxui‒ hd fm ldbmdhd`lm ehf `id`lhduh& smqm bâ hp fm jh$ Xpuhe ehphm hpumafh`hq m fm jlfipijâm `ibi `lhd`lm eh fm ‖Hphd`lm‒$ Bxhpuqm `ðbi sxheh `idpuqxlqph xd bxdei smqm xd `id`lhduh oqm`lmp m pxp jxd`lidhp hpslqluxmfhp$ ‖Dxhpuqi‒ bxdei phqâm

`ibsqhdplafh i uhdeqâm fm siplalfleme eh phq `ibsqhdplafh ehduqi eh hpump `idel`lidhp$ Ldzhpulomq fm biemfleme sqí`ul`m ehf bxdei& fi ehnm xpuhe m fmp `lhd`lmp siplulzmp$ Ìpump hd`xhduqmd hf sqhpxsxhpui jqhduh m fi ianhulzi | m pxp bìuieip& hd fmp ldzhpulom`lidhp qhpsh`ui eh pxp siplalflemehp }xh gm`h fm jlfipijâm$ Smqm bâ di ph uqmum eh xd ‖bxdei siplafh‒& pldi eh fm

siplalfleme eh fioqmq fm lbmohd bíp m`mamem siplafh ehf bxdei$ @ibi jxdembhdui smqm umf hduhdelblhdui ph ehalð mshfmq m fm ldzhpulom`lðd eh fm hphd`lm& shqi ehalhqid moqhomqph fip gh`gip }xh dip qhzhfm fm hwshqlhd`lm dmuxqmf | fm jh$ Hf sxdui eh smqulem }xh em xdleme | ehpeh ehf `xmf ph qhzhfm uiem fm sqiafhbíul`m jlfipðjl`m& hp smqm xpuhe hf ‖@id`lhduh Uqmp`hdehdumf‒ 'm hpui dip qhbluh qhluhqmembhduh xpuhe,$ Smqm bâ hp Elip | px qhfm`lðd `id fmp `qlmuxqmp$ @id hpui ehahbip `id`fxlq siq gi|$ Shqi dip zifzhqhbip m zhq | phoxlqhbip hpuh `mbldi smqm hduhdehqdip hd dxhpuqip jxdembhduip$ guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  17

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

'Dium> sqiamafhbhduh xdm ginm eh ML))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  1<

Puxelxb Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli 13=1

Bmuhqlmf eh Fh`uxqm 13=1

«Puxelxb» Hpuxeli @ibxdlumqli ehf @hduqi Slhshq Bmq ehf Sfmum guus>))`hduqislhshq$afiopsiu$`ib$mq  03

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