Drawing One Day Drawing Mastery
Descripción: drawing tutorial...
One Day Drawing Mastery The Complete Beginner’s Guide to Learning Calligraphy in Under 1 Day! A Step by Step Process to Learn – Inspiring Images Included
By Ellen Stewart & Joana Rubinstein
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Note from the Author: Welcome to the amazing world of Drawing! In this book I have joined my passion for the Arts & Crafts with the brilliant artist Joana Rubinstein to bring you the ONE DAY DRAWING MASTERY. As an amateur drawer, I’ve been blessed to have had an incredible teacher in Joana that has guided me in my practice, and I’m thrilled that you will allow us to help you learn this beautiful art. Art is an expression of progressive humanity. What most people forget is that they are, in fact, a work of art. You are a work of art – a walking, talking being of beauty, capable of making beauty. Drawing is a form of artistic expression that absolutely everyone can do. Once you get started, it is a lot of fun, and it can be a very lucrative hobby. Not only that, you can touch lives with a simple cartoon drawing of a bunny nurse with a thermometer on a get-well-soon card. Or you can create a heartwarming gift for your loved ones by sketching their face. True, some people are born with an innate artistic ability. Some can even paint murals at an early age. Before we get side tracked further, the point is, regardless of talent, just about anyone can do it because it is a skill that can be honed through practice. In this book, you will learn the fundamental building blocks to learn how to draw. We start with the “Stickman” as the fundamental and most basic way of drawing. After incorporating the lessons from that simple figure, we then dive into shapes, spaces, perspective and rudimentary anatomy guidelines for drawing the human being. We finish with lights, texture and how to make a sophisticated drawing by following the simple guidelines of the “Rule of Thirds” and the “Golden Ratio”. Let’s get started!! Ellen Warren
Table of Content Everyone can Draw, I Promise! Be an Observer The virtue of perseverance Have faith Be Confident The Dos and Don’ts of Drawing Introducing the “Stickman” Never underestimate the power of a good stick figure! The Language of Lines Line of Action Gestures Guidelines for Anatomy Let’s Play with Shapes and Spaces! The Importance of shapes Filling shapes to stickmen Basic Anatomy It’s a Matter of Perspective One-point Perspective Two-point Perspective Anatomical Perspective Light, Shade and Everything in Between Highlights, Midtones and Shadows Techniques for drawing texture Make it Look FANCY! Rule of Thirds The Golden Ratio The Guerilla Artist Finding Inspiration ****PREVIEW OTHER BOOKS BY THIS AUTHOR**** “One Day Calligraphy Mastery” by Ellen Warren
Everyone can Draw, I Promise! First off, give yourself a pat on the back for purchasing this book, because in addition to taking a step towards self-improvement, you have made the intelligent decision to gain access to information the old masters did not have during their early careers. Whether you are an absolute beginner looking to learn how to draw your crush’s face or a professional browsing the art section of a bookstore for new references, you have to agree that there is a certain mindset you have to get into, and certain traits you have to develop to do something properly. And that applies to drawing as much as any other activity.
Be an Observer Art is the world around you. Even if the artwork is surreal, otherworldly or of fantasy, they are still heavily derived from what the artist sees around him. Even with eye disabilities, some artists still manage to create masterpieces based on observation.
Draw inspiration from your environment (this will be discussed further in chapter 7). Once you stop and just observe things, you tend to notice the details people overlook – like how people walk differently depending on the time of day or how birds always seem to lean forward when they perch on a branch. These slight variations could influence your overall composition when drawing (which we will discuss further in chapter 2). Take time to notice your mistakes. Even veteran artists make mistakes, the only difference is they have an open mind to accept and correct them. As a beginner, you have to accept that mistakes will be common during this stage. Finding out where you went wrong can be tricky, though. A good technique is to leave the drawing for a while without looking at it, maybe at least a week. Once your brain isn’t cluttered with information about the drawing, you then begin to see the glitches – eyes misaligned, teeth too big, disproportionate fingers and so on. Realism might not be everyone’s style, but it really pays to be accurate to some extent.
The virtue of perseverance Just keep drawing. As mentioned above mistakes are often, if not traditional, in beginners. There is no other way around it but to suck it up and draw some more – draw until you run out of pencil lead or ink. It is not as grueling as it sounds. Drawing is an excellent hobby, not only is it cheap, it is portable. Sure, someone will always be way better than you. You will see tons of artists online or in the streets posting their insanely marvelous paintings. And there is also the chance that nobody else would see your drawing. But do it anyway. You did not draw because you wanted to be seen by people. You wanted to draw because you wanted to see yourself – your inner self – through that artistic expression. And the opinion of the world will not matter. So, just draw and have fun with whatever.
Have faith You won’t always be a beginner; you will be great at it soon. Have faith in yourself, a bit of it goes a long way. “…if you have faith as small as a mustard seed, you can say to this mountain, ‘Move from here to there,’ and it will move. Nothing will be impossible for you.” Said Jesus in Mathew 17:20 in the bible as a reply when his disciple asked how he was able to do impossible feats (particularly in this context, the shriveling of the fig tree). Not everyone agrees with religion, but you have to admit that doubt, just like faith, a bit of it goes a very long way. Develop a mindset of humility. Yes, tons of artists are better than you, but also, eventually you will discover that you are, in fact, better than a lot of other artists – even if you are just starting out. When that time comes, don’t be a jerk about it. This is being faithful to your art form, being arrogant about your work not only diminishes others’ respect for you but also for your works.
Be Confident Confidence is a major facet when it comes to creating works of art. And it is the product of faith and perseverance. The more work you do, the more sure you are about your abilities. Another way of building confidence is by showing your works to others. Start with your friends, even if they may not poses any artistic formal training, their feedback – most of the time filtered to avoid hurting your feelings – is still valuable. However, if you do know someone with a formal artistic background – an art teacher, a painter, even a graphic designer – don’t be scared to ask for critiques. Often times they will give you a more fair opinion about the progress of your work. And, being a fellow artist, they will surely commend your determination. Do not be afraid of criticism, paraphrasing the award-winning Mexican director, Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu, he said in an interview that the act of creation is greater than the act of criticism. This means, that you have created something is still a thousand times better than what other people think about your creation. Although criticism can either be constructive or destructive, they are all educational. It is all a matter of perspective.
The Dos and Don’ts of Drawing Now that you have the mindset, it is time to take a breather and relax because in a minute we will start drawing. Find a comfortable spot with adequate lighting. Grab a pencil or a ballpoint pen and a clean sheet of paper. But before you start drawing, notice the three figures below. Notice the three different postures artists use when drawing.
Fig. 1f looks great. However, the artist’s eye level is not in accordance with the drawing and that could affect how it is going to turn out later (this will be explained in a moment). Then we have Fig. 1g which looks awkward and you may get back aches and eye-sores when you draw in this position. Although, since the eye level is in accordance, directly above the drawing, that gives the artist an advantage over the outcome of his work (again, this will be explained in a moment.) But then again, his upper torso is blocking most of the light; the drawing might not turn out as well as we would have hoped. Finally we have Fig. 1h. This is the most recommended posture because the artist draws within eye level without compromising the lighting. So, what’s the deal with eye level? And how does it affect your drawings? A distorted view (other than at a direct eye level) will affect accuracy and proportionality.
The three images in Fig. 1i are the subject (left), the one drawn with bad eye level (center), and the one with proper eye level (right). The differences are subtle and the cartoon is still recognizable, but you can see that somehow the proportions and the shapes of the rightmost drawing are more articulate. In the figure below, looking at the drawing at an angle can affect its outcome - it ruins the accuracy of your image, and you won’t even notice until the end because your brain just has that tendency to overlook slight mistakes. Proper eye leveling actually prevents that from happening. This is the reason draughtsman, painters, and professional designers work with art boards and easels.)
Moving on, there are plenty of ways you can ruin your own drawing without noticing. One example,
as we have talked about earlier, is not drawing with a proper eye level. Another way is drawing with your left brain. Before I explain further, check out this meme circulated on the internet of a botched facial sketch:
Let’s say, you followed the proper eye level posturing, but the subject you were trying to draw was from a photo. Since it is tiny and portable, nothing should go wrong, right? And after almost three hours, you start to wonder how you skewed everything. Well, actually the reason for that is because you draw from the left brain. It is a little tricky to explain, and this can be an entire topic in itself so I’ll just do my best to elaborate on it as brief as I can. So anyway, left brain drawing is basically drawing based on assumption and not drawing based on vision. Left brain drawing is drawing what you know about the subject. Take a look at Fig. 1k. The eyes are almost too big, and the lashes are extremely inaccurate. The reason for this is because the artist drawing this drew from what he knew, instead of what he saw. And that creates a conflict with the right brain where it is trying its best to correct the image, hence, the misshapen jaw. Right brain drawing is drawing from what you see instead of what you know. The best way to expound on this is to focus on the shapes and spaces in the drawing without any conscious thought about the subject (this will be discussed further in chapter 3). So ironically, that means in order to accurately capture the subject’s features, you have to “forget” about the subject and simply draw their “shapes.” It is a little confusing, but it is a lot easier to understand once you apply it. Here is a fun exercise for you to do. Take a post card of a cartoon; it doesn’t have to be complicated or difficult. Now try to reproduce it on a sheet of paper. After you are done, take a breather and ready another sheet of paper. Once you are relaxed, try and reproduce the image again, but this time, draw it upside down. Once you are done, take a moment to compare both drawings with your reference material. Which one is more accurate (save the drawing and let’s discuss it more on chapter 3).
Introducing the “Stickman”
Never underestimate the power of a good stick figure! How relevant are juvenile stick figures to drawing complex portraits and murals? The Answer: extremely relevant. In this chapter, we will breakdown the mysteries of the stickman’s power.
The stickman has been around pretty much since the first cave people started scrawling on the walls of their homes (Fig 2a). They depicted hunts, the number of people living there and basically anything they could imagine. This was the first attempt of man to record his history. And all that is thanks to the stickman.
Just like our early ancestors, we used stick figures – a rudimentary means of expression – as children. We built stories around every character; we dressed them up and gave them tools and homes; but most of all they were a means to communicate our insights to each other.
The Language of Lines
The stickman is composed of lines arranged in different ways to communicate an idea. These lines, however, can exist alone and can depict the ideas alone without the need for them to be arrange into a stick figure
The use of these lines is integrated in designs and illustration, but that’s for another topic. Going back on the stickman, the type of line you use directly translates to the idea it portrays. In Fig. 2c, can you guess the moods and actions the stick figures represent? How about in Fig. 2d, which path should our stickman take to get to the treasure chest unharmed?
Even simple doodles can convey ideas. Every line is the foundation to any complicated illustration. From the Mona Lisa to the Thinker – paintings or sculptures – they all begin as sketches of lines crudely scrawled in paper or stone. Meaning, sketch lines to artists are manuscript drafts to novelists. No professional would create something without it.
Line of Action
The drawing above represents a scene of different stick figures arguing about something. Although their poses is correct, you can’t help but feel that something is lacking or it is not convincing enough. Now refer to Fig. 2f below.
The characters are the same, their poses have not changed but the entire scene now seems to be more animated. That’s because of their line of action. This subtle method allows the figures to exaggerate their actions allowing them to pop more in a scene. The line of action is an application of the language of
lines. Refer to Fig. 2g as an example.
Gestures Aside from effectively displaying moods through body language, the line of action can also make figures more dynamic. Use the line of action together with a diagonal line to make an excellent gesture for your drawings. The steps are shown in Fig. 2h.
You can find references of gestures on photographs. They are easier to spot in photographs that show motion like running or walking, but they can also be found in static poses like sitting or lying down (see Fig 2i).
Now that we have covered gestures, it is now time for a brief introduction about anatomy. This will be thoroughly discussed at the end of chapter 3. But there’s no harm in giving you a few tips and tricks for the subject matter.
Guidelines for Anatomy Every artist struggles to perfect anatomy – especially beginners, but veterans are no exception to this either. During the renaissance, artists would struggle just to meet anatomical precision, especially for female subjects where references would be difficult to come by. Fig. 2j is Michelangelo’s sculpture titled “Night.” Excellent craftsmanship, the only downside is the overall built is masculine, and the breasts look like they were apples in a socks glued to the chest. This was because Michelangelo used men as models. And during that time women were more conservative and showing their body to someone other than their husbands would be ludicrous.
Obviously the model for the sculpture is a man, but looking at it from a distance the pose still communicates femininity. And that is the use of proper gesturing. Anatomy is basically arranging the head, torso, arms and legs to create a certain action. However, without the line of action and gesturing, it would seem stale and boring. In addition, gesturing and line of action exponentially improves body language. Refer to Fig. 2k. Even without the details of hair or organs, we can clearly see that the left is masculine and the right is feminine. That is all thanks to the language of lines, the line of action and gesturing.
Let’s Play with Shapes and Spaces! “Before and artist develops his dexterity, he develops his eye.” Going back from the first chapter you were asked to reproduce a post card of a cartoon twice and compare the accuracy of both. The first one you did normally will be A and the second one, which you did upside down will be called B. A was easier to draw, right? But the result was not as favorable as you expected. B felt awkward and weird, it seemed like drawing random shapes, but after that, the result was surprisingly more accurate than A. As we discussed before in chapter 1, drawing with the left brain skews our perception of the image. We draw based on what we know instead of what we see. Drawing from the right brain involves looking at the shapes instead of looking at the subject. This allows you to draw more accurately. However it does take some getting used to. One way of hacking it is to draw an image upside down. Since the image we are trying to reproduce is different from what we are used to, it forces us to draw based on what we see – usually in the form of shapes – just like in your drawing B. Congratulations, you just learned how to draw from your right brain.
The Importance of shapes I can’t stress enough how important shapes are. When reproducing an image or coming up with a composition, shapes dictate how it is going to turn out. But before this will be elaborated let us talk about the fundamentals. Shapes are closed line segments. Just like lines, the way they are presented can communicate a certain idea. They can be presented in a million ways; however it all boils down to three basic figures:
The circle – this can be an oval or an ellipse depending on the variation you prefer. This shape signifies gentleness, friendliness, and completeness – just like wavy and curved lines. Animators compose friendly characters with either a circular face or a round body (see Fig. 3a1).
This shape also de-escalates any seriousness in any composition. Evidence to this is in Fig. 3a2 where the objects either have a circular shape or have had their edges rounded. Kid’s shows and illustrations use this technique to make it more appealing to its audience.
“Chibi” or cute deformation in Japanese is a popular drawing style popularized by the manga or Japanese comics. The base shapes used in this cartoon figure are circles to make it cute and less serious. Below, the steps are shown to make your own chibi cat using circles.
In design, circles are a popular choice. They are often used in vector graphics to give off a sophisticated modern feel to the composition. See Fig 3a4. In addition, the shape when used sparingly can be used to compliment lines and angles to break monotony as in Fig. 3a5.
The square – is the shape that represents stability. The key is in its angles, lines that create an angle already translate to the idea of rigidity and constancy. A square or rectangle solidifies the concept, no pun intended. This shape can also communicate both formality and immobility since it is a combination of horizontal and vertical straight lines. Objects using this shape are often serious and inevitably become boring. Check out Fig 3b1, the drawings on the left are dull and need at least another shape to act as an accent piece to make it interesting. On the right are the objects with the said accent pieces which make them more appealing.
Although the square by itself is visually uninteresting, this brings the advantage of filling space while highlighting the accent pieces. It is this reason pictures are usually hung with square frames. Another asset of this shape is its ability to depict strength, weight and dependability. Cartoonists draw characters and objects with a square frame when they want to communicate such ideas. How they vary size and shape can have interesting results. See Fig 3b2.
In Fig. 3b3 we see the three-step process of drawing a simple cartoon character using the square shape as a base.
The square in its own right is a basic shape. People often ask us why other polygons can’t be classified as a basic shape. The answer to that is because when a square adds a side or an angle, eventually it just becomes a circle. Take one out and it’s a triangle, and that is the next shape we are going to talk about. The triangle – is the shape for dynamism, direction and energy. This shape can also signify danger and pain because of its pointy shape – as common sense dictates, anything that is sharp is dangerous and harmful. However there are exceptions. The triangle can also represent safety and shelter because of its association to some structures. Can you find which in Fig. 3c1?
This shape can also add an air of deviousness and mystery to your characters. Concept artists use this shape to draw sets and characters of fantasy and occult. See Fig 3c2.
Using the same idea as mentioned above, cartoonists and animators usually design the stereotypical villains based on the triangular shape to give them that bad-to-the-bone look while at the same time giving the audience a sense that they are mobile and active. In Fig 3c3 we explore the makings of a villain by designing the classic hat and cloak fiend.
Used carefully in designs, the shape can be used as a subtle accent piece to make it more interesting. Triangles added with other shapes usually give a sense of motion and liveliness. See Fig 3c4.
Breaking down the shapes and spaces of an image Now that we have discussed all about the three basic shapes, it is time to apply them with our drawing. On this lesson, we are going to attempt to reproduce and image accurately, without the need to turn it upside down. The key is to look at the image as a group of shapes clumped together starting from the biggest to the tiniest. For this exercise, we will draw Fig 3d1, a line drawing of Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa.
(Fig 3d2) Is a line representation of the famous painting to help you breakdown the shapes much easier.
Let us take some time to appreciate this classic. Before you put pencil to paper take note of the general shape of the subject in the image contrary to the negative spaces (Fig 3d3). Next, either fold your paper twice, crosswise and lengthwise, to create four equal parts; or you can use a ruler to draw a very light line to divide the parts. After that, refer to Fig 3d4 as a guide for your drawing. You can print this out if you like. The folds or the lines will serve as an anchor point for drawing the details later on.
Draw the general shape of the subject. Take note of the empty spaces versus the anchor points. Worry about the details last (Fig 3d5).
Once you have the general shape of things, break it down further by drawing the next shape that occupies the most space and so on. Do so until you draw the smallest. Keep in mind that at this stage we are still not drawing the details. This is basically a rough outline of your drawing. (Fig 3d6)
Again, break it down further. Look for familiar shapes. Note that the wrinkles of her clothes can be tricky, and sometimes you cannot find shapes that coincide with them. To avoid confusion, skip them and move on to a different area. Check your accuracy by comparing your drawing’s distance from the guidelines. If the shapes are too
far or too near compared to the reference, erase and revise. It is better to do so in this stage than risk ruining a good drawing later. Then, when you are satisfied with the rough outline, refine the shapes by rounding the edges that need to be rounded like the face or the shoulders etc. draw the simple details that occupy the most area. And then eventually the smaller, more minute ones. See Fig 3d7.
Fill out the necessary details as a last step. Clean up your work by erasing the unnecessary lines. Now you have a Mona Lisa drawing. The result may not always come as expected so always practice. Fig 3d8 is our artist’s drawing. How well did you do?
A good tip for accuracy is to do the steps with the reference picture upside down. Try it and see for yourself which one is more effective.
Filling shapes to stickmen This lesson, we will discuss techniques about composition – specifically, filling your stick figures with the appropriate shape to make them look more anatomical. This will combine the previous techniques you have learned so far. So grab a fresh sheet of paper and a pencil or pen and brace yourself. But before we proceed, take a moment to appreciate the work you have done so far. Great job by the way. This exercise is no different from the previous activities; feel free to refer to the previous chapters as a guide if you need to. Once again we revisit our favorite character, the stickman. In the last chapter, we left off with the use of the line of action and the gestures. Now, we will fill the stickman with its appropriate shape. Try doodling your own stick figure poses with their gestures. Make them as active and dynamic as you can; exaggerate if you must. As you draw, you might come up with something like Fig. 3e1.
Take note of your stick figures. Be consistent with their identities and body languages so it is easier to shape them later on. Remember, the line of action influences how you add shape to your stick figures. Also, keep in mind the language of lines and the meaning of shapes. It is easier to communicate visually using those cues. In Fig. 3e2, the shapes are filled in Fig. 3e1’s stick figures. Take note of the shapes involved and now try it on your own stick figures.
Just like the meaning of basic shapes, when applied to stick figures, the characters become more expressive and it can vary based on the different shapes you use. Check out Fig. 3e3, a single stick figure applied with different shape variations can communicate different ideas and emotions.
Breaking it down further, Fig. 3e4 displays the basic shapes to make an anatomical figure. Of course, we always use the stick figure gesture and the line of action as the framework.
Here’s an active drawing our artist did. Even the shapes stay true to the framework (Fig. 3e6). Worry about the details last, erase the shapes and you have an anatomical human figure (Fig. 3e7).
Basic Anatomy Anatomy lessons can take up multiple chapters and several books can be written on this topic alone. In addition, anatomy, like other facets of fine arts take time to truly master, so expect lots of mistakes and keep your chin up – every stroke gets you closer to perfection. To elaborate further on the recent discussion about anatomy, here are some general guidelines to improve your precision. In a few moments we will declassify the anatomy of people and some animals. So take a break for as long as you like. After that, have a relaxed and focused mindset along with your materials and get ready to learn new drawing techniques. People: When drawing the typical male figure, keep in mind that they have broad shoulders and are generally taller. Meanwhile drawing the female figure means the opposite. Another thing to remember when drawing people is to remember the shapes that represent the gender; males have an angular body structure while females are curvy. Study Fig. 3f1 below to have a better grasp of the subject
Animals: There are so many animals in the world to draw. However, in this lesson we will stick to the basic form of the fowls and the quadruped mammals help you get stared. Again, a variety of quadrupeds exist, but for introductory purposes we will draw cats and dogs. See Fig 3f2 for instructions.
For fowls, there is the flightless and the flying varieties, but they all follow a single framework. Remembering this makes it easier to draw their lot. See Fig.3f3.
It’s a Matter of Perspective “Welcome to reality, in this life, everything is three dimensional.” Perspective is a key part in drawing compositions. It enables your audience to see your drawings more realistically. It works by giving the optical illusion of depth and distance, and it can be applied to anything. It is the bread and butter of engineers and architects since it represents good measurement and it helps with functional design. Although this is an amazing topic, explaining it does get a bit technical and boring. So bear with us for the moment. Trust me, this will be worth it. So what exactly is perspective drawing? Before we can answer the question, take a look at Fig 4a.
Notice how the buildings get smaller the farther away they are. Also note that the street somehow vanish at a point in as it gets smaller. Now take a look at Fig 4b
At the distance, the sea and land meet to what we call as a horizon. The above mentioned examples are key factors to perspective drawing. It is important to remember the following definitions before we proceed. Horizon line – an imaginary line that represents the spaces of land and sky. Vanishing point – is an anchor point to which we identify space and distance. The closer the object to the vanishing point the smaller it becomes. This is usually contained within the horizon line. Orthagonal lines – are diagonal lines that originate from the vanishing point to the object to create the illusion of depth. Now that we have established the facts, let’s talk about the kinds of perspectives.
One-point Perspective One-point perspective is simply a perspective that has a single vanishing point in the horizon line. In this method, every horizontal line (this may or may not include the horizon line) and every vertical line remain the same. See Fig 4c. In the example we used a square. Once we applied perspective to it, we then have a cube.
This can be used with multiple angles with multiple shapes. Refer to Fig 4d as an example.
With a bit of creativity you can compose drawings that look advanced using the shapes above. You can combine and resize the shapes to create objects with depth like in Fig 4e.
Emphasize height using this perspective. See Fig 4f for examples
When drawing locations, one-point perspective is commonly used outdoors and indoors and it is effective as it is simple to do. However, when used too much it makes the composition dull. Fig 4g is a simple illustration of a room. In the right is a rendered version, while in the left shows the perspective used for the walls and furniture. To do indoor perspectives, always start drawing the horizon line and then decide where the vanishing
point would be. Usually the vanishing point is placed dead center, but you can opt to place it either to the right or left (Fig 4g).
Next step is to draw vertical and horizontal lines that would be the walls of the room. And then line up the orthagonals like so (Fig 4h). Once that is done, You now have a cubic formation of a room.
To add furniture, draw some shapes that resemble the type of furniture you want and then line up the orthagonals. Once you are happy with the lines, render the sketches using a pen and erase the lines and you might have something like Fig 4i.
Drawing outdoor locations using one-point perspective is much simpler that drawing indoor locations. Same steps apply: draw the horizon line first, then the vanishing point next, but instead of a huge square you do things differently from this stage on. If you aim to draw a cityscape, draw some squares. The closer the squares are to the vanishing point the smaller they should be, just like in Fig 4a. After that, line everything up with the orthagonals. Leave a space for the road; this will simply be the orthagonal. Once everything is done, add in the details (Fig 4j).
When you are doing a mountain side landscape, do the same procedure as a cityscape but instead of squares, draw lumps that resemble hills. Draw some shrubs and trees and some stray boulders to
complete the illustration.
Mountains should be easier to draw than buildings since they don’t have to be identical to each other. They can be drawn as an upside down “v” or a series of wobbly jagged lines.
Two-point Perspective Another method is called the two-point perspective where two vanishing points at opposite ends are placed in the horizon line. Think of it as combining two angles of one-point perspectives. In this perspective, the orthagonals are considered the horizontal lines. The horizon line is simply for guiding purposes and must not be visible. All vertical lines, however, remain constant. Fig 4l uses a cube as an example for this.
This perspective is best applied when you want to emphasize corners or add a bit of flare to your composition. You can do this by first establishing the orthagonals after you have drawn the vanishing points at the horizon line. Immediately you can see the lines intersect (Fig 4m). And from that point on decide what kind of composition you want to create. Regardless if it is a location or an object, the vertical lines will solidify their final form (Fig 4n).
Just like in one-point perspective every shape can be used with every possible angle. An added benefit with the two-point perspective however, is that you have more options when creating compositions and they look more exciting. Examples for this are in Fig 4o. (Fig 4o) Using your imagination, you can draw furniture, cars, structures and anything you can think about in an interesting way. A simple application of basic perspective is needed an the details may vary.
Anatomical Perspective Every shape can be applied with perspective, and since body parts are made up of shapes, then perspective can definitely be applied to them – and this technique is called foreshortening. Foreshortening is creating the illusion of depth and distance with the body. It is taking existing shapes and using them to represent body movement in accordance with space. You can refer to Fig 4p for examples.
One thing to remember when foreshortening is to always make the nearest object bigger and the farthest smaller. Try it out and don’t be afraid.
Light, Shade and Everything in Between “Even in the absence of color tones provide depth to the composition” Tones are the color values of an illustration. They are broken down to three main parts, and those are the highlights, midtones and shadows. The tones are highly dependent on the lighting. The highlight is the portion where the most light is bounced off the object. The midtone is where just enough light is spread where we can see the object’s texture or color. And finally, the shadow is where the lights is partially or totally deprived in the object and is the darkest part. In Fig 5a, we see a sphere demonstrating the different tones because of lighting.
Highlights, Midtones and Shadows Going further in the discussion, we will elaborate on each tone to let you know about their function. Highlights – definitely the brightest part of the object. Aside from showing the intensity of light, it also shows its direction. The brighter the environment, the stronger the highlight is. Too much brightness, though, might affect the midtone causing it to lose its texture and color. A good way to create highlights of a shape is to find a good light source and from there, apply it to the shape like in Fig 5b.
Midtone – the midtone has both the color and texture of the object. Also, it is a tone that relies on both the highlight and shadow to be most effective. Otherwise, the illustration would appear flat and boring just like in Fig 5c.
Shadows – Just like the highlight, the shadow dictates both the intensity and direction of light. It is advised to keep shadows subtle when drawing illustrations. This is because to steers the attention away from the intended subject because of the darkness. Shadows are also extended from the object to the ground to better create the illusion of realism. Again, the intensity and direct of the light also dictates how this type of shadow looks like. See Fig 5d.
Techniques for drawing texture Drawing textures can be fun and tricky. However, once you get the hang of it, it becomes second nature to you. Before you begin, we will let you in on a trade secret. Texture drawing is just like painting, so if you’ve ever wanted to paint but didn’t have a canvas and a brush, this is a good alternative. Since texture drawing is similar to painting, you hold your pencil like a paint brush like Fig 5e. And also, make sure to sharpen it in a “chisel point” – this will be very handy in the long run (Fig 5f).
To start drawing, spread the lead on to the paper like butter on toast. Unlike drawing the way you write with a pen, this style covers more space and gives you a more gradient effect (Fig 5g).
Drawing with this style – scrawling the pencil back and forth horizontally and vertically – this can be applied when drawing smooth textures. Another way is to tightly draw scribbles with faded edges – but this is best applied to rounded and irregular objects. However, if you do prefer holding it like a pen when drawing, a good technique is called “stippling” or “pointillism” where you create light and shade using the dots from the tip of your pencil (Fig 5h).
This is a great technique and it yields great accuracy. But this can get straining after a while. Stippling is best applied when drawing rough textures or grains.
Make it Look FANCY! “Design is important in composition even the basics can do so much” After learning some of the basic drawing techniques it is now time to improve your overall composition using design rules. Design is crucial in any composition. It is a way to communicate the idea of the creator to its intended audience. It is the foundation of a well composed piece. But most importantly, it speeds up the thought process and gives you a head start where to place things in the paper and why. There are multiple design aspects, but for the sake of simplicity we will only tackle two of the most common and important of them all.
Rule of Thirds Mainly applied in photography, the rule of thirds is the most basic and frequently used design technique. This very effective method can be used in paintings and illustrations as well. By definition the rule of thirds is simply breaking down and image into three parts – horizontally and vertically – until you find an asymmetry. This asymmetry gives the image or illustration an eyecatching effect as well as emphasis on the subject. Take Fig 6a below, the man posing is emphasized because he stands a third of the way in the image.
Even in animated films and illustrations, this design rule is implemented with very astounding results. See Fig 6b.
In order to compose using the rule of thirds, you only need to follow one guideline; Always put the subject along the intersecting quadrants as seen in Fig 6c.
Let us put this method to the test. In Fig 6d we have a centered image without the rule of thirds. It is an understandable picture, but it too plain.
In Fig 6e, we applied the rule of thirds to the image. Now, the image looks a lot more interesting than the previous. The asymmetry created enhanced eye movement throughout the picture.
The Golden Ratio The golden ratio is the most subtle, if not, ubiquitous design rule. It is found from architecture to paintings even to the structure of nature itself. In addition, it is a favorite among layout artist and web designers. The golden ratio is a design rule of variety. And according to the Greeks who discovered it, the golden ratio is the ultimate in aesthetics. In order to understand the golden ratio we have to look at its parts. See Fig 6f for illustration.
As you can see, It consists of a mathematical sequence of increasing numbers via the space. From the inner most section we can see that it spirals out getting bigger and bigger and so on. This is also called the Fibonacci sequence – where the sum of the previous number is added to the previous number and so on (1+1=2, 2+1 =3, 3+2=5, 5+3=8…). So how does this mathematical design rule apply to art, exactly? Simple, it is a more advanced form of the rule of thirds and it gives you so much more options when drawing an illustration. The old masters used this technique often in the past, and even today it is still popular. Fig 6g depicts a popular meme on the internet about a parliament brawl. The photo was taken without the intention of design, but when it was examined, it accidentally matched the golden ratio. They even jokingly edited to look like an old painting.
Even in an accidental design situation the image is very pleasing to the eye so much as most things from nature. The old masters favored this design rule in their paintings. But be warned that this is not easy to master. However once you get the formula and the rhythm of the golden ration, even the most simple drawing can transcend time itself.
The Guerilla Artist “Apply yourself, always.” Be a guerilla artist – a person always hungry for change and thrives on artistic challenge despite every situation. The whole world is the canvas and you are the paint brush. But before we get overboard with things, being a guerilla artist simply means to constantly practice and hone your skills until you reach your full potential. Now that you know some of the basics of drawing, expressing your ideas would not only be easy but also entertaining. But wait, don’t stop there. Experiment with new techniques and new ideas for drawing. You might be surprised about the results. As long as you have confidence in yourself, you can do anything you set your mind to. Whatever you come up with in your head put it on paper. Make it a daily habit to produce masterpieces, draw some cartoons or simply scribble some doodles – let your imagination run wild and in the long run your progress will astound you. Even at any age at any time, art always exists. All you need to do is express it. From simple stick figures to complex anatomical poses, you’ve made a great improvement. What you have with you is a very effective and sought after artistic arsenal not many people have access to. Use it well, use it often.
Finding Inspiration Inspiration is a valuable resource for artists. It is marrow to our bones. Inspiration allows us to move mountains and divide seas. It is, however, rare. And you must make use of it before it disappears. No matter how inspired you are today, there will always come moments where you just cannot do anything. And that is called “Artist Block.” Nobody is exempted from this – from absolute beginners to seasoned pros – when the big block looms over you, getting around it is difficult, but not impossible. There are ways to get inspired. Some people eat healthy, exercise and sleep at the correct time while others stay up late and binge on the internet while eating junk. A friend told me she meditates until she finds a sort of spark of idea. Another told me he takes six cups of coffee to pump up the blood vessels in his brain. Regardless of the activities, everyone has their own pick-me-up. You might find yours, however unique it might be. Or you can simply go with our method. Artist blocks are caused by the following factors: • • •
Monotony of subject or environment Overloading of variety Situational reasons
Now all these factors cause our minds to just shut down as a natural response. And that is normal; there is nothing to be afraid of. The best thing to do is to relax, distance your self from the stress and everything will be back to normal. After you have dealt with the block, the next thing to do is to supplement your ideas with new ones. This is a great way to keep inspired. Share your works with other artists and check out theirs. Learn from each other and be a community. Don’t be shy, no matter how terrible or how great your artwork maybe, the important part is that you made an effort to create beauty – and that is something. We hope that you enjoyed and learned from this book. Share the grace and teach others who might also be interested to learn how to draw. Meanwhile, here are some artworks made by our artists in hopes that they too might inspire you.
And there are plenty more artworks to find in your community or online. Art is simply the extension of the artist’s soul and you can create masterpieces any time any place. Always remember; have faith, be confident and never stop drawing.
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“One Day Calligraphy Mastery” by Ellen Warren [Excerpt from the first 3 Chapters – for complete book, please purchase on Amazon.com] Introduction
Calligraphy is a visual art form, but one that varies tremendously from other art forms in that it has a long history of practical use. In addition, calligraphy can transcend the fact of its art and its creation to take on new meaning and to imbue additional meaning to the works that it’s used to create. Many people simply view it as a method of writing, but calligraphy is really so much more. It’s a means of perfecting your writing so that each letter transcends the word and becomes a piece of art all its own. At the same time, calligraphy is used to make each word into a work of art that amplifies its meaning. This is what makes calligraphy have such an amazing impact on the viewer; you’re not just looking at the word, you’re taking in what the word brings with it whether flourish, form, art, or color. Think of a signature, and how people who sign things regularly will adapt a specific style. This is because they know that style helps impact the way that their signature is perceived – calligraphy does the same thing. A document written in calligraphy will be viewed very differently than a document saying the same thing but printed or using a plain text. This is why calligraphy is used to so frequently for important documents like diplomas, wedding invitations, and signs. When someone views a document written in calligraphy, it takes on more weight and a greater meaning than it had before on its own. Unlike other forms of art, calligraphy truly needs to be mastered before you can really begin to explore it. There isn’t a lot of personal interpretation in calligraphy; each letter still needs to have its original meaning, and to be at least somewhat recognizable. That’s why calligraphy can be so intimidating for people to learn. Other art forms allow you to explore the medium while you perfect technique, but calligraphy demands perfection in each stroke. A person learning calligraphy may need to make the same letter in the same way again and again, much like a young child learning how to write for the first time. It’s not uncommon to spend hours simply writing the same letter over and over, filling multiple sheets of paper until you feel so comfortable with it, that you can create it without thinking. Once the basic forms of the letters you’re mastering begin to become second nature, you can begin to put in the variations and flourishes that truly set calligraphy apart from simply a means of writing. You can also begin to explore different materials, such as embossing inks, paintbrushes, and split-
tipped pens that will give your work variation and depth. There are hundreds of different calligraphic fonts out there to explore. Some are fairly simple and are merely a slightly dressier way of writing. Others are extremely complex, with each letter having multiple flourishes that help give it greater impact. Because of this, it’s not uncommon for a calligrapher to master two or three different styles. It’s also common for beginners to start with a very basic script, then to begin working on different letter forms once the first set has been mastered. Whether you choose to stick with the first basic form, or you choose to master and use other forms later on is entirely up to you. It is recommended, however, that everyone begin with something simple so that you can learn how upstrokes vary from down strokes, and how to hold the pen and how much pressure to apply. All of this is much easier to learn on a simple script than on a more complex one. After you’ve gotten used to the materials and the methods, it’s easy to transfer them to other forms. This book is meant to help you learn the basics of calligraphy. You’ll discover how material can change the look of a letter such as pen and ink versus a paintbrush, the best way to produce a stroke, and how to create your own personal expression. Like other art forms, a lot of calligraphy will take on your own personal style. Even copying a set of fonts will still let you introduce your own personality through the boldness of your stroke or the flourish of your ends. No two people will ever have quite the same writing style, even when using the same type of calligraphy or script simply accounting for the amount of pressure and the dexterity of your hand. During this book you’ll learn about the different styles of calligraphy, and how you go about learning a specific style. While not every style is listed here, the basic method of drawing each letter remains the same; once you’ve learned one style it’s easy to adjust and move on to other styles and methods over time. Calligraphy fonts can be found everywhere, from books to invitations and greeting cards. If you find a style that calls to you, you’ll be able to adapt and copy it by the time you’ve finished practicing the letters given in this book. Towards the end of the book and after you’ve had a chance to practice forming letters, you’ll find a few simple projects you can practice your calligraphy on. After all, it can get a little boring and repetitive to simply make the same letters again and again; it’s a lot more fun to practice your letters on something that you can use, display, or give to someone else. Each project is completely customizable, from the size of the paper to what it is you decide to write, and even the style of calligraphy that you use. Once you’ve completed them, you may find that you’ll want to explore different phrases and lettering of your own until you’ve gotten the hang of it. You may even want to make multiples of each one, using a different medium, background, and phrase each time until you truly feel that you’ve mastered each one. This can be a fun way to explore what a felt-tipped pen will do to your letters or to begin using a brush for the first time. After all, by making multiples of the same thing using different media, you can compare your end results easier and decide which method appeals to you the most. By the time you’ve finished the book, you should have a good understanding of what calligraphy is, and how you can apply it to your own art. You’ll hopefully also see that while calligraphy can appear to be intimidating with its elegance and beauty that it’s still an art from like any other that can be mastered through patience and time. In fact, unlike certain types of art where you need to develop an eye for color, space, and arrangement, nearly anyone can learn calligraphy in their spare time,
regardless of what other artistic talents you may or may not posses.
Brief History of Calligraphy
Traditional forms of calligraphy can be traced back to the Roman alphabet and some of the very first forms of writing that there were. The letters that are still found carved into stone and painted on walls evolved slowly over a few centuries to begin to be recognizable as the script that is still used today. They began as capital letters, followed by the introduction of lowercase letters, before they then gradually evolved into script, and finally into the Roman alphabet, with the specific lines and flourishes that are still recognizable today. Eventually, as literacy began to spread throughout Europe, books and bibles began to be hand lettered, using one of a few different uncial scripts. These further evolved as more letters and words needed to be fit onto a page, with the Gothic script becoming the preferred method because of the size of the letters and the ease with which they could be recognized. Gothic script remained one of the most popular forms of calligraphy until the printing press was invented, and even then some of the first books printed still used the Gothic style. Most hand-lettered books were considered a work of art by themselves. They needed to be not only legible, but uniform, and they were often accompanied by illustrations to enhance the text. Only those who were truly proficient in calligraphy were commissioned to produce these books, which is how the art form began to emerge. A true calligrapher could spend years creating one book, developing his own style of writing that was complemented by the borders, colors, and illustrations on each page. Books were treasured during this time, simply for the amount of time and care that went into each one.
Calligraphy in Use Today Interestingly, it was the invention of the printing press that truly launched calligraphy as an art form that is still in use today. While each calligrapher had his own style, most used a very basic set of letters, and few really experimented with changing them once a script began to be an accepted version. Once the printing press began to be widely spread, however, it opened the door to distinction. Different typesetters began to create their own fonts, with artists beginning to design fonts that were easier to read and could fit more words onto a page. Eventually, with the invention of computers more decorative fonts needed to be created to personalize and decorate a wide variety of different items from signs to websites. It is still common for iconographers today to create specific fonts for books and other means of printing to help enhance the look and style of a page. Calligraphy today has taken on a life of its own separate from the fonts and lettering that first launched it. Now letters can be formed in any shape, including those that are unintelligible or unreadable. Iconographers, or people whose job it is to create new letters and fonts, may sometimes make their letters into true pieces of art that have little to do with the alphabet. Think of the “ding bats” that you can translate your text into simply highlighting a word and changing the font in a computer program. Because of this, calligraphy can be said to be either traditional, or stemming from the Roman alphabet that spawned the art form, or non-traditional and letters that are completely different and are an art form all their own. Calligraphy is most often seen today on things like wedding invitations and logos, but it can also the basis for new types of fonts, as well as any type of lettering from banners and signs to greeting cards. Typographers whose job it is to create new kinds of type and fonts may use calligraphy as the base of their work. They may also use a variety of calligraphy types including traditional and non-traditional letters, with many typographers mastering both forms. Anyone that needs to add letters to anything from art to signs can use calligraphy as the base of their work. Calligraphy styles have evolved so much that there are countless fonts in use today, from the very simple to the extremely complex. Beginning calligraphers may want to work on mastering at least two styles to start with, one in the traditional sense and one non-traditional. This can help you develop a base to begin creating your own personal style.
Styles of Calligraphy There are countless different calligraphy styles, with more being created every day. Broadly, however, they can be broken down into two categories: traditional and non-traditional. Traditional letters are those that are directly derived from the Roman alphabet. This includes the Gothic style, such as this letter A:
Traditional letters can also be simple scripts or handwritten letters, like this classic A:
Traditional letters can also be extremely ornate. The basic form of the letter remains the same; it’s the flourishes the surround the letter that begin to set it apart as a form of art, like this ornate A:
Non-traditional letters can begin to incorporate different types of lines. The letters themselves may still be recognizable, like this formal A:
They may also start to include additional lines, which can help add dimension to the letters, like this “Adorable” A:
Non-traditional letters can take on a number of different personas, however. This is where art truly comes into play along with calligraphy. While traditional letters may be plain or ornate, they are still generally recognizable at all times. Non-traditional letters, however, may include a variety of other images, or they may be completely unrecognizable as the letter they are conveying. Non-traditional letters are some of the most fun to learn, and the most fun to start including in different projects. Because they can often take on the look of something else entirely, they can be used to help bring greater impact to the word they are describing. This letter A, known as a BreastBomb, is a good example of how a letter may start to become something else:
When paired with other letters, you may be able to make out the word. On its own, however, this A could simply be an abstract form of art. With the shape of the letter calling to mind a sailboat or even a shark fin, think of how this style of letters could be used to create a sign or logo for a boat business or a bait shop. This is where calligraphy can become more art than script, and yet retain its original purposes.
[Excerpt from the first 3 Chapters – for complete book, please purchase on Amazon.com]