All you need to know about your car body and parts....
Auto Body Repair Technology Fourth Edition
Auto Body Repair Technology Fourth Edition
James E. Duffy Robert Scharff
Auto Body Repair Technology Fourth Edition James E. Duffy • Robert Scharff
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COPYRIGHT © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Certain portions of Library of Congress Cataloging-inthis work © 1998, 1992, and 1988. No part of Publication Data: this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced in any form or by any Duffy, James E. means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, Auto body repair technology / including photocopying, recording, taping, James E. Duffy.—4th ed. Web distribution, or information storage and p. cm. retrieval systems—without the written Rev. ed. of: Motor auto body repair / permission of the publisher. Robert Scharff, James E. Duffy. 3rd ed. c1998. Includes index. For permission to use material from the text ISBN 0-7668-6272-0 or product, contact us by 1. Motor vehicles—Bodies— Tel. (800) 730-2214 Maintenance and repair. I. Scharff, Fax (800) 730-2215 Robert. Motor auto body repair repair. www.thomsonrights.com II.Title. TL255.D86 2003 629.2'6'0288—dc21 2002032496
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NOTICE TO THE READER Publisher does not warrant or guarantee any of the products described herein or perform any independent analysis in connection with any of the product information contained herein. Publisher does not assume, and expressly disclaims, any obligation to obtain and include information other than that provided to it by the manufacturer. The reader is expressly warned to consider and adopt all safety precautions that might be indicated by the activities herein and to avoid all potential hazards. By following the instructions contained herein, the reader willingly assumes all risks in connection with such instructions. The publisher makes no representation or warranties of any kind, including, but not limited to, the warranties of fitness for particular purpose or merchantability, nor are any such representations implied with respect to the material set forth herein, and the publisher takes no responsibility with respect to such material.The publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or part, from the readers’ use of, or reliance upon, this material.
HAND TOOL TECHNOLOGY
FEATURES OF THE TEXT
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4
SECTION I INTRODUCTION
General Purpose Tools 84 Bodyworking Tools 98 Body Surfacing Tools 108 Hand Tool Safety 110
Chapter 5 Chapter 1
POWER TOOL TECHNOLOGY
COLLISION REPAIR: INTRODUCTION AND CAREERS 1.1 1.2 1.3
What Is Collision Repair? Body Shop Repairs 6 Auto Body Careers 16
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6
VEHICLE CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 21 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9
COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY 141 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 43
The Air Compressor 142 Air and Fluid Control Equipment Compressor Accessories 150 Air System Maintenance 152 Air System Safety 153
BODY SHOP MATERIALS AND FASTENER TECHNOLOGY 156
SERVICE INFORMATION, SPECIFICATIONS, AND MEASUREMENTS 52 Service Information 53 Vehicle Identification 60 Using Service Information 61 Collision Repair Measurements
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4
Body and Chassis 21 Vehicle Frame 23 Major Body Sections 25 Body Classifications 25 Auto Body Repair History 28 Unibody Panels 31 Unibody Design Factors 36 Body-Over-Frame Considerations Crash Testing 46
Air-Powered Tools 113 Electric-Powered Tools 126 Hydraulically Powered Shop Equipment Power Jacks and Straightening Equipment 133 Hydraulic Tool Care 135 Hydraulic Lifts 136
Refinishing Materials Fasteners 168
SECTION III MINOR REPAIRS
Chapter 8 WELDING EQUIPMENT TECHNOLOGY 179 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16
MIG Welding 185 MIG Welding Equipment 188 MIG Operation Methods 190 Basic Welding Techniques 196 MIG Welding Galvanized Metals and Aluminum 204 Testing the MIG Weld 206 MIG Weld Defects 206 Flux-Cored Arc Welding 208 TIG Welding 209 Resistance Spot Welding 209 Other Spot Welding Functions 218 Stud Spot Welding for Dent Removal Oxyacetylene Welding 219 Brazing 223 Soldering (Soft Brazing) 227 Plasma ARC Cutting 227
Chapter 11 WORKING SHEET METAL 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7
USING BODY FILLERS 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5
SHOP SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY Shop Accidents 235 Personal Safety 237 General Shop Safety Procedures Tool and Equipment Safety 248 Fire Safety 251 Hazardous Material Safety 255 Good Shop Housekeeping 257 Air Bag Safety 258
13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10 13.11
Types of Plastics 348 Plastic Repair 349 Chemical-Adhesive Bonding Techniques Plastic Welding 358 Hot-Air Plastic Welding 358 Airless Plastic Welding 359 Ultrasonic Plastic Welding 359 Plastic Welding Procedures 359 Repairing Vinyl 361 Ultrasonic Stud Welding 362 Reinforced Plastic Repair 362
Chapter 10 The Estimate 263 Part Prices 269 Labor Costs 270 Refinishing Time 271 Estimate Total 272 Computer Estimating 274 Computer Database 276 Estimating Sequence 277 Vehicle Total Loss 283
SECTION II ESTIMATING
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9
Body Fillers 314 Applying Body Filler 317 Grating and Sanding Body Filler 323 Repairing Paint Surface Imperfections Repairing Rust Damage 336
ESTIMATING REPAIR COSTS
Chapter 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8
Automotive Sheet Metal 291 Classifying Body Damage 293 Analyzing Sheet Metal Damage 294 Metal Straightening Techniques 295 Metal Shrinking, Stress Relieving 304 Working Aluminum Panels 307 Paintless Dent Removal 308
Review Questions 219
Chapter 14 HOOD, BUMPER, FENDER, LID, AND TRIM SERVICE 372 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 14.10
How Are Fastened Parts Serviced? 372 Hood Service 374 Bumper Service 379 Fender Service 383 Grille Service 385 Deck Lid and Hatch Service 385 Truck Bed Service 388 Sound-Deadening Pads 388 Custom Body Panels 388 Installing Body Trim and Moldings 389
DOOR, ROOF, AND GLASS SERVICE 394
UNIBODY/FRAME REALIGNMENT 497
15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9
Vehicle Glass Technology 394 Glass Service 395 Servicing Doors 405 Door Panel (Skin) Replacement 412 Panel Adhesive Technology 414 Door and Door Glass Adjustments 415 Door Glass Service 419 Rearview Mirror Service 422 Roof Panel Service 422
18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8
Realignment Basics 499 Unibody/Frame Straightening Equipment Straightening and Realigning Techniques Measuring when Pulling 515 Planning the Pull 520 Making Pulls 522 Executing a Pulling Sequence 523 Stress Relieving 529
424 Chapter 19
WELDED PANEL REPLACEMENT
PASSENGER COMPARTMENT SERVICE 426 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 16.9 16.10 16.11
Passenger Compartment Assemblies Interior Trim 428 Roll Bars 429 Seat Service 429 Carpeting Service 431 Dash Panel Service 433 Console Service 437 Instrument Cluster Service 437 Headliner Service 439 Locating Air and Water Leaks 440 Rattle Elimination 444
SECTION IV MAJOR BODY FRAME REPAIRS Chapter 17 BODY/FRAME DAMAGE MEASUREMENT 449 17.1 17.2
Impact and Its Effects on a Vehicle 451 Visually Determining the Extent of Impact Damage 459 17.3 Measurement of Body Dimensions 460 17.4 Gauge Measuring Systems 461 17.5 Tram Gauges 463 17.6 Centering Gauges 470 17.7 Strut Centerline Gauge 474 17.8 Diagnosing Damage Using Gauge Measuring Systems 475 17.9 Universal Measuring Systems 478 17.10 Computerized Measuring Systems 480
19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8
Welded Panels 536 Removing Structural Panels 540 Preparing Panels for Welding 545 Structural Sectioning 555 Sectioning Side Members (Frame Rails) Rear Impact Damage Repair 573 Antirust Treatments 575 Replacing Panels with Adhesives 575
Chapter 20 RESTORING CORROSION PROTECTION 579 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.8 20.9 20.10 20.11
What Is Corrosion? 580 Causes for Loss of Factory Protection Anticorrosion Materials 584 Basic Surface Preparation 586 Corrosion Treatment Areas 587 Corrosion Protection Primers 587 Exposed Joints 590 Exposed Interior Surfaces 592 Exposed Exterior Surfaces 594 Exterior Accessories 595 Acid Rain Damage 596
SECTION V MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL REPAIRS Chapter 21 CHASSIS SERVICE AND WHEEL ALIGNMENT 601 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.7
Powertrain Construction 601 Suspension and Steering Systems Wheel Alignment 629 Brake Systems 637 Cooling Systems 643 Heater Operation 649 Air-Conditioning Systems 649
21.8 21.9 21.10 21.11
Exhaust Systems 659 Emission Control Systems 660 Hose and Tubing Inspection 663 Fuel System Service 663
Chapter 22 ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC SYSTEM OPERATION AND SERVICE 668 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 22.9 22.10
Electrical Terminology 668 Checking Electrical Problems 675 Battery 676 Electrical Diagnostic Equipment 678 Electric Components 682 Circuit Protective Devices 686 Lighting and Other Electrical Circuits 688 Electronic System Service 697 Electronic Displays 697 Computer Systems 698
Chapter 23 RESTRAINT SYSTEM OPERATION AND SERVICE 708 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5
Seat Belt Systems 708 Seat Belt Service 711 Air Bag System Operation 714 Servicing Air Bag Systems 728 Roll Bar Service 729
Chapter 25 VEHICLE SURFACE PREPARATION AND MASKING 788 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7
Evaluate Surface Condition Paint Removal 791 Preparing Bare Metal 795 Undercoat Selection 797 Final Sanding 801 Masking 810 Surface Cleaning 825
Chapter 26 REFINISHING PROCEDURES 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.5 26.6 26.7 26.8 26.9 26.10 26.11 26.12 26.13 26.14 26.15
Purpose of Refinishing 831 Topcoats 831 Primecoats 834 Preparing Refinish Materials 835 Prepainting Preparations 843 Applying Primecoats 847 Refinishing Plastic Parts 849 Flash Times 850 Basic Spray Coats 851 Methods of Refinishing 856 Basecoat/Clearcoat Repairs 857 Applying Single-Stage Paints 863 Panel Repairs 863 Overall Refinishing 864 Removal of Masking Materials 865
SECTION VI REFINISHING
COLOR MATCHING AND CUSTOM PAINTING 871
Chapter 24 REFINISHING EQUIPMENT TECHNOLOGY 735 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.8 24.9 24.10 24.11 24.12
Spray Guns 736 Equipment and Material Preparation 744 Spray Gun Setup 748 Using a Spray Gun 754 Spray Gun Maintenance 758 Spray Gun Troubleshooting 761 Other Spray Systems 762 Spray Booths 771 Spray Booth Maintenance 775 Drying Room 778 Air-Supplied Respirators 781 Other Paint Shop Equipment and Tools 783
27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.6 27.7
Color Theory 871 Using a Paint Color Directory 875 Matching Basic Paint Colors 878 Matching Basecoat/Clearcoat Finishes Matching Three-Stage Paints 883 Tinting 888 Custom Painting 896
Chapter 28 PAINT PROBLEMS AND FINAL DETAILING 903 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5
Repairing Paint Problems 903 Masking Problems 916 Final Detailing 916 Paint Compounding 921 Final Cleaning 927
SECTION VII COLLISION REPAIR PROFESSIONALISM
ABBREVIATIONS USED BY BODY TECHNICIANS AND ESTIMATORS 981
Chapter 29 JOB SUCCESS AND ASE CERTIFICATION 933 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4
Appendix C DECIMAL AND METRIC EQUIVALENTS 983
Career Goals 933 Worker Traits 935 Entrepreneurship 935 Certification Programs 936
Appendix D VISCOSITY CONVERSION CHART 984
Appendix A AUTO BODY SHOP TERMS
Preface Welcome to the rewarding world of auto body repair. Whether you simply want to be able to make minor repairs on your own car or you want to become an ASE-certified technician, you will find this book a valuable resource. Auto Body Repair Technology details how to properly restore a damaged vehicle to a “like new” condition. It is designed to help you work on any make and model passenger car,pickup truck,van,or sports utility vehicle (SUV). Auto body repair,also called collision repair,is an exciting area to study. With millions of cars, vans, SUVs, and trucks on the road today, there is a strong demand for welltrained collision repair technicians.Thousands are needed in the industry every year. Just look in the newspaper and you will find numerous openings for skilled people to work in auto body shops. With today's high-tech vehicles and varied construction methods and repair techniques, competent collision repair takes well-trained, knowledgeable professionals. This new edition has been extensively rewritten, reorganized, and reillustrated to maintain leadership in auto body repair training. It summarizes accepted methods of repairing a collision-damaged vehicle and provides an even better “step-by-step ladder” to success. The text has been reorganized into 7 sections and 29 chapters.Five new chapters have been added to this edition to cover emerging technologies and new repair methods. Section 1 provides an introduction to the industry. It explains all of the basic, fundamental information that pertains to the industry in general. Section 2 covers estimating and has new material on electronic estimating and shop management software. Section 3 covers minor repairs— the kinds of repair tasks that can be done by a novice or trainee. Section 4 explains major body/frame repairs, including topics such as vehicle frame damage measurement and repair. Section 5 summarizes mechanical and electrical repairs to the steering,suspension,and brake system parts, which are often damaged in a major accident. Section 6 details refinishing and how to prep and paint the vehicle body. The last section explains how professionalism will help you prosper as a collision repair expert. The reorganized text flows more like work actually does in the industry. For example, estimating is now covered right after the fundamentals section because estimat-
ing is the first task when a vehicle needs repair. The estimate outlines what must be done to repair the vehicle. Proper estimating helps technicians plan and execute quality repairs. Writing is all about communication between the writer and the reader. This edition of Auto Body Repair Technology is the most “readable” edition ever published. We have worked hard to make the book easier to understand without diminishing its technical completeness or challenge. Textbooks are just one part of a vocational technical education; it is our sincere desire that this book add something positive to that education. Unless experienced in collision repair, you will have to learn hundreds of new technical terms,which make up the “language” of collision repair personnel.These vocabulary terms are highlighted so that you know that the word must be learned and understood before reading on. Every effort has been made to help you identify new key terms and explain them on first use. Auto Body Repair Technology has been used by thousands of students and continues to this day to be a market leader. All of the people involved in the publishing of this book hope that you will appreciate its improvements. Most of all, we hope that the students hoping to become collision repair professionals will take from this book the information they need to get started the right way. Examples of this include: • Artwork.This edition has hundreds of new four-color artwork to aid and speed learning.If a picture is worth a thousand words, then this newly revised book has the equivalent of a “million words” in picture form. Hundreds of new photos have been added so you can better see how to properly repair and repaint a vehicle. We think you will find it to be the most current of all collision repair books in print. • New coverage has been added on shop materials,fastener technology, color matching, custom painting, paint problems, computerized estimating, professionalism, working sheet metal, using body fillers, shop efficiency, door and glass service, servicing mechanical systems, passenger compartment service, final detailing,ASE certification, entrepreneurship, and job xi
success. Hundreds of equipment and paint companies were contacted and their manuals and publications used to make this book current. Increased coverage is now given to high-strength steels, aluminum panels, plastics, and composite part repair. This reflects the trend to use lighter materials in the construction of the modern vehicle. Greater emphasis on ASE certification has been built into the content of this book. Its content is organized around NATEF competency tasks for collision repair. A cross-reference of NATEF tasks and where they are covered in this book is included in the instructor’s manual. This book has refined end-of-chapter exercises, including ASE-style and essay questions and critical thinking problems. Math problems relevant to the collision repair student are now included in every chapter. Every effort has been made to make this book correct. Collision repair teachers, I-CAR trainers, experts at Mitchell, and others were brought in to review this book and ensure its accuracy. We worked with all of their comments and criticisms. A completely new shop manual or workbook, written by an experienced automotive collision repair teacher, has been developed as a supplemental learning tool for this edition. The job sheets provide detailed directions for doing hands-on learning activities. They outline and question students as they complete competency-based learning tasks. We have revised and expanded the instructor’s guide for this edition.
Safety is emphasized throughout the text. Safety cautions and warnings appear frequently, and we worked to make sure that all the illustrations represent safe practices. Throughout this book, there are three special notes labeled “Shop Talk”,“Warning”,and “Danger”.Each one has a specific purpose: 1. “Shop Talk” notes give examples of typical conversations between two technicians. Sometimes they show how someone did something wrong, which damaged a part or caused injury. Shop Talk notes also provide “tricks of the trade” for doing better, more efficient repair work. 2. “Warning”notes are given to help prevent technicians from making errors that can damage a vehicle or a tool. These notes provide information about unsafe practices that can cause repair problems, waste time, and cost shops and technicians money for repairs. 3. “Danger” notes remind technicians to be especially careful of those tasks where carelessness can cause personal injury. Remember to read these special notes carefully! We are anxious to know what you think of the effort to update and upgrade Auto Body Repair Technology. Send letters or call the publisher so I can hear what you think. We hope you will find this book a useful resource for many years to come. James E. Duffy, “A Fellow Educator”
Acknowledgments REVIEWERS Michael Jund Scott Community College Bettendorf, IA
Dian Norbury Mitchell International San Diego, CA
Wayne Krause Mitchell International San Diego, CA
Bob Sandkaut Mitchell International San Diego, CA
Jim Miles Mohawk College Ontario, Canada
Steve White Portland Community College Portland, OR
REVIEWERS OF THIRD EDITION John Brosda Northern Alberta Institute of Technoloy Edmonton, AB, Canada
Peter Gall Lakeshore Technical College Cleveland, WI
Kurt L. Carlson Cape Cod Regional Technical High School Harwick, MA
Bruce Gamroth Arizona Automotive Institute Glendale, AZ
Michael Crandell Carl Sandburg College Galesburg, IL
Keith Schieffer Amarillo Technical Center Amarillo, TX
Edward J. Curtis Wyoming Technical Institute Laramie, WY
Clifford J. Smith Northwest Technical College Wadena, MN
Ronald D. Dohi El Camino Community College Torrance, CA CONTRIBUTING COMPANIES Akzo Nobel Coatings All-Test, Inc. Arn Wood Co. Inc. American Honda Motor Co., Inc. American Isuzu Motors Inc. Atlantic Pneumatic, Inc. BASF Babcox Publications Bacou-Dalloz
Badger Air-Brush Co. Bee Line Biddle Instruments Bodycraft Corp. Bondo Corp. CRC Chemicals Car-O-Liner Company Champion, A Gardner Denver Company Chicago Pneumatic / Automotive Business Unit xiii
Chief Automotive Systems Inc. Clore Automotive DaimlerChrysler Corporation Dana Corporation Dataliner AB Delta Machinery Devair Inc. Dorman Products DuPont Automotive Finishes Dynabrade Dynatron/Bondo Corporation Eastwood Company Equalizer Industries, Inc. Eurovac Inc. Florida Pneumatic Mfg. Co. Fluke Corporation Ford Motor Company Fred V. Fowler Co. Inc. General Motors Corporation Goodson Shop Supplies Graco Inc. GretagMacbeth HTP America, Inc. Hankinson International Henning Hansen Inc. Hunter Engineering Co. Hutchins Mfg. Co. Hyundai Motor America I-CAR Association ITW Automotive Refinishing (Binks) ITW Automotive Refinishing (DeVilbiss) Irwin Industrial Tool Company Danaher Tool Group / KD Tools Lab Safety Supply, Inc., Janesville, WI Laser Mate USA Inc. Herkules Equipment Corporation Howard Leight Lisle Corp. LORS Machinery, Inc. Mac Tools Marson Corporation Mattson Spray Equipment
Larry Maupin Mazda Motors of America, Inc. Mine Safety Appliances Co. Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC Mitchell 1 Mitsubishi Motor Sales of America, Inc. Morgan Manufacturing Inc. Mustang Monthly Magazine N.A.D.A. Official Used Car Guide® Company NLC, Inc. (LENCO) National Detroit, Inc. Nissan North America, Inc. Noram, Inc. Norco Industries, Inc. North Safety Products Norton PBR Industries PPG Industries Porsche Cars North America, Inc. Porsche AG Pull-It Corporation Rotary Lift S&G Tool Aid Corporation S&H Industries S&R Photo Acquisitions, LLC SPX Service Solutions Saab Cars USA, Inc. Sartorius North America Inc. Snap-on Collision Stanley Works Steck Manufacturing Co. Inc. Subaru of America Inc. TRW Fasteners Division Team Blowtherm Tech-Cor, Inc. Bond-Tite®, Division of U.S. Chemical and Plastics Urethane Supply Company Inc. Vaco Products Division Volkswagen of America, Inc. Volvo Cars of North America Wedge Clamp
We would like to extend a special thank you to Snap-on Tools Company for supplying us with their tools to photograph. Snap-on’s assistance during the creation of this book has resulted in several quality images within this edition.For additional information about Snap-on and its quality products,visit them on the web at www.snapon.com. Special thanks to Porsche Cars North America, Inc. and Porsche AG for the following images: Figures 2–32, 3–23, and 3–34. PORSCHE, BOXSTER, 911 and the Porsche Crest are registered trademarks and the distinctive shapes of PORSCHE automobiles are trade dress of Dr. Ing. h.c.f. Porsche AG. Used with permission of Porsche Cars North America, Inc. and Porsche AG. Copyrighted by Porsche Cars North America,Inc.and Porsche AG. Chrysler Crossfire vehicle image used on this edition’s front cover courtesy of DaimlerChrysler Corporation.
Features of the Text 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 to: ES be able t. 23 . acciden should E C T IV u J ion an yo B llis in r, O maged 24 ring a co chapte da du is ck le th tru hic udying otor ve or light 25 r m a ca a to After st repair cility. ppens to fa ha ir 26 ed at pa ed re ribe wh steps ne collision l 27 sic . ica J Desc ba . try ize the s of a typ ir indus dy shop ar ea pa bo m l ar re m 28 rk ica ion J Su h a typ ajor wo e collis m ug th e . ro in th th op 29 le in ws pair sh availab re s J Expla work flo job ion e th llis or 30 ical co sitions marize m typ po a Su ir. of of J 31 ion repa e types rkings th llis wo e co er rib to d inn 32 J Desc relating setup an estions tify the 33 view qu otor re “m J Iden yle st st fir 34 e er ASEe very th th sw t t, An J acciden s. it or no an 35 ve in lie s ad Be built wa n on public ro er 36 ev RY car” auto s drive mething TO of so N wa it IS 37 ed IO rld e H CT riven first tim car look TE nging wo e you the -d e O ODU le st N al ud R te 38 cr T ch IN e the huge, s being It will giv detailed the or e ir. wa pl ll, Th pa It hi ex . re a ll e 39 n t comotive ugging over apter wi called collisio grasp the mor w damos lo ch m m al is Th 40 ster” ad. Ch to fully ir, also e a stea on will follo being ro m lik u pa d ed re g yo try tle ed , lchin star body e ne 4 from In fact a coun towledg moke-be age. The car’s ad to ocess: apters. down basic kn n in later ch ical repair pr to metal straigh ; 4 eled, “s rri ro he ca rt n di l-w io w aw e; ee ng st rse-dr detaili informat through a typ ating damag e narro into a ho d th a f ed an er of ow g, rs tim ran ov swerve es , and pl aged ca the shop; to es asking, paintin rs to es ho rs d ho ha m to on on er the sh,” plow rriage” driver er. ati ra nding, ov m towed “n “c sa g sto r a in g, ca nn ca s is fillin the cu d an avoid ru After the first e “horseless ening, d State selecte liver y to th ll. final de that the Unite en, you have you to tow brick wa and to pairs. ir skills pp ering ents ha e collision repa are peobe used r body shop re Consid e to accid had to barn fo study. Th as long as ther y is vast. and au e er th ls” rth ee to d wh str other for fu back deman from an pair indu work per nt area excelle remain in high e collision re ir hicle or gh to only Th ll other ve n of repa st number ou learn wi automobiles. ng $10 billio from an inor en gh to cause va be m a t s di be ire igh ng t enou al pact m migh ple drivi s do an astoun nt of work requ nnel. severe ous met This im llision op ou perso pair, The co or it might be age to numer Body sh enormous am related of collision re em t, object. ns and is dg rth of da the pain year. Th ined technicia ng your study knowle s. s driving scratch s of dollars wo ni ra skilled, vehicle worst hicle o ve nd tw of well-t are just begin Only highly sa y’s en e . wh thou n th toda ll arn. If you tic parts repair It is ofte cle must n results d you wi h to le and plas -on collisio ntally collide. hi properly fully an ve muc each ve impact. you ha essionals can textbook care llision repair. A head other accide e eed of co is of e of th r e the sp each able pr material in th sful career in becaus rmine the forc g 65 miles pe toward nt es e cc th de ci y su te lin a Stud e of ac gether to de 3 e trave way to ? typ ar ur IR s yo A to cle be on REP added th vehi N bo be if IO ple, L L IS rsons’ For exam IS C O in laype cle. H AT a wreck the vehi ash or 1. 1 W (hit) on ed a cr cknam impact sion, ni caused by an lli co A e damag terms, is
pair: areers on Re Collisi ction and C u Introd
OBJECTIVES Each chapter begins with a list of cognitive and performance-based “objectives.” The objectives state the knowledge and skills that should be learned after reading the entire chapter.This feature is an excellent way for the reader to gain a quick overview of the essential material within the chapter that will be learned before the reading begins.
KEY TERMS The “Key Terms”are the most important technical words you will learn in the chapter.These are listed at the end of each chapter and appear in bold print where they are first defined. For added study, you can write the key terms on a sheet of paper with their definitions to make sure you can explain the terms.These terms are also given in the Glossary at the back of the book.
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1 2 3 4 s finition de 5 e ter. Writ king probap ch 6 in this itical th es for cr iti , 7 tiv ns ning ac say questio tra credit. ar le g 8 es followin questions, ly for ex e ib S th ss E e et 9 C IS review ities, po compl e tiv r, yl ac pe st EXER Epa ide 10 sheet of answer the AS do the outs parate d 11 n also ca On a se y terms an u e ag ke lems. Yo 12 dy dam bo or for the d math prob min 13 ns lems, an ions paint ru 14 g operat paintin ts sten po 15 S elem der TERM or Y g ir E in pa 16 K re estimat rd ya 17 ator report salvage nt tim es de ci op n ac sh 18 n collisio specialty n head-o adhesio 19 loss l ta ct to n impa 20 dy shop collisio bo t en up ir nd wash n repa 21 indepe r y ste lit collisio ju ci ecker pair fa nce ad re wr ra 22 n su e in sio ag colli dy dam ts bo 23 an r in majo areas contam e ng at ki 24 or e estim metalw op damag sh 25 the ip body sh rding to er co al ac de 26 ed out rri le ca ib e 27 deduct IO N S pairs ar T re S E op sh form? 28 W QU 6. Body ons on which R E V IE 29 busiinstructi YLE of T e r -S lum orde ASE 30 what vo Repair es A. do try ate 31 ir indus tim pa Es re B. collision e ve 32 Th ha t ote 1. r year? C. Qu does no le hic ys t 33 ness pe ve sa B ta shee maged nician da ch a D. Da million t Te . lu34 $1 tha irs A. A says water-so ng repa d n rti ian an llio nic sta x, mi is e 35 wa 7. Tech B. $10 ed befor ve mud, dir t, job. Who an int cle pa 36 to be billion on at 50 ect the will remo aff ad C. $1 up he uld sh hit B 37 that co that wa o cars billion chnician minants when tw D. $10 mph. Te 38 ys that ble conta at only at 100 ll sa ll A wa wa ick brick nician 39 ting a br correct? hit 2. Tech is like hitting a e A lik it is chnician 40 mph, it ys that Te sa A. d es an ian B ct? nic rre 41 disagre ch co B. Te Who is dB to an 42 50 mph. A ne th A C. Bo ent is do nician B em r ch ur ys 43 no Te sa as A A. B Neither nician B hicle me ian ch ve D. t . Te nic . 44 tha ge B. Tech damage A says of dama jor n B ian tio d ma d nic of an 45 th A an the direc 8. Tech ne the extent ividual ne C. Bo ind mi B ter an by nor 46 determi True or ne to de owned ither A also do facturer. D. Ne shop is 47 that it is to manu nt body au de ct? jor en rre indep 4 ho is co s to a ma W tie 3. An ing ve lat A lcu t ha chnician 4 and ca does no Te ge A. ma io n Co llis
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Chapter 1of the Text Features
Collision Repair: Introduction and Careers
“Dangers” summarize critical safety rules.They alert you to operations that could hurt you or someone else. They are not only covered in the safety chapter, but you will find them throughout the text where they apply. Read and remember all dangers.Your health is invaluable.
DANGER FIGURE 1–7 Before starting repairs, body shops usually wash the vehicle thoroughly to remove road dirt. Keeping the shop clean is important to refinishing quality.
the collision repair tasks. Because of all of the grinding, sanding, and welding, this area tends to become dusty and dirty quickly. Before starting work in this area, the body technician must first study and diagnose the damage that has occurred.He or she uses the information on the repair order to determine what repairs are needed. The technician may need to consult with the estimator before proceeding. It is then up to the technician to decide how to accomplish the repairs outlined on the estimate and repair order. Once the damage and repair methods are analyzed, the repairs must be completed in a systematic manner. For example, if a panel is creased, torn, or caved in, it can be straightened using hammers, hydraulic jacks, and other body shop tools. If the panel is badly crushed and folded, it must be replaced. If the unibody or frame is damaged, it must be straightened or parts replaced according to factory recommendations.
“Warnings” provide important information to help prevent the kinds of accidents that can damage parts or tools. They are common mistakes that should be avoided. They appear throughout the text where they apply to the instructions being given.
Vehicle measurement helps determine the extent and direction of major damage. If the vehicle has been in a serious accident, vehicle measurement is often done to find out if the frame/unibody has been forced out of alignment. Specialized measuring tools are used to measure across specific reference points on the vehicle to find out if body damage exists. Measurement systems are specialized tools and equipment that allow the technician to check for frame or body misalignment resulting from a collision. Various types of gauges and measuring devices can be used to analyze body specifications to measurements supplied by the manufacturer or information provider. The measurements will help determine what must be done to straighten any frame or body misalignment (Figure 1–9). If any measurement is not within specifications, the frame or unibody must be forced back into alignment using powerful hydraulic equipment. FRAME/UNIBODY STRAIGHTENING Once the extent and direction of frame misalignment are known, frame (unibody) straightening equipment can be used to pull the frame or body structure back into alignment. Frame straightening equipment (also called a frame rack) uses a large steel framework, large steel towers, pulling chains, and hydraulic rams to pull the frame or body back into its original position (Figure 1–10). The vehicle frame or unibody is clamped down onto the frame equipment so it cannot move.Clamps and chains
Always refer to factory service information for details when working. Factory publications will give specifications, detailed procedures, and other information specific to the exact make and model vehicle being repaired. This information is often needed to do professional, quality work!
FIGURE 1–8 To start work, you must normally remove damaged outer body parts to gain access to hidden parts that require straightening or replacement.
A stall is a work area for one vehicle, often marked off with painted lines on the floor. Also termed a bay, each stall is large enough so that the technician has room to work all the way around the vehicle. One of the first steps completed in the metalworking area is often part removal. Badly damaged bolt-on parts must be removed to gain access to hidden damage. This might involve unfastening the bumper, grill, or fenders, for example (Figure 1–8).
DANGER Dangers in the metalworking area are many and varied—tasks such as cutting metal, straightening frames, welding, grinding, and sanding can all result in injuries. Do not attempt to work in the metworking areas of a body shop until you have studied the basic safety rules and repair methods that are explained in later chapters of this book.
Refinishing Equipment Technology
“Shop Talks”give added information to help you complete a particular procedure successfully or to make a task easier. They are hints to help you work more efficiently and profitably.
1. Prepare the material to be tested. Mix, strain, and reduce it as directed by the manufacturer. Check that shop and material temperatures are within specifications. 2. Fill the cup by submerging it in the paint material. Then lift it out of the paint until paint stops dripping from the outside of the cup (Figure 24–18A). 3. Release the flow of the material and trigger the stopwatch. Keep your eyes on the flow, not on the watch (Figure 24–18B). 4. When the solid stream of material first “breaks” (indicating air passing through the orifice), stop the watch (Figure 24–18C). 5. The elapsed time on the stopwatch is the viscosity measurement results in seconds.
A stopwatch is necessary for measuring paint viscosity when using either viscometer system. Most painters prefer a digital stopwatch to the standard type because it is easy to read.
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SPRAYING VISCOSITIES USING THE #2 ZAHN CUP
Acrylic enamel with hardener
18 to 21 seconds
18 to 22 seconds
Per manufacturer’s instructions
20 to 22 seconds
18 to 25 seconds
Table 24–2 gives typical spraying viscosities using a #2 Zahn cup. If the viscosity in seconds is too long, the material is too thick and should be reduced more. If the viscosity in seconds is too short for material specifications, the material is too thin and has been reduced too much. FINISH MATERIAL TEMPERATURE
C FIGURE 24–18 A Zahn cup provides a quick and easy way to check paint viscosity or reduction with solvent. This is the most accurate way to ensure that refinish material is reduced or thinned to exact manufacturer specifications. The label on the side of a paint container will give specifications in seconds for using a Zahn cup. (A) Dip a clean Zahn cup into paint or another refinish liquid material until it is full. (B) Lift the cup of liquid. As it clears the surface of the paint material, begin timing the flow of paint from the small hole in the bottom of the cup. A stopwatch is preferred for this step. (C) Stop the timer when the stream of paint first breaks and no longer flows as a constant stream. The stopwatch reading equals the paint viscosity in seconds. (Courtesy of DuPont Company)
The temperature at which material is sprayed and dried has a great influence on the smoothness of the finish. This involves not only the air temperatures of the shop but the temperature of the work as well. A vehicle or panel should be brought into the shop long enough ahead of spraying time to arrive at approximately the same temperature as the shop. Spraying warm paint on a cold surface or spraying cool material on a hot surface completely upsets flow characteristics. The rate of evaporation on a hot summer day is approximately 50 percent faster than it is on an average day with a shop temperature of 72° F (22°C). Appropriate thinners or reducers should be used for warm and cold weather applications. FINISH FILM THICKNESS When spraying on a refinish material, you must try to produce the recommended film thickness. The thickness of the paint film applied when spraying has several effects on the finish. Never apply today’s enamels in a coat that is too thick or too wet. With enamel paints, “thin is in and thick is out.” You must use normal medium-wet coats with proper flash times between coats. This will prevent problems. As enamel paint dries, reducer or solvent gases must pass up through the paint surface. If too much paint is sprayed on at one time, the paint will not dry or cure
CHAPTER SUMMARY Each “Chapter Summary” gives a brief list of the most important information in the chapter. It will help you review and understand which points were the most important.
Body and Paint Shop Work and Features Safety Procedures of the Text
EXER C IS E S On a se Co llis parate io n Re sheet of for the pa ir: In ke tro du lems, an y terms an paper, compl ct io n an d Ca d answ ete the d math re er s er the fo proble llo w ASE-st ing lear ms. Yo yl ni u e ng ca re activiti view qu n also KEY es for do the TERM es tio this ch ns, essa outsid S apter. W e y ac qu tiv estions accident ities, po rite de , cr finition report ssibly s for extra itical thinki adhesio ng prob n credit. collisio elemen n ts collisio estimat n repair ing collisio estimato n repair m inor bo r facility dy dam contam head-o age inants paint ru n collisio ns damag n impact e estim post-pa ate inting op dealersh indepe erations ip body re pa nd ir order ent body shop deduct insuranc shop ible salvage e adjuste yard r major bo specialty dy dam shop age metalw A S E -S total lo orking ss TYLE areas R E V IE washup W QU E S T IO wrecke 1. The NS r co
REVIEW QUESTIONS “Review Questions” will help measure the skills and knowledge you learned in the chapter. To check your “brain power,” different types of questions are given: ASE, Essay, Critical Thinking Problems, and Math Problems.The ASE questions will help you prepare to pass auto body repair certification tests.
ACTIVITIES These are practical, hands-on activities that challenge the student to apply the skills learned in the chapter to real-life experiences. "Activities" often include going to a body shop or other workplaces to gather some type of research for analysis. This feature is a wonderful way to teach students how and where they will eventually use their skills.
PHOTO SUMMARIES Several step-by-step photo summaries illustrate common auto body repair procedures.
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FIGURE P11–1 A dent in a contoured part forms a crease. Proper metalworking methods are needed to remove the dent efficiently and without further stretching the metal.
FIGURE P11–4 Then, go back and work the ends. Try to remove the damage either as it occurred, or all at once.
FIGURE P11–5 Use a straightedge to check your progress.
FIGURE P11–2 Using a properly shaped dolly, start working the dent from the ends of the crease, not from the middle. Flatten the curve at the ends of the dent so that the metal will not be stretched as the center is moved back out.
FIGURE P11–3 Next, move the center of the crease out part way. You will need the edge of a dolly with a larger contour to match the larger contour of the center area of the crease.
FIGURE P11–6 Light hammer blows will help to lower any surfaces that have been raised too high. The repair area should be within 1⁄8 inch (3.1 mm) of level so it can be filled with body filler.
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S 1. A tec hnician is paid 11.5 ho $45 pe urs. Pa r hour. rts for percent The the repa tax. Wha ir will co repair will tak t is the e st $176 total of .25 plu the estim A C T IV s7 ate? IT IE
Working Sheet Metal
2. An older ca r is value will cost d at $2 $1,500. How ma ,500. The parts can be ny hour co for the s labor repair totaled? mpleted befor at $35 e the per ho car sh ur ould be declare d 2. Ask a techn ician or describ shop ow e his or ner to vis her dutie it your s and an classro swer qu om to estions .
Features of the Text
COLOR CHAPTERS Chapters 24 through 28 on refinishing technology are now full-color chapters. The use of full color in these chapters gives the reader a much more detailed tour through the technologies of refinishing, vehicle surface preparation, color matching, and final detailing.
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A First stage B Seco Air nd stag e Paint 8 FI G U 1 R out of the E 24 –3 Stu C Third 9 dy the 2 nozzle. stage three sta (B) Air 10 ge jets mi 3 ER x with liq s of spray gu T P 11 n liquid uid paint CHA ato 4 to conti nue ato mization. (A) 12 With the mizatio 5 n. (C) A trigger 13 fan of ato pulled all 6 mized Lid paint flo the way back 14 , air an ws out 7 d paint from the 15 are nozzle 8 in tiny dro sprayed 24–6A) 16 . The ai plets. 9 r cap th body. It reads on 17 holds 10 There ar the fluid tip in to the front of 18 Cup e three place. the spra 11 the cent types y gun 19 er 12 iary orifi orifice, the sid of orifices (hol 20 ces. Each es) in an e orifice 13 s or of these ai 21 1. The holes ha ports, and th r cap: 14 center e auxils a diffe 22 orifice lo re nt vacuum 15 fu cated nction. for the 23 2. The discharg at the nozzle 16 side e tip crea 24 spray pa orifices in the of the paint. tes a 17 ttern by air ca 25 3. The 18 auxiliary means of ai p horn determ Fan or 26 r pres ine the orifices paint. 19 pattern promot sure. 27 e atom 20 adjustm ization Figure 28 ent 24–6B of the 21 auxilia ry orifice illustrates th 29 e 22 s re an lat La d the ionship rge : 30 betwee able to 23 ES more m orifices incr gun’s perform n the ea 31 ould be ance. at ing. Air cap E C T IV you sh 24 refinish Fewer or erial for paintin se the gun’s OBJ and apter, 32 in auto ab aterials this ch t used 25 smaller smaller orifice g large objects ility to atom Fluid or ading ishing m uipmen rn. 33 ize fin sp s eq wi tte re us ra of th pa ua y After re of y grea patte lly 26 niently types paint flo spra cation 34 paint sm rns, and deliv require less ai t speed. various a good at appli rks. 27 r, produc adjustm w speeds tify the er aller ob develop uble-co gun wo . 35 ent J Iden e jects or less material and do for and a spray Two-ste 28 to conv singleapply co t to test in how The pa 36 s. eure for Handle uipmen ttern co atings J Expla (1st ste p trigger 29 proced tice refinisher side or ying eq at nt ue ra ro lo p sp niq l we t ifi 37 op valve co (body) ce to co r ens pren tech (2nd ste 30 nt flows th J Adjus ntrol th e stroke rs made by ap p open air jets) 38 ro e shape rols airflow th ment th s fluid va erro 31 ats. cap. Th ugh the two rough th of the pa J Imple ize common lve) sid 39 is spray co e Air inlet irs. 32 When th air flow form e orifices in th int mist. Air al recogn types of ot repa 40 so s the sh fitting e horns e pattern e various make sp th to 33 is ap tify w of control round. e of th the air 41 and ho guns. J Iden gun. As e va y en of FI sp lve ra th wh es G ra e sp 34 is UR oblong y valve is ra rmine her typ 42 in shap opened closed, the sp pattern. care fo used by E 24 –4 Th t. with ot J Dete e. ra 35 is is the operly professio , the sp tors. uipmen y guns The flu hig most co 43 ray beco y pattern na n and pr respira LP spra ishing eq mmon 36 (Couh-efficiency HVLPl painters. It hand mes mor meter th id needle va J Clea hs and to refin odern HV 44 lve rtesy of les well, type of spray design e e ray boot relating ripare m gun to waste ITW Au is balan 37 the airst amount of mat and fluid tip s six va ion of sp estions at es J Com tom qu ce les er dr 45 d, w oti re s er ad op wo refi an ve Refin am t vie ial leav rk toge in the 38 major ishing-D nish material d has a style re ing the ent mus ther to The flu . . 46 parts of eVilbiss J Expla gun an vironm er ASEid tip fo ) 3 24–5. d enterin ting en to shut a typic ctly answ er pain 47 al spra off or al rms an intern g J Corre y gun 4 al seat The prop contac The air are show for the ts the flu low the flow 48 cap dire flu : of n 4 id ac str id in les m tip tio ea ne aterial. ab Figure cts com , and it m to at n to allo edle 49 The ne can be omize pressed nliness edle tip ity The spra w the materia pulled it and refin50 N 1. Clea rature/humid op form th air into the l to spra y gu prepare C T IO the tri materia pe e spray y out of en by trigger vehieded to ODU gger m n fluid needle 51 l 2. Tem pattern the gun. n paint steps ne IN T R extend echani amount (Figure ght izes the t area so you ca t variables s from sm to Li ar 52 r m ai of 3. m d th en refin control e fluid depend es presse n apter su t and the pain and equipm tip to materia 53 s on the ishing mate variabl This ch 4. Com lled ventilatio l flow. ria needle uipmen ro r of shop ation. These painting The 54 valve ad l that leaves pment. er e ishing eq e are a numbe 5. Cont fety justmen ish equi ing op as well as th the gu sa er nt. You 55 t. refinish t, n sic refin control equipcles. Th 6. Fire onmen All are importa e they ced ba ct the r vir du fe ai ed af en , tro g rs rib 56 tin ts. that caus r 5 in esso desc justmen the pain Chapte bles be r compr s thoroughly alS 57 include t and their ad to these varia E and qu N O T E and use of ai wa . n en ectors lection L EthC Te ust on N 58 dy es R O S TAT equipm close attentio ur paint work equipment m se conn plained the se Selecti IC S P nyo ould stu y d El tro d air ho e ndstathtic ent, an 6. Chapter 7 ex erials. You sh dersec R AY IN must pa the quality of shop an h, a poorly mai ta m ur sp yo raying ut un and ne ct ot job, mat G SY ter and ga ilizes th can affe a good paint spray bo STEM supply, in Chap rious refinish you can fully Re fin ish e princi other bu tive (–) electri ed air rk. Sloppy . A dirty va so ing Eq To do ple th cal ndition a contaminat a se ities of uip m en g po oughly mtinop your wo rfect co ticbe ter. b. a like ch charges mutua at positive (+ t Te ch lesco rs thor are be in pe int spray gun, tions can ruin rrible paint jo Water is chap no lo gy ) from chapte pipe tor (Figu given a negativ arge. Therefor lly attract ea ua pa ion in th ho ep dirt dursit at a 769 rt ke e in rm di bl to lt d fo ch tained e, e da in charge when pa lly resu y ways dust an pairs: causin re 24–48), ch avoi ua fin an re of by su e in us m at r dy a ll t e fre co he hi th pa g bo ot gh-volta e parti rm them to be itions wi t must be kept , today’s clear There ar finish during ste cle ge nd th sy . e s co g ge pa co in ish op op ct ne a inet ov me atom sher rapose ea shop , sand th the fin g. In fa ive pain lem in to in ot um sp yin in ob m ize ve cu ch op ra dr ws it pr to y hi va sh d. g fla other, Au d while rt, or other ess, or bringin m cle body.Less to be attracted This causes on the gle ying an di before e time g a dustl more of entione paint is and pu 73 5 ing spra nify any dust, ds mor any other sin J Usin ng the vehicle of not used d that this typ wasted as over lled against th ag ter spen ni ishes m essional pain ance than on short amount e of sp in th J Clea ray equi spray.It should e As for po e auto body A prof ent mainten s a very pment be ke ta sh ly op rta is gene on . ble elec are both uipm rally tro and eq e vehicle spray typ the air spray typ static paintin raying th on. g eq task. Sp ris e. e (Figu compa re 24–4 uipment, ther Table 24 time by 9) e and the –8 deta of spray ils som airless Ground paintin e of the g. wi features to water re clipped Ground of the six 1 pipe wi types to frame re clipped 1 FI G U R electrica E 24 –5 0 SHOP 12 For safet l to groun charges that y rea TALK 13 so can ns d It is be Binks Ma a vehicle in the attract dir t, yo and to avoid st to co static 14 u shou nufactur spray bo nnect vehicle ld ing Co the bo to mpany) oth before sp use a jumper 15 dy of th wire raying. tack clo an earth grou (Courte e down on A IR B nd befo 16 sy of RUSH static el th cleaning. Th re final the vehi ES ectricit is will 17 Touch-u y cle (Fig help cu p ure 24–5 that can draw t 18 ing sm spray guns are dust on 0). all repa very sm to 19 ir areas all (Figure and pe . They are idea 24–51). 20 rfo l gu Of for pain rming ten calle n, this gu Electric simple td an n has 21 al pass materia touch-up age l.It oper a tiny cup for airbrush, or Atomiza 22 door ja s ates like holding tion Airbru Electrif mb a a 23 ication work to shes range fro conventional small amount siphon of complex m simpl 24 gun. ing (Figu e types and exac us 25 found on re 24–52). Th ting tools used ed for touchup e ly in pa in custo 26 int shop latter, of cour m finish s that do se, are 27 genera custom (60 to 10 lly auto fin 0 kV) 28 ishes. Electro sta 29 painting tic 30 equipme nt 31 Electric al Ground 32 field FI G U R E 24 33 –4 8 Note the Touch-u principl 34 es of ele p ctrostat spray gu 35 ic paint n ing. 36 37 Paint ho 38 El ec tro se static FIGUR 39 gun E 24 –51 Air 40 Air hose brushes can be High-vo 41 used for ltage simple High-vo touch-up ca ble 42 ltage jobs. genera 43 tor 44 Frame 45 46 Paint tan k 47 48 FI G U 49 R painting E 24 –4 9 50 Note the equipme parts of nt. air-type 51 electros tatic FI G U 52 R enced, E 24 –5 2 53 Air tal was als ented painters brushes are common o an art 54 to do cu ist! (Cou ly us stom fin rtesy of ishes. Th ed by experi55 Badger Air Brus is vehicle’s pa 56 inter h) S 57 N 58
ent Equipm g n i h s Refini logy o Techn