Domestic Data Entry Operator

October 24, 2017 | Author: Subodh Roy | Category: Computer Data Storage, Booting, Computer Hardware, Electronic Engineering, Computer Engineering
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

Domestic Data Entry Operator...

Description

Job Role

Domestic Data Entry Operator

Credits(NVEQF/NVQF/NSQF)

4

Version number

0.1

Industry

IT-ITeS

Drafted on

30/08/13

Sub-sector

Business Process Management

Last reviewed on

30/08/13

Customer Relationship Next review date Management Domestic Data Entry Operator (Level 4)

30/08/15

Occupation Job Role

Role Description NVEQF/NVQF level Minimum Educational Qualifications Maximum Educational Qualifications Training (Suggested but not mandatory) Experience

Maintain proper entry of required data of customers through use of various data entry softwares and techniques. 4 12th Diploma in Computer Science/Technology Training programs and certifications in database management, hardware management, routing and switching, network management, customer orientation, dealing with difficult customers etc. 0-1 years of work experience/internship in a relevent area Compulsory:

Occupational Standards (OS)

1. 2. 3.

SSC/ O 3022 (Undertake data entry services) SSC/ O 9001 ( Manage your work to meet requirements ) SSC/ O 9003 ( Maintain a healthy, safe and secure working environment )

Optional: Not Applicable

Computer Fundamentals

-3-

Computer Fundamental What is Computer? Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of set of instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output for the future use. It can process both numerical and non-numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations. A computer has four functions: a. accepts data b. processes data c. produces output d. stores results

Input Processing Output Storage

Input (Data):

Input is the raw information entered into a computer from the input devices. It is the collection of letters, numbers, images etc. Process:

Process is the operation of data as per given instruction. It is totally internal process of the computer system. Output:

Output is the processed data given by computer after data processing. Output is also called as Result. We can save these results in the storage devices for the future use. Computer System All of the components of a computer system can be summarized with the simple equations. COMPUTER SYSTEM = HARDWARE + SOFTWARE+ USER •

Hardware = Internal Devices + Peripheral Devices All physical parts of the computer (or everything that we can touch) are known as Hardware.



Software = Programs Software gives "intelligence" to the computer.



USER = Person, who operates computer.

Computer Fundamentals

-4-

Major parts of the Computer Input Devices

1. Mouse

3. Scanner

5. Web Camera

7. Track Ball

2. Keyboard

4. Digital Camera

6. Joysticks

8. Touch Pad/ Screen

9. Light Pen

10. Bar Code Reader

11. Microphone

12. Graphics Tablets

Computer Fundamentals

-5-

13. Magnetic Ink Character Reader (Used in Bank)

14. Optical Mark Reader (Used for AnswerSheet Marking Purpose)

15. Magnetic Card Reader (Used in Shops, Colleges, Stations etc)

16. Biometric Devices

17. Bluetooth

Computer Fundamentals

-6-

Processor CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)

The main unit inside the computer is the CPU. This unit is responsible for all events inside the computer. It controls all internal and external devices, performs arithmetic and logic operations. The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the device that interprets and executes instructions. Output Devices

1. Monitor

2. Printer (Dot Matrix)

3. Projector

InkJet

4. Plotter

Laser

5. Speaker

Computer Fundamentals

-7-

Storage Devices 1. Primary memory (main memory)

A. RAM (Random Access Memory/Read-Write Memory)

B. ROM (Read-only-memory)

2. Secondary memory (storage devices)

A. Hard Disk (Local Disk) B. Optical Disks: CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW C. Pen Drive D. Zip Drive E. Floppy Disks F. Memory Cards G. External Hard Disk

A. Hard Disk

Computer Fundamentals

-8-

B. Optical disk

C. Pen Drive

D. Zip Disk (super disk)

E. Floppy Disk

F. Memory Cards

G. External Hard Disk

Peripheral Devices

1. The Modem/ Internet Adapter

2. Switches/H ub

3. Router

4. TV Tuner Card

Computer Fundamentals

-9-

Internal Components

1. The Mother Board

2. Expansion Slots

3. CMOS Battery

4. Cooling Fan

5. Network Card

6. Graphics Card

7. Power Supply Unit (SMPS)

8. Memory Slots

Software Software, simply are the computer programs. The instructions given to the computer in the form of a program is called Software. Software is the set of programs, which are used for different purposes. All the programs used in computer to perform specific task is called Software. Types of software 1. System software:

a) Operating System Software DOS, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Unix/Linux, MAC/OS X etc. b) Utility Software Windows Explorer (File/Folder Management), Windows Media Player, AntiVirus Utilities, Disk Defragmentation, Disk Clean, BackUp, WinZip, WinRAR etc…

Computer Fundamentals

- 10 -

2. Application software:

a) Package Software Ms. Office 2003, Ms. Office 2007, Macromedia (Dreamweaver, Flash, Freehand), Adobe (PageMaker, PhotoShop) b) Tailored or Custom Software SAGE (Accounting), Galileo/Worldspan (Travel) etc. 3. Computer Languages & Scripting:

a) Low Level Language i) Machine Level Language ii) Assembly Language Machine language: These language instructions are directly executed by CPU Assembly language: The endeavor of giving machine language instructions a name structure that means bit strings of instructions of machine language are given name here High Level Language: The user friendly language ...more natural language than assembly language.

Assembler is needed to convert assembly language into machine language Complier is needed to convert high level to machine language

b) High Level Language COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language), FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation), BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), C, C++ etc. are the examples of High Level Language.

Types of Computer On the basis of working principle a) Analog Computer

An analog computer (spelt analogue in British English) is a form of computer that uses continuous physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.

Computer Fundamentals

- 11 -

1. Thermometer

2. Speedometer

3. Petrol Pump Indicator

4. Multimeter

b) Digital Computer

A computer that performs calculations and logical operations with quantities represented as digits, usually in the binary number system.

c) Hybrid Computer (Analog + Digital)

A combination of computers those are capable of inputting and outputting in both digital and analog signals. A hybrid computer system setup offers a cost effective method of performing complex simulations.

Computer Fundamentals

- 12 -

On the basis of Size a) Super Computer

The fastest type of computer. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations. For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer. Other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration. The chief difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs concurrently.

b) Mainframe Computer

A very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. In the hierarchy that starts with a simple microprocessor (in watches, for example) at the bottom and moves to supercomputers at the top, mainframes are just below supercomputers. In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they support more simultaneous programs. But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe.

c) Mini Computer

A midsized computer. In size and power, minicomputers lie between workstations and mainframes. In the past decade, the distinction between large minicomputers and small mainframes has blurred, however, as has the distinction between small minicomputers and workstations. But in general, a minicomputer is a multiprocessing system capable of supporting from 4 to about 200 users simultaneously.

Computer Fundamentals

- 13 -

d) Micro Computer

i. Desktop Computer: a personal or micro-mini computer sufficient to fit on a desk.

ii. Laptop Computer: a portable computer complete with an integrated screen and keyboard. It is generally smaller in size than a desktop computer and larger than a notebook computer.

iii. Palmtop Computer/Digital Diary /Notebook /PDAs: a hand-sized computer. Palmtops have no keyboard but the screen serves both as an input and output device.

Computer Fundamentals

- 14 -

e) Workstations

A terminal or desktop computer in a network. In this context, workstation is just a generic term for a user's machine (client machine) in contrast to a "server" or "mainframe."

On the basis of Brand a) IBM/IBM Compatible Computers

c) Apple/Macintosh

Booting The process of loading the system files of the operating system from the disk into the computer memory to complete the circuitry requirement of the computer system is called booting. The system files of MS. DOS are: Types of Booting: There are two types of booting: • Cold Booting: If the computer is in off state and we boot the computer by pressing the power switch ‘ON’ from the CPU box then it is called as cold booting.

Computer Fundamentals

- 15 -



Warm Booting: If the computer is already ‘ON’ and we restart it by pressing the ‘RESET’ button from the CPU box or CTRL, ALT and DEL key simultaneously from the keyboard then it is called warm booting.

How to start the Computer in Ms. Windows mode? There is nothing special you need to start this system. Just, 1. Switch ON the Power Supply. 2. Switch ON the CPU and, 3. Switch ON the Screen (Monitor). How to Shutdown (Turn Off) the Computer? Before shutting down the Computer, close all opened windows at first. Then, 1. Click on Start button. 2. Click on Shutdown (Turn Off Computer). Then, Computer asks you: What do you want the Computer to do? • Standby • Shutdown (Turn Off) • Restart • Restart in MS-DOS mode.

Note: The options will be different from one OS to another. 3. Choose 2nd option (i.e. Shutdown/Turn Off). 4. Click on OK. Then, wait until the message “It’s now safe to turn off your Computer”. 5. Then, Switch Off the screen. 6. Switch Off the CPU. 7. At last, Switch Off the power supply.

Computer Fundamentals

- 16 -

Basic Computer Literacy Quiz One 1-1. FORTRAN programming language is more suitable for …… A. Business Applications B. Marketing Applications C. Scientific Applications D. None of the above 1-2. Mostly which of the following device is used to carry user files? A. Floppy Disk B. Hard Disk C. RAM D. CDROM 1-3. Which device is used to backup the data? A. Floppy Disk B. Tape C. Network Drive D. All of the above 1-4. In order to play and hear sound on a computer, one needs: A. a sound card and speakers B. a microphone C. all of them required D. none of them required 1-5. Which of the following are the cheapest memory devices in terms of Cost/Bit? A. Semiconductor memories B. Magnetic Disks C. Compact Disks D. Magnetic Tapes 1-6. In a computer _____ is capable to store single binary bit. A. Capacitor B. Flip flop C. Register D. Inductor 1-7. A set of flip flops integrated together is called ____ A. Counter B. Adder C. Register D. None of the above 1-8. Which of the following are the best units of data on an external storage device? A. Bits B. Bytes C. Hertz D. Clock cycles 1-9. A register organized to allow to move left or right operations is called a ____ Computer Fundamentals

- 17 -

A. B. C. D.

Counter Loader Adder Shift register

1-10. Which of the following have the fastest access time? A. Semiconductor Memories B. Magnetic Disks C. Magnetic Tapes D. Compact Disks

----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – C / 2 – A / 3 – D / 4 – A / 5 – C / 6 – B / 7 – C / 8 – B / 9 – D / 10 – A ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Two 2-1. Which is a semi conductor memory? A. Dynamic B. Static C. Bubble D. Both a & b 2-2. Which of the following is a read only memory storage device? A. Floppy Disk B. CD-ROM C. Hard Disk D. None of these 2-3. Which of the following is a programming language? A. Lotus B. Pascal C. MS-Excel D. Netscape 2-4. What do you call the translator which takes assembly language program as input & produce machine language code as output? A. Compiler B. Interpreter C. Debugger D. Assembler 2-5. What is a compiler? A. A compiler does a conversion line by line as the program is run B. A compiler converts the whole of a higher level program code into machine code in one step C. A compiler is a general purpose language providing very efficient execution D. None of the above 2-6. What is an interpreter? Computer Fundamentals

- 18 -

A. An interpreter does the conversion line by line as the program is run B. An interpreter is the representation of the system being designed C. An interpreter is a general purpose language providing very efficient execution D. None of the above 2-7. What are the stages in the compilation process? A. Feasibility study, system design and testing B. Implementation and documentation C. Lexical Analysis, syntax analysis, and code generation D. None of the above 2-8. A Compiler is ____ A. a combination of computer hardware B. a program which translates from one high-level language to another C. a program which translates from one high-level to a machine level language D. None of these 2-9. When a key is pressed on the keyboard, which standard is used for converting the keystroke into the corresponding bits? A. ANSI B. ASCII C. EBCDIC D. ISO 2-10. A Pixel is __________ A. A computer program that draws picture B. A picture stored in secondary memory C. The smallest resolvable part of a picture D. None of these

----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – D / 2 – B / 3 – B / 4 – D / 5 – B / 6 – B / 7 – C / 8 – C / 9 – A / 10 – C

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Three 3-1. Which device is used as the standard pointing device in a Graphical User Environment? A. Keyboard B. Mouse C. Joystick D. Track ball Computer Fundamentals

- 19 -

3-2. Which number system is usually followed in a typical 32-bit computer? A. 2 B. 10 C. 16 D. 32 3-3. Which number system is usually followed in a typical 32-bit computer? A. Binary B. Decimal C. Hexadecimal D. Octal 3-4. Which of the following is not an output device? A. Scanner B. Printer C. Flat Screen D. Touch Screen 3-5. Which of the following devices have a limitation that we can only store information to it but cannot erase or modify it? A. Floppy Disk B. Hard Disk C. Tape Drive D. CDROM 3-6. Which technology is used in Compact disks? A. Mechanical B. Electrical C. Electro Magnetic D. Laser 3-7. Which of the following storage devices can store maximum amount of data? A. Floppy Disk B. Hard Disk C. Compact Disk D. Magneto Optic Disk 3-8. Which of the following is the largest manufacturer of Hard Disk Drives? A. IBM B. Seagate C. Microsoft D. 3M 3-9. The programs which are as permanent as hardware and stored in ROM is known as A. Hardware B. Software C. Firmware D. ROM ware 3-10. Memory is made up of A. Set of wires B. Set of circuits C. Large number of cells Computer Fundamentals

- 20 -

D.

All of these

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – B / 2 – A / 3 – A / 4 – A / 5 – D / 6 – D / 7 – B / 8 – B / 9 – C / 10 – C ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Four 4-1. Primary memory stores A. Data alone B. Programs alone C. Results alone D. All of these 4-2. EPROM can be used for A. Erasing the contents of ROM B. Reconstructing the contents of ROM C. Erasing and reconstructing the contents of ROM D. Duplicating ROM 4-3. Which device can understand difference between data & programs? A. Input device B. Output device C. Memory D. Microprocessor 4-4. The contents of information are stored in A. Memory data register B. Memory address register C. Memory arithmetic registers D. Memory access register 4-5. Memory unit is one part of A. Input device B. Control unit C. Output device D. Central Processing Unit 4-6. Algorithm and Flow chart help us to A. Know the memory capacity B. Identify the base of a number system C. Direct the output to a printer D. Specify the problem completely and clearly 4-7. Which of the following is not a valid size of a Floppy Disk? A. 8″ B. 5 1/4″ C. 3 1/2″ D. 5 1/2″ Computer Fundamentals

- 21 -

4-8. The basic operations performed by a computer are A. Arithmetic operation B. Logical operation C. Storage and relative D. All the above 4-9. The earliest calculating devices are A. Abacus B. Clock C. Difference Engine D. None of these 4-10. Who built the first Mechanical Calculator A. Joseph Marie Jacquard B. John Mauchly C. Blaise Pascal D. Howard Aiken

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – D / 2 – C / 3 – D / 4 – A / 5 – D / 6 – D / 7 – D / 8 – D / 9 – A / 10 – C ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Five 5-1. Punched cards were first introduced by A. Powers B. Pascal C. Jacquard D. Herman Hollerith 5-2. Computers built before the First Generation of computers were: A. Mechanical B. Electro-mechanical C. Electrical D. None of these 5-3. Word length of a Personal Computer is ___ A. 4 bits B. 8 bits C. 16 bits D. 64 bits 5-4. Size of the primary memory of a PC ranges between A. 2KB to 8KB B. 64KB & 256KB C. 256KB & 640KB D. None of these Computer Fundamentals

- 22 -

5-5. CPU speed of a personal computer is A. 32 KIPS B. 100 KIPS C. 1 MIPS D. None of these 5-6. Programs are executed on the basis of a priority number in a A. Batch processing system B. Multiprogramming C. Time sharing D. None of these 5-7. Cursor is a ____ A. Pixel B. Thin blinking line C. Pointing device D. None of these 5-8. Operating system, editors, and debuggers comes under? A. System Software B. Application Software C. Utilities D. None of the above 5-9. What is the first stage in software development? A. Specification and design B. Testing C. System Analysis D. Maintenance 5-10. What is System Analysis? A. The design of the screen the user will see and use to enter or display data B. System analysis defines the format and type of data the program will use C. System Analysis involves creating formal model of the problem to be solved D. None of the above

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – D / 2 – B / 3 – B / 4 – C / 5 – B / 6 – B / 7 – B / 8 – A / 9 – C / 10 – C ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Six

6-1. What do you call the programs that are used to find out possible faults and their causes? Computer Fundamentals

- 23 -

A. B. C. D.

Operating system extensions Cookies Diagnostic software Boot diskettes

6-2. Which programming languages are classified as low level languages? A. Basic, COBOL, FORTRAN B. Prolog 2, Expert Systems C. Knowledge based Systems D. Assembly Languages 6-3. Which of the following is not anti-viruses software? A. NAV B. F-Prot C. Oracle D. McAfee 6-4. Which device is required for the Internet connection? A. Joystick B. Modem C. CD Drive D. NIC Card 6-5. What does DMA stand for? A. Distinct Memory Access B. Direct Memory Access C. Direct Module Access D. Direct Memory Allocation 6-6. Which of the following is a storage device? A. Tape B. Hard Disk C. Floppy Disk D. All of the above 6-7. When did John Napier develop logarithm? A. 1416 B. 1614 C. 1641 D. 1804 6-8. A A. 680 B. 680 C. 680 D. 680

normal CD-ROM usually can store up to __________data? KB Bytes MB GB

6-9. MIS is designed to provide information needed for effective decision making by? A. Consumers B. Workers C. Foremen D. Managers 6-10. What is a light pen? A. Mechanical Input device B. Optical input device C. Electronic input device Computer Fundamentals

- 24 -

D. Optical output device

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – C / 2 – D / 3 – C / 4 – B / 5 – B / 6 – D / 7 – B / 8 – C / 9 – D / 10 – B ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Seven 7-1. The Second Generation Computer was based on ________. A. Vacuum Tube B. Silicon Chips C. Transistor D. Bio Chips 7-2. The Third Generation Computer was made with ________ A. Vacuum Tube B. Discrete Components C. IC D. Bio Chips 7-3. The BIOS is the abbreviation of ________. A. Basic Input Output System B. Best Input Output System C. Basic Input Output Symbol D. Base Input Output System 7-4. What do you call a single point on a computer screen? A. Cell B. Element C. Pixel D. Bit 7-5. A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 5

RJ45 UTP cable has ________ Cables. pair pair pair pair

7-6. Basic is ________ language. A. a procedural B. an object oriented C. both A and B D. none of the above 7-7. In ________ mode, the communication channel is used in both directions at the same time? A. Full-duplex Computer Fundamentals

- 25 -

B. Simplex C. Half-duplex D. None of the above 7-8. How was the generation of computer classified? A. by the device used in memory & processor B. by the speed of computer C. by the model of the computer D. by the accuracy of computer 7-9. Who invented Analytical engine? A. Blaise Pascal B. George Bool C. Charles Babbage D. Dr. Herman Hollerith 7-10. Through which device the main components of the computer communicate with each other? A. Keyboard B. System Bus C. Monitor D. Memory

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – C / 2 – C / 3 – A / 4 – C / 5 – C / 6 – A / 7 – A / 8 – A / 9 – C / 10 – B ---------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Eight

8-1. MICR stands for A. Magnetic Ink Character Reader B. Magnetic Ink Code Reader C. Magnetic Ink Case Reader D. None of the above 8-2. Which access method is used to access cassette tape? A. Direct B. Sequential C. Both of the above D. None of the above 8-3. EEPROM stands for A. Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory B. Electronic Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory C. Easily Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory D. Easily Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory 8-4.

Which of the following memories need refresh?

Computer Fundamentals

- 26 -

A. B. C. D.

SRAM DRAM ROM All of the above

8-5. ASCII stands for A. American Standard Code for Information Interchange B. American Scientific Code for International Interchange C. American Standard Code for Intelligence Interchange D. American Scientific Code for Information Interchange 8-6. The output quality of a printer is measured by A. Dot per sq. inch B. Dot per inch C. Dots printed per unit time D. All of the above 8-7. Main storage is also called A. Accumulator B. Control Unit C. Register Unit D. Memory 8-8. A. 1 B. 1 C. 1 D. 1

Which is valid statement KB = 1024 Bytes MB = 1024 Bytes KB = 1000 Bytes MB = 1000 Bytes

8-9. After copying the content how many times can you paste? A. 1 B. 16 C. 32 D. Many 8-10. A. 1 B. 2 C. 4 D. 8

1 nibble equals to bits bits bits bits

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – A / 2 – B / 3 – A / 4 – B / 5 – A / 6 – B / 7 – D / 8 – A / 9 – D / 10 – C ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Nine 9-1 Which of the following Language that Computer can Understand & Execute? A. Machine Language B. C Programming Language C. Java Programming Language Computer Fundamentals

- 27 -

D.

None of the Above

9-2 Who is credited for using punch cards to control patterns of a weaving machine? A. Blaise Pascal B. Herman Hollerith C. Jacquard D. Charles Babbage 9-3 Dedicated Computer means A. Doesn’t have OS B. Used by single person C. Assigned to one and only one task D. All of Above 9-4 A. B. C. D.

Computer Keyboard can be classified as __________ Device? Memory Input Output Storage

9-5 Physical connection between Microprocessor Memory and other parts is called _________ A. Path B. Hub C. Address bus D. None of the above 9-6 Shortcut Notation for groups of four Binary Digits is called ____________ Number System. A. Unicode B. Decimal C. Binary D. Hexadecimal 9-7 A. B. C. D.

What is the full form of AT in the IBM PC-AT? Applied Technology Advance Technology Additional Technology None of the Above

9-8 A. B. C. D.

____________ has the shortest access times. Cache Memory Virtual Memory Secondary Memory All of the Above

9-9 A. B. C. D.

In Computer terminology ‘CAD’ is stands for Computer And Design Computer Algorithm in Design Computer Aided Design None of the above

9-10 Which of the following is not an Input Device? A. Touch Screen B. Optical Scanners C. Touch Pad D. Mouse Pad Computer Fundamentals

- 28 -

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – A / 2 – C / 3 – C / 4 – B / 5 – C / 6 – D / 7 – B / 8 – A / 9 – C / 10 – D ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Ten

10-1 What is Unicode? A. Standard Font B. Software C. Character Encoding System D. Keyboard Layout 10-2 In Computer System Scanner is ______ Device? A. Input B. Output C. Both D. None 10-3 Which of the following memory has the shortest access time? A. Virtual Memory B. Cache Memory C. External Memory D. Register 10-4 Speed of Laser Printer is measured in A. LPM B. PPM C. DPI D. DPS 10-5 Which of the following device cannot be shared in Network? A. CD Drive B. Printer C. Mouse D. Hard Disk 10-6 Which of the following is not Computer Hardware? A. Mouse B. Monitor C. Antivirus D. Printer 10-7 What is the main purpose of the secondary storage device? A. To increase the speed of Computer B. To Install Operating System C. To Networking D. To Store Data Computer Fundamentals

- 29 -

10-8 Which of the following memories needs refresh? A. DRAM B. SRAM C. ROM D. All of above 10-9 A Dumb terminal has A. Processor and Keyboard B. Processor and Hard Disk C. Keyboard and Hard Disk D. Keyboard and Screen 10-10 Who invented Integrated Circuit (IC)? A. Herman Hollerith B. Jack Kilby C. Semen Korsakov D. Bill Gates

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – C / 2 – A / 3 – D / 4 – B / 5 – C / 6 – C / 7 – D / 8 – A / 9 – D / 10 – B ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Eleven

1. Which one is not an output device? o Printer o Monitor o Keyboard o Modem 2. Which one works as an output and input device? o Modem o Scanner o Mouse o Monitor 3. All computers must have: o Word processing software o An operating system o A printer attached o A virus checking program 4. The brain of the computer is called: o Random Access Memory or RAM o Central Processing Unit or CPU Computer Fundamentals

- 30 -

o Read Only Memory or ROM o BIOS 5. An operating system is: o Integrated software o CD-ROM software o Application software o System software 6. Software is: o A computer program o A set of instructions o All of the above o Only in operating systems 7. One MB is equal to: o The amount of RAM in every computer o 1 billion bytes o 1024KB o 1 thousand bytes 8. The resolution of a printer is measured in: o Megabits o Hz o Dots per inch (DPI) o Inches (diagonal) 9. Windows and Macintosh computers: o Are both manufactured by Motorola o Both use Intel microprocessors o Use the same operating system o Are not compatible 10. A computer port is used to: o Communicate with other computer peripherals o Download files from the web o Communicate with all hard drives o Connect computers together 11. Which computer is the fastest? o PII 600MHz o PIII 600MHz o Pentium 600MHz o 486 Turbo 12. Which hard disk will be able to store more information? o 24MB o 2400KB o 24Gig o 240MB Computer Fundamentals

- 31 -

13. In order for your computer to play music you need: o A network card and speakers o A sound card and speakers o Nothing more than the internal speaker o A CD-ROM drive 14. In order to access the World Wide Web you need: o An Internet connection, an Internet Service Provider and browser software o Only Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator o A modem and a browser o Nothing. All computers can access the Internet 15. If you have two different printers attached to your computer: o It is not possible to have two printers attached to a single computer o You need to install a single printer driver o You need to use application software that can recognize both printers o You need to install two different printer drivers in order to be able to print to either printer 16. Which file extensions indicate only graphics files? o BMP and DOC o JPEG and TXT o TXT and STK o BMP and GIF 17. Which Windows program do you use to manage folders and files? o Windows Explorer o Windows Accessories o Microsoft Office o Windows Control Panel 18. What is a URL: o An email address o The title of a web site o The address of a page on the World Wide Web o A communication method between computers and printers 19. Which media holds more information? o Floppy diskette o DVD o CD-ROM o Zip drive 20. Which one is an email address: o http://vianet.com/index.htm o D:\\Email\Standard o [email protected] o Chaminade.org/teachers/mailaddresses

Computer Fundamentals

- 32 -

21. CPU means (1 point) o Central Processing Unit o Controlled Program Utilization o Computer Programming Unit o Computerized Processing Unit 22. Computers use a special code for representing letters and numbers, known as the (1 point) o processing code o binary code o CRX code o integrated code 23. The main circuit board in the computer that connects the parts of the computer is the (1 point) o hard drive o motherboard o fatherboard o main board 24. The part of the computer that processes the information is the (1 point) o floppy disk o CD-ROM drive o monitor o microprocessor 25. Which of these is not an example of an input device? (1 point) o keyboard o mouse o hard drive o scanner 26. Processing speed in computers is measured in (1 point) o millivolts (mV) o hertz (Hz) o megahertz (MHz) o rpm's 27. External devices such as printers and scanners plug into computer. (1 point) o RX-5's o expansion slots o outlets o ports

in the back of the

28. Windows is (1 point) o a kind of operating system. o a graphics display device. o a monitor display system. o a video game. Computer Fundamentals

- 33 -

29. To "boot a computer" means to (1 point) o add extra drives. o turn on the sound. o turn it on. o throw it out - it's outdated. 30. The hard drive in the computer is usually (1 point) o Drive A. o Drive B. o Drive C. o Drive H. 31. A "byte" is (1 point) o found in the upper right corner of a window screen. o a group of 8 bits of code. o the capacity of a sound card. o the part that moves on a disk drive. 32. When you click SAVE on the monitor, and there is no floppy disk in a drive, the document or application you're using is stored (1 point) o on the RAM chips. o on the CD-ROM drive. o in ROM memory. o on the hard drive. 33. Pictures on the display screen (monitor) are made up of (1 point) o pixels. o layers of color. o bits. o video "packets" 34. Temporary memory is called (1 point) o RAM o CAD o DOS o ROM 35. Which of these is not one of the three main functions of a microprocessor? (1 point) o fetch o store o decode o execute 36. Which of these is not an example of computer hardware? (1 point) o video card o mouse o CD-ROM drive o Windows Computer Fundamentals

- 34 -

37. To "debug" the system means to (1 point) o clean it. o find and correct errors. o decode it. o set up icons. 38. A megabyte is (1 point) o 1,000 bytes o 1 byte o 1 million bytes o 1 trillion bytes 39. Formatting a disk means (1 point) o installing an operating system on it. o setting up sections on the disk to store the files in. o cleaning the disk from any dust contaminates. o programming the disk so data on it can't be erased. 40. A system that connects individual computers together is a(n) (1 point) o operating system. o network. o tape drive system. o partnered path. 41. When you use a PC, you are using a (1 point) o programmable console. o powered calculating machine. o personal computer. o processing contraption. 42. VDU stands for: o Video Display Unit o Visible Display Unit o Visual Display Unit o Video Diode Unit

Windows XP Windows XP is an operating system which runs as an interface between the computer and you to help you use the PC and allow you to run complex applications. To open up Windows XP, you need to first login with your userid and password.

1. The Desktop 1.1 Overview The Desktop is where you start when you first log in and it refers to the computer screen and includes the taskbar across the bottom and icons which are shortcuts to run applications. The Desktop will always be there during the session, behind whatever else you do. The Desktop is where you start to access any files, folders or applications and so, when viewing folder structures, is placed at the top of the hierarchy of places to which you might go. THE DESKTOP

Click here for menu

taskbar icons for applications

1.2 The Taskbar The Taskbar appears along the bottom of your screen and includes the Start button and clock.

When an application is running a button appears on the taskbar. This has the appearance of being pressed in if the application is the active one (i.e. the one currently being used). To switch to another open application, click on its taskbar button and the window will open as the active one.

Taskbar operations To display tooltips: Hover with the mouse over the button on the taskbar - hovering over an application button gives the name of the file that is open in that application. To display the date Hover with the mouse over the time and the date will display in a tooltip. To minimise all open applications Right click on an empty part of the taskbar, then choose Show the Desktop. All the open windows will be minimised to the buttons on the taskbar, so displaying the desktop. The menu option will then change to Show Open Windows, ready for restoring them all. Clicking on an individual button will display the window for that one only. To tile or cascade windows Right click on an empty part of the taskbar, and then choose Tile Windows Horizontally, Tile Windows Vertically or Cascade Windows To view the task list This is a way of viewing a list of the applications running on the PC and their status. Right click on an empty part of the taskbar, and then choose Task Manager. Under the Applications tab you can see the list. From here you could select an application that was not responding and use the End Task button to close it down.

Taskbar customisation Right click with the mouse on an empty part of the taskbar and choose Properties. Unlocking the taskbar If you take the tick off ‘Lock the taskbar’, you will then be able to drag it elsewhere on the desktop, adjust divisions between taskbar areas and change its depth. Auto-hide the taskbar If this option is ticked, the taskbar will only appear when your mouse pointer approaches the bottom of the screen. Ensure the taskbar is visible If you have the option ‘Keep the taskbar on top of other windows’ ticked, then the taskbar will still be visible, even when an application window is maximised. Group similar taskbar buttons Ticking this option means, that when more than one instance of an application is running, the taskbar buttons will either be next to each other, if there is room, or will be consolidated onto one button. Clicking on the one button will list the open files. Displaying the Quick Launch toolbar By ticking ‘Show quick launch’, a useful set of buttons appear on the taskbar next to the Start button. Initially there are shortcuts for your web browser, email application and a Show the desktop button, which will minimise all the open windows. Further shortcuts can be added here.

-3-

1.3 The Start Menu The Start Menu is where you can begin to do anything – it provides means to run any installed application and find any files that are on the computer, as well as customise how it is set up. Start Menu operations To display the Start Menu A single click on the Start button displays the Start menu. To close the Start Menu Click on any empty space on the desktop. Starting applications from the Start Menu There is a list of useful shortcuts to applications down the left side of the Start menu. There is a dividing line: those above the line (the pinned items) are constant, but you can add extra ones here yourself; those below the line (the most frequently used programs) will change to reflect the applications you use most often. A single click on a menu item will run it. If a menu item has an arrow beside it, then you can hover over it to display further menus. Hovering over All Programs with your mouse pointer will display a list of all available applications.

Start Menu customisation Right click with the mouse over the Start button and choose Properties. Here you could change the style of the Start menu to be similar to earlier versions of Windows. Clicking on the Customize button brings up your customisation options

From here you can choose the number of frequently used programs that will be listed, and you can clear this list.

From the Advanced tab, there are many other options.

To display a program at the top of the Start Menu Right-click the program you want to display as a pinned item on the Start menu. This program could be a link on the Start menu, in Windows Explorer, in My Computer, or on the desktop. Then click Pin to Start menu. You can remove a program from the pinned items list by right-clicking the program and then clicking Remove from This List. You can change the order on the pinned items list by dragging a program to a new position.

1.4 Desktop icons The desktop icons are shortcuts to applications or files. A double click will run the application A single click selects an icon (– if you then press Enter the application will run). A right click on an icon brings up a shortcut menu. From here you can choose to rename it, open it, delete it or look at its properties. Re-aranging icons You can move an icon by clicking on it with the mouse and dragging it. You can re-arrange icons by right-clicking on an empty part of the desktop, and choosing ‘Arrange Icons by’, then choose an option. Autoarrange will always put the icons back if they get dragged out of place.

Creating a desktop shortcut Right click on the desktop, choose New, then Shortcut. Click on the Browse button to choose the application/file for which you want the shortcut. After Next you can choose the name for it. Finish will create it. Alternatively, you can drag an application on to the desktop from the Start menu for instance, or you can right click on an application link, choose Send to, then Desktop (create shortcut).

1.5 Desktop settings Customisation of the desktop is done by right-clicking on an empty part of the desktop and choosing Properties. Changing the display style Under the Themes tab, from the drop down list by the Themes box, choosing Windows XP gives you the normal XP look. (Windows Classic is a style very similar to previous versions of Windows, such as NT.) Then click OK. Changing the resolution If you think that everything on your screen is too small or too large then you may want to try changing the screen resolution. Choose the Settings tab, then drag the Screen Resolution slider to what you want – perhaps to 800 by 600 pixels. Then click OK.

2. To Close Down the PC To log off and leave the computer running From the Start menu, click on Log Off. You can choose to either close your programs and log off or leave your programs running and log on as a different user. To close down the PC From the Start menu, click on Shut Down.

W INDOWS XP

-6-

A USER GUIDE

This will log you off and prepare your computer for powering off. It will probably power off automatically.

3. Changing your password Press CTRL + ALT + Delete, then choose Change Password and fill in the form.

4. Basic Windows Operations Everything you do will run in a window. All windows have common features. A typical window Minimize Maximize Close Control box

Application name

Title bar

menu bar toolbar

scroll bar

status bar To move a window Click on the title bar and drag it. To maximise a window Click on the Maximize button at the top right. The application will then fill the screen (except for the taskbar at the bottom). To restore a Window Click on the Restore button. When a window is maximized, the Maximize button becomes the restore button and will return the window to the size it was before being maximized.

© THE ROBERT GORDON UNIVERSITY

-7-

IT SERVICES

To minimize a window Click on the Minimize button. The application will shrink down to a button on the taskbar. Clicking on the taskbar button will bring it back. To resize a window Click on the border and drag to the size required. Dragging the corner enables both sides to be resized at once. To close a window Click on the X at the top right corner. The application will be closed down. The Control Box Clicking this brings up a menu for some of the above operations. Double clicking closes the window. Scrolling If all the content of the window is not visible there will be a scrollbar(s). Click on the arrows at each end of a bar to scroll. Moving between open windows Alt+Tab or click on a taskbar button.

See Appendix A for a fuller list of Windows operations for mouse and keyboard

5. Drives, Folders and Files See ‘Where to save your work’ in Appendix B for information about the different drives. Files on a computer drive can be saved into folders, which are arranged in a hierarchical or tree structure. You can create your own folders into which you can save your files, so as to make them easy to find again. You should keep your own files separate from any existing files on your computer, as these may be system files that are needed to run the computer. My Computer This is a collection of the drives accessible to you from your computer, such as your floppy drive or CD ROM drive. It appears in the Start Menu and sits directly under ‘The Desktop’ in the hierarchical structure. You can also access your personal and shared network drives (h: and s:) from My Computer, but not other computers on the network. Your local area on the network will be labelled with your login name e.g. Itnjh on ‘User1\Staff\User’ (H)). The H is not always visible being at the end of the label.

W INDOWS XP

-8-

A USER GUIDE

My Documents When you are logged in to the network on a University PC, My Documents is set up to point directly to your H: drive, your home area on the network. (It would otherwise point to an area in your profile on the C: drive.) ‘My Documents’ appears in the Start Menu and sits directly under ‘The Desktop’ in the hierarchical structure. You will also see links to My Documents throughout Windows as you work, so the direct link to H can be useful when you want save or find your own files. Saving your work Within an application, the menu item File, Save As takes you to a dialogue box. From here you will need to choose where to save your work as a file and give the file a name. This is a typical Save As screen: Choose drive here where file is to be saved Go up a level

Contents of drive/ folder shown in Save in box. Double click a folder to display the contents

Direct link to H drive

Type new file name here

Save in box. Click on the black arrow to the right of the box and choose the drive you require (usually H:). Alternatively to get to H, click on the My Documents button. The contents of whatever drive or folder is showing in the Save in box are displayed in the space below. Double clicking on a folder opens it (putting its name in the Save in box) and displays its contents below. You can repeat this and so go down the tree structure until you are displaying the folder where you want to save. If you need to go back up the structure, use the icon with the up arrow to the right of the Save in box. Give the new file a name in the File Name box. Click on the Save button.

© THE ROBERT GORDON UNIVERSITY

-9-

IT SERVICES

Finding your files Within an application, the menu item File, Open takes you to a dialogue box. From here you will need to choose where your work was saved. The Open screen is very similar to the Save as screen above and you navigate through the file structure in the same way, until you have found the folder where your file is. You then select the file and click on the Open button. If you cannot find your file then you can use the Windows Search facility. Search This Search facility is accessed by clicking on Search on the Start Menu or by clicking on the Search toolbar button within My Computer or My Documents. A Search Companion pane shows down the left of the window and you can specify various known criteria to assist in the search. For instance you may know when it was last modified or part of the file name. You can even specify a word contained in the document. You will need to make sure it is searching within the appropriate drive – you may need to change the drive from C (the default) to H. This is done after choosing ‘More advanced options’. An Example: You might choose Documents. You could leave the Name box: blank to search for all files and folders in a drive or folder or you could type as much of the name as you know, using the wildcard * for unknown parts e.g. *.doc would find all Word files, b*.doc would find all Word files beginning with b, and *.xls would find all Excel files. Advanced options allow you to select the drive to search by clicking on the black arrow to the right of the Look in box and choosing a drive or type the path to a particular folder in the Look in box in the form h:\courses. If you can narrow the search by filling in when it was last modified it will speed up the search.

W INDOWS XP

- 10 -

A USER GUIDE

You could also include a word from the document to help the search.

6. File Management You may be used to using Windows Explorer from previous versions of Windows, and you can continue to use it. However the screen is very similar with one exception to that of the folder windows displayed from My Documents or My Computer, which I suggest you may now want to use for your file management tasks.

6.1 Windows Explorer You can find Windows Explorer from the Start menu, All Programs, Accessories. If you like to use this and find it a bit inaccessible there, you could pin it to the Start Menu (see Section 1.3). The left pane displays a tree structure of drives and folders: ‘The Desktop’ at the top level and ‘My Computer’ at the next level down. The drives available to you are shown next with the folders on those drives arranged in the structure below each. A folder is selected with a single click and it appears blue. The right pane displays the contents of the selected folder. The path of the currently selected folder appears in the Address box at the top left of the screen. The only difference between Windows Explorer and the Folders windows described next are that Windows Explorer opens with the Folder list option already chosen. If you were to click on the Folders button on the taskbar it would then be the same.

© THE ROBERT GORDON UNIVERSITY

- 11 -

IT SERVICES

6.2 Folder windows Overview Elsewhere, when displaying a folder in a window, such as from My Documents or My Computer, there is a Task Pane at the left of the window, which lists links to common file and folder management tasks. You can select a file or folder, and then click a task. These tasks change according to what you have selected, but will probably include renaming, copying, moving, and deleting.

Expanding the Details area will show information about the item selected, such as when it was last modified.

Several folders provide links to specialized tasks.

If you prefer to replace the task pane at the left hand side with a folder structure (like in Windows Explorer), so as to make it easier to find your way around, click the Folders button on the toolbar (or go to the VIEW menu, Explorer Bar and choose Folders). To put the pane back, click the Folders button again (it is a toggle) or go back into the menus and take the tick off. Panes can be resized by dragging the central border. You can also choose how you want the files and folders at the right hand side to be displayed. This can be done from the View menu or by clicking on the View button on the toolbar. This will change the view for the current folder only.

W INDOWS XP

- 12 -

A USER GUIDE

Folder Options Options about the Folder window for customising it are found from the TOOLS menu, then Folder Options. Some examples: File extensions If you want to see file extensions (i.e. the .doc at the end of the name for a Word file etc.), go to the Folder Options and choose the View tab and it is in the Advanced settings list (-no tick for ‘Hide extensions for known file types’). Icon types If you want to see a list of the different icons with information about them, go to Folder Options and the File types tab. Changing the view for all folders If you want to change the view for all folders, for instance to show Details, then you should change the current folder to Details, then go to the TOOLS menu, Folder Options, the View tab, then click on the Apply to all Folders button.

Navigating Whether the Folders list is showing or not, it is the same structure of drives and folders that you may want to navigate around. The path of the currently selected folder appears in the Address box at the top left of the screen. Folder structure When the folder list is showing, you can view the hierarchical structure of folders: ‘The Desktop’ at the top level, ‘My Computer’ at the next level down. The drives available to you are shown below My Computer with the folders on those drives arranged in a tree structure below each. You will be able to see ‘My documents’ at the same level as My Computer for convenience, but it is the same as the root (top of) of the H drive. This is where you will most usually be keeping your work, but it is useful to build your own structure of folders below this so you can organise your files. Moving around the structure When you see a folder name, either in the right pane or on the Folders list, double clicking on it will open it. The new path will appear in the Address box and the contents of the folder are displayed in the right pane. You can thus step down through a hierarchy of folders. Toolbar buttons can be used to move back up through the structure, or you can double click on a drive or folder name on the Folders list if visible.

© THE ROBERT GORDON UNIVERSITY

- 13 -

IT SERVICES

Using the toolbar buttons There are some useful buttons for navigating around your folders. There are Back and Forward buttons to revisit places you have been

and an Up button to move up a level in the folder structure. You can also add a file or folder to your Favorites (a menu item) and then you can quickly bring it up again by choosing it from your list of Favorites. There is a Search button on the toolbar which opens up a Search pane at the left of the window, from which you can search for files or folders. This is similar to doing a Search from the Start menu (see Section 5). Using the Folders list Double clicking on a drive or folder in the Folders list, selects the drive or folder and displays the contents at the right hand side. It also expands the tree to show any folders at the next level down. A single click selects the drive or folder and displays the contents at the right hand side, but does not expand the structure. You will see a + or – sign by a drive or folder name. A single click on the sign will either expand or collapse the structure, but will not change the file selection. Thus the display at the right hand side will not change, as it always shows the contents of the selected drive or folder. Arranging the view of files and folders When you are looking at the contents of a folder, you can arrange the contents to suit you in various ways. As well as choosing how the files and folders display (as icons, showing details etc.), you can also arrange them by name, size, type and date modified. This can be done from the View menu, Arrange icons by, and then choosing which you want. The same arranging can be done also in Details view, by clicking on the appropriate heading in the right hand pane. For instance, clicking on the heading Date Modified, will sort the contents in date order. Clicking on a heading a second time will reverse the sort, from earliest first to most recent first, or from AZ to Z-A. In Details view further details can also be displayed. From the View menu, go to Choose Details, then select from the list. You could display the number of pages or the date each was created. The View menu allows you to toggle the toolbars and status bar on and off

W INDOWS XP

- 14 -

A USER GUIDE

File and Folder actions Many file and folder actions can be done by selecting the file or folder from the right hand pane of a folder window, and clicking on the appropriate task at the left hand side. Alternatively you could choose the action from the File menu or from the right-click menu. In all cases remember you select the file(s) or folder(s) first, then do the action. Selecting To select a single file Click on the file To select adjacent files Click on the first file then SHIFT + click on the last file. To select several non adjacent files CTRL+ click on each file. To remove any selection CTRL+click on a selected file. To remove all selections Click on any one file. Seeing the path Look in the address box Deleting File menu, then Delete, or the DELETE key (Can also be done from the Task pane or right-click menu.) Renaming File menu, then Rename The name is then selected. Type the new name and press Enter. (Can also be done from the Task pane or right-click menu.) Viewing properties (i.e. date created, size etc) File menu, then Properties (Can also be done from the right-click menu.)

© THE ROBERT GORDON UNIVERSITY

- 15 -

IT SERVICES

Moving and Copying There are a number of alternative ways of doing this. using the right-click menu Right click with the mouse button over a selection and choose either Cut (for moving) or Copy. Position your mouse pointer in the destination folder, right-click and choose Paste. using the task pane Make a selection, and then choose either Move... or Copy... from the Task Pane. A new window will open showing a folders list and you are asked to select a destination folder. using keystrokes Make your selection, then CTRL+X for Cut (for moving), or CTRL+C for Copy (for copying). Position in the destination folder, and CTRL+V for Paste (for putting at the destination) using the menu Make you selection, then go to Edit menu, then Cut (to move) or Copy (to copy) Position at the destination, then Edit menu, then Paste using the mouse Not recommended as it is easy to make mistakes. You can click on a selection and drag to another folder to move it, or hold the CTRL key down at the same time to copy it. Alternatively you can click with the right mouse button and drag to the destination. When the mouse button is released choose either Copy Here or Move Here from the shortcut menu which then displays.

W INDOWS XP

- 16 -

A USER GUIDE

Creating a new folder There are a number of alternative ways of doing this. Using the right click menu Right click with the mouse button over an empty part of the parent folder (the one below which you want the new folder). Choose New, then Folder. A new folder appears ready for you to type the name for it and press Enter. Using the task pane If there are no files or folders in the parent folder selected, then in the Task Pane you can choose ‘Make a new folder’. A new folder appears ready for you to type the name for it and press Enter. Using the menu Select the ‘parent’ folder or drive, go to the File menu, then New, then Folder. A new folder appears ready for you to type the name for it and press Enter.

Refreshing the screen This may be necessary if changes have been made to files/folders and they are not showing. Go to the View menu, then Refresh.

Disk Utilities These can be accessed using the right mouse button pointing at the required drive. Formatting a disk This wipes all the data from the disk and so should only be used for floppy disks (A: drive). Format Finding out information about a disk such as size and free space. Properties, General tab Accessing tools for defragmenting a disk Properties, Tools tab

© THE ROBERT GORDON UNIVERSITY

- 17 -

IT SERVICES

7. Getting Help There are various ways of getting Windows help. To search for help on a Windows topic From the Start menu, click on Help and Support. In the Search box type the topic you want to know about, and click on the Start Searching arrow. Click on a Suggested Topic to view the Help information for it. When you view a help screen you can choose to print it. You can also add it to Favorites if you want to be able to access it again quickly. Choose the Back button to view earlier help screens. The Home Button takes you back to the initial Help and Support screen. The initial screen has paths to lots of topics listed on the left-hand side as an alternative to searching. To get help in dialogue boxes Click on ? at the top right of a dialogue box and then click on the label you need help on. Click away from the help text to remove it from the screen Remote Assistance It is possible to get assistance remotely from the Help Desk. This means that when you have a problem, the Help Desk could in effect have a look at your Desktop and take control if necessary. This would only be done with your knowledge and permission. To view System Information In the My Computer window, under System Tasks, choose View System Information. From the screen that comes up you can, for instance, see how much memory your PC has.

8. Customising Windows Many of the settings for customising how things work are accessed from the Control Panel. From the Start Menu, click on Control Panel. The functions are organised by category to make it easier to find what you want, though you can ‘Switch to Classic View’ to see the icons for the individual programs.

W INDOWS XP

- 18 -

A USER GUIDE

You may not be allowed to make some changes. To change mouse settings Choose Printers and other hardware, and then Mouse. The screens you will then see for customising will vary according to what mouse you have installed, but will give options for swapping the mouse buttons (to assist left handed users), or changing the speed required for double clicking. To install a printer Choose Printers and other hardware, and then Add a Printer. Then follow through the steps of the wizard. Changing the default printer From the Start menu, choose Printers and Faxes. Right click on a printer name and choose ‘Set as Default Printer’.

© THE ROBERT GORDON UNIVERSITY

- 19 -

IT SERVICES

9. Printing In most applications, going to the File menu, then Print will bring up a Print dialogue box. Choosing print will print to the default printer, unless you first choose a different printer. To look at a print queue From the Start menu, choose Printers and Faxes, and then double click on the printer name. This will show jobs waiting to be printed on that printer and their status. To cancel a print job If a print job is sitting in the printer queue, click on the job with the right mouse button. Choose Cancel. (You can only cancel your own jobs)

W INDOWS XP

- 20 -

A USER GUIDE

BASIC WINDOWS XP OPERATIONS with keystrokes OPERATION

MOUSE ACTIONS

ALTERNATIVE KEY STROKES

Start Menu Display menu

Click on Start

Ctrl + Esc

Close menu

Click on an empty Esc desktop space, anywhere away from the Start Menu

General Windows XP Open Control Box (current window)

Click on control box (on left of title bar)

Alt + Spacebar

Close Current Window

Double click on control box or click on Close button

Alt + F4

Display shortcut pop-up menu for the selected item

Right click on selected item

Shift + F10

Switch to window last used Minimise all open windows

Alt + Tab Right click on an empty space on the taskbar and choose Show the Desktop

Bypass Autoplay when inserting a compact disk

Alt + M (when clicked on an empty part of taskbar)

Shift (while inserting CD ROM)

Move window

Click on title bar and drag

Resize window

Click on border and drag

Minimize

Click on min button

Alt + Spacebar, N

Maximize

Click on max button

Alt + Spacebar, X

Restore

Click on restore button

Alt + Spacebar, R

© THE ROBERT GORDON UNIVERSITY

- 21 -

IT SERVICES

Application Icons Select an application

Click on the application icon

Arrow keys

Run an application

Double click on the application icon

Enter (if the icon is selected)

Quit an application

Double click on the control- Alt + F4 box or click on the X at the top right of the window

List applications running

Look at the buttons on the Taskbar

Alt + Tab, keep Alt key down & repeatedly press Tab, moves from icon to icon

Switch applications

Click on an application button on the Taskbar

Alt + Tab, and release when required application is listed. Or, when focus is on the Taskbar, use the arrow keys and press Enter when the required application button is highlighted. (To get focus on the Taskbar, Ctrl + Esc, then Esc)

Menus Select a menu item / subitem

Click on the item / subitem

Alt + underlined letter /underlined letter Or, press Alt to select first menu, left and right arrow keys to change menus, up and down arrows to change options and enter to make the selection.

Cancel selection

Click anywhere off the Menu bar

Esc

My Computer & Explorer Rename a selected item Click File, Rename

F2

Refresh Dialogue box

F5

Open the Search dialogue box

W INDOWS XP

Click the Search button

- 22 -

F3

A USER GUIDE

Where to save computer files. The computer drive options are: Computer’s own hard disk This is a disk inside each computer that is known as the C: drive. This is where you can save work on home computers, but it is not advisable at The Robert Gordon University. If there is a serious problem with your PC then this hard disk could be wiped in the recovery process and you would lose your work. Floppy disk This is a small removable disk that is useful for backups or for transferring files between work and home. The computer knows the floppy disk drive as the A: drive. You should not work directly from these disks as not only will it be very slow, but they are also not reliable enough. Network Drives Every computer user at the University is given an account to use the network. You are allocated a personal area of storage space on the network known as the H: drive (H for home). This is where your work should be stored. This storage is reliable, secure and is backed up every night. If you are sharing files with colleagues then you may need to use the shared drive on the network known as the S: drive.

1

Questions

1-1. ______ is used in operating system to separate mechanism from policy A. Single level implementation B. Two level implementation C. Multi level implementation D. None 1-2. The operating system creates _____ from the physical computer A. Virtual space B. Virtual computers C. Virtual device D. None 1-3. ______ shares characteristics with both hardware and software A. Operating system B. Software C. Data D. None 1-4. Multiprogramming systems: A. Are easier to develop than single programming systems B. Execute each job faster C. Execute more jobs in the same time period D. Are used only one large mainframe computers. 1-5. Which is the first program run on a computer when the computer boots up? A. System software B. Operating system C. System operations D. None 1-6. Which is built directly on the hardware? A. Computer Environment B. Application Software C. Operating System D. Database System 1-7. Which of the following Operating System does not implement multitasking truly? A. Windows 98 B. Windows NT C. Windows XP D. MS DOS 1-8. Which runs on computer hardware and serve as platform for other software to run on? A. Operating System B. Application Software C. System Software D. All 1-9. Which is the layer of a computer system between the hardware and the user program A. Operating environment B. Operating system 2

C. System environment D. None 1-10. A. To B. To C. To D. To

The primary purpose of an operating system is: make the most efficient use of the computer hardware allow people to use the computer, keep systems programmers employed make computers easier to use

-----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – B / 2 – B / 3 – A / 4 – C / 5 – B / 6 – C / 7 – D / 8 – A / 9 – B / 10 – A ------------------------------------------------------------------------

2-1. When a computer is first turned on or restarted, a special type of absolute loader called ____ is executed A. Compile and Go loader B. Boot loader C. Bootstrap loader D. Relating loader 2-2. Which of the following Operating systems is better for implementing a Client-Server network A. MS DOS B. Windows 95 C. Windows 98 D. Windows 2000 2-3. The operating system manages A. Memory B. Processes C. Disks and I/O devices D. all of the above 2-4. Usually, in MSDOS, the primary hard disk drives has the drive letter ____ A. A B. B C. C D. D 2-5. What is the function of an operating system? A. Manages computer’s resources very efficiently B. Takes care of scheduling jobs for execution C. Manages the flow of data and instructions D. All of the above 2-6. Which is not the function of the Operating System? A. Memory management B. Disk management C. Application management 3

D. Virus Protection 2-7. Which A. Windows B. Windows C. Windows D. Windows

Operating System doesn’t support networking between computers? 3.1 95 2000 NT

2-8. Which Operating System doesn’t support long file names? A. OS/2 B. Windows 95 C. MS-DOS D. Windows NT 2-9. Which file keeps commands to execute automatically when OS is started? A. command.com B. any batch file C. autoexec.bat D. config.sys 2-10. What should be the extension to execute files? A. EXE B. BAT C. COM D. All of the above

-----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – C / 2 – D / 3 – D / 4 – C / 5 – D / 6 – D / 7 – A / 8 – C / 9 – C / 10 – D ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3-1 A) B) C) D)

Which of the following file format supports in Windows 7? NTFS BSD EXT All of the above

3-2 A) B) C) D)

The Primary job of the operating system is Manage Commands Manage Users Manage Programs Manage Resources

3-3 A) B) C) D)

What is the meaning of “Hibernate” in Windows XP/Windows 7? Restart the Computer in safe mode Restart the Computer in hibernate mode Shutdown the Computer terminating all the running applications Shutdown the Computer without closing the running applications

3-4 Who is called a supervisor of computer activity? A) Memory 4

B) C) D)

Operating System I/O Devices Control Unit

*3-5 Virtual Memory is* A) Extremely Large Main memory B) Extremely Large Secondary memory C) An illusion of extremely large main memory D) An illusion of extremely large secondary memory *3-6 Operating System manages* A) Memory B) Processor C) I/O devices D) All of the above *3-7 What should be the first step while OS upgrading?* A) Delete old Operating System B) Backup old Operating System C) Backup Critical Data D) Format Hard Disks *3-8 Unix Operating System is an* A) Multi User Operating System B) Time Sharing Operating System C) Multi Tasking Operating System D) All the Above *3-9 In which type of the following OS, the response time is very crucial.* A) Network Operating System B) Real Time Operating System C) Batch Operating System D) Unix Operating System *3-10 The file system “NTFS” stands for* A) New Type File System B) Never Terminated File System C) New Technology File System D) Non Terminated File System

-----------------------------------------------------------------------*Click Here for Answers * 1 – A / 2 – D / 3 – D / 4 – B / 5 – C / 6 – D / 7 – C / 8 – D / 9 – B / 10 – C

*4-1 Which one of the following is not the function of Operating System?* A. Resource Management B. File Management C. Networking D. Processor Management *4-2 The Banker’s algorithm is used* A. to rectify deadlock B. to detect deadlock

5

C. D.

to prevent deadlock to slove deadlock

*4-3 Which of the following concept is best to preventing page faults?* A. Paging B. The working set C. Hit ratios D. Address location resolution *4-4 Which of the following memory unit that processor can access more rapidly* A. Main Memory B. Virtual Memory C. Cache memory D. Read Only Memory *4-5 A page fault occurs when* A. the Deadlock happens B. the Segmentation starts C. the page is found in the memory D. the page is not found in the memory *4-6 Bringing a page into memory only when it is needed, this mechanism is called* A. Deadlock B. Page Fault C. Dormant Paging D. Demand Paging *4-7 First-in-First-Out (FIFO) scheduling is* A. Non Preemptive Scheduling B. Preemptive Scheduling C. Fair Share Scheduling D. Deadline Scheduling *4-8 Copying a process from memory to disk to allow space for other processes is Called* A. Swapping B. Deadlock C. Demand Paging D. Page Fault *4-9. The necessary conditions needed before deadlock can occur?* A. No Mutual Exclusion, Hold and wait, Preemption, Circular Wait B. Mutual Exclusion, No Hold and wait, Preemption, Circular Wait C. Mutual Exclusion, Hold and wait, No Preemption, Circular Wait D. Mutual Exclusion, Hold and wait, Preemption, No Circular Wait *4-10 A. A B. A C. A D. A

A program in execution is called* Paging Process virtual memory Demand Page

-----------------------------------------------------------------------*Click Here for Answers * 1 – C / 2 – C / 3 – B / 4 – C / 5 – D / 6 – D / 7 – A / 8 – A / 9 – C /

6

10 – B

*5-1 What does Belady’s Anomaly related to?* A. Page Replacement Algorithm B. Memory Management Algorithm C. Deadlock Prevention Algorithm D. Disk Scheduling Algorithm *5-2 What are the two types of Semaphore?* A. Digital Semaphores and Binary Semaphores B. Analog Semaphores and Octal Semaphores C. Counting Semaphores and Binary Semaphores D. Critical Semaphores and System Semaphores *5-3 What is dispatch latency?* A. The time taken by the dispatcher to stop one process and start another B. The time taken by the processor to write a file into disk C. The whole time taken by all processor D. None of Above *5-4 Which of the following is not process states?* A. New B. Running C. Ready D. Finished *5-5 What are the requirements for the solution to critical section problem?* A. Mutual Exclusion B. Progress C. Bounded Waiting D. All of Above *5-6 Which of the following is the allocation method of a disk space?* A. Contiguous allocation B. Linked allocation C. Indexed allocation D. All of the Above *5-7 What is the method of handling deadlocks?* A. Use a protocol to ensure that the system will never enter a deadlock state. B. Allow the system to enter the deadlock state and then recover. C. Pretend that deadlocks never occur in the system. D. All of the Above *5-8 What do you mean by Memory Compaction?* A. Combine multiple equal memory holes into one big hole B. Combine multiple small memory holes into one big hole C. Divide big memory hole into small holes D. Divide memory hole by 2 *5-9 A. A B. A C. A D. A

What is Thrashing?* high paging activity is called thrashing. high executing activity is called thrashing extremely long process is called thrashing extremely long virtual memory is called thrashing

*5-10 What hole will allocates in “Worst-Fit” algorithm of memory

7

management?* A. It allocates B. It allocates C. It allocates D. It allocates

the the the the

smaller hole than required memory hole smallest hole from the available memory holes largest hole from the available memory holes exact same size memory hole

-----------------------------------------------------------------------*Click Here for Answers * 1 – A / 2 – C / 3 – A / 4 – D / 5 – D / 6 – D / 7 – D / 8 – B / 9 – A / 10 – C

*6-1 An operating system is a program or a group of programs that* A. Helps in checking the spelling of Word B. Maintain the relationship in Database C. Manages the resources of the Computer D. Performs the calculations of cells in Excel *6-2 What is contained in the page table?* A. Base address of each frame and corresponding page number B. Memory address and corresponding page number C. File name and corresponding page number D. None of Above *6-3 The chunks of a memory are known as * A. Sector B. Offset C. Page D. Frame *6-4 Which of the following is an essential file of a MS-DOS boot disk?* A. COMMAND.COM B. START.COM C. TREE.COM D. VER.COM *6-5 Which of the following operating system reads and reacts in actual time?* A. Quick Response System B. Real Time System C. Time Sharing System D. Batch Processing System *6-6 Which of the following resources must be protected by the operating system?* A. I/O B. Memory C. CPU D. All of the above *6-7 Command Interpreter is also known as* A. Prompt B. Shell C. Command D. DOS Prompt

8

*6-8 Which of the following is major activities of an operating system in regard to secondary-storage management?* A. Free-space management B. Storage allocation C. Disk scheduling D. All of the above *6-9 Which of the following are System Programming Language?* A. C B. PL/360 C. Pascal D. All of the above *6-10 The operating system keeps the information of files in a table called* A. File Folder Table (FFT) B. File Index Table (FIT) C. File Allocation Table (FAT) D. Directory Index Table (DIT)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------*Click Here for Answers * 1 – C / 2 – A / 3 – D / 4 – A / 5 – B / 6 – D / 7 – B / 8 – D / 9 – D / 10 – C *7-1. Paging is implemented in * A. Operating System B. Hardware C. Software D. All of them *7-2. Page-Table length register (PTLR) indicates size of * A. Page Table B. Paging File C. Main Memory D. Virtual Memory *7-3. Bring a page into memory only when it is needed is called* A. Demand Memory B. Demand Paging C. Page Fault D. Page Segmentation *7-4. Which of the following is not the approach to Handling Deadlocks* A. Deadlock Prevention B. Deadlock Avoidance C. Detect & Recover D. Virtual Memory *7-5. Which scheduler selects which processes should be brought into the ready queue?* A. Real-term B. Long-term C. Mid-term D. Short-term

9

*7-6. Dived logical memory into blocks with the same size as frames are called* A. Pages B. Frames C. Page Table D. Segmentation *7-7. Which memory allocation policy allocate the largest hole to the process?* A. Best-Fit B. Worst-Fit C. First-Fit D. None of them *7-8. When there is enough memory to fit a process in memory, but the space is not contiguous we need* A. Internal Fragmentation B. Virtual Fragmentation C. External Fragmentation D. None of them *7-9. Piece of code that only one thread can execute at a time is called* A. Mutual Exclusion B. Critical Section C. Synchronization D. All of them *7-10. When a thread waits indefinitely for some resource, but other threads are actually using it is called* A. Starvation B. Demand Paging C. Segmentation D. None of them

-----------------------------------------------------------------------*Click Here for Answers * 1 – B / 2 – A / 3 – B / 4 – D / 5 – B / 6 – A / 7 – B / 8 – C / 9 – B / 10 – A

10

Starting Microsoft Word To load Microsoft Word: 1. Click on the Start menu in the bottom left corner of the screen 2. Choose All Programs then Microsoft Office (from the sub-menu which appears) 3. Finally click on Microsoft Office Word 2007 Tip: You'll probably be using Word quite frequently in the future, so it's worth putting it as an icon on the Desktop. To do this, repeat the above steps, but at the last step, right click (ie press the right mouse button) and choose Send To followed by Desktop (create shortcut). To load Word in future, simply double click on the Desktop icon.

11

The window shown below will open, ready for you to begin typing. The image part with relationship ID rId141 was not found in the file.

The image part with relationship ID rId142 was not found in the file.

Office Button In the top left-hand corner is the [Office] button which can be used to open and print your document. To the right of this is the Quick Access Toolbar which contains icons to a few commands, eg save and undo, and to which you can add further buttons. Below this is the Ribbon, with tabs along the top and command buttons on each tab. These can be used to give instructions to Word. Scroll bars are provided on the right (and bottom) to let you move up and down (or sideways across) your work. At the very bottom of the window, there is information about where you are in your document on the Status Bar - here you are on Page 1. The information that is shown on the Status Bar is a word count and the language you’re working in. On the right-hand side of the Status Bar are icons to change the view of the page, and to zoom in or out, ie make the text on the screen bigger or smaller.

Writing Your Document You next need to decide how you want the rest of your text to appear. It's easiest to set this up before you start typing - the settings will then be carried forward from one paragraph to the next.

Changing Fonts The image part with relationship ID rId143 was not found in the file.

Font The starting font for a new document in Word 2007 is usually set to Calibri (Body). You might want to use a different style of lettering (font or typeface) to personalise your work. Several fonts are available in Word. If you want to change the current font: 1. Click on the list arrow attached to the [Font] button on the Home tab 2. Click on the font you require, eg Times New Roman – you can either scroll down the list to find the font you want, or type in the name of the font to pick it up more quickly Tip: It's best to stick to true-type fonts (those labelled TT) to maintain your document's portability. Some fonts (eg Symbol and Wingdings) produce non-Roman letters or iconic symbols. Courier New gives a typewriter font. Sans-serif fonts, such as Ariel, give clear headings. 12

Changing Font Size The image part with relationship ID rId144 was not found in the file.

Font Size Generally a point size of 10, 11 or 12 is used for the body of the text while point sizes of 13 to 16 are used for headings. The current size (11) is shown in the font size box. To alter this: 1. Click on the list arrow attached to the [Font Size] button on the Home tab 2. Click on the size you require - for example, 12 Tip: You can also type the number directly into the font size box (press to set it). This allows you to select a font size not in the list, for example 13 or a bigger number if you want very large characters.

Entering Your Text 1. Type in a few words, pressing the once after each word to separate them (the spacebar is the long key along the bottom of the keyboard) If you are not very fast at typing just type some imaginary words, pressing keys at random, but remember to include spaces between your words. Remember that if you want to improve your typing, there is an AccuType training tutorial on the IT Services PCs (you can also buy a copy for a personal computer). 2. Continue typing across the screen - the words will automatically spill onto a new line when you reach the right-hand side (this is known as wraparound) 3. Continue typing until you have at least three lines of words then press to mark the end of the paragraph (this is the upside-down L-shaped key on the right of the main keyboard – it is also located on the far right of the keyboard, in the numeric keypad, with the word Enter written on it) IMPORTANT: When using a word processor, do NOT press the key at the end of each line. If you need your work double spaced (each line followed by a blank line) then you simply change the paragraph's line spacing - this is covered later on. Press only when you want to start a new paragraph. A jagged red (or occasionally green) line may appear beneath your text. Don't worry about this - Word is telling you that what you typed is not recognised (the words are not in the dictionary) or that the grammar may be incorrect. You learn more about this later. Tip: Never press the or key more than twice in succession. In particular, do not use spaces to centre a heading or line up words in columns, or to add extra blank lines to force a heading onto a new page. There are special key presses that do this for you (tabs and hard page breaks) that are covered in our Microsoft Word Intermediate Guide. 4. Practice typing a couple of extra paragraphs, pressing at the end of each

Correcting Mistakes Don't worry if you go wrong, as it is very easy to correct your work. The key (immediately above in the main section of the keyboard) can be used to delete the last character(s) typed. 1. Press a few times and note what happens You should have noticed a flashing vertical bar on the screen at the end of your work. This marks the insertion point. Anything that you type will always appear at the insertion point. You can move the insertion point around your work by using the arrow keys to the right of the main keyboard. You can also change its position by moving the mouse pointer on the screen and clicking where you want the insertion point to be. 2. Press the keys to move the insertion point around - note that you can hold down a key to move more rapidly 3. Move the mouse to position the pointer in the middle of a paragraph and click on the mouse button the insertion point should have moved to where you clicked 13

4. Type in some more words - watch how the text which follows moves sideways to make room for the new words As the text moves, the following lines of the paragraph are redrawn automatically. Within a paragraph, the key works as before but you can also remove characters forwards: 5. Press the key (immediately to the right of ) a few times and note what happens Here you are only practicing on text you do not need to keep, but you may accidentally delete words that you needed. Do not panic! If you ever make a mistake when using Word then you can undo your error by using the [Undo] button. The image part with relationship ID rId146 was not found in the file.

Undo This can be found on the Quick Access Bar in the top left-hand corner. The undo button can be used more than once, to undo a series of actions, one at a time. 6. Click on the [Undo] button several times to see its effect Note: There's also a [Redo] button (to the right of [Undo]) if you accidentally undo too much! Tip: Word lets you use control key combinations to issue commands from the keyboard. The combination (hold down and press ) can be used to undo something. can be used for redo.

Aligning Text on the Page The image part with relationship ID rId147 was not found in the file.

The image part with relationship ID rId149 was not found in the file. The image part with relationship ID rId148 was not found in the file.

Align Left -

Centre -

Align Right -

Justify -

The image part with relationship ID rId150 was not found in the file.

With Microsoft Word, it's easy to change the appearance of your work. Changes to the way a paragraph is laid out can be made by first moving the insertion point into that paragraph (anywhere will do). You can then decide how you want your paragraph to look. 1. Move the insertion point into the paragraph you want to change When typing a document you normally want text to align on the left-hand side of the page. Some people prefer text to be fully justified - this is where text aligns both left and right. You can also align text to the right (eg for an address) or to the centre (eg for a title or heading). You can use the buttons shown above (they are on the Home tab in the Paragraph group) to control how text is aligned on the page. 2. Try out all four justification buttons (or use , , and ) - note that only the current paragraph is affected; each paragraph has its own justification setting Tip: If you like justified text, consider turning on hyphenation. This automatically splits a long word at the end of a line in two, improving the layout considerably. To turn this on, click the Page Layout tab, then the [Hyphenation] button in the Page Setup group and choose Automatic.

Altering Line Spacing The image part with relationship ID rId151 was not found in the file.

Line Spacing Sometimes you might be asked to double space your work (or use some other spacing). You might even choose to have a quotation (for example) one-and-a-half spaced, with the rest of your text double spaced. You should still be in the paragraph where you tested the different justification settings. 1. Click on the list arrow attached to the [Line Spacing] button in the Paragraph group 2. Select 2.0 for double spacing Tip: You can also use (hold down and press ) for double, for single and for one-and-a-half spacing. adds a blank line before a paragraph. 14

Changing the Look of Your Text The image part with relationship ID rId153 was not found in the file.

The image part with relationship ID rId152 was not found in the file.

Bold -

Italic -

Underline -

The image part with relationship ID rId154 was not found in the file.

As well as changing the font and font size, you can make some other fairly simple formatting changes that change the look of your text. Here try out the bold, italic and underline buttons which are in the Font group on the Home tab. 1. Move to the bottom of your current document. A quick way to do this is to use the control key combination (the key is located in the block of six keys to the right of the main keyboard letters). Press until you’re on a new line 2. Click on the [Bold] button and type in some new words. You will find that these words appear in a blacker colour. To turn off bold, click on the [Bold] button again 3. Try out the [Italic] and [Underline] buttons as in the above step Note that you can have your text with more than one of these options set on - bold italic or underlined italic, for example. For emphasis, it is usually best to stick to bold. Italic is often used in the title of a paper or journal in bibliographies or references, and underline can be used for a heading or subheading. Tip: The control key combinations to get bold, italic or underline are respectively, for bold, for italic and for underline.

Saving Your Work You should save your work regularly - ideally every 10 minutes so that you don't lose what you have typed should the computer stop working. Word does have an autosave facility which should guard against loss of work; however this is not a proper save and should not be relied on. 1. Click on the [Office] button in the top left-hand corner and then choose Save (or use the [Save] button on the Quick Access Toolbar ) The image part with relationship ID rId155 was not found in the file.

For a new document, a Save As dialog box similar to that below will appear: The image part with relationship ID rId156 was not found in the file.

2. Type a name for your work (eg my first document) - there's no need to clear the File name: box first; whatever you type will replace what's there already 15

Note: you should mainly use letters and numbers for your file names (spaces, hyphens and underscores are also permitted); DO NOT use any other punctuation marks as they can cause problems. Your work will be saved to My Documents, which has been set up to be on drive N: on the computers on campus. This is an area on the network where you can save your own work, known as your home directory. No one else has access to your home directory; you connect to it whenever you logon to an IT Services computer. Backup copies of the files in your home directory are made hourly, so you should never lose any of your work. Though the [Save] button shows a picture of a floppy disk, it is NOT a good idea to work directly from floppy. They can easily be damaged (or lost) and work can be corrupted if they become full. We recommend you only use floppy disks to move your files from one computer to another (this also applies to more modern media such as memory sticks and CDs). Note: By using Save As rather than Save, you can save your work as a Word 97-2003 document so that it is compatible with earlier versions of Word. This will make it easier for anyone who has an older version of Word to open the document. However, any features that are only available in Word 2007 may not be saved (a warning will come up to say which features these are). 3. Press or click on [Save] Once you have given your document a name, this will appear (instead of the original name, eg Document1) at the top of the Word window. Note that the extension .docx (or .doc for Word 2003 documents) is added automatically. Tip: It is a good idea to save your work regularly (eg every 10 minutes or so). The easiest way to do this is to press periodically.

Working with Selected Text Selecting text is very important as it identifies which section of text you want Word to modify. It can be used to change how some text looks, to move or copy text within a document, between documents or between different applications (eg Word and PowerPoint), and to delete or replace text. A simple way to select part of your text is by dragging through it as follows: 1. Move the mouse so that the pointer on the screen is at the start of the text that you want to change 2. Hold down the mouse button, and keep it held down 3. Drag the mouse sideways to move the pointer to the end of the text that you would like to change – the selected text now has a blue background 4. When you are happy with your selection, release the mouse button You may have noticed that a set of option buttons have appeared just to the right of your selected text like in the example below: The image part with relationship ID rId157 was not found in the file.

These different buttons immediately allow you to change the look of the selected text, eg make it bold, alter the font or size, turn it into a list etc. If you accidentally go wrong and select the wrong text, click the mouse once (this will release the selection) and try again. Tip: Minor adjustments to a selected area can be made by holding down the key and pressing the or key. This method can also be used instead of dragging through the text. Rows of text can be selected using the or keys.

16

Tip: If ever you want to replace some words with something different, simply select the words to be replaced and then type the new ones (the selected text automatically disappears). You can also delete a section of text by first selecting it and then pressing the or key.

Selecting the Text Selecting can be done in several different ways, depending on how much text is involved. Any selected text can be de-selected by clicking on the mouse button once. Try out the following: •

A single word - point to it using the mouse then double click on the mouse button - your selected word should be highlighted. Click once on the mouse to de-select it



A single line - position the mouse pointer in the left-hand margin (where its shape changes to an arrow pointing inwards) and click once



A whole paragraph - either double click in the left margin or click three times within the text



The whole document - either click three times in the left margin or press



A sentence - hold down and click anywhere within the sentence



A short piece of text - drag through the text to be selected



A long piece of text - click at the start of the text to be selected then move down, using the scroll bars, and hold down as you click at the end of the selection



To modify an existing selection - hold down and use the arrow keys

Cut, Copy and Paste The image part with relationship ID rId161 was not found in the file.

Cut -

Copy -

Paste -

Format Painter -

The above buttons are visible on the far left of the Home tab in the Clipboard group. Moving text around a document is done by: i.

Selecting it

ii.

Cutting or copying it from its present position

iii.

Pasting it back to its new one

You can copy information within the same document, from one document to another, or from one program to another (for example, text on a web page can be copied into your Word document). 1. Move to the top of your document (pressing takes you straight there) and select the first paragraph of text (double click at the left or three times within the paragraph) 2. Click on the [Cut] button and the paragraph will disappear - do not be alarmed, it has not been lost, but has been copied onto the clipboard 3. Move the insertion point down to the end of your text (pressing moves you straight there) – add a new line if necessary by pressing 4. Click on the [Paste] button - your original paragraph will be pasted into its new position Tip: You can also use to issue a cut command - gives copy; paste. The image part with relationship ID rId162 was not found in the file.

You’ll find that a paste options icon appears next to the pasted text – clicking on this will give further options to how you want the pasted text to look (leave it as Keep Source Formatting - it won’t disappear until you do something else like adding some more text). 17

Note: You can also use right click on selected text and choose Cut or Copy from the shortcut menu, then move to the new position and finally right click there and choose Paste from the shortcut menu. Note also the [Format Painter] button. This is used to copy the format (font and/or paragraph settings) from one piece of text to another: 5. Select the text (or paragraph) whose format you wish to copy - try the text you made bold earlier 6. Click on the [Format Painter] button (the pointer becomes a paintbrush) 7. Drag through another piece of text - release the mouse button and it too becomes bold This can be especially useful in the case where you notice that a paragraph looks different from the rest of the paragraphs on that page, maybe because it is in a different font. You can use the [Format Painter] button to quickly correct this problem.

Making Multiple Copies and the Clipboard When making multiple copies of text, you normally Copy rather than Cut it to the clipboard: 1. Select some text (a few words will do) and click on the [Copy] button (or press or right click and choose Copy) 2. Your original text will remain where it is, but a copy of it has been placed on the clipboard 3. Move the insertion point to where you want to paste the text 4. Click on the [Paste] button (or press or right click and choose Paste) 5. Repeat the above step and a second copy of the text will appear The clipboard, which is normally hidden, will only store the last item that you cut or copied but, after displaying it, up to 24 items can be stored on it. To display the clipboard: The image part with relationship ID rId163 was not found in the file.

6. Click on the Clipboard group arrow just below the [Format Painter] button – this will open the Office Clipboard in a Task Pane on the left 7. Select another part of your text and [Copy] it - watch it appear on the clipboard 8. Move the insertion point then click on the new clipboard entry to paste it into your text 9. Repeat the above step but click on the original clipboard entry You won't need to paste any of the text again, so it's a good idea to empty the clipboard: 10. Click on the [Clear All] button in the Clipboard pane 11. Close the Task Pane by clicking on its [Close] button (the little x in the top right corner)

Drag and Drop If you wish to move text a short way then you can use the drag and drop technique: 1. Select some text - a few words is sufficient 2. Move the mouse pointer into the highlighted area then hold down the mouse button (the pointer becomes an arrow with a box attached and in the left-hand corner of the Status Bar at the bottom of your Word window it says Move to where?) 3. Keeping the mouse button held down, drag the text to a new place in your document (as you move the cursor a faint dotted line appears - this is where the selected text will be dropped) 4. Release the button - the text will be moved to its new position 5. Practice moving selected text to other positions Tip: The key combination with the key moves a selected paragraph up or down the page one paragraph at a time.

18

Further Formatting Most of your text will be with the same layout of paragraphs. However, sometimes you will need to change the layout for other special sections (eg for a list).

Bulleted and Numbered Lists The image part with relationship ID rId164 was not found in the file.

Bullets -

Numbering The image part with relationship ID rId165 was not found in the file.

It is often useful to create lists using either bullets or numbers. The [Bullets] button gives you a bulleted list: 1. Move to the end of the text (press ) and make sure you are on a blank line 2. Click on the [Bullets] button (on the Home tab in the Paragraph group) – a bullet point should appear 3. Type a couple of words against each bullet point, pressing once after each one 4. Press twice at the end to turn the bullets off Numbers are applied in a similar fashion using the [Numbering] button: 5. Click on the [Numbering] button - a number 1. appears 6. Type in two short paragraphs (one a couple of lines long), pressing once after each one Note that each paragraph is numbered and that the first line of text is indented slightly to allow for the number. The second line of text is also indented, to line up with the words of the first line. 7. Move to the end of the paragraph numbered 1 and press - a new number will be inserted in the correct sequence with later lines re-numbered 8. Press (the button to the left of the letter Q) and the numbering changes to a and is indented further – type a few characters 9. Press (the letter b appears) then (the letter changes to the number 2) 10. Press and the extra line will disappear 11. Move to the last line in the numbered list (which should be empty) and press - this should turn numbering off Tip: Sometimes you might want more than one paragraph under a bulleted or numbered point. To achieve this, hold down as you press to end a paragraph (it’s best to have the text left-aligned – justified text doesn’t look good).

Correcting Spelling and Grammar The image part with relationship ID rId166 was not found in the file.

Spelling and Grammar Word checks the spelling and grammar as you type. A red squiggly line under a word denotes that Word thinks it has been spelt incorrectly; if the line is green then the grammar may be incorrect. You can check the whole or part of the text for mistakes using the [Spelling and Grammar] button. 1. Press to move to the end of your text then for a new line 2. Type the following misspelt text: howe mamy speling andother erors is there on thsi sentance? There was 10.

Note that as you type the words, Word automatically corrects certain mistakes: •

it capitalises the first word in a sentence (Howe) 19



it corrects certain misspellings (eg erors to errors, thsi to this and sentance to sentence)

20

3. Select the line of misspelt text (eg click 3 times on it) - Word can spell-check just a selected area 4. Move to the Review tab and click on the [Spelling and Grammar] button on the left of the Ribbon The image part with relationship ID rId167 was not found in the file.

5. Choose the correct spelling of many in the Suggestions: box – press for [Change] 6. Continue in the same manner with the other corrections 7. Always check the correction is what you want - with andother choose and other If Word gives you no suggestions (or doesn't show the correct one in the list) you can edit the text in the Not in Dictionary: box. Also if a spelling is correct but not in the dictionary, you can either choose to [Ignore] a suggested correction or [Add] the word to your own dictionary. Choose [Ignore All] if you don't want to be asked about the same spelling again (similarly [Change All] will change all occurrences of a misspelt word). You can also [Close] or [Cancel] the check at any time. Once the spelling check is complete, the grammar checker is run. This isn't foolproof, but it does pick up some common grammatical mistakes. At the end of the grammar check: 8. Click on [No] - you don't want the rest of the document checked 9. Press to deselect the highlighted text then to start a new paragraph Tip: If you just have one word that is misspelt (or a phrase with bad grammar), move the mouse pointer over the error and click on the right mouse button. A list of likely correct spellings appears. If the spelling you want isn't in the list, choose Spelling... (or Grammar...) to start the checker. Note that you will still need to proof read your work to pick up, for example, correctly spelt words used in the wrong context. Here, Howe was not corrected because it was recognised as a surname - it would have been picked up had it not been capitalised (by Word itself!). Similarly, on needs manual correction to in. Also, though was was corrected to were in the second sentence, the grammar checker failed to notice that is in the first sentence had a plural subject and should be are.

Closing a Document Although you can have more than one document open in Word, if you have finished working on a file, it is a good idea to close it. Before closing it, remember to save it: 1. The quickest way is to press As you’ve already saved your document previously, this time it won’t come up with any Save As window, but will automatically save the latest version of your document overwriting the previous version. If you did want to save your document under a different name, into a different place or in a different format then you should choose one of the options under Save As. 21

To close the current document without exiting from Word: 2. Click on the [Office] button in the top left-hand corner and then choose [Close] Tip: You can close a document from the keyboard using the key combination .

Opening an Existing Document You may want to do some further work on an existing document. In this next exercise you will be opening the file you have just closed. The notes which follow assume that your work was saved to My Documents on drive N: (your home directory). If your file is on a USB memory stick or a floppy disk, then you should first copy it to My Documents (see Microsoft Windows XP Beginners' Guide for details of copying/moving files between different media). IMPORTANT: If you open a file direct from a USB memory stick or floppy disk then you must not remove the pen or disk until you have properly closed the file (or disconnected the memory stick). If you don’t do this, it can result in your files being corrupted and you may lose your work. Never swap pens or disks or you may corrupt them both. 1. Click on the [Office] button and choose Open Note the list of Recent Documents on the right-hand side – from here you can open up your latest documents and can pin documents permanently to the list. The [Open] button on the Quick Access Toolbar (or the key combination ) can be used to open a file but you then don’t see the list of Recent Documents. The image part with relationship ID rId169 was not found in the file.

You will see a dialog box similar to the following, showing any folders and Word files in My Documents: 2. Click on the name of your file you want to work on, eg my first document.docx The image part with relationship ID rId170 was not found in the file.

3. Press or click on [Open] Use the key (above the arrow keys) to move down your document or to go to the end of your document. Note: You can have more than one document open at a time in Microsoft Word. This allows you to copy text from one document to another. You can move between documents by clicking on the View tab and then the [Switch Windows] button (or the buttons on the Taskbar, normally located at the bottom of your screen).

22

Starting a New Document To start a new empty document at any time from within Word: 1. Click on the [Office] button and choose New 2. A New Document window will open – the Blank document icon will already be selected so just click on [Create]

If you use the [New] button on the Quick Access Toolbar (or the key combination ) then the new document appears immediately Tip: If ever you are working on a document and all the text disappears, check the document name at the top of the screen. You may have accidentally pressed to create a new document! If this is the case, press to Close the new, unwanted, document.

Printing When you print on a PC in a University PC Facility managed by IT Services, your output is sent as a print job to a central print queue (one is for high quality black and white output which costs 5p per page, the other for colour printing which costs 30p per page). You have to log in to a Print Release Station (which is a separate computer) from where you can select which print job you want printed from the queue. Everyone has an initial credit of £1.50 in their print account, but you will need to purchase further top-up cards at £3 each in order to put more money into your print account when it is running low. The cards are available from the Reception Desk in the Main Library, the Agriculture Coffee Bar at Earley Gate and the Technical Support Unit at Bulmershe. You can also top up your account using cash via a facility in the Main Library. More detailed instructions on how to print are given in the Printing on IT Services PCs Quick Guide. To print your document: 1. Click on the [Office] button and choose Print button (or click on the [Print] button on the Quick Access Toolbar or use the keyboard combination ) – the following window appears: The image part with relationship ID rId173 was not found in the file.

2. Check that Name: is set to \\viprn1\ITS-A4BW (for black and white output - you'll need to change this to \\viprn1\ITS-A4Colour using the list arrow provided if you want colour) 3. Set the required Page range and Number of copies: 4. The final step would normally be to click on [OK] but here, click on [Cancel] 23

It's a good idea to preview your work to check it fits neatly on the page before you print it. To do this: 5. Click on the [Office] button then move the mouse cursor over Print – a sub-menu appears: The image part with relationship ID rId174 was not found in the file.

6. From the further options that appear, choose Print Preview 7. Click on [Close print Preview] on the far right of the new Print Preview tab to return to normal typing Tip: It’s a good idea to add the [Print Preview] button to your Quick Access Toolbar. To do this, simply click on the down arrow on the right of the toolbar and turn Print Preview on. You may wish to add some of the other buttons. Incidentally, the keyboard combination to turn on/off Print Preview is !

Using Help and the Get Started Tab The image part with relationship ID rId175 was not found in the file.

Help Microsoft Word has its own built-in help system. This can be accessed by clicking on the [Help] button on the far right of the Word window (just under the x to close Word). If you get used to using help then you should be able to solve your own problems. To demonstrate how the system works, look up how to make your text bold: 1. Click on the [Help] button – a Word Help window appears 2. Type the word bold into the Search help box and press - a list of topics should appear 3. Click on the topic Make the text bold The instructions given should be similar to what you learnt earlier in these notes. Some people like to keep the Word Help window open while they carry out the instructions, but part of your document is covered by the Word Help window. To solve this: The image part with relationship ID rId176 was not found in the file.

4. At the top of the Word Help window, click on the [Keep On Top] icon The image part with relationship ID rId177 was not found in the file.

5. This changes to a [Not On Top] icon and now if you click in your Word document, the Word Help window closes, but is still available as a button on the Taskbar at the bottom of your screen If you have used a previous version of Microsoft Word and are having trouble with Word 2007, have a look at the Get Started tab on the Ribbon. This features an [Interactive Guide] button, which will show you how to issue a command in Word 2007 if you first carry out that command in a simulated version of Word 2003. The tab also has links to online training and can be downloaded from Microsoft if you have your own PC.

Where to go Next You now have the basic skills to safely produce work using Word. However, there are many more features in Word that you have yet to explore and which will make word processing much easier. It's a good idea to practice what you have learnt so far and to seek further training before you start doing serious work. As usual, 24

you can book on a taught course, drop-in-and-learn, or work through the notes yourself (paper copies are held in the [email protected] area or download them from the Web). •

Microsoft Word - An Intermediate Guide - this teaches you how to use many of the other features available in Word. It is highly recommended that you work through this next



Microsoft Word: Starting a Thesis - this looks at how to make the best use of Microsoft Word when starting to write a thesis (or other long document). You need to be familiar with what's covered in the Essential and Intermediate Guides before attempting this. There’s also a Finishing a Thesis guide



Advanced Wordprocessing Topics Using Microsoft Word - there are more than a dozen guides in all. Some are intended mainly for secretaries; others are of more general interest



Microsoft Word Help - don't forget that the built-in help system is there to answer any questions you may have about Word

• Google or similar web search engines often give you better help than Microsoft’s own site •

The Get Started tab if this is installed

Please feel free to use the computers to practice your word processing. Only by using the system will you become confident and competent.

Leaving Microsoft Word When you have finished typing and want to exit Word: 1. Make sure you’ve saved the latest version of your document (press ) 2. Click on the [Office] button then on the [Exit Word] button (bottom right-hand corner) or you can click on the [x] in the top right-hand corner of the Word window Tip: The keyboard combinations and can also be used to close Word.

Logging Out If you have completely finished using the computer: 1. Click on the [Start] button (bottom left-hand corner of screen) 2. Choose Log Off 3. Press again (or click on [Log Off]) to confirm this Tip: A quick way to log off is to press the key (between and ) then the letter for Logout followed by .

Questions Quiz one 1-1. Which option in File pull-down menu is used to close a file in MSWord? A. New B. Quit C. Close D. Exit 1-2. Which bar is usually located below that Title Bar that provides categorized options? A. Menu bar B. Status Bar C. Tool bar D. Scroll bar 1-3. Which of these toolbars allows changing of Fonts and their sizes? A. Standard B. Formatting C. Print Preview D. None of these 1-4. Which key should be pressed to start a new paragraph in MS-Word? A. Down Cursor Key B. Enter Key C. Shift + Enter D. Ctrl + Enter 1-5. Which menu in MSWord can be used to change character size and typeface? A. View B. Tools C. Format D. Data 1-6. By default, on which page the header or the footer is printed? A. on first page B. on alternate page C. on every page D. none of the above 1-7. In MS-Word, for what does ruler help? A. to set tabs B. to set indents C. to change page margins D. All of the above 1-8. Using Find command in Word, we can search? A. characters B. formats C. symbols D. All of the above

1-9. MS-Word automatically moves the text to the next line when it reaches the right edge of the screen and is called? A. Carriage Return B. Enter C. Word Wrap D. None of the above 1-10. Selecting text means, selecting? A. a word B. an entire sentence C. whole document D. any of the above

----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – C / 2 – A / 3 – B / 4 – B / 5 – C / 6 – C / 7 – D / 8 – D / 9 – C / 10 – D -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Two

2-1. Single spacing in MS-WORD document causes ____ point line spacing? A. 10 B. 12 C. 14 D. 16 2-2. Which would you choose to display the statistics about a document? A. tools, word count B. insert, statistics C. tools, spelling and grammar D. tools, statistics 2-3. Which feature do you use to create a newspaper like document? A. Bullets & numbering B. Tables C. Columns D. Tab stops 2-4. Which would you choose to list Synonyms & Antonyms of a selected word? A. Tools, Spelling & Grammar B. Tools, Language C. Tools, Options

D. Insert, Cross-reference 2-5. Which language does MS-Word use to create Macros? A. Visual C++ B. Visual Basic C. FoxPro D. Access 2-6. What do you call ‘a collection of character and paragraph formatting commands’? A. the defaults B. a template C. a style D. a boilerplate 2-7. In MS Word, Ctrl+S is for ….. A. Scenarios B. Size C. Save D. Spelling Check 2-8. Which key is used to increase left indent? A. Ctrl+I B. Ctrl+M C. Alt+I D. F10 2-9. Which key is used to select all the text in the document? A. Ctrl+T B. Ctrl+A C. Ctrl+F D. Ctrl+N 2-10. To undo the last work, press ….. A. Ctrl+U B. Ctrl+Y C. Ctrl+Z D. Ctrl+W

----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – B / 2 – A / 3 – C / 4 – B / 5 – B / 6 – C / 7 – C / 8 – B / 9 – B / 10 – C -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Three 3-1. Which enables us to send the same letter to different persons?

A. B. C. D.

macros template mail merge none

3-2. Which key deletes the character to the left of the cursor? A. End B. Backspace C. Home D. Delete 3-3. Which key deletes the character to the right of the cursor? A. End B. Backspace C. Home D. Delete 3-4. Which would you choose to save a document with a new name? A. Press Ctrl+S B. Click File, Save C. Click Tools, Options, Save D. Click File, Save As 3-5. Which would you choose to move selected text from one place to another? A. Move and Paste B. Copy and Paste C. Cut and Paste D. Delete and Paste 3-6. How do you magnify your document? A. View, Zoom B. Format, Font C. Tools, Options D. Tools, Customize 3-7. Which enables you to move directly to specific location in a document? A. Subdocuments B. Bookmarks C. Cross-references D. Outlines 3-8. What are inserted as cross-reference in Word? A. Placeholders B. Bookmarks C. Objects D. Word fields 3-9. Which keystroke is used for updating a field? A. F6 B. F9 C. F11 D. F12 3-10. A master document contains_________, each of which contains a

pointer to a file on a disk? A. Placeholders B. subdocuments C. bookmarks D. references

----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – C / 2 – B / 3 – D / 4 – D / 5 – C / 6 – A / 7 – B / 8 – D / 9 – B / 10 – B -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Four 4-1. When typing in a word field manually, what must you press to insert the code’s braces? A. Ctrl + F6 B. Ctrl + F9 C. Alt + F11 D. Shift + F12 4-2. A word field may consist of an optional field instruction called a(n) ______ A. subdocument B. symbol C. signal D. switch 4-3. Footnotes, endnotes, and indexes are all inserted as __________ A. bookmarks B. cross-references C. hyperlinks D. word fields 4-4. Before creating a master document, you must switch to _________ A. Normal View B. Outline View C. Web Layout View D. Print Layout View 4-5. Before moving a subdocument to another location within a master document, you must switch to _________ A. Normal View B. Outline View C. Web Layout View D. Print Layout View 4-6. Which of the following can be used to navigate documents?

A. B. C. D.

frames hyperlinks web toolbar all of the above

4-7. Which of the following can be used to divide a web page into areas? A. frames B. theme C. table of contents D. none of the above 4-8. By default, Word automatically formats each heading in a table of contents as __________ A. bookmarks B. cross-references C. hyperlinks D. word-fields 4-9. The ability to combine name and addresses with a standard document is called _________ A. document formatting B. database management C. mail merge D. form letters 4-10. Which feature is used for monitoring all document changes? A. Edit Document B. Monitor Change C. Track Change D. Track all

----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – B / 2 – D / 3 – D / 4 – B / 5 – B / 6 – B / 7 – A / 8 – C / 9 – C / 10 – C ----------------------------------------------------------------------Quiz Five 5-1. When sharing data in Office, the ________ document is the document in which the data was first entered. A. source B. destination C. original D. primary 5-2. Which command is used to establish a link between a source

document and a destination document? A. Tools, Link, Documents B. Tools, Link C. Edit, Link D. Edit, Paste Special 5-3. Which option enables automatic updates in destination documents? A. embedding B. objects C. links D. relationships 5-4. Which is an Office feature that makes it easy to edit embedded objects? A. pasting B. visual editing C. tools, update, links D. edit, links 5-5. Which is true when you insert an excel worksheet into a word document? A. word is the destination document B. excel is the destination document C. the worksheet is the destination document D. the document is the source document 5-6. What would you do when you want to update the data in an embedded worksheet range? A. double click the worksheet range object B. right click worksheet range object & choose format object C. edit the data in the destination document D. edit the data in the source document. 5-7. Which can be used for quick access to commonly used commands and tools? A. Status bar B. Tool bar C. Menu bar D. Title bar 5-8. With which view can you see how text and graphics will appear on the printed page? A. Normal B. Print Layout C. Outline D. Web Layout 5-9. Which simplifies the process of formatting text if the same formatting is required in more than one location? A. Auto Text B. Format Painter C. Font dialog box D. None of the above 5-10. Which of the following is best for quick copy operation? A. Copy and Paste

B. Windows Clipboard C. Drag and Drop D. Auto Text

----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – A / 2 – D / 3 – C / 4 - B / 5 - A / 6 – A / 7 – B / 8 – B / 9 – B / 10 – C -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Six

6-1. Which simplifies the process of formatting text if the same formatting is required in more than one location A. Auto Text B. Format Painter C. Font dialog box D. None of the above 6-2. Which of the following is best for quick copy operation? A. Copy and Paste B. Windows Clipboard C. Drag and Drop D. Auto Text 6-3. Which of the following operations moves text from clipboard? A. Copy B. Paste C. Drag and Drop D. Cut 6-4. Which of the following provides a list ofx synonyms? A. Find command B. Replace Command C. Thesaurus D. Spelling and Grammar 6-5. Which of the following helps to reduce spelling error in the document? A. Auto Format B. Auto Correct C. Smart Tags D. Auto Text 6-6. Auto text and Auto correct are ___________ tools. A. styling

B. editing B. designing D. none of the above 6-7. Which of the following enables you to make multiple changes in a document at once? A. find command B. Replace command C. Drag and Drop D. copy command 6-8. Which of the following commands should you always use before submitting a document to others? A. find command B. Replace command C. Spelling and Grammar D. Thesaurus 6-9. Which of the following enables you to paste data multiple times? A. Windows Clipboard B. Office Clipboard C. Both Windows & Office Clipboard D. None of the all 6-10. Which of the following do you use to change margins? A. formatting toolbar B. page setup dialog box C. Standard toolbar D. paragraph dialog box

----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – B / 2 – C / 3 – B / 4 – C / 5 – B / 6 – B / 7 – B / 8 – C / 9 – C / 10 – B

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Seven 7-1. Which key do you press to force a page break? A. CTRL+ALT B. CTRL+ break C. CTRL+ Enter D. none of the above

7-2. Which menu do you choose to create footer? /(in MS Office 2003)/ A. format, header and footer B. view, footer C. insert, header and footer D. view, header and footer 7-3. Which menu do you choose to create header? /(in MS Office 2003)/ A. format, header and footer B. view, header C. insert, header and footer D. view, header and footer 7-4. Which menu do you choose to shade words and paragraph? A. format, borders and shading B. insert, borders and shading C. view, shading D. none of the above 7-5. to view headers and footers, you must switch to A. normal view B. print layout view C. print preview mode D. both B and C 7-6. Which of the following can you change using the page setup dialog box? A. margins B. page orientation C. vertical alignment D. all of the above 7-7. By default, your document prints with: A. 1 inch top and bottom margins B. a portrait orientation C. 1.25 inches left and right margins D. all of the above 7-8. switching between portrait and landscape modes involves the: A. header and footer toolbar B. print layout view C. page setup dialog box D. none of the above 7-9. What happens when you insert an AutoShape by simply clicking in the document? A. it appears near the insertion point B. it is inserted in its default size C. is selected D. all of the above 7-10. What must be used to control the layering of objects? A. formatting toolbar B. picture toolbar C. drawing toolbar D. image toolbar

----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – C / 2 – D / 3 – D / 4 – A / 5 – D / 6 – D / 7 – D / 8 – C / 9 – D / 10 – C -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Eight 8.1 What is the shortcut key to “Center Align” the selected text? A. Ctrl + C B. Ctrl + E C. Ctrl + F D. None of above 8.2 What is the shortcut key to “Undo” the last action in a document? A. Ctrl + X B. Ctrl + Y C. Ctrl + Z D. None of above 8.3 What is the shortcut key to “Insert Hyperlink” in a document? A. Ctrl + H B. Ctrl + L C. Ctrl + K D. None of above 8.4 What is the shortcut key for “Find and Replace” dialog box? A. Ctrl + F B. Ctrl + R C. Ctrl + H D. Ctrl + Shift + F 8.5 What is the shortcut key for Spelling Check in document? A. F7 B. Shift + F7 C. Ctrl + F7 D. Alt + F7 8.6 What is the shortcut key to Update Formula in a table? A. F9 B. Alt + F9 C. Ctrl + F9 D. Shift + F9 8.7 What is the shortcut key to Close Active Document in Microsoft Word? A. Ctrl + F4 B. Shift + F4

C. Ctrl + Shift + F4 D. None of above 8.8 What is the shortcut key for “Font” dialog box? A. Ctrl + F B. Ctrl + D C. Ctrl + G D. None of the above 8.9 What is the shortcut key for “Superscript” the selected text? A. Ctrl + = B. Ctrl + C. Ctrl + Shift + = D. Ctrl + Shift + 8.10 What A. Ctrl + B. Ctrl + C. Ctrl + D. Ctrl +

is the shortcut key for “Subscript” the selected text? = Shift + = Shift + -

----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – B / 2 – C / 3 – C / 4 – C / 5 – A / 6 – A / 7 – A / 8 – B / 9 – C / 10 – A -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Nine

9-1. Ctrl + A A. Align Right B. Select All C. Change font D. Save document 9-2. Ctrl + B A. Search the selected text B. Paste the selected text C. Bold the selected text D. Open the specified file 9-3. Ctrl + C A. Copy the selected text B. Cut the selected text C. Print the selected text D. Paste the selected text

9-4. Ctrl + D A. Delete Dialog Box B. Font Dialog Box C. Delete All D. Do nothing 9-5. Ctrl + E A. Exit Application B. Select All C. Clear All D. Align Center 9-6. Ctrl + F A. Open Find and Replace Dialog box with activating Find Tab B. Open Page Setup Dialog box with activating Layout Tab C. Open Font Dialog Box with activating Font tab D. Open File Save as Dialog box 9-7. Ctrl + G A. Open Paragraph Dialog box activating Goto Tab B. Open Page Setup Dialog box activating Goto Tab C. Open Find and Replace Dialog box with activating Goto Tab D. Open Goto Dialog box 9-8. Ctrl + H A. Open Find and Replace Dialog box with activating Replace Tab B. Open Format Dialog box activating Insert Hyper Link tab C. Open Insert Dialog box activating Insert Hyper Link Tab D. Open Insert Hyper Link Dialog box 9-9. Ctrl + I A. Italic B. Left Indent C. Save Document D. Close Document 9-10. Ctrl + J A. Align Justify B. Insert Hyperlink C. Search D. Print ----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – B / 2 – C / 3 – A / 4 – B / 5 – D / 6 – A / 7 – C / 8 – A / 9 – A / 10 – A -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Ten

10-1. Ctrl + K A. Insert Page Humber B. Insert Hyperlink C. Insert Header D. Insert Footer 10-2. Ctrl + L A. Left Align B. Left Indent C. Increase Left Margin D. Decrease Left Margin 10-3. Ctrl + M A. New Document B. Close Document C. Right Indent D. Left Indent 10-4. Ctrl + N A. Save Document B. Open Document C. New Document D. Close Document 10-5. Ctrl + O A. Save Document B. Print Document C. Close Document D. Open Document 10-6. Ctrl + P A. Open Paragraph Dialog Box B. Open Page Format Dialog Box C. Open Save Dialog Box D. Open Print Dialog box 10-7. Ctrl + Q A. Paragraph formatting (Line Space and Paragraph Space) B. Close Word Application without saving Document C. Print Whole Document without confirmation D. Does nothing 10-8. Ctrl + R A. Re-Open the last closed document B. Re-Print the last printed page C. Re-Apply the last paragraph formatting D. Right align the selected Paragraph 10-9. Ctrl + S A. Save Document B. Save Document C. Save Document D. Save Document

with different name with same name and Close Word Application and Print whole Pages

10-10. Ctrl + T A. Hanging Indent

B. Left Indent C. Open Tabs Dialog box D. Terminate all opened Dialog box

----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – B / 2 – A / 3 – D / 4 – C / 5 – D / 6 – D / 7 – A / 8 – D / 9 – B / 10 – A -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Eleven 11-1. Ctrl + U A. Undelete the previously deleted text B. Undo the last changes C. Underline the document name D. Underline the selected text 11-2. Ctrl + V A. Paste Texts in the beginning of Document B. Paste Images in the beginning of Document C. Paste Tables at the middle of Document D. None of the above 11-3. Ctrl + W A. Save and Print the Document B. Save and Close Word Application C. Save and Close document D. Without Save, Close Document 11-4. Ctrl + X A. Close Document B. Close Word Application C. Cut the Selected Contents D. Copy the Selected Contents 11-5. Ctrl + Y A. Undo the last Action B. Repeat the last Action C. Delete the last page D. Delete the first page 11-6. Ctrl + Z A. Undo the last Action B. Redo the last Action C. Add the new page D. Paste the contents from clipboard 11-7. Page Up Key

A. B. C. D.

Moves Moves Moves Moves

the the the the

cursor cursor cursor cursor

one one one one

line up screen up page up paragraph up

11-8. Page Down Key A. Moves the cursor B. Moves the cursor C. Moves the cursor D. Moves the cursor

one one one one

line down page down screen down paragraph down

11-9. Home Key A. Moves the cursor B. Moves the cursor C. Moves the cursor D. Moves the cursor

beginning beginning beginning beginning

11-10. End Key A. Moves the cursor B. Moves the cursor C. Moves the cursor D. Moves the cursor

end end end end

of of of of

of of of of

the the the the

the the the the

document paragraph screen line

line document paragraph screen

----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – D / 2 – D / 3 – C / 4 – C / 5 – B / 6 – A / 7 – B / 8 – C / 9 – D / 10 – A -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Twelve

12-1. “Ctrl + A. Delete the B. Delete the C. Delete the D. Delete the

Backspace” is used to single letter just before the cursor single letter just after the cursor word just before the cursor word just after the cursor

12-2. “Ctrl + A. Delete the B. Delete the C. Delete the D. Delete the

Delete” is used to word just after the cursor word just before the cursor single letter just after the cursor single letter just before the cursor

12-3. “Ctrl + Home” is used to A. Moves the cursor to the beginning of Document

B. Moves the cursor to the beginning of Line C. Moves the cursor to the beginning of Paragraph D. All of the above 12-4. “Ctrl + End” is used A. Moves the cursor to the B. Moves the cursor to the C. Moves the cursor to the D. None of the Above

to end of Line end of Document end of Paragraph

12-5. “Ctrl + PageUp” is used to A. Moves the cursor one Page Up B. Moves the cursor one Paragraph Up C. Moves the cursor one Screen Up D. Moves the cursor one Line Up 12-6. “Ctrl + PageDown” A. Moves the cursor one B. Moves the cursor one C. Moves the cursor one D. Moves the cursor one

is used to Paragraph Down Page Down Line Down Screen Down

12-7. “Ctrl + Left Arrow” is used to A. Moves the cursor beginning of the Line B. Moves the cursor one word left C. Moves the cursor one paragraph up D. Moves the cursor one paragraph down 12-8. “Ctrl + Right A. Moves the cursor B. Moves the cursor C. Moves the cursor D. Moves the cursor

Arrow” is used to one word right end of the line end of the document one Paragraph down

12-9. “Ctrl + Up Arrow” A. Moves the cursor one B. Moves the cursor one C. Moves the cursor one D. Moves the cursor one 12-10. “Ctrl A. Moves the B. Moves the C. Moves the D. Moves the

+ Down cursor cursor cursor cursor

is used to page up line up screen up paragraph up

Arrow” is used to one paragraph down one line down one page down one screen down

----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – C / 2 – A / 3 – A / 4 – B / 5 – A / 6 – B / 7 – B / 8 – A / 9 – D / 10 – A

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Thirteen 13-1. A. To B. To C. To D. To

What is the use of bookmarks in Microsoft Word? easily correct the spelling errors quickly jump to a specific location in the document quickly jump to the ending of the document create a link within the document

13-2. What is the shortcut-key for manual line break? A. CTRL + Enter B. Alt + Enter C. Shift + Enter D. Space + Enter 13-3. Which feature helps you to inserts the contents of the Clipboard as text without any formatting A. Paste Special B. Format Painter C. Page Setup D. Styles 13-4. Which feature is used to replace straight quotes with smart quotes as you type? A. Auto Correct as you type B. Auto Change as you type C. Auto Format as you type D. Smart Tags as you type 13-5. Which of the following is correct regarding Underline in MSWord? A. Color of Underline can be change B. Style of Underline can be change C. Underline can be set using by shortcut key D. All of the above 13-6. How will MS Word will respond in repeated word. A. A Red wavy line under the repeated word B. A Green wavy line under the repeated word C. A Blue wavy line under the repeated word D. None of the above 13-7. Tabs stop position cannot be the following alignment A. Decimal Alignment B. Center Alignment C. Bar Alignment D. Justify Alignment 13-8. How to use Format Painter multiple times A. By Click on Lock Format Painter Icon B. By Double Click on the Format Painter Icon

C. By Selecting Edit -> Format Painter -> Multiple Use D. Format Painter cannot be use multiple times 13-9. Gutter position can be set in following positions A. Left & Right B. Left & Top C. Left & Bottom D. Left Only 13-10. What is the use of “All Caps” feature in MS-Word? A. It changes all selected text into Capital Letter B. It adds captions for selected Image C. It shows all the image captions D. None of the above

----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – B / 2 – C / 3 – A / 4 – C / 5 – D / 6 – A / 7 – D / 8 – B / 9 – B / 10 – A -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Fourteen 1. A. B. C. D.

What is the shortcut key to split a table? Ctrl + Alt + Enter Ctrl + Shift + Enter Alt + Shift + Enter Alt + Space + Enter

2. Page break is not a Section break A. True B. False 3. A. B. C. D.

Which of the following is not the Section Break Option? Next Page Previous Page Odd Page Even Page

4. A. B. C. D.

What is a Document Outline View? A preview in a full screen A preview with margins A View with a margins and gutter A view with a structure of heading at various levels

5. A. B. C. D.

What is the use of Document Map? to quickly format the document to quickly print required page to quickly navigate the document to quickly correct spelling mistakes

6. A. B. C. D.

What is the shortcut key to display field codes? Alt + F9 Ctrl + F9 Shift + F9 Space + F9

7. A. B. C. D.

What is the shortcut key to show font dialog box? Ctrl + D Ctrl + Shift + F Ctrl + Shift + P All of the above

8. A. B. C. D.

How to remove all character formats? Shift + Spacebar Shift + Enter Ctrl + Spacebar Ctrl + Enter

9. Which of the following is true regarding page Orientation of a Document? A. Page Orientation can be change at any time B. Page Orientation of document determines by printer C. Page Orientation must be set before start typing D. Page Orientation of a document cannot be changed. 10. Which of the following is Page Orientation? A. Landscape B. Portrait C. Gutter D. Only A & B ----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – B / 2 – A / 3 – B / 4 – D / 5 – C / 6 – A / 7 – D / 8 – C / 9 – A / 10 – D -----------------------------------------------------------------------

MICROSOFT EXCEL TUTORIAL GETTING STARTED Microsoft Excel is one of the most popular spreadsheet applications that helps you manage data, create visually persuasive charts, and thought‐provoking graphs. Excel is supported by both Mac and PC platforms. Microsoft Excel can also be used to balance a checkbook, create an expense report, build formulas, and edit them.

CREATING A NEW DOCUMENT OPENING MICROSOFT EXCEL ON A PC

To begin Microsoft Excel, Go to Start > All Programs > Applications > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Excel (Figure 1). When opened a new spreadsheet will pop up

on the screen, if this does not happen click on the Office Icon > New. From here a dialog box with various different templates will appear on the screen that you can choose from. Once a template is chosen, click Create.

Figure 1. Navigate to Microsoft Excel on a PC.

Figure 2. Opening a new workbook

SAVING YOUR DOCUMENT Computers crash and documents are lost all the time, so it is best to save often.

SAVING INITIALLY

Before you begin you should save your document. To do this, click on the floppy disk located at the top of the screen . Then Microsoft Excel will open a dialog box (Figure 3) where you can specify the new file’s name, location of where you want it saved, and format of the document. Once you have specified a name, place, and format for your new file, press the Save button.

Note: Specifying your file format will allow you to open your document on a PC as well as a MAC. To do this you use the drop down menu next to the Format option. Also, when you are specifying a file extension (i.e. .doc) make sure you know what you need to use.

Figure 3. Saving dialog box.

SAVING LATER After you have initially saved your blank document under a new name, you can begin your project. However, you will still want to periodically save your work as insurance against a computer freeze or a power outage. To save, just click on the floppy disk, or for a shortcut press CTRL + S.

TOOLBARS In Microsoft Excel 2007 for a PC, the toolbars are automatically placed as tabs at the top of the screen. Within these tabs you will find all of your options to change text, data, page layout, and more. To be able access all of the certain toolbars you need to click on a certain tab that is located towards the top of the screen.

THREE COMMONLY USED TABS

The Home Tab: (Figure 4). This is one of the most common tabs used in Excel. You are able to format the text in your document, cut, copy, and paste information. Change the alignment of your data, insert, delete, and format cells. The Home Tab also allows you to change the number of your data (i.e. currency, time, date).

Figure 4. Home Tab.

The Insert Tab: (Figure 5). This tab is mainly used for inserting visuals and graphics into your document. There are various different things that can be inserted from this tab such as pictures, clip art, charts, links, headers and footers, and word art.

Figure 5. Insert Tab.

The Page Layout Tab: (Figure 6). Here you are able to add margins, themes to your document, change the orientation, page breaks, and titles. The scale fit of your document is also included as a feature within this tab, if needed.

Figure 6. Page Layout Tab.

FORMATTING WORKING WITH CELLS Cells are an important part of any project being used in Microsoft Excel. Cells hold all of the data that is being used to create the spreadsheet or workbook. To enter data into a cell you simply click once inside of the desired cell, a black border will appear around the cell (Figure 7). This border indicates that it is a selected cell. You may then begin typing in the data for that cell.

Figure 7. Entering Data.

CHANGING AN ENTRY WITHIN A CELL You may change an entry within a cell two different ways: • Click the cell one time and begin typing. The new information will replace any information that was previously entered. • Double click the cell and a cursor will appear inside. This allows you to edit certain pieces of information within the cells instead of replacing all of the data.

CUT, COPY, AND PASTE

You can use the Cut, Copy and Paste features of Excel to change the data within your spreadsheet, to move data from other spreadsheets into new spreadsheets, and to save yourself the time of re‐entering information in a spreadsheet. Cut will actually remove the selection from the original location and allow it to be placed somewhere else. Copy allows you to leave the original selection where it is and insert a copy elsewhere. Paste is used to insert data that has been cut or copied. To Cut or Copy:

Highlight the data or text by selecting the cells that they are held within. Go to the Home Tab > Copy (CTRL + C) or Home Tab > Cut (CTRL + X). Click the location where the information should be placed. Go to Home Tab > Paste (CTRL + V) to be able to paste your information.

FORMATTING CELLS There are various different options that can be changed to format the spreadsheets cells differently. When changing the format within cells you must select the cells that you wish to format.

To get to the Format Cells dialog box select the cells you wish to change then go to Home Tab > Format > Format Cells. A box will appear on the screen with six different tab options (Figure 8). Explanations of the basic options in the format dialog box are bulleted below.

Figure 8. Formatting Cells

Number: Allows you to change the measurement in which your data is used. (If your data is concerned with money the number that you would use is currency) Alignment: This allows you to change the horizontal and vertical alignment of your text within each cell. You can also change the orientation of the text within the cells and the control of the text within the cells as well. Font: Gives the option to change the size, style, color, and effects. Border: Gives the option to change the design of the border around or through the cells.

FORMATTING ROWS AND COLUMNS When formatting rows and columns you can change the height, choose for your information to autofit to the cells, hide information within a row or column, un‐hide the information. To format a row or column go to Home Tab > Row Height (or Column Height), then choose which height you are going to use (Figure 9). The cell or cells that are going to be formatted need to be selected before doing this. When

changing the row or column visibility (hidden, un‐hidden) or autofit, you will go to the Home Tab and click Format. The drop down menu will show these options The image part with relationship ID rId191 was not found in the file.

Figure 9. Formatting Rows and Columns Height

ADDING ROWS AND COLUMNS When adding a row or column you are inserting a blank row or column next to your already entered data. Before you can add a Row you are going to have to select the row that you wish for your new row to be placed. (Rows are on the left hand side of the spreadsheet) once the row is selected it is going to highlight the entire row that you chose. To insert the row you have to go to Home Tab > Insert > Insert Sheet Rows (Figure 10). The row will automatically be placed on the spreadsheet and any data that was selected in the original row will be moved down below the new row.

Figure 10. Inserting Rows

Before you can add a Column you are going to have to select a column on the spreadsheet that is located in the area that you want to enter the new column. (Columns are on the top part of the spreadsheet.) Once the column is selected it is going to highlight the entire row that you chose. To insert a column you have to go to Home Tab > Insert > Insert Sheet Column (Figure 11). The column will automatically be place on the spreadsheet and any data to the right of the new column will be moved more to the right.

Figure 11. Inserting Columns

WORKING WITH CHARTS Charts are an important part to being able to create a visual for spreadsheet data. In order to create a chart within Excel the data that is going to be used for it needs to be entered already into the spreadsheet document. Once the data is entered, the cells that are going to be used for the chart need to be highlighted so that the software knows what to include. Next, click on the Insert Tab that is located at the top of the screen. (Figure 12).

Figure 12. Charts Tab

You may choose the chart that is desired by clicking the category of the chart you will use. Once the category is chosen the charts will appear as small graphics within a drop down menu. To choose a particular chart just click on its icon and it will be placed within the spreadsheet you are working on. To move the chart to a page of its own, select the border of the chart and Right Click. This will bring up a drop down menu, navigate to the option that says Move Chart. This will bring up a dialog box that says Chart Location. From here you will need to select the circle next to As A New Sheet and name the sheet that will hold your chart. The chart will pop up larger in a separate sheet (Figure 13), but in the same workbook as your entered data.

The image part with relationship ID rId194 was not found in the file.

Figure 13. Chart in new sheet CHART DESIGN There are various different features that you can change to make your chart more appealing. To be able to make these changes you will need to have the chart selected or be viewing the chart page that is within your workbook. Once you have done that the Design Tab will appear highlighted with various different options to format your graphic (Figure 14). Figure 14. Design Tab for chart design.

CHART OPTIONS: Titles: To add titles to a chart of graphic you have to click on the Insert Tab. Once you have done this, click on the Text Box Icon. This will insert a text box that you can type the title and place anywhere you wish on the chart. Change Chart Type: You can change your chart easily by selecting this icon and navigating to a more desirable chart. This feature is very convenient for someone who chose the wrong chart and doesn’t wish to reselect all their data and go through the process a second time. Format Chart Area: This allows for changes to be made to the chards border, style, fill, shadows, and more. To get this option you will need to right click on the charts border and navigate to the Format Chart Area option. Once this is clicked a dialog box will appear.

CHART STYLE: Here you are able to change the color of the bars that are within your chart.

INSERTING SMART ART GRAPHICS PICTURES To insert Pictures: Go to the Insert Tab> Picture, a dialog box will appear and then you can select the desired picture from the location that is it stored (Figure 15). The picture will be inserted directly onto your document, where you can change the size of it as desired.

Figure 15. Inserting a picture

Inserting Clipart: To insert Clip Art you will need to go to the Insert Tab > Clip Art. A navigation pane will appear on the left hand side of the screen where you can search for words that pertain to the picture you are looking for.

Figure 16. Clip Art

CREATING FUNCTIONS When creating a function in Excel you must first have the data that you wish to perform the function with selected. • Select the cell that you wish for the calculation to be entered in (i.e.: if I want to know the sum of B1:B5 I will highlight cell B6 for my sum to be entered into) (Figure 17). • •



Figure 17. Choosing calculation cell Once you have done this you will need to select the Formulas Tab located at the top of the screen. A list of Most Recently Used, Financial, Logical, Text, Date and Time, Math and Trig formulas will appear. To choose one of the formulas click the icon that holds the formula you are looking for. Once you have clicked your formula this will display a dialog box on your screen. (Figure 18)

Figure 18. First calculation display

In this screen it lists the cells that are being calculated, the values within the cells, and the end result. •

To accept that calculation you can press OK and the result will show up in the selected cell.

PRINTING It is important to always save your document before you print!

PRINTING

To print your document, go to the Office Icon > Print, select your desired settings, and then click OK. You can also do this by using the shortcut CTRL + P

To be able to change the orientation of your page for printing you can click on the Properties button under the option to Print then click the Layout Tab (Figure 19).

Figure 19. Page Setup button and printing

OTHER HELPFUL FUNCTIONS UNDO AND REDO In order to undo an action, you can click on the blue arrow icon that is pointing to the left at the top of the screen. To redo an action, you can click on the blue arrow icon pointing to the right. It is important to note that not all actions are undoable, thus it is important to save before you make any major changes in your document so you can revert back to your saved document.

QUITTING

Before you quit, it's a good idea to save your document one final time. You will need to choose the Office Icon and choose Exit Excel. This is better than just closing the window, as it insures your document quits correctly.

Questions Quiz one MCQ of Microsoft Excel 1-1. Comments put in cells are called ….. A. Smart Tip B. Cell Tip C. Web Tip D. Soft Tip 1-2. Comments can be added to cells using ….. A. Edit -> Comments B. Insert -> Comment C. File -> Comments D. View –> Comments 1-3. Which menu option can be used to split windows into two? A. Format -> Window B. View -> Window-> Split C. Window -> Split D. View –> Split 1-4. Getting data from a cell located in a different sheet is called…. A. Accessing B. Referencing C. Updating D. Functioning 1-5. Which of the following is not a valid data type in Excel? A. Number B. Character C. Label D. Date/Time 1-6. Which elements of a worksheet can be protected from accidental modification? A. Contents B. Objects C. Scenarios D. All of the above 1-7. A numeric value can be treated as label value if …… precedes it. A. Apostrophe (‘) B. Exclamation (!) C. Hash (#) D. Tilde (~) 1-8. Concatenation of text can be done using A. Apostrophe (‘) B. Exclamation (!) C. Hash (#) D. Ampersand (&) 1-9. Which area in an Excel window allows entering values and formulas? A. Title Bar

B. Menu Bar C. Formula Bar D. Standard Tool Bar 1-10. Multiple calculations can be made in a single formula using….. A. Standard Formulas B. Array Formula C. Complex Formulas D. Smart Formula

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – B / 2 – B / 3 – C / 4 – B / 5 – B / 6 – D / 7 – A / 8 – D / 9 – C / 10 – B ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Two

2-1. An Excel Workbook is a collection of ……. A. Workbooks B. Worksheets C. Charts D. Worksheets and Charts 2-2. What do you mean by a Workspace? A. Group of Columns B. Group of Worksheets C. Group of Rows D. Group of Workbooks 2-3. MS-EXCEL is based on ……….? A. WINDOWS B. DOS C. UNIX D. OS/2 2-4. In EXCEL, you can sum a large range of data by simply selecting a tool button called …..? A. AutoFill B. Auto correct C. Auto sum D. Auto format 2-5. To A. CTRL B. CTRL C. CTRL D. None

select an entire column in MS-EXCEL, press? + C + Arrow key + S of the above

2-6. To return the remainder after a number is divided by a divisor in EXCEL we use the function? A. ROUND ( ) B. FACT ( ) C. MOD ( ) D. DIV ( ) 2-7. Which function is not available in the Consolidate dialog box? A. Pmt B. Average C. Max D. Sum 2-8. Which is not the function of “Edit, Clear” command? A. Delete contents B. Delete notes C. Delete cells D. Delete formats 2-9. Microsoft Excel is a powerful……….. A. Word processing package B. Spreadsheet package C. Communication S/W Package D. DBMS package 2-10. How do you rearrange the data in ascending or descending order? A. Data, Sort B. Data, Form C. Data, Table D. Data Subtotals

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – D / 2 – D / 3 – A / 4 – C / 5 – D / 6 – C / 7 – A / 8 – C / 9 – B / 10 – A ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Three 3-1. Which Chart can be created in Excel? A. Area B. Line C. Pie D. All of the above 3-2. What will be the output if you format the cell containing 5436.8 as ‘#,##0.00′? A. 5,430.00 B. 5,436.80 C. 5,436.8 D. 6.8 3-3. How do you display current date and time in MS Excel?

A. B. C. D.

date () Today () now () time ()

3-4. How do you display current date only in MS Excel? A. date () B. Today () C. now () D. time () 3-5. How do you wrap the text in a cell? A. Format, cells, font B. Format, cells, protection C. format, cells, number D. Format, cells, alignment 3-6. What A. counts B. counts C. counts D. counts

does COUNTA () function do? cells having alphabets empty cells cells having number non-empty cells

3-7. What is the short cut key to highlight the entire column? A. Ctrl+C B. Ctrl+Enter C. Ctrl+Page Up D. Ctrl+Space Bar 3-8. In the formula, which symbol specifies the fixed columns or rows? A. $ B. * C. % D. & 3-9. Excel displays the current cell address in the ………. A. Formula bar B. Status Bar C. Name Box D. Title Bar 3-10. What is the correct way to refer the cell A10 on sheet3 from sheet1? A. sheet3!A10 B. sheet1!A10 C. Sheet3.A10 D. A10

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – D / 2 – B / 3 – C / 4 – B / 5 – D / 6 – D / 7 – D / 8 – A / 9 – C / 10 – A ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Four 4-1. Which language is used to create macros in Excel? A. Visual Basic B. C C. Visual C++ D. Java 4-2. Which of the following is not a term of MS-Excel? A. Cells B. Rows C. Columns D. Document 4-3. How many worksheets can a workbook have? A. 3 B. 8 C. 255 D. none of above 4-4. Which would you choose to create a bar diagram? A. Edit, Chart B. Insert, Chart C. Tools, Chart D. Format, Chart 4-5. Which setting you must modify to print a worksheet using letterhead? A. Paper B. Margin C. Layout D. Orientation 4-6. What do you call the chart that shows the proportions of how one or more data elements relate to another data element? A. XY Chart B. Line Chart C. Pie Chart D. Column Chart 4-7. The spelling dialog box can be involved by choosing spelling from ________ menu. A. insert B. file C. tools D. view 4-8. Which key do you press to check spelling? A. F3 B. F5 C. F7 D. F9 4-9. To record a sequence of keystrokes and mouse actions to play back later we use: A. Media player B. Sound Recorder

C. Calculator D. Macro Recorder 4-10. We can save and protect the workbook by A. Write Reservation Password B. Protection Password C. Read-only Recommended D. Any of the above

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – A / 2 – D / 3 – D / 4 – B / 5 – B / 6 – C / 7 – C / 8 – C / 9 – D / 10 – D ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Five 5-1. The first cell in EXCEL worksheet is labeled as A. AA B. A1 C. Aa D. A0 5-2. What happens when dollar signs ($) are entered in a cell address? (ex. $B$2:$B$10) A. An absolute cell address is created. B. Cell address will change when it is copied to another cell. C. The sheet tab is changed. D. The status bar does not display the cell address. 5-3. What are the tabs that appear at the bottom of each workbook called? A. Reference tabs B. Position tabs C. Location tabs D. Sheet tabs 5-4. What is represented by the small, black square in the lower-right corner of an active cell or range? A. Copy handle B. Fill handle C. Insert handle D. Border 5-5. A. A B. A C. A D. A

In Excel, a Data Series is defined as what? type of chart. cell reference. collection of related data division of results

5-6. In Excel, the Fill Color button on the Formatting toolbar is used for what? A. To insert a background.

B. To add borders. C. To select a distribution of figures. D. To add shading or color to a cell range. 5-7. In help menu of Excel, which of the following tabs are found? A. Contents tab B. Answer Wizard tab C. Index tab D. all of the above. 5-8. A __________ is a grid with labeled columns and rows. A. Dialog box B. Worksheet C. Clipboard D. Toolbar 5-9. The active cell: A. is defined by a bold border around the cell. B. Receives the data the user enters. C. It is the formula bar. D. Only A and B. 5-10. Which function is used to calculate depreciation, rates of return, future values and loan payment amounts? A. Logical B. Math & Trigonometry C. Statistical D. Financial

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – B / 2 – A / 3 – D / 4 – B / 5 – C / 6 – D / 7 – D / 8 – B / 9 – D / 10 – D ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Six

6-1. B7:B9 indicates: A. Cells B7 and cell B9 only. B. Cells B7 through B9. C. Cell B8 only. D. None of the above. 6-2. The Cancel and Enter buttons appear in the: A. Title bar B. Formula bar C. Menu bar D. Sheet tabs 6-3. MS-EXCEL can be used to automate

A. B. C. D.

Financial statements, Business forecasting Transaction registers, inventory control Accounts receivable, accounts payable Any of the above

6-4. NOT, AND, OR and XOR are A. Logical Operators B. Arithmetic operators C. Relational operators D. None of the above 6-5. In a report, you need to show the monthly rainfall in Nepal. The best way to do this is to insert a A. calendar B. photograph of rainfall C. chart showing rainfall amounts D. database of rainfall 6-6. You want to record experiment information and create a chart that shows the rate of crystal growth over a period of time. The best application to use would be: A. word processing B. spreadsheet C. database D. graphics 6-7. You are editing an worksheet that you had previously saved. If you want to save the edited sheet without losing the original one, which command should you use? A. New B. Save As C. Edit D. Save 6-8. If you want to have a blank line after the title in a worksheet, what is the best thing for you to do? A. Re-format the spreadsheet B. Insert a row C. Increase the column width D. Use the spacebar 6-9. In order to arrange the countries from those with the highest population to those with the lowest, you need to sort on the population field in …………… A. ascending order B. descending order C. alphabetical order D. random order 6-10. In order to perform a calculation in a spreadsheet, you need to use a: A. table B. formula C. field D. variable

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – B / 2 – B / 3 – D / 4 – A / 5 – C / 6 – B / 7 – B / 8 – B / 9 – B / 10 – B ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Seven

7-1. The box on the chart that contains the name of each individual record is called the ________. A. cell B. title C. axis D. legend 7-2. If you want all of the white cats grouped together in the database, you need to sort by ________. A. Color, then Gender B. Pet Type, then Color C. Pet Type, then Gender D. Color, then Pet Name 7-3. You accidentally erased a record in the sheet. What command can be used to restore it immediately? A. Insert B. Copy C. Undo D. Replace 7-4. Where a row and a column meet, what do you call that? A. A cell B. A block C. A box D. None of the above 7-5. How do you tell one cell from another? A. By numbers B. By letters C. By its address D. by color 7-6. Give me an example of a cell address. A. 11 25 B. 911 C. 41A D. A21 7-7. Which is an example of a formula? A. =A1+A2 B. =add(A1:A2) C. A1+A2 D. SUM(A1:A2)

7-8. Which is an example of a function? A. =add(A1:A2) B. =A1+A2 C. =SUM(A1:A2) D. A1+A2 7-9. What is the symbol for multiplying? A. > B. / C. ! D. * 7-10. What is the symbol for dividing? A ./ B. % C. & D. #

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – D / 2 – B / 3 – C / 4 – A / 5 – C / 6 – D / 7 – A / 8 – C / 9 – D /10 – A ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Eight 8-1 A function inside another function is called _______ A. Nested function B. Round function C. Sum function D. Text function 8-2 Which of the following is not an underline option in the format cells dialog box? A. Double B. Single Accounting C. Double Accounting D. Single Engineering 8-3 A. B. C. D.

Formulas in Excel start with % = + -

8-4 The default header for a worksheet is A. Username B. Date and Time C. Sheet tab Name D. None

8-5 Which of the following is not an option of the spelling dialog box? A. Ignore B. Ignore all C. Edit D. Change 8-6 Which of the following methods will not enter data in a cell? A. Pressing the Esc key B. Pressing an arrow key C. Pressing the tab key D. Clicking the enter button to the formula bar 8-7 A. B. C. D.

The cell reference for cell range of G2 to M12 is _______ G2.M12 G2;M12 G2:M12 G2-M12

8-8 What is the keyboard shortcut for creating a chart from the selected cell range? A. F2 B. F4 C. F8 D. F11 8-9 The Software which contains rows and columns is called ______ A. Database B. Drawing C. Spreadsheet D. Word processing 8-10 You can group noncontiguous worksheets with A. The alt+enter key B. The ctrl key and mouse C. The shift key and the mouse D. The group button on the standard toolbar

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – A / 2 – D / 3 – B / 4 – D / 5 – C / 6 – A / 7 – C / 8 – D / 9 – C / 10 – B ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Nine 9-1. What is the AutoComplete feature of Excel? A. It automatically completes abbreviated words B. It completes text entries that match an existing entry in the same column C. It completes text and numeric entries that match an existing entry in

the same column D. It completes text entries that match an existing entry in the same worksheet 9-2. Which of the following is correct? A. =AVERAGE(4, 5, 6, 7) B. =AVERAGE(A1, B1, C1) C. =AVERAGE(A1:A9, B1:B9) D. =All of the above 9-3. Which of the following function will return a value of 8? A. ROUNDUP(8.4999, 0) B. ROUNDDOWN(8.4999, 0) C. ROUND(8.4999, 0) D. Only B and C 9-4. How to restrict to run a macro automatically when starting Microsoft Excel? A. Hold down the SHIFT key during startup B. Hold down the CTRL key during startup C. Hold down the ESC key during startup D. Hold down the ALT key during startup 9-5. How to remove the unwanted action from recorded macro without recording the whole macro again? A. By using the Find and Edit Action Option B. By clicking on the Refresh button in the Macro toolbar C. By edit the macro in the Visual Basic Editor D. Macro cannot be edited. 9-6. What should be add before a fraction to avoid entering it as a date? A. // B. FR C. Zero D. Zero Space 9-7. Which of the following function will use to find the highest number in a series of number? A. MAX(B1:B3) B. MAXIMUM (B1:B3) C. HIGH (B1:B3) D. HIGHEST(B1:B3) 9-8. What does the NOW() A. It returns the serial B. It returns the serial C. It returns the serial D. None of the above

function return? number of the current date and time number of the current date number of the current time

9-9. What value will display if the formula = “$55.00″+5 is entered into a cell? A. $60 B. 60 C. “$55.00″+5 D. $60.00 9-10. What is the shortcut key to insert current date in a cell? A. CTRL + D

B. CTRL + T C. CTRL + ; D. CTRL + /

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – B / 2 – D / 3 – D / 4 – A / 5 – C / 6 – D / 7 – A / 8 – D / 9 – B / 10 – C ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Ten 10-1. Which of the following syntax is correct regarding to SUM function in Excel? A. =SUM (A1, B1) B. =SUM (A1:B9) C. =SUM (A1:A9, B1:B9) D. All of the above 10-2. What is the shortcut key to hide entire column? A. CTRL + − B. CTRL + 0 C. CTRL + H D. CTRL + C 10-3. How to specify cell range from A9 to A99 in Excel? A. (A9, A99) B. (A9 to A99) C. (A9 : A99) D. (A9 – A99) 10-4. Selecting the Column G & H then choose Insert->Columns. What will happen? A. 2 Columns will be inserted after Column F B. 2 Columns will be inserted after Column G C. 2 Columns will be inserted after Column H D. 2 Columns will be inserted after Column I 10-5. How to restrict the values of a cell so that only whole numbers between 9 and 99 can be entered in a cell. A. The Settings tab under the menu Format -> Cells B. The Settings tab under the menu Data -> Validation C. The Settings tab under the menu Data -> Filter -> Advanced Filter D. the Settings tab under the menu Format -> Conditional Formatting 10-6. Clear the contents by pressing “DELETE” key from a keyboard will clear A. Text Only B. Format Only C. Contents Only D. Both Contents and Format

10-7. Which of the following shortcuts can be used to insert a new line in the same cell? A. Enter B. Alt + Enter C. Ctrl + Enter D. Shift + Enter 10-8. What is the quickest way to select entire worksheet? A. Choose Edit -> Select all from the Menu B. Click on the first column, press Ctrl, and then click on the last column C. Click on the first column, press Shift, and then click on the last column D. Click on the rectangle box on the upper left corner where column headings and row headings meet 10-9. A smart tag will be removed from a cell when A. the cell is moved B. the cell is hidden C. the data in the cell is changed or deleted D. the formatting of the cell is changed 10-10. Which of the following options is appropriate to show the numbers 9779851089510 in a cell? A. Enclose the number is brackets B. Place the character T before the number C. Place the character TX before the number D. Apply the Text format in the cell and type the numbers

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – D / 2 – B / 3 – C / 4 – A / 5 – B / 6 – C / 7 – B / 8 – D / 9 – C / 10 – D ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Eleven

11-1. Which of the following is correct syntax in Excel? A. =IF(LogicalTest, TrueResult, FalseResult) B. =IF(LogicalTest, (TrueResult, FalseResult)) C. =IF(LogicalTest, TrueResult) (LogicalTest, FalseResult) D. =IF(LogicalTest, TrueResult), IF(LogicalTest, FalseResult) 11-2. Which of the following is correct? A. =POWER(2^3) B. =POWER(2,3) C. =POWER(2#3) D. =POWER(2*3)

11-3. Selecting the Rows 5 happen? A. 2 Rows will be inserted B. 2 Rows will be inserted C. 2 Rows will be inserted D. 2 Rows will be inserted

& 6 then choose Insert->Row. What will after after after after

Row Row Row Row

4 5 6 7

11-4. If 4/6 entered in a cell without applying any formats, Excel will treat this as A. Fraction B. Number C. Text D. Date 11-5. If function A. =A1 + B. =A1 # C. =A1 & D. =A1 $

the values in A1 is “MCQ” and B1 is “Questions”, which will return “[email protected]” in cell C1? “@” + B1 “@” # B1 “@” & B1 “@” $ B1

11-6. How to fit long texts in a single cell with multiple lines? A. Start typing in the cell and press the Enter key to start another line B. Use the Wrap Text option in the Format -> Alignment menu C. Use the Shrink to Fit option in the Format -> Cells -> Alignment menu D. All of above 11-7. If particular workbook have to open each time Excel started, where that workbook should be placed? A. AUTOEXEC Folder B. AUTOSTART Folder C. EXCELSTART Folder D. XLSTART Folder 11-8. If the cell B1 contains the formula = $A$1, which of the following statements is true A. There is a relative reference to cell A1 B. There is an absolute reference to cell A1 C. Further changes in value of A1 will not affect the value of B1 D. Further changes in value of B1 will affect the value of A1 11-9. Worksheet can be renamed by A. Adding ? symbol at the end of filename while saving workbook B. Click on Worksheet tab by Holding CTRL Key and type new name C. Double Click on the Worksheet tab and type new name D. Worksheet cannot renamed 11-10. What is the shortcut key to hide entire row? A. CTRL + H B. CTRL + R C. CTRL + 9 D. CTRL + -

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – A / 2 – B / 3 – A / 4 – D / 5 – C / 6 – B / 7 – D / 8 – B / 9 – C / 10 – C ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Twelve 12-1. What is the shortcut key to insert a new comment in a cell? A. F2 B. Alt + F2 C. Ctrl + F2 D. Shift + F2 12-2. Which option allows you to Bold all the negative values within the selected cell range: A. Zero Formatting B. Conditional Formatting C. Compare Formatting D. Negative Formatting 12-3. What is the shortcut key to insert new sheet in current workbook? A. F11 B. Alt + F11 C. Ctrl + F11 D. Shift + F11 12-4. Which one is the last column header in Excel 2007? A. XFD B. XFX C. XFL D. XFT 12-5. In maximum, how many sheets can be set as default while creating new workbook? A. 254 B. 255 C. 256 D. No Limit 12-6. “New Comment” option can be found under _________ tab A. Insert B. Data C. Review D. View 12-7. In Excel, by default Numeric Values appears in A. Left aligned B. Right aligned C. Center aligned D. Justify aligned

12-8. To show/hide the grid lines in Microsoft Excel 2007 A. Page Layout -> Grid lines -> View B. Insert -> Grid lines -> View C. View -> Grid lines -> View D. Edit -> Grid lines -> View 12-9. What will be the result if you type =A1=B1 in cell C1? A. Yes or No B. True or False C. Value of A1 D. Value of B1 12-10. In Excel _______ may not contain in Formula A. Text Constant B. Number Constant C. Circular Reference D. All of them

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – D / 2 – B / 3 – D / 4 – A / 5 – B / 6 – C / 7 – B / 8 – A / 9 – B / 10 – C ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Microsoft Access 2007 Introduction A database is a collection of information that's related. Access allows you to manage your information in one database file. Within Access there are four major areas: Tables, Queries, Forms and Reports • Tables store your data in your database • Queries ask questions about information stored in your tables • Forms allow you to view data stored in your tables • Reports allow you to print data based on queries/tables that you have created

Creating a Database 1) Start Access

2) Select Blank Database 3) In the File Name field enter a name for the database 4) Click Create

Microsoft Access automatically creates a new table in the database called Table1. This is a temporary name until the table is saved.

Understanding the Views There are 2 basic views when you work in a table: Design View and Datasheet View. Design View is used to set the data types, insert or delete fields, and set the Primary key. Datasheet View is used to enter the data for the records. By default, Access places you in Datasheet View. To Switch to Design view: 1) Click the View button on the Home Ribbon 2) Type a name for the table 3) Click OK

2

Before proceeding, it is important to understand common Microsoft Access Data Types. (Explained in the table below) The image part with relationship ID rId206 was not found in the file.

To Enter Fields in a Table: 1) Type a name for the first field in the table 2) Press Enter 3) Select a data type 4) Press Enter 5) Type a description for the field 6) Press Enter Continue this until all necessary fields have been entered into the table. Note: The order that you enter the field names is the order the fields will appear in the table and on a form. The image part with relationship ID rId207 was not found in the file.

3

To View the Datasheet: Click the View button on the Ribbon

Setting a Primary Key The Primary Key is the unique identifier for each record in a table. Access will not allow duplicate entries in a Primary Key field. By default, Access sets the first field in the table as the Primary Key field. An example of a Primary Key would be your Social Security Number. This is something unique about you and should not be duplicated. To Set a Primary Key: 1) Switch to Design View 2) Position your cursor in the field you wish to set as the Primary Key 3) Click the Primary Key button on the Ribbon

To Switch Back to Datasheet View to Enter your Records: Click the View button on the Ribbon.

Entering Data in a Table Once you have entered the fields and set the data types it is now time to enter the records in a table. To Enter Data in a Table: 1) Make sure you are in Datasheet View 2) Enter the data into the table by pressing the tab key to move from one cell to another 3) When you have completed the record (row), press Enter

The image part with relationship ID rId210 was not found in the file.

When inputting data into the table, Access automatically saves the data after each new record.

Input Masks An Input Mask is used to pre-format a field to “look/act” a certain way when a user inputs data. Example: You could create an input mask for a Social Security Number field that automatically inserts the dash. The Input Mask data can either be stored in the table or simply displayed and not stored. (The latter is preferred) To Create an Input Mask for a Field 1) Open a table in Design View 2) Click in a field for which you’d like to create an input mask 3) In the Field Properties section at the bottom of the screen, click in the Input Mask line and notice the Build button that appears at the right end of the line (see below) The image part with relationship ID rId211 was not found in the file.

4) Click the Build button 5) Select Input Mask 6) Click Next

7) Select a Placeholder character 8) Click Next The image part with relationship ID rId212 was not found in the file.

9) Select Without the symbols in the mask 10)Click Next 11)Click Finish The image part with relationship ID rId213 was not found in the file.

Now, when entering data that has been formatted with an Input Mask, you do not have to type the format into the record.

The following is an example of a table with a field that has been formatted with an Input Mask on the Social Security Field. Notice, the only thing that the user has to enter is the digits, not the symbols. The image part with relationship ID rId214 was not found in the file.

Navigating Records Use the arrows at the bottom of the table to navigate among records. You are able to navigate from the first record, previous record, next record, last record, and create a new record (as shown in the picture below). Notice that the total number of records in the table is shown at the right end of the navigation arrows. The image part with relationship ID rId215 was not found in the file.

Sorting Records in a Table By sorting your records in a table, you are easily able to view/locate records in your table. To Sort Records in a Table: 1) Position your cursor in the field that you wish to sort by, by clicking on any record in that field. 2) Click either the Sort Ascending or Sort Descending icon

Notice, the table above has been sorted by the Last Name field in ascending order.

Queries You use Queries to view, change, and analyze data in different ways. You can also use them as a source of records for forms and reports. To Create a Query: 1) Click the Create tab on the Ribbon 2) Click Query Design icon The image part with relationship ID rId216 was not found in the file.

3) 4) 5) 6)

Double-click Create Query in Design View Select the table that you would like to base your Query on Click Add Close the Show Table window

The table(s) will now be displayed in the upper part of the Query Design Screen by boxes containing the tables’ fields. 7) Double click on the field names in the field list window which you would like to include in the Query

Defining Criteria in the Query In order to control which records are displayed, you must define criteria in a Query. The most common type of Query is the Select Records Query which will be discussed below. To Define Criteria for your Query: 1) Position your cursor in the criteria row in the field for which you wish to define the criteria for 2) Enter the criteria Example: To find all people it the table who live in Edison:

• • •

Position your cursor in the criteria row of the City field Type Edison Click the Run Query button

Below is a picture of the results of the above query:

The image part with relationship ID rId217 was not found in the file.

The image part with relationship ID rId218 was not found in the file.

The result of a query is called a recordset. A recordset can be sorted, printed or filtered in the same manner as a table. To Save the Query: 1) Click the Save Icon 2) Enter a name for the Query 3) Click OK The image part with relationship ID rId219 was not found in the file.

Note: When saving a select Query, you are saving the question that you are asking, not the results that you see when you run the Query.

Creating a Form Using the Forms Wizard A form is a database object that is used to enter or display data in a database. To Create a Form Using the Wizard: 1) Navigate to the table you want to base the form on 2) Click Create on the Ribbon 3) Click Forms You are able to navigate using the navigation arrows at the bottom of the form. Note: The form feeds the table. If you edit a record on the form, or create a new record, that data will be passed to the table it is associated with. The image part with relationship ID rId220 was not found in the file.

To Enter a Record on the Form: 1) Click the View button on the Ribbon to switch from Layout View to Form View 2) Enter the data for each field in the record, pressing the Enter key to move to the next field 3) Press Enter after you have entered data for the last field This will send the record to the table.

Reports Reports can be based on tables or queries and can be made with the Report Wizard. To Create a Report Using the Report Wizard: 1) Click the Create tab on the Ribbon 2) Click the Report Wizard icon 3) Select the table or query upon which the report will be based 4) Select the fields that you want to include on the report by double clicking on them 5) Click Next 6) If you would like to add grouping to your report, select the field you wish to group by double clicking on it (Example: City) 7) Click Next 8) Select a style for the report 9) Click Next 10)Type a title for the report 11)Click Finish The image part with relationship ID rId221 was not found in the file.

To Print a Report 1) Open the report by double clicking on the object in the Navigation Pane 2) By default, the report opens in Print Preview. To Adjust the Orientation: Click the portrait or landscape icon on the Print Preview Ribbon To Adjust the Margins 1) Click them Margins icon on the Print Preview Ribbon 2) Select a margin size To Print the Report 1) Click the Print Icon on the Print Preview Ribbon 2) Select the Printer 3) Click OK

Questions Quiz One 1-1. An organized collection of logically related data is known as A. Data B. Meta data C. Database D. Information 1-2. In databases, Locking level is also called as A. Granularity B. S lock C. X lock D. Dead lock 1-3. Which of the following is not a database application? A. dBase B. Flash C. FoxPro D. Access 1-4. HSAM stands for ________ A. Hierarchic Sequential Access Method B. Hierarchic Standard Access Method C. Hierarchic Sequential and Method D. Hierarchic Standard and Method 1-5. Which of the following is not a logical database structure? A. Chain B. Network C. Tree D. Relational 1-6. In a datasheet, what does each column represent? A. Record B. Field C. Database D. Table 1-7. In a datasheet, what does each row represent? A. Record B. Field C. Database D. Table 1-8. A ________ is a unit of information in a ________ A. record, field B. field, record C. data source, field D. record, data source 1-9. What do you call a primary key field included in another table? A. Foreign key B. Parent key

C. Child key D. Index 1-10. Which type of field is incremented automatically? A. Auto Elevate B. AutoNumber C. Auto Increment D. Auto Value

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – C / 2 – A / 3 – B / 4 – A / 5 – A / 6 – B / 7 – A / 8 – B / 9 – A / 10 – B ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Two 2-1. Which object is used to create a form? A. Tables and Queries B. Tables only C. Tables and reports D. Queries and reports 2-2. What determines a table’s sort order? A. AutoNumber field B. Index field C. Field order D. Primary key 2-3. What is an intersection of a row and a column? A. Form B. Cursor C. Cell D. Record 2-4. Which tool do you use to create a query object? A. Database wizard B. Simple filter wizard C. Simple query wizard D. Table query wizard 2-5. Which of the following is not a view for interacting with a form object? A. Datasheet view B. Design view C. Form view D. Layout view 2-6. What is the purpose of indexing? A. To reduce table size

B. To speedup data search C. both A and B D. none of the above 2-7. Which is the valid data type in Access? A. Number B. Text C. Currency D. All of the above 2-8. A. 4 B. 3 C. 2 D. 1

How many relations may exist between tables in databases?

2-9. What is the full form of SQL? A. Sophisticated Question List B. Structured Question List C. Structured Query Language D. Small Query Length 2-10. Which data type is better to use for storing phone number in the following format “977-1-1234567”? A. Text B. AutoNumber C. Number D. Currency

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – A / 2 – B / 3 – C / 4 – C / 5 – D / 6 – B / 7 – D / 8 – B / 9 – C / 10 – A ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Three

3-1. What do you call a collection of records matching parameters of A. Field B. Record C. Query D. Dynaset 3-2. Which query do you use to answer the question “Which employees earn more than $5000 a month”? A. Search query

a query?

B. Cross tab query C. Select query D. Update query 3-3. In which order do you place the field to sort a Dynaset first by zipcode, then by lastname and then by firstname? A. zipcode, firstname, lastname B. firstname, lastname, zipcode C. zipcode, lastname, firstname D. can’t sort by multiple fields 3-4. What does the expression [detail] ! [product] * 1.30 do? A. multiplies the contents of detail and product fields by 1.3 B. First divides detail by product and then multiplies by 1.3 C. multiplies the contents of detail in the product table by 1.3 D. multiplies the contents of product in the detail table by 1.3 3-5. Which criteria return only those addresses beginning with the letter “K”? A. address = “K” B. address = “K*” C. address = “K?” D. address = “K#” 3-6. Which A. position B. position C. position D. position

criteria do not return the position “Officer” as a match? = “*ff*” = “O??icer” = “ ?ff*” = “O#r”

3-7. Which query do you use to answer the question “What is the average salary of the employees”? A. Search query B. Cross tab query C. Select query D. Update query 3-8. What is the result CustID10 and with with with with

CustID CustID CustID CustID

from 10 to 100 above 10 below 100 from 11 to 99

3-9. How to make a date field DOB store the dates like “2002/10/17” ? A. By setting the input mask property to “yyyy/mm/dd” B. By setting the format property to “yyyy/mm/dd” C. By entering dates in yyyy, mm, dd order D. none of the above 3-10. only? A. By B. By C. By D. By

You have field ‘Sex’ of type Byte Number. How to limit its value to 0 and 1 setting required to ‘Yes’ using default value defining validation rule using format

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – D / 2 – C / 3 – C / 4 – D / 5 – B / 6 – D / 7 – C / 8 – D / 9 – B / 10 – C ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Four 4-1. In an application created using the database wizard, the main menu is presented as a: A. form, called a switchboard B. report, called a menu C. table, called a switchboard D. query, called a menu 4-2. Which leads you through the process of creating a table? A. wizard B. assistant C. relation D. coach 4-3. Which data type is better to use for storing the price of an item? A. Text B. AutoNumber C. Number D. Currency 4-4. Which do you click to display the table’s primary key and indexes in a separate window? A. indexes button B. primary key button C. view datasheet button D. view design button 4-5. After right click the field selector button, which do you choose to delete a field in design view? A. Delete field B. delete rows C. remove field D. remove rows 4-6. Which tool is used to generate printout of a table’s structure? A. Analyzer B. Designer C. Documenter

D. Generator 4-7. Which of the following is not a legitimate section for form objects? A. Form detail B. Group header C. Form header D. Page footer 4-8. The basic elements of a form or a report are called: A. Controls B. Objects C. Windows D. Properties 4-9. Which control types is most often associated with a bound control? A. command button B. label C. text box D. list box 4-10. Which control type do you use to create a calculated control? A. command button B. combo box C. text box D. list box

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – A / 2 – A / 3 – D / 4 – A / 5 – B / 6 – C / 7 – B / 8 – A / 9 – C / 10 – C ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Five 5-1. Which is not a view for displaying a report object? A. Datasheet view B. Design view C. Print preview D. Layout preview 5-2. The report footer section is most useful for displaying: A. grand totals B. Column headings C. subtotals D. page numbers 5-3. Which function can not be used for calculated controls in a report? A. SUM B. AVG C. MPT D. COUNT

5-4. Which setting you must modify to print a report using letterhead? A. Group B. Margin C. Section D. Orientation 5-5. In the datasheet formatting dialogue box, which is not an option in the border and line styles dropdown list box? A. datasheet border B. datasheet underline C. Column Header underline D. vertical gridline 5-6. Which is not an option for customizing a datasheet window? A. change one row’s height B. hide one column C. change one column’s width D. freeze one column 5-7. Which is not a command that is selectable from right click menu of a field column? A. Hide columns B. Unhide columns C. freeze columns D. sort descending 5-8. What do you call the process of restricting the display of records in a table to those matching a particular criterion? A. filtering B. restricting C. sorting D. sifting 5-9. In the relationships window, what does the appearance of symbols, such as 1 and the infinity symbol, at the endpoints of a relationship line mean? A. Referential integrity is enforced B. Referential integrity isn’t enforced C. An inner join is set D. An outer join is set 5-10. Which of the following is not an action query? A. add B. delete C. make-table D. update

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – A / 2 – A / 3 – C / 4 – B / 5 – C / 6 – A / 7 – B / 8 – A / 9 – A / 10 – A ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Six 6-1 A. B. C. D.

In MS Access, Text Data type may contain maximum character of 255 Character 256 Character 1064 Character No Limit

6-2 A. B. C. D.

Which of the following is not a valid Data Type in MS Access? Memo Picture Currency AutoNumber

6-3 A. B. C. D.

In MS Access “Hyperlink” Data Type can store Web Address email Address Path of a File All of Above

6-4 A. B. C. D.

Which of the following data type is used to store logical value in MS Access? True/False On/Off Yes/No All of Above

6-5 A. B. C. D.

The appropriate Data Type to store Time in MS Access? Date/Time Time Only Time Time cannot be stored

6-6 A. B. C. D.

In MS Access “Lookup Wizard” is used to to select from previous values to select values from Excel Sheet to select value from another table Not a valid Data Type

6-7 Which of the following Data Type is used to store picture in MS Access A. Picture B. OLE Object C. Memo D. Picture cannot be stored 6-8 and A. B. C. D.

in MS Access, which data type is appropriate to store large text numbers? Text Memo OLE Large Text

6-9 in MS Access, OLE Object Data type can store A. Microsoft Word documents B. Microsoft Excel spreadsheets

C. D.

Sounds All of the Above

6-10 in MS Access, AutoNumber Data Type A. Can be Sequential B. Can be Random C. Can be Edited D. Only A & B

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – A / 2 – B / 3 – D / 4 – C / 5 – A / 6 – C / 7 – B / 8 – B / 9 – D / 10 – D ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Seven

7-1 Which of the following is use to get data from user? A. Query B. Pages C. Form D. Report 7-2 Which of the following is invalid field name? A. Student.Address B. Student’sAddress C. Student_Address D. Student Address 7-3 Primary key is A. Uniquely identifies each record B. Cannot be repeated C. AutoNumber is example of Primary key D. All of the above 7-4 To create a table in Access A. Database should be created before create table B. Table can be created using Table Templates C. There must be at least one Primary key in a table D. All of the above 7-5 Which of the following is use to view or print the data in organized manner? A. Query B. Report C. Table D. Form 7-6 In a table to insert User’s Voice, Data field should be

A. B. C. D.

OLE Object SoundField VoiceField Memo

7-7 In a table Multiple Primary Keys can be set A. True B. False 7-8 After A. Fields B. Fields C. Fields D. Fields

creating the table which of the following is correct? cannot be added cannot be deleted can added but only once can added and deleted as needed

7-9 Validation Rule in a field will A. Checks the value entered when user leaves the field B. Displays the value in specified format when user leaves the field C. Defines the appearance for the text D. There is no option of Validation Rule 7-10 Query can be use to select data from A. Single Table B. Multiple Tables C. Both A & B

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – C / 2 – A / 3 – D / 4 – D / 5 – B / 6 – A / 7 – A / 8 – D / 9 – A / 10 – C ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Eight 8-1 Data can be import into Access Database from 1. 2. 3. 4.

Word Files Excel Files PowerPoint Files HTML Files

8-2 What is the use of Referential Integrity in MS Access? 1. It allow to enter a value in the foreign key field of a child table if that value exist in the primary key of the parent table 2. It does not allow to enter a value in the foreign key field of a child table if that value exist in the primary key of the parent table 3. It allow to enter a value in the Primary key field of a child table if that value exist in the Foreign key of the parent table 4. None of above 8-3 In MS Access, Field Value may contain

1. 2. 3. 4.

Text Date & Time Picture All of the Above

8-4 Which of the following is the DBMS type 1. 2. 3. 4.

Flat File System Hierarchical DBMS Relational DMBS All of the Above

8-5 Which of the following relationship is not valid in MS Access ? 1. 2. 3. 4.

Many to Many Many to Null One to One One to Many

8-6 A collection of related tables is called 1. 2. 3. 4.

Row Record Database File

8-7 Which of the following Format supports for Data Type Yes/No? 1. 2. 3. 4.

Yes/No True/False On/Off All of Above

8-8 Queries can be created in Access by 1. 2. 3. 4. 8-9 1. 2. 3. 4.

Typing Queries in SQL View Drag and Drop fields on Query Builder Using Query Wizard All of the Above Relationship can be establish between two tables by Drag Primary key of a table into Foreign key of another table Drag Foreign key of a table into Primary key of another table Drag any key of a table into any key of another table All of the above

8-10 What is the use of Cascade Delete Option in MS Access? 1. It makes sure that all the records from the parent table and child table is deleted from selected database 2. It makes sure that all the related records will be deleted automatically from child table when the records from parent table is deleted 3. It makes sure that all the related records will be deleted automatically from Parent table when the records from child table is deleted

4. None of above

---------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – B / 2 – A / 3 – D / 4 – D / 5 – B / 6 – C / 7 – D / 8 – D / 9 – A / 10 – B ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Basic Networking What is a computer Network? A network is any collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a shared network medium. A computer network is a collection of two or more connected computers. When these computers are joined in a network, people can share files and peripherals such as modems, printers, tape backup drives, or CD-ROM drives. When networks at multiple locations are connected using services available from phone companies, people can send e-mail, share links to the global Internet, or conduct video conferences in real time with other remote users. When a network becomes open sourced it can be managed properly with online collaboration software. As companies rely on applications like electronic mail and database management for core business operations, computer networking becomes increasingly more important. Every network includes:

• • •

At least two computers Server or Client workstation. Networking Interface Card's (NIC) A connection medium, usually a wire or cable, although wireless communication between networked computers and peripherals is also possible.



Network Operating system software, such as Microsoft Windows NT or 2000, Novell NetWare, Linux

Unix and

.

Types of Networks: LANs (Local Area Networks) A network is any collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a shared network medium. LANs are networks usually confined to a geographic area, such as a single building or a college campus. LANs can be small, linking as few as three computers, but often link hundreds of computers used by thousands of people. The development of standard networking protocols and media has resulted in worldwide proliferation of LANs throughout business and educational organizations.

WANs (Wide Area Networks) Wide area networking combines multiple LANs that are geographically separate. This is accomplished by connecting the different LANs using services such as dedicated leased phone lines, dial-up phone lines (both synchronous and asynchronous), satellite links, and data packet carrier services. Wide area networking can be as simple as a modem and remote access server for employees to dial into, or it can be as complex as hundreds of branch offices globally linked using special routing protocols and filters to minimize the expense of sending data sent over vast distances.

Internet

The Internet is a system of linked networks that are worldwide in scope and facilitate data communication services such as

remote

login,

file

transfer,

electronic

mail,

the

World

Wide

Web

and

newsgroups.

With the meteoric rise in demand for connectivity, the Internet has become a communications highway for millions of users. The Internet was initially restricted to military and academic institutions, but now it is a full-fledged conduit for any and all forms of information and commerce. Internet websites now provide personal, educational, political and economic resources to every corner of the planet.

Intranet With the advancements made in browser-based software for the Internet, many private organizations are implementing intranets. An intranet is a private network utilizing Internet-type tools, but available only within that organization. For large organizations, an intranet provides an easy access mode to corporate information for employees.

MANs (Metropolitan area Networks) The refers to a network of computers with in a City.

VPN (Virtual Private Network) VPN uses a technique known as tunneling to transfer data securely on the Internet to a remote access server on your workplace network. Using a VPN helps you save money by using the public Internet instead of making long–distance phone calls to connect securely with your private network. There are two ways to create a VPN connection, by dialing an Internet service provider (ISP), or connecting directly to Internet.

Categories of Network: Network can be divided in to two main categories: •

Peer-to-peer.



Server – based.

In peer-to-peer networking there are no dedicated servers or hierarchy among the computers. All of the computers are equal and therefore known as peers. Normally each computer serves as Client/Server and there is no one assigned to be an administrator responsible for the entire network. Peer-to-peer networks are good choices for needs of small organizations here the users are allocated in the same general area, security is not an issue and the organization and the network will have limited growth within the foreseeable future.

The term Client/server refers to the concept of sharing the work involved in processing data between the client computer and the most powerful server computer.

The client/server network is the most efficient way to provide: • Databases and management of applications such as Spreadsheets, Accounting, Communications and Document management. •

Network management.



Centralized file storage.

The client/server model is basically an implementation of distributed or cooperative processing. At the heart of the model is the concept of splitting application functions between a client and a server processor. The division of labor between the different processors enables the application designer to place an application function on the processor that is most appropriate for that function. This lets the software designer optimize the use of processors--providing the greatest possible return on investment for the hardware. Client/server application design also lets the application provider mask the actual location of application function. The user often does not know where a specific operation is executing. The entire function may execute in either the PC or server, or the function may be split between them. This masking of application function locations enables system implementers to upgrade portions of a system over time with a minimum disruption of application operations, while protecting the investment in existing hardware and software.

The OSI Model:

Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model has become an International standard and serves as a guide for networking. This model is the best known and most widely used guide to describe networking environments. Vendors design network products based on the specifications of the OSI model. It provides a description of how network hardware and software work together in a layered fashion to make communications possible. It also helps with trouble shooting

by

providing

a

frame

of

reference

that

describes

how

components

are

supposed

to

function. There are seven to get familiar with and these are the physical layer, data link layer, network layer, transport layer, session layer, presentation layer, and the application layer. • Physical Layer, is just that the physical parts of the network such as wires, cables, and there media along with the length. Also this layer takes note of the electrical signals that transmit data throughout system. •

Data Link Layer, this layer is where we actually assign meaning to the electrical signals in the network. The layer also determines the size and format of data sent to printers, and other devices. Also I don't want to forget that these are also called nodes in the network. Another thing to consider in this layer is will also allow and define the error detection and correction schemes that insure data was sent and received.

• •

Network Layer, this layer provides the definition for the connection of two dissimilar networks. Transport Layer, this layer allows data to be broken into smaller packages for data to be distributed and



Session Layer, this layer helps out with the task to carry information from one node (workstation) to another

addressed to other nodes (workstations). node (workstation). A session has to be made before we can transport information to another computer. •



Presentation Layer, this layer is responsible to code and decode data sent to the node. Application Layer, this layer allows you to use an application that will communicate with say the operation system of a server. A good example would be using your web browser to interact with the operating system on a server such as Windows NT, which in turn gets the data you requested.

Network Architectures: Ethernet

Ethernet is the most popular physical layer LAN technology in use today. Other LAN types include Token Ring, Fast Ethernet, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and LocalTalk. Ethernet is popular because it strikes a good balance between speed, cost and ease of installation. These benefits, combined with wide acceptance in the computer marketplace and the ability to support virtually all popular network protocols, make Ethernet an ideal networking technology for most computer users today. The Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) defines the Ethernet standard as IEEE Standard 802.3. This standard defines rules for configuring an

Ethernet network as well as specifying how elements in an Ethernet network interact with one another. By adhering to the IEEE standard, network equipment and network protocols can communicate efficiently.

Fast Ethernet For Ethernet networks that need higher transmission speeds, the Fast Ethernet standard (IEEE 802.3u) has been established. This standard raises the Ethernet speed limit from 10 Megabits per second (Mbps) to 100 Mbps with only minimal changes to the existing cable structure. There are three types of Fast Ethernet: 100BASE-TX for use with level 5 UTP cable, 100BASE-FX for use with fiber-optic cable, and 100BASE-T4 which utilizes an extra two wires for use with level 3 UTP cable. The 100BASE-TX standard has become the most popular due to its close compatibility with the 10BASE-T Ethernet standard. For the network manager, the incorporation of Fast Ethernet into an existing configuration presents a host of decisions. Managers must determine the number of users in each site on the network that need the higher throughput, decide which segments of the backbone need to be reconfigured specifically for 100BASE-T and then choose the necessary hardware to connect the 100BASE-T segments with existing 10BASET segments. Gigabit Ethernet is a future technology that promises a migration path beyond Fast Ethernet so the next generation of networks will support even higher data transfer speeds

Token Ring Token Ring is another form of network configuration which differs from Ethernet in that all messages are transferred in a unidirectional manner along the ring at all times. Data is transmitted in tokens, which are passed along the ring and viewed by each device. When a device sees a message addressed to it, that device copies the message and then marks that message as being read. As the message makes its way along the ring, it eventually gets back to the sender who now notes that the message was received by the intended device. The sender can then remove the message and free that token for use by others. Various PC vendors have been proponents of Token Ring networks at different times and thus these types of networks have been implemented in many organizations.

FDDI FDDI (Fiber-Distributed Data Interface) is a standard for data transmission on fiber optic lines in a local area network that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles). The FDDI protocol is based on the token ring protocol. In addition to being large geographically, an FDDI local area network can support thousands of users.

Protocols: Network protocols are standards that allow computers to communicate. A protocol defines how computers identify one another on a network, the form that the data should take in transit, and how this information is processed once it reaches its final destination. Protocols also define procedures for handling lost or damaged transmissions or "packets." TCP/IP (for UNIX, Windows NT, Windows 95 and other platforms), IPX (for Novell NetWare), DECnet (for networking Digital Equipment Corp. computers), AppleTalk (for Macintosh computers), and NetBIOS/NetBEUI (for LAN

Manager

and

Windows

NT

networks)

are

the

main

types

of

network protocols in use today. Although each network protocol is different, they all share the same physical cabling. This common method of accessing the physical network allows multiple protocols to peacefully coexist over the network media, and allows the builder of a network to use common hardware for a variety of protocols. This concept is known as "protocol independence," Some Important Protocols and their job:

Protocol

Acronym

Its Job

Point-To-Point

TCP/IP

The backbone protocol of the internet. Popular also for

intranets

using

the

internet Transmission

Control TCP/IP

Protocol/internet Protocol

The backbone protocol of the internet. Popular also for

intranets

using

the

internet Internetwork

Package IPX/SPX

This is a standard protocol

Exchange/Sequenced Packet

for

Exchange

Operating System

NetBIOS

Extended

User NetBEUI

Interface

Novell

Network

This is a Microsoft protocol that

doesn't

support

routing to other networks File Transfer Protocol

FTP

Used to send and receive files from a remote host

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol HTTP

Used for the web to send documents

that

are

encoded in HTML. Network File Services

NFS

Allows network nodes or workstations

to

access

files and drives as if they were their own. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol SMTP

Used to send Email over a

Introduction to TCP/IP Networks: TCP/IP-based networks play an increasingly important role in computer networks. Perhaps one reason for their appeal is that they are based on an open specification that is not controlled by any vendor.

What Is TCP/IP? TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol and IP stands for Internet Protocol. The term TCP/IP is not limited just to these two protocols, however. Frequently, the term TCP/IP is used to refer to a group of protocols related to the TCP and IP protocols such as the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Terminal Emulation Protocol (TELNET), and so on.

The Origins of TCP/IP In the late 1960s, DARPA (the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency), in the United States, noticed that there was a rapid proliferation of computers in military communications. Computers, because they can be easily programmed, provide flexibility in achieving network functions that is not available with other types of communications equipment. The computers then used in military communications were manufactured by different vendors and were designed to interoperate with computers from that vendor only. Vendors used proprietary protocols in their communications equipment. The military had a multi vendor network but no common protocol to support the heterogeneous equipment from different vendors

Net work Cables and Stuff: In the network you will commonly find three types of cables used these are the, coaxial cable, fiber optic and twisted pair.

Thick Coaxial Cable This type cable is usually yellow in color and used in what is called thicknets, and has two conductors. This coax can be used in 500-meter lengths. The cable itself is made up of a solid center wire with a braided metal shield and plastic sheathing protecting the rest of the wire.

Thin Coaxial Cable As with the thick coaxial cable is used in thicknets the thin version is used in thinnets. This type cable is also used called or referred to as RG-58. The cable is really just a cheaper version of the thick cable.

Fiber Optic Cable As we all know fiber optics are pretty darn cool and not cheap. This cable is smaller and can carry a vast amount of information fast and over long distances.

Twisted Pair Cables These come in two flavors of unshielded and shielded.

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Is more common in high-speed networks. The biggest difference you will see in the UTP and STP

is

that

the STP use's metallic shield wrapping to protect the wire from interference. -Something else to note about these cables is that they are defined in numbers also. The bigger the number the better the protection from interference. Most networks should go with no less than a CAT 3 and CAT 5 is most recommended.

Now you know about cables we need to know about connectors. This is pretty important and you will most likely need the RJ-45 connector. This is the cousin of the phone jack connector and looks real similar with the exception that the RJ-45 is bigger. Most commonly your connector are in two flavors and this is BNC (Bayonet Naur Connector) used in thicknets and the RJ-45 used in smaller networks using UTP/STP.

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) This is the most popular form of cables in the network and the cheapest form that you can go with. The UTP has four pairs of wires and all inside plastic sheathing. The biggest reason that we call it Twisted Pair is to protect the wires from interference from themselves. Each wire is only protected with a thin plastic sheath.

Ethernet Cabling Now to familiarize you with more on the Ethernet and it's cabling we need to look at the 10's. 10Base2, is considered the thin Ethernet, thinnet, and thinwire which uses light coaxial cable to create a 10 Mbps network. The cable segments in this network can't be over 185 meters in length. These cables connect with the BNC connector. Also as a

note

these

unused

connection

must

have

a

terminator,

which

will

be

a

50-ohm

terminator.

10Base5, this is considered a thicknet and is used with coaxial cable arrangement such as the BNC connector. The good side to the coaxial cable is the high-speed transfer and cable segments can be up to 500 meters between nodes/workstations. You will typically see the same speed as the 10Base2 but larger cable lengths for more versatility. 10BaseT, the “T” stands for twisted as in UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) and uses this for 10Mbps of transfer. The down side to this is you can only have cable lengths of 100 meters between nodes/workstations. The good side to this network is they are easy to set up and cheap! This is why they are so common an ideal for small offices or homes. 100BaseT, is considered Fast Ethernet uses STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) reaching data transfer of 100Mbps. This system is a little more expensive but still remains popular as the 10BaseT and cheaper than most other type networks. This on of course would be the cheap fast version. 10BaseF, this little guy has the advantage of fiber optics and the F stands for just that. This arrangement is a little more complicated and uses special connectors and NIC's along with hubs to create its network. Pretty darn neat and not to cheap on the wallet. An important part of designing and installing an Ethernet is selecting the appropriate Ethernet medium. There are four major types of media in use today: Thickwire for 10BASE5 networks, thin coax for 10BASE2 networks, unshielded twisted pair (UTP) for 10BASE-T networks and fiber optic for 10BASE-FL or Fiber-Optic Inter-Repeater Link (FOIRL) networks. This wide variety of media reflects the evolution of Ethernet and also points to the technology's flexibility. Thickwire was one of the first cabling systems used in Ethernet but was expensive and difficult to use. This evolved to thin coax, which is easier to work with and less expensive.

Network Topologies: What is a Network topology? A

network

topology

is

the

geometric

arrangement

of

nodes

and

cable

links

in

a

LAN, There

are three topology's to think about when you get into networks. These are the star, rind, and the bus.

Star, in a star topology each node has a dedicated set of wires connecting it to a central network hub. Since all traffic passes through the hub, the hub becomes a central point for isolating network problems and gathering network statistics. Ring, a ring topology features a logically closed loop. Data packets travel in a single direction around the ring from one network device to the next. Each network device acts as a repeater, meaning it regenerates the signal Bus, the bus topology, each node (computer, server, peripheral etc.) attaches directly to a common cable. This topology most often serves as the backbone for a network. In some instances, such as in classrooms or labs, a bus will connect small workgroups

Collisions: Ethernet is a shared media, so there are rules for sending packets of data to avoid conflicts and protect data integrity. Nodes determine when the network is available for sending packets. It is possible that two nodes at different locations attempt to send data at the same time. When both PCs are transferring a packet to the network at the same time, a collision will result. Minimizing collisions is a crucial element in the design and operation of networks. Increased collisions are often the result of too many users on the network, which results in a lot of contention for network bandwidth. This can slow the performance of the network from the user's point of view. Segmenting the network, where a network is divided into different pieces joined together logically with a bridge or switch, is one way of reducing an overcrowded network.

Ethernet Products: The standards and technology that have just been discussed help define the specific products that network managers use to build Ethernet networks. The following text discusses the key products needed to build an Ethernet LAN.

Transceivers Transceivers are used to connect nodes to the various Ethernet media. Most computers and network interface cards contain a built-in 10BASE-T or 10BASE2 transceiver, allowing them to be connected directly to Ethernet without requiring an external transceiver. Many Ethernet devices provide an AUI connector to allow the user to connect to any media type via an external transceiver. The AUI connector consists of a 15-pin D-shell type connector, female on the computer side, male on the transceiver side. Thickwire (10BASE5) cables also use transceivers to allow connections.

For Fast Ethernet networks, a new interface called the MII (Media Independent Interface) was developed to offer a flexible way to support 100 Mbps connections. The MII is a popular way to connect 100BASE-FX links to copper- based Fast Ethernet devices

Network Interface Cards:

Network interface cards, commonly referred to as NICs, and are used to connect a PC to a network. The NIC provides a physical connection between the networking cable and the computer's internal bus. Different computers have different bus architectures; PCI bus master slots are most commonly found on 486/Pentium PCs and ISA expansion slots are commonly found on 386 and older PCs. NICs come in three basic varieties: 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32- bit. The larger the number of bits that can be transferred to the NIC, the faster the NIC can transfer data to the network cable.

Many NIC adapters comply with Plug-n-Play specifications. On these systems, NICs are automatically configured without user intervention, while on non-Plug-n-Play systems, configuration is done manually through a setup program and/or DIP switches Cards are available to support almost all networking standards, including the latest Fast Ethernet environment. Fast Ethernet NICs are often 10/100 capable, and will automatically set to the appropriate speed. Full duplex networking is another option, where a dedicated connection to a switch allows a NIC to operate at twice the speed.

Hubs/Repeaters: Hubs/repeaters are used to connect together two or more Ethernet segments of any media type. In larger designs, signal quality begins to deteriorate as segments exceed their maximum length. Hubs provide the signal amplification required to allow a segment to be extended a greater distance. A hub takes any incoming signal and repeats it out all ports.

Ethernet hubs are necessary in star topologies such as 10BASE-T. A multi-port twisted pair hub allows several pointto-point segments to be joined into one network. One end of the point-to-point link is attached to the hub and the other is attached to the computer. If the hub is attached to a backbone, then all computers at the end of the twisted pair segments can communicate with all the hosts on the backbone. The number and type of hubs in any onecollision domain is limited by the Ethernet rules. These repeater rules are discussed in more detail later.

Network Type

Max

Nodes Max

Distance

Per Segment

Per Segment

10BASE-T

2

100m

10BASE2

30

185m

10BASE5

100

500m

10BASE-FL

2

2000m

Adding Speed: While repeaters allow LANs to extend beyond normal distance limitations, they still limit the number of nodes that can be supported. Bridges and switches, however, allow LANs to grow significantly larger by virtue of their ability to support full Ethernet segments on each port. Additionally, bridges and switches selectively filter network traffic to only those packets needed on each segment - this significantly increases throughput on each segment and on the overall network. By providing better performance and more flexibility for network topologies, bridges and switches will continue to gain popularity among network managers.

Bridges: The function of a bridge is to connect separate networks together. Bridges connect different networks types (such as Ethernet and Fast Ethernet) or networks of the same type. Bridges map the Ethernet addresses of the nodes residing on each network segment and allow only necessary traffic to pass through the bridge. When a packet is received by the bridge, the bridge determines the destination and source segments. If the segments are the same, the packet is dropped ("filtered"); if the segments are different, then the packet is "forwarded" to the correct segment. Additionally, bridges

do

not

forward

bad

or

misaligned

packets.

Bridges are also called "store-and-forward" devices because they look at the whole Ethernet packet before making filtering or forwarding decisions. Filtering packets, and regenerating forwarded packets enable bridging technology to split a network into separate collision domains. This allows for greater distances and more repeaters to be used in the total network design.

Ethernet Switches: Ethernet switches are an expansion of the concept in Ethernet bridging. LAN switches can link four, six, ten or more networks together, and have two basic architectures: cut-through and store-and-forward. In the past, cut-through

switches were faster because they examined the packet destination address only before forwarding it on to its destination segment. A store-and-forward switch, on the other hand, accepts and analyzes the entire packet before forwarding

it

to

its

destination.

It takes more time to examine the entire packet, but it allows the switch to catch certain packet errors and keep them from propagating through the network. Both cut-through and store-and-forward switches separate a network into collision domains, allowing network design rules to be extended. Each of the segments attached to an Ethernet switch has a full 10 Mbps of bandwidth shared by fewer users, which results in better performance (as opposed to

hubs that only allow bandwidth sharing from a single Ethernet). Newer switches today offer high-speed links, FDDI, Fast Ethernet or ATM. These are used to link switches together or give added bandwidth to high-traffic servers. A network composed of a number of switches linked together via uplinks is termed a "collapsed backbone" network.

Routers: Routers filter out network traffic by specific protocol rather than by packet address. Routers also divide networks logically instead of physically. An IP router can divide a network into various subnets so that only traffic destined for particular IP addresses can pass between segments. Network speed often decreases due to this type of intelligent forwarding. Such filtering takes more time than that exercised in a switch or bridge, which only looks at the Ethernet address. However, in more complex networks, overall efficiency is improved by using routers.

What is a network firewall? A firewall is a system or group of systems that enforces an access control policy between two networks. The actual means by which this is accomplished varies widely, but in principle, the firewall can be thought of as a pair of mechanisms: one which exists to block traffic, and the other which exists to permit traffic. Some firewalls place a greater emphasis on blocking traffic, while others emphasize permitting traffic. Probably the most important thing to recognize about a firewall is that it implements an access control policy. If you don't have a good idea of what kind of access you want to allow or to deny, a firewall really won't help you. It's also important to recognize that the firewall's configuration, because it is a mechanism for enforcing policy, imposes its policy on everything behind it. Administrators for firewalls managing the connectivity for a large number of hosts therefore have a heavy responsibility.

Network Design Criteria: Ethernets and Fast Ethernets have design rules that must be followed in order to function correctly. Maximum number of nodes, number of repeaters and maximum segment distances are defined by the electrical and mechanical

design

properties

of

each

type

of

Ethernet

and

Fast

Ethernet

media.

A network using repeaters, for instance, functions with the timing constraints of Ethernet. Although electrical signals on the Ethernet media travel near the speed of light, it still takes a finite time for the signal to travel from one end of a large Ethernet to another. The Ethernet standard assumes it will take roughly 50 microseconds for a signal to reach its

destination.

Ethernet is subject to the "5-4-3" rule of repeater placement: the network can only have five segments connected; it can only use four repeaters; and of the five segments, only three can have users attached to them; the other two must

be

inter-repeater

links.

If the design of the network violates these repeater and placement rules, then timing guidelines will not be met and the sending station will resend that packet. This can lead to lost packets and excessive resent packets, which can slow network performance and create trouble for applications. Fast Ethernet has modified repeater rules, since the minimum packet size takes less time to transmit than regular Ethernet. The length of the network links allows for a

fewer number of repeaters. In Fast Ethernet networks, there are two classes of repeaters. Class I repeaters have a latency of 0.7 microseconds or less and are limited to one repeater per network. Class II repeaters have a latency of 0.46 microseconds or less and are limited to two repeaters per network. The following are the distance (diameter) characteristics for these types of Fast Ethernet repeater combinations:

Fast Ethernet No

Repeaters

One Class I Repeater One Class II Repeater Two

Class

II

Repeaters

Copper

Fiber

100m

412m*

200m

272m

200m

272m

205m

228m

* Full Duplex Mode 2 km

When conditions require greater distances or an increase in the number of nodes/repeaters, then a bridge, router or switch can be used to connect multiple networks together. These devices join two or more separate networks, allowing network design criteria to be restored. Switches allow network designers to build large networks that function well. The reduction in costs of bridges and switches reduces the impact of repeater rules on network design. Each network connected via one of these devices is referred to as a separate collision domain in the overall network.

Types of Servers: Device Servers A device server is defined as a specialized, network-based hardware device designed to perform a single or specialized set of server functions. It is characterized by a minimal operating architecture that requires no per seat network operating system license, and client access that is independent of any operating system or proprietary protocol. In addition the device server is a "closed box," delivering extreme ease of installation, minimal maintenance, and

can

be

managed

by

the

client

remotely

via

a

Web

browser.

Print servers, terminal servers, remote access servers and network time servers are examples of device servers which are specialized for particular functions. Each of these types of servers has unique configuration attributes in hardware or software that help them to perform best in their particular arena.

Print Servers Print servers allow printers to be shared by other users on the network. Supporting either parallel and/or serial interfaces, a print server accepts print jobs from any person on the network using supported protocols and manages those

jobs

on

each

appropriate

printer.

Print servers generally do not contain a large amount of memory; printers simply store information in a queue. When the desired printer becomes available, they allow the host to transmit the data to the appropriate printer port on the server. The print server can then simply queue and print each job in the order in which print requests are received, regardless of protocol used or the size of the job.

Multiport Device Servers Devices that are attached to a network through a multiport device server can be shared between terminals and hosts at both the local site and throughout the network. A single terminal may be connected to several hosts at the same time (in multiple concurrent sessions), and can switch between them. Multiport device servers are also used to network devices that have only serial outputs. A connection between serial ports on different servers is opened, data

allowing

to

move

between

the

two

devices.

Given its natural translation ability, a multi-protocol multiport device server can perform conversions between the protocols it knows, like LAT and TCP/IP. While server bandwidth is not adequate for large file transfers, it can easily handle host-to-host inquiry/response applications, electronic mailbox checking, etc. And it is far more economical than the alternatives of acquiring expensive host software and special-purpose converters. Multiport device and print servers

give

their

users

greater

flexibility

in

configuring

and

managing

their

networks.

Whether it is moving printers and other peripherals from one network to another, expanding the dimensions of interoperability or preparing for growth, multiport device servers can fulfill your needs, all without major rewiring.

Access Servers While Ethernet is limited to a geographic area, remote users such as traveling sales people need access to networkbased resources. Remote LAN access, or remote access, is a popular way to provide this connectivity. Access servers use telephone services to link a user or office with an office network. Dial-up remote access solutions such as ISDN or asynchronous dial introduce more flexibility. Dial-up remote access offers both the remote office and the remote user the economy and flexibility of "pay as you go" telephone services. ISDN is a special telephone service that offers three channels, two 64 Kbps "B" channels for user data and a "D" channel for setting up the connection. With ISDN, the B channels can be combined for double bandwidth or separated for different applications or users. With asynchronous remote access, regular telephone lines are combined with modems and remote access servers to allow users and networks to dial anywhere in the world and have data access. Remote access servers provide connection points for both dial-in and dial-out applications on the network to which they are attached. These hybrid devices route and filter protocols and offer other services such as modem pooling and terminal/printer services. For the remote PC user, one can connect from any available telephone jack (RJ45), including those in a hotel rooms or on most airplanes.

Network Time Servers A network time server is a server specialized in the handling of timing information from sources such as satellites or radio broadcasts and is capable of providing this timing data to its attached network. Specialized protocols such as NTP or udp/time allow a time server to communicate to other network nodes ensuring that activities that must be

coordinated according to their time of execution are synchronized correctly. GPS satellites are one source of information that can allow global installations to achieve constant timing.

IP Addressing: An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique identifier for a node or host connection on an IP network. An IP address is a 32 bit binary number usually represented as 4 decimal values, each representing 8 bits, in the range 0 to 255 (known

as

octets)

separated

by

decimal

points.

This

is

known

as

"dotted

decimal"

Example: It

notation.

140.179.220.200

is

sometimes

useful

140

to

view

the

values

.179

in

their

binary

.220

form. .200

10001100.10110011.11011100.11001000 Every IP address consists of two parts, one identifying the network and one identifying the node. The Class of the address and the subnet mask determine which part belongs to the network address and which part belongs to the node address.

Address Classes: There are 5 different address classes. You can determine which class any IP address is in by examining the first 4 bits

of addresses

the begin

with

IP

Class

A

0xxx,

Class

B

addresses

begin

with

10xx,

Class

C

addresses

begin

with

Class

D

addresses

begin

Class

E

addresses

begin

or

address.

1

to

126

decimal.

or

128

to

191

decimal.

110x,

or

192

to

223

decimal.

with

1110,

or

224

to

239

decimal.

with

1111,

or

240

to

254

decimal.

Addresses beginning with 01111111, or 127 decimal, are reserved for loopback and for internal testing on a local machine. [You can test this: you should always be able to ping 127.0.0.1, which points to yourself] Class D addresses are reserved for multicasting. Class E addresses are reserved for future use. They should not be used for host addresses. Now we can see how the Class determines, by default, which part of the IP address belongs to the network (N) and which

part

belongs

to

the

node

(n).

Class

A

Class

--

B

Class

NNNNNNNN.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnn.nnnnnnn

--

C

NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn

--

NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.nnnnnnnn

In the example, 140.179.220.200 is a Class B address so by default the Network part of the address (also known as the Network Address) is defined by the first two octets (140.179.x.x) and the node part is defined by the last 2 octets (x.x.220.200). In order to specify the network address for a given IP address, the node section is set to all "0"s. In our example, 140.179.0.0 specifies the network address for 140.179.220.200. When the node section is set to all "1"s, it specifies a broadcast that is sent to all hosts on the network. 140.179.255.255 specifies the example broadcast address. Note that this is true regardless of the length of the node section.

Private Subnets: There are three IP network addresses reserved for private networks. The addresses are 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12, and 192.168.0.0/16. They can be used by anyone setting up internal IP networks, such as a lab or home LAN behind a NAT or proxy server or a router. It is always safe to use these because routers on the Internet will never forward packets

coming

from

these

addresses

Subnetting an IP Network can be done for a variety of reasons, including organization, use of different physical media (such as Ethernet, FDDI, WAN, etc.), preservation of address space, and security. The most common reason is to control network traffic. In an Ethernet network, all nodes on a segment see all the packets transmitted by all the other nodes on that segment. Performance can be adversely affected under heavy traffic loads, due to collisions and the resulting retransmissions. A router is used to connect IP networks to minimize the amount of traffic each segment must receive.

Subnet Masking Applying a subnet mask to an IP address allows you to identify the network and node parts of the address. The network bits are represented by the 1s in the mask, and the node bits are represented by the 0s. Performing a bitwise logical AND operation between the IP address and the subnet mask results in the Network Address or Number. For

example,

using

our

test

IP

10001100.10110011.11110000.11001000 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000

address

and

the

default

140.179.240.200 255.255.000.000

Class

B

Class Default

Class

subnet

mask,

B

IP B

Subnet

we

get:

Address Mask

Default subnet masks: Class

A

Class

B

Class

C

-

CIDR

255.0.0.0

-

11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000

255.255.0.0

-

11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000

255.255.255.0

-

11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

--

Classless

InterDomain

Routing.

CIDR was invented several years ago to keep the internet from running out of IP addresses. The "classful" system of allocating IP addresses can be very wasteful; anyone who could reasonably show a need for more that 254 host addresses was given a Class B address block of 65533 host addresses. Even more wasteful were companies and organizations that were allocated Class A address blocks, which contain over 16 Million host addresses! Only a tiny percentage of the allocated Class A and Class B address space has ever been actually assigned to a host computer on

the

Internet.

People realized that addresses could be conserved if the class system was eliminated. By accurately allocating only the amount of address space that was actually needed, the address space crisis could be avoided for many years. This

was

first

proposed

in

1992

as

a

scheme

called

Supernetting.

The use of a CIDR notated address is the same as for a Classful address. Classful addresses can easily be written in CIDR

notation

(Class

A

=

/8,

Class

B

=

/16,

and

Class

C

=

/24)

It is currently almost impossible for an individual or company to be allocated their own IP address blocks. You will simply be told to get them from your ISP. The reason for this is the ever-growing size of the internet routing table. Just 5 years ago, there were less than 5000 network routes in the entire Internet. Today, there are over 90,000. Using CIDR, the biggest ISPs are allocated large chunks of address space (usually with a subnet mask of /19 or even smaller); the ISP's customers (often other, smaller ISPs) are then allocated networks from the big ISP's pool. That way, all the big ISP's customers (and their customers, and so on) are accessible via 1 network route on the Internet. It is expected that CIDR will keep the Internet happily in IP addresses for the next few years at least. After that, IPv6, with 128 bit addresses, will be needed. Under IPv6, even sloppy address allocation would comfortably allow a billion unique IP addresses for every person on earth

Examining your network with commands: Ping PING is used to check for a response from another computer on the network. It can tell you a great deal of information

about

the

status

of

the

network

and

the

computers

you

are

communicating

with.

Ping returns different responses depending on the computer in question. The responses are similar depending on the options Ping

used. uses

IP

to

request

a

response

from

the

host.

It

does

not

use

TCP

.It takes its name from a submarine sonar search - you send a short sound burst and listen for an echo - a ping coming

back.

In an IP network, `ping' sends a short data burst - a single packet - and listens for a single packet in reply. Since this tests the most basic function of an IP network (delivery of single packet), it's easy to see how you can learn a lot from some

`pings'.

To stop ping, type control-c. This terminates the program and prints out a nice summary of the number of packets transmitted, the number received, and the percentage of packets lost, plus the minimum, average, and maximum round-trip

times

of

Sample

the

packets.

ping

PING

localhost

session

(127.0.0.1):

56

data

bytes

64

bytes

from

127.0.0.1:

icmp_seq=0

ttl=255

time=2

ms

64

bytes

from

127.0.0.1:

icmp_seq=1

ttl=255

time=2

ms

64

bytes

from

127.0.0.1:

icmp_seq=2

ttl=255

time=2

ms

64

bytes

from

127.0.0.1:

icmp_seq=3

ttl=255

time=2

ms

64

bytes

from

127.0.0.1:

icmp_seq=4

ttl=255

time=2

ms

64

bytes

from

127.0.0.1:

icmp_seq=5

ttl=255

time=2

ms

64

bytes

from

127.0.0.1:

icmp_seq=6

ttl=255

time=2

ms

64

bytes

from

127.0.0.1:

icmp_seq=7

ttl=255

time=2

ms

64

bytes

from

127.0.0.1:

icmp_seq=8

ttl=255

time=2

ms

64

bytes

from

127.0.0.1:

icmp_seq=9

ttl=255

time=2

ms

localhost 10

ping packets

transmitted,

round-trip

10

statistics

packets

min/avg/max

received, =

0%

packet

2/2/2

loss ms

meikro$ The Time To Live (TTL) field can be interesting. The main purpose of this is so that a packet doesn't live forever on the network and will eventually die when it is deemed "lost." But for us, it provides additional information. We can use the TTL to determine approximately how many router hops the packet has gone through. In this case it's 255 minus N hops, where N is the TTL of the returning Echo Replies. If the TTL field varies in successive pings, it could indicate that

the

successive

reply

packets

are

going

via

different

routes,

which

isn't

a

great

thing.

milliseconds. In general, it's best if round-trip times are under 200 milliseconds. The time it takes a packet to reach its destination is called latency. If you see a large variance in the round-trip times (which is called "jitter"), you are going to see poor performance talking to the host

NSLOOKUP NSLOOKUP is an application that facilitates looking up hostnames on the network. It can reveal the IP address of a host or,

using

the

IP

address,

return

the

host

name.

It is very important when troubleshooting problems on a network that you can verify the components of the networking process. Nslookup allows this by revealing details within the infrastructure.

NETSTAT NETSTAT is used to look up the various active connections within a computer. It is helpful to understand what computers or networks you are connected to. This allows you to further investigate problems. One host may be responding well but another may be less responsive.

IPconfig This is a Microsoft windows NT, 2000 and xp command. It is very useful in determining what could be wrong with a network. This command when used with the /all switch, reveal enormous amounts of troubleshooting information within the system.

Questions Quiz One 1-1 A. B. C. D.

Computer Network is Collection of hardware components and computers Interconnected by communication channels Sharing of resources and information All of the Above

1-2 A. B. C. D.

What is a Firewall in Computer Network? The physical boundary of Network An operating System of Computer Network A system designed to prevent unauthorized access A web browsing Software

1-3 A. B. C. D.

How many layers does OSI Reference Model has? 4 5 6 7

1-4 DHCP is the abbreviation of A. Dynamic Host Control Protocol

B. C. D.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Dynamic Hyper Control Protocol Dynamic Hyper Configuration Protocol

1-5 A. B. C. D.

IPV4 Address is 8 bit 16 bit 32 bit 64 bit

1-6 A. B. C. D.

DNS is the abbreviation of Dynamic Name System Dynamic Network System Domain Name System Domain Network Service

1-7 A. B. C. D.

What is the meaning of Bandwidth in Network? Transmission capacity of a communication channels Connected Computers in the Network Class of IP used in Network None of Above

1-8 A. B. C. D.

ADSL is the abbreviation of Asymmetric Dual Subscriber Line Asymmetric Digital System Line Asymmetric Dual System Line Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

1-9 A. B. C. D.

What is the use of Bridge in Network? to connect LANs to separate LANs to control Network Speed All of the above

1-10 Router A. Layer 1 B. Layer 3 C. Layer 4 D. Layer 7

operates in which layer of OSI Reference Model? (Physical Layer) (Network Layer) (Transport Layer) (Application Layer)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – D / 2 – C / 3 – D / 4 – B / 5 – C / 6 – C / 7 – A / 8 – D / 9 – A / 10 – B ------------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Two

2-1 Each IP packet must contain A. Only Source address B. Only Destination address C. Source and Destination address D. Source or Destination address 2-2 Bridge works in which layer of the OSI model? A. Appliation layer B. Transport layer C. Network layer D. Datalink layer 2-3 _______ provides a connection-oriented reliable service for sending messages A. TCP B. IP C. UDP D. All of the above 2-4 Which layers of the OSI model are host-to-host layers? A. Transport, Session, Persentation, Application B. Network, Transport, Session, Presentation C. Datalink, Network, Transport, Session D. Physical, Datalink, Network, Transport 2-5 Which of the following IP address class is Multicast A. Class A B. Class B C. Class C D. Class D 2-6 Which of the address A. Network bit – B. Network bit – C. Network bit – D. Network bit –

following is correct regarding Class B Address of IP 14, 16, 18, 12,

Host Host Host Host

bit bit bit bit

– – – –

16 14 16 14

2-7 The last address of IP address represents A. Unicast address B. Network address C. Broadcast address D. None of above 2-8 How many bits are there in the Ethernet address? A. 64 bits B. 48 bits C. 32 bits D. 16 bits 2-9 How many layers are in the TCP/IP model? A. 4 layers B. 5 layers C. 6 layers

D. 7 layers 2-10 Which of the following layer of OSI model also called end-to-end layer? A. Presentation layer B. Network layer C. Session layer D. Transport layer

-----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – C / 2 – D / 3 – A / 4 – A / 5 – D / 6 – A / 7 – C / 8 – B / 9 – A / 10 – D ------------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Three 3-1. Why IP Protocol is considered as unreliable? A. A packet may be lost B. Packets may arrive out of order C. Duplicate packets may be generated D. All of the above 3-2. What is the minimum header size of an IP packet? A. 16 bytes B. 10 bytes C. 20 bytes D. 32 bytes 3-3. Which of following provides reliable communication? A. TCP B. IP C. UDP D. All of the above 3-4. What is the address size of IPv6 ? A. 32 bit B. 64 bit C. 128 bit D. 256 bit 3-5. What is the size of Network bits & Host bits of Class A of IP address? A. Network bits 7, Host bits 24 B. Network bits 8, Host bits 24 C. Network bits 7, Host bits 23 D. Network bits 8, Host bits 23 3-6. What does Router do in a network? A. Forwards a packet to all outgoing links

B. Forwards a packet to the next free outgoing link C. Determines on which outing link a packet is to be forwarded D. Forwards a packet to all outgoing links except the originated link 3-7. The Internet is an example of A. Cell switched network B. circuit switched network C. Packet switched network D. All of above 3-8. What does protocol defines? A. Protocol defines what data is communicated. B. Protocol defines how data is communicated. C. Protocol defines when data is communicated. D. All of above 3-9. What is the uses of subnetting? A. It divides one large network into several smaller ones B. It divides network into network classes C. It speeds up the speed of network D. None of above 3-10. Repeater operates in which layer of the OSI model? A. Physical layer B. Data link layer C. Network layer D. Transport layer

-----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – D / 2 – C / 3 – A / 4 – C / 5 – A / 6 – C / 7 – C / 8 – D / 9 – A / 10 – A ------------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Four

4-1. What is the benefit of the Networking? A. File Sharing B. Easier access to Resources C. Easier Backups D. All of the Above 4-2. Which of the following is not the Networking Devices? A. Gateways B. Linux C. Routers D. Firewalls

4-3. What is the size of MAC Address? A. 16-bits B. 32-bits C. 48-bits D. 64-bits 4-4. Which of the following can be Software? A. Routers B. Firewalls C. Gateway D. Modems 4-5. What is A. To test a B. To test a C. To test a D. To test a

the use of Ping command? device on the network is reachable hard disk fault bug in a Application Pinter Quality

4-6. MAC Address is the example of A. Transport Layer B. Data Link Layer C. Application Layer D. Physical Layer 4-7. Routing tables of a router keeps track of A. MAC Address Assignments B. Port Assignments to network devices C. Distribute IP address to network devices D. Routes to use for forwarding data to its destination 4-8. Layer-2 A. Multiport B. Multiport C. Multiport D. Multiport

Switch is also called Hub Switch Bridge NIC

4-9. Difference between T568A and T568B is A. Difference in wire color B. Difference in number of wires C. Just different length of wires D. Just different manufacturer standards 4-10. The meaning of Straight-through Cable is A. Four wire pairs connect to the same pin on each end B. The cable Which Directly connects Computer to Computer C. Four wire pairs not twisted with each other D. The cable which is not twisted

-----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers

1 – D / 2 – B / 3 – C / 4 – B / 5 – A / 6 – B / 7 – D / 8 – C / 9 – D / 10 – A ------------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Five 5-1 Which of the following is not the External Security Threats? A. Front-door Threats B. Back-door Threats C. Underground Threats D. Denial of Service (DoS) 5-2 What is A. The area B. The area C. The area D. The area

the Demilitarized Zone? between firewall & connection to an external network between ISP to Military area surrounded by secured servers surrounded by the Military

5-3 What is the full form of RAID ? A. Redundant Array of Independent Disks B. Redundant Array of Important Disks C. Random Access of Independent Disks D. Random Access of Important Disks 5-4 What is the maximum header size of an IP packet? A. 32 bytes B. 64 bytes C. 30 bytes D. 60 bytes 5-5 What is the size of Host bits in Class B of IP address? A. 04 B. 08 C. 16 D. 32 5-6 What is the size of Network bits in Class B of IP address? A. 04 B. 08 C. 14 D. 16 5-7 In which type of RAID, data is mirrored between two disks. A. RAID 0 B. RAID 1 C. RAID 2 D. RAID 3 5-8 What do A. It means B. It means C. It means D. It means

you mean by broadcasting in Networking? addressing a packet to all machine addressing a packet to some machine addressing a packet to a particular machine addressing a packet to except a particular machine

5-9 Which of the following is/are Protocols of Application? A. FTP B. DNS C. Telnet D. All of above 5-10 Which of the following protocol is/are defined in Transport layer? A. FTP B. TCP C. UDP D. B & C

-----------------------------------------------------------------------Answers 1 – C / 2 – A / 3 – A / 4 – D / 5 – C / 6 – C / 7 – B / 8 – A / 9 – D / 10 – D ------------------------------------------------------------------------

Quiz Six What is common between X.25 Packet switching and Fast Packet Switching 1. In both of them bandwidth is used only when there is something to transmit 2. Both supports high speed data (T1 speed and up) 3. Both supports sharing of the same channel to carry voice , data and video 4. In both of them transmit delays are low enough to handle voice traffic ATM is 1. a frame relay implementation 2. a cell relay implementation 3. a circuit switch implementation 4. a packet switch implementation Which one is true about ATM and Packet Switching 1. Both ATM and Packet Switching have relatively small size cells 2. Packet Switching has no windowing while ATM has

3. Both have fixed length cells 4. ATM has no error detection on data while Packet Switching has The difference between X.25 and frame relay is 1. only frame relay is connection-oriented 2. only frame relay has error control 3. only X.25 is reliable 4. only X.25 is virtual circuit The difference between ATM and frame relay is 1. only ATM is virtual circuit 2. only frame relay has error control 3. only frame relay is connection-oriented 4. only ATM is unreliable The difference between ATM and X.25 is 1. only ATM is connection-oriented 2. only X.25 has error control 3. only X.25 is virtual circuit 4. only ATM is reliable Two networks can 1. have hosts with the same host id 2. have the same net id 3. have the same prefix in their IP address 4. not have the same suffix in their hosts IP addresses In ARP 1. Both request and response are broadcast 2. The response is broadcast 3. The request is point to point 4. The request is broadcast ATM is well suited for 1. voice, interactive data and video transfer

2. interactive data transfer but not for voice transfer 3. voice and video transfer only 4. voice and interactive data transfer only Routing is the responsibility of 1. The data link layer 2. The network layer 3. The physical layer 4. The transport layer

Bridges can not be the solution to 1. Limited distance 2. Limited traffic 3. Limited number of stations 4. Packet redundancy The event that will not cause recalculation of the distance vector is 1. discovery of a long path to a new destination 2. discovery that a link to a neighbour has gone down 3. receive a shorter path to an existing destination 4. discovery of a longer path to an existing destination BOOTP is a possible solution to the problem 1. Host IP address must be changed if he moves from one network to another 2. The limited address space 3. All hosts addresses must be changed if class B networks grows too large 4. All hosts addresses must be changed at least once a year Which one of the media types is Multi - Drop 1. Unshielded Twisted Pairs 2. Thick Coaxial cable

3. Fiber Optic cable 4. Shielded Twisted Pairs While routing 1. destination physical address changes every hop 2. destination physical and IP addresses changes every hop 3. source IP address changes every hop 4. destination IP address changes every hop ICMP 1. messages are encapsulated in an IP header 2. reports only on errors and problems 3. is integral part of TCP 4. is integral part of UDP Domain Name System 1. tries to resolve names with root name servers first 2. can be used in local environments 3. provides mapping from Human-readable names to MAC addresses 4. each root name server who can?t resolve the name sends the request to the hierarchically upper server which of the following is not provided by DHCP 1. IP address 2. ARP tables 3. subnet mask 4. DNS server address RIP was popular because 1. intended for use on large, long-haul networks 2. has unbounded number of hops 3. it was distributed with Berkeley UNIX 4. RFC finally appeared in 1998 RIP 1. requires more memory than OSPF

2. provides load balancing 3. is implemented less than OSPF 4. has an advantage in a small network OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) 1. does not have type of service 2. does not have authentication 3. does not provide load balancing 4. is not better than RIP in small networks RIP has advantage over OSPF in the following issue 1. bandwidth 2. type of service 3. memory 4. speed of convergence OSPF has advantage over RIP in the following issue 1. computation 2. load splitting 3. memory 4. bandwidth SNMP is not used to 1. report extraordinary events 2. retrieve specific management information 3. transfer mail through the network 4. manipulated management information IP provides 1. connection establishment and termination 2. network management 3. flow control 4. network access

What is the Internet?

The Internet is a network for computers. It connects computers all over the world. People make their own websites. These websites have domains, which is an address. You type in the address to get to the right domain. Most addresses start with www. This stands for the World Wide Web. There are many, many websites. Some are owned and updated by government agencies, companies, schools and medical groups. Some people make money from their websites and others just post websites or web pages for fun or information.

Web page Domain/ Web address

Why Use the Internet? The Internet has become a very important part of our world. Many employees now have workplace email and most employers want to hire workers who know how to use the Internet. More and more people are choosing to share messages and pictures through email and social networks (such as Facebook and Twitter). Using the Internet can also save time, money and effort. For example: Using email and social websites is a less expensive way of staying in touch with family and friends, especially if they live far away. Banking online saves time because you do not have to write cheques or stand in line at your local bank. The Internet is a quick way to find information, such as local weather, phone numbers and postal codes. The Internet is helpful when looking and applying for jobs. Most employers post job ads online. Stores, government agencies and organizations now have websites. These sites have lists of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). You may access these sites to get the answers to your questions without having to phone for information. This cuts down the time you spend waiting on hold.

The image part with relationship ID rId243 was not found in the file.

The image part with relationship ID rId244 was not found in the file.

The image part with relationship ID rId245 was not found in the file.

The image part with relationship ID rId246 was not found in the file.

The image part with relationship ID rId247 was not found in the file.

*If you do not have the Internet at home, many libraries have free Internet service.

Internet Providers You need an Internet Service Provider (ISP) to connect to the Internet. You will not be able to connect to the Internet without it. Local companies like Bell Sympatico, Cogeco, and Rogers Internet supply this service. This is how to connect to the Internet.

An ISP connects you to the Internet.

Browsers Once connected to the Internet, you need to use a “browser” to search the Internet. This is called going online. On the desktop (the screen you see when you start the computer) The image part with relationship ID rId248 was not found in the file.

you see an

icon.

This is Internet Explorer, the browser used to get “online” and use the Internet. At home you may choose a different browser.

Browsers Continued The image part with relationship ID rId249 was not found in the file.

Internet Explorer

is the most common “browser”.

There are other browsers that people use on their computers. Three other browsers are: Mozilla Firefox, Netscape and Google Chrome. The image part with relationship ID rId252 was not found in the file.

Firefox

Netscape

The Mouse The mouse is very important to Internet use. Use the mouse to open the browser to get online. Use the mouse to tell the computer what you want it to do.

The image part with relationship ID rId253 was not found in the file.

Chrome

The Cursor and the Internet To find the mouse on the screen look for the cursor. The The image part with relationship ID rId254 was not found in the file.

cursor looks like this: If you put your hand on the mouse and move the mouse to the right, your cursor will also move right on the screen. If you put your hand on the mouse and move your mouse to the left, your cursor will move left on the screen. To move your cursor up, hold the mouse and move your hand forward. To move your cursor down, hold the mouse and move your hand backwards. The Hand Cursor (Link) When using the Internet the arrow cursor may change to a hand cursor. The image part with relationship ID rId255 was not found in the file.

The hand cursor looks like this:

a hand with a pointing finger. This

cursor allows you to connect to another webpage. This cursor is used when:  You want to “link” to another webpage on the website.  You select text or images.  You select the type of information you need to search with your web browser, such as websites, pictures or news articles.

 You click the number or the word next to take you to the next page. Internet text that you are able to click on is often blue, sometimes it is underlined. The image part with relationship ID rId256 was not found in the file.

When the arrow cursor

is moved over the text, the cursor may change

The image part with relationship ID rId257 was not found in the file.

to the pointing cursor

to show that you can click on

this part of the webpage. Drop Down Menu A drop down menu is a screen with options that appears below a heading when you click on it. Many sites have drop down menus where you are asked to choose one option from a list. A drop down menu looks like this: The image part with relationship ID rId258 was not found in the file.

To select something from a drop down menu, click on the downward arrow beside the address box.

Then move the cursor over the selection you want to choose. *You may have to scroll down to see all of the options. Click on the one you want.

It will be highlighted in blue when you click it on.

The Address Bar The image part with relationship ID rId260 was not found in the file.

The address bar is for searching addresses online. To use the address bar, click in the long, white box. The image part with relationship ID rId261 was not found in the file.

This will highlight the text like this: The image part with relationship ID rId262 was not found in the file.

Press the

key to delete the address that is there.

Type address here

Type the address of the webpage you want to visit and press The image part with relationship ID rId263 was not found in the file.

the

key.

Scrolling When you are on the Internet you may not get to see the full webpage. Use your scroll bars and arrows to move up and down the page. up

down Scroll bar is here It is at the right hand side of your screen. The image part with relationship ID rId264 was not found in the file.

Click on the up arrow to move up the page. Click on the down arrow to move down the page. Hold down the left mouse button to scroll up or down the screen more quickly. You can also use the wheel on your mouse to scroll. Roll your finger over it to see how it works.

Using a Search Engine A search engine helps you find information online. You search by using one or more keywords. Once you have typed in your keyword(s) the search engine will find all websites that relate to your keyword(s). The more information you give a search engine, the better the information you get will be. Here are some examples of popular search engines: The image part with relationship ID rId266 was not found in the file.

www.google.ca The image part with relationship ID rId268 was not found in the file.

www.bing.ca The image part with relationship ID rId270 was not found in the file.

www.yahoo.ca

Search Engines Continued To search for information type your keyword in the white box on the search engine’s page.

You can then click on Search or press your enter key. The image part with relationship ID rId272 was not found in the file.

The search engine will give you many choices. Click on the blue underlined words to open a website. This is a link. You The image part with relationship ID rId273 was not found in the file.

will see the pointing cursor when you pass your cursor over this line. These blue underlined words are called “links”.

Click the back arrow

to go back and look for more.

If you scroll to the bottom of your screen you will see the number of pages that match your keyword. Click “Next” or the next page number to look for more. The page number you are on will be in RED.

Finding Good Information Online The image part with relationship ID rId275 was not found in the file.

The technical name for a web address is a URL. (Uniform Resource Locator) A URL contains words to help you see where the information you are reading is coming from. Some addresses show you what country the site is from. For example: www.google.ca is a Canadian website www.bbc.co.uk is a website from the United Kingdom http://www.nzherald.co.nz is a website from New Zealand Websites from the United States will not have a country code. A web page can also tell you what organization your information is coming from. www.usa.gov is a government website http://www.bbbs.org is a website for the Big Brother and Big Sisters organization

Finding the Weather You can find what the weather will be like online. Type this web address (URL) into your top address bar: http://www.weatheroffice.gc.ca/canada_e.html You will see a map of Canada. Click on your province, and select your area. The weekly forecast can be displayed with graphics and text. Practice Exercise #4 - Weather Exercise 1. Look up the temperature today in Halifax. 2. What is the forecast for tomorrow in Montreal?

From the boxes at the top of the page select Yukon. Then choose Whitehorse.

3. What is the temperature today in Whitehorse? 4. Find the weather for your own town or city. 5. Show your instructor what you have found.

How to Use the Dictionary The image part with relationship ID rId283 was not found in the file.

Go to – www.dictionary.com 1. Try looking up these words to find out what they mean. Modem Internet Computer At the top of this web page, you will find a link to “Thesaurus”.

A thesaurus helps you find synonyms. This means that you can type in a word and find another word that has the same or similar meaning.

Searching for News Online The image part with relationship ID rId285 was not found in the file.

The internet is full of news from around the world. 3. Type this address into your address bar: http://www.onlinenewspapers.com/ You will see many icons for different countries The image part with relationship ID rId287 was not found in the file.

4. Click on the continent of your choice 5. When you select the country, an alphabetical listing of all the newspapers in that area will be on the screen.

It will appear like this: The image part with relationship ID rId288 was not found in the file.

4. Select one of the blue country names to see their news. This will bring you to this country’s online newspapers. 5. You will find many areas of the newspaper, and sometimes video news clips or television links. 6. Take some time to look at two or three newspapers from different parts of the world. 7. Choose places where they speak English.

Finding News on Google If you are looking for news headlines about a particular news story, type the search words into the Google search box. Then click News at the top of the page.

This will take you to news headlines related to your search words. You can click on the results to read the news story.

Creating an Email Account You can set up your own email account through MSN. MSN email is called Hotmail. It will not cost you anything to use it. 1. Type this web address in your address bar. www.hotmail.com 2. Click on “Sign up”.

3. You will see this screen:

Email Continued

4. Click on the down arrow. The image part with relationship ID rId290 was not found in the file.

5. Use your mouse to choose hotmail.com 6. You will be asked to choose a Windows Live ID. This will be your email address. Sometimes you will have to try more than once to get a name for your email address. Many people use free email so many names are taken. When you have typed in your choice of email address, if it is not available you will see this screen: The image part with relationship ID rId291 was not found in the file.

Choose one of these suggestions or try again.

Email Continued 7. When choosing a password pick something you will remember. It has to be at least 6 letters long. *This password is for your eyes only. It will make sure no one else uses your email account. 8. Scroll down the page and fill out all of the information. 9. If you DO NOT already have email then leave the “alternative email” area blank. Click on the blue words: Or choose a security question for password reset

10. Choose a question and click the downward arrow.

11. Type in your answer. It must be at least 5 letters long.*This will help you if you ever forget your password. 12. You will see a box like this at the bottom. The image part with relationship ID rId294 was not found in the file.

13. Type in what you see. These letters and numbers cannot be seen by computers, just people. It is a security measure to protect people from using your email.

14. Take time to read the Microsoft service agreement and privacy statement. The image part with relationship ID rId298 was not found in the file.

Before clicking on 15. This will open your new email account!

New

Subject

16. New messages will show up in your inbox. 17. To read them click on the subject. Here the new subject is: “Getting Started with Windows Live Hotmail” 18. Click to open letter.

Sending an Email 1. To start a new message click on New.

2. You will see this:

Email Address Subject of email

Message

6. The picture above shows a sample email including: The email address of the person you are writing to The image part with relationship ID rId304 was not found in the file.

The subject of your email The image part with relationship ID rId305 was not found in the file.

The message you want to send 4. When you are done writing your message, click “Send”. This

will send your email.

Signing in and out of email 1. Make sure to always “Sign out” of your email so no one else can use it. 2. Your “sign out” symbol is here on the right under your name:

3. To sign in to your account type www.hotmail.com in your address bar. 4. You will see this: Email address Password Sign In

Follow these steps: The image part with relationship ID rId309 was not found in the file.

The image part with relationship ID rId311 was not found in the file.

Type in your whole email address ([email protected]) your password The image part with relationship ID rId313 was not found in the file. The image part with relationship ID rId312 was not found in the file.

Click Follow Up Exercise – Email Type this web address in your address bar: http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/topics/email-andsharing/sending-and-receiving-email You will learn more about how email works.

Type

Google Maps and Directions Type the address www.google.ca in your address bar.

1. Click Maps 2. This will take you to a page with a map of North America. 3. If you want to find a town or city, type it into the search box under Google. 4. If you know the postal code, this can help with your search. 5. Click on the “search maps” button. 6. This will take you to a map of the area.

Zoom IN

7. You can see a closer view by zooming in, or a larger map by zooming out using the + or – buttons.

Zoom OUT

8. Click on “get directions” at the top left hand side of your screen. 9. This will open two boxes, one for where you are starting and one for where you want to end up. 10. Click on the grey “get directions” box, you will see a map and text that will tell you how to get where you are going. 11. You can print these if you need to take them with you. The image part with relationship ID rId319 was not found in the file.

Searching for Internet Images Searching for pictures on the internet is similar to searching for News. Type this address in your address bar -

www.google.com

1. Type the word “puppies” into the search section of Google. 2. Click on Images at the top left hand corner of the page.

3. Click on “search images”.

Internet Images Continued 4. This will show you many pictures of puppies online. 5. When you are searching for something popular like puppies Google (and other search engines) offers many choices.

6. To look through some of these choices scroll to the bottom of the page.

Page numbers/next

Scroll

7. At the bottom of this page, you will see many numbers and a “Next” option. 8. Click on the number or “Next” to continue browsing the pictures. 9. The page number you are currently on will appear in red. The other page numbers will be black. The image part with relationship ID rId325 was not found in the file.

10. At any time if you want to go back click

.

11. Click on an image. 12. To see a larger picture click See full size image

Practice Exercise #7 – Searching Images Using more specific words will improve your chances of finding what you are looking for.

1. Search for an image of a polar bear on an iceberg by typing “bear” into your search box. 2. Now try searching this image by typing “polar bear” in your search box. 3. Finally, type the words “polar bears iceberg” in the search box.

This shows you how much easier it is to find the images you are looking for when you enter as much information as possible.

Questions Quiz One 1 Voice over IP (Voice over Internet Protocol or "VoIP") technology converts voice calls from • • • •

1. analog to digital 2. digital to analog 3. It depends 4. None of the above

2 What is the domain used for non-profitable organizations • • • •

1. .gov 2. .org 3. .net 4. .in

3 Today all modems are made in which technology • • • •

1. X2 2. KFlex 3. V.90 4. None of the above

4 What is the full form of http? • • • •

1. HyperText Transmission Protocol 2. HyperText Transfer Protocol 3. HyperTerminal Transport Protocol 4. HyperTerminal Transfer Protocol

5 IRC stands for • • • •

1. Internet Related Chat 2. Internet Relay Chat 3. Internet Related Content 4. None of the above

6 Which of these are Types of Internet connections • • •

1. SLIP 2. DIAS 3. PPP



4. All of the above

7 Which of these are disadvantage of DSL connection? • • • •

1. The speed is much higher than a regular modem 2. You can leave your Internet connection open and still use the phone line for voice calls. 3. A DSL connection works better when you are closer to the provider’s central office. 4. 3. DSL doesn’t necessarily require new wiring; it can use the phone line you already have.

8 A new solution USB allows a user to install up to how many devices on the computer • • • •

1. 64 2. 127 3. 128 4. 256

9 What should be minimum requirement of random access memory (RAM) for internet access? • • • •

1. 8 MB 2. 16 MB 3. 32 MB 4. 64 MB

10 A modem is not needed when accessing the Internet through • • • •

1. LAN 2. Wi Fi 3. Cable 4. None Of the above

Quiz Two 1 In order to use cable for browsing web you will need : • • • •

1. A cable modem 2. Network Interface Card (NIC) 3. Both 1 & 2 4. None Of the above

2 ADSL gives • •

1. faster downloading speeds (receiving) than uploading speeds (sending). 2. slower downloading speeds (receiving) than uploading speeds (sending).

• •

3. same downloading speeds (receiving) as uploading speeds (sending). 4. None Of the above

3 What is the minimum bandwidth required for broadband connection? • • • •

1. 128 kbps 2. 256 kbps 3. 512 kbps 4. 2048 kbps

4 The limit for ADSL service is • • • •

1. 8,000 feet 2. 10,000 feet 3. 18,000 feet 4. 20,000 feet

5 Which of these is a variation of ADSL, but the modem can adjust the speed of the connection depending on the length and quality of the line. • • • •

1. VDSL 2. SDSL 3. RADSL 4. All of the above

6 In cable modem internet access, cable modem termination system (CMTS) is at • • • •

1. cable provider’s end 2. customer end 3. Not required 4. Both 1 & 2

7 Internet’s initial development was supported by • • • •

1. ARPANET 2. Bill Rogers 3. Bill Gates 4. Microsoft

8 World Wide Web was proposed by • • • •

1. Bill Gates 2. ARPANET 3. Tim Berners-Lee 4. Bill Rogers

9 What are the uses of the Internet? • • • •

1. Communication 2. Information Retrieval 3. Presentation of Information 4. All of the above

10 .net domain is used for • • • •

1. educational institution 2. Internet infrastructure and service providers 3. International organizations 4. None Of the above

Quiz Three 1 What is the full form of URL? • • • •

1. Uniform Resource Library 2. Uniform Resource Locators 3. United Resource Library 4. United Resource Locators

2 Benefits of Email are? • • • •

1. Speed 2. Cost 3. Record keeping 4. All of the above

3 WWW provides standardized access to • • • •

1. GOPHER 2. TELNET 3. FTP 4. All of the above

4 Which of these are not a internet browser? • • • •

1. Netscape Navigator 2. Chrome 3. Drupal 4. Opera

Quiz Four 1. a. b. c. d.

TCP/IP is a: Network Hardware Network Software Protocol None of these

2. a. b. c. d.

OSI stands for: Open System Interface Out System Interface Open System Interconnection Out System Interconnection.

3. a. b. c. d.

TCP/IP mainly used for: File Transfer Email Remote Login Service All of these

4. a. b. c. d.

IPX/SPX used for: Linux Unix Novel NetWare Windows

5. a. b. c. d.

NetBIOS is developed by: Microsoft IBM Sun None of these

6. a. b. c. d.

Which IEEE standard is developed for CSMA/CD IEEE 802.1 IEEE 802.2 IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.4

7. a. b. c. d.

Which is the part of Data Link Layer: LLC MAC Both a and b None of these

8. Which network architecture is developed by IBM?

a. b. c. d.

System Network Architecture Digital Network Architecture Boroughs Network Architecture Distributed Network Architecture

9. a. b. c. d.

_______are hardware and software combinations that connect devices running different native protocols. Protocols Models Gateways Ports

10. a. b. c. d.

Which is the lowest layer of TCP/IP model: Host to Host Layer Network Access Layers Internet Layer Application Layer

11. a. b. c. d.

_____is an access channel for computers to exchange information. Socket Port Gateways Protocol

12. a. b. c. d.

How many ports a computer may have: 256 128 65535 1024

13. a. b. c. d.

Which is the type of port: Serial Parallel AGP All of these

14. a. b. c. d.

Parallel port can transfer ____ bits of data at a time: 2 4 8 16

15. a. b. c.

Parallel Port can not connect: Printers Scanners Telephones

d. Monitors 16. a. b. c. d.

In computer which range is in registered ports: 0 to 1023 1024 to 49151 49151 to 65535 None of these

17. a. b. c. d.

USB stands for: United Serial Bus Universal Serial By-Pass Universal System Bus Universal Serial Bus

18. a. b. c. d.

Which is the fastest port for data transfer: USB Serial Parallel FireWire

19. a. b. c. d.

Default port for HTTP: 23 80 21 25

20. a. b. c. d.

Which is not the part of the UDP datagram: Source Port Destination Port Checksum None of these

21. a. b. c. d.

Which is the type of socket: Datagram Stream Raw All of these

22. a. b. c. d.

In which layer of OSI model IP is available: Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4

23. IP is defined in: a. RFC 790

b. RFC 791 c. RFC 792 d. RFC 793 24. a. b. c. d.

TTL stands for: Time-To-Login Time-To-Live Transistor-Transistor-Live None of these

25. a. b. c. d.

Which protocol is used to report error message: TCP IP ICMP SMTP

26. a. b. c. d.

Which is the error message reported by ICMP: Time exceeded Host unreachable Echo request All of these

27. a. b. c. d.

What is the use of IP source routing: Mapping the network drive Troubleshooting Performance All of above

28. a. b. c. d.

Which is the IP source routing method: SSR LSR LLR Both a and b

29. In a TCP header source and destination header contains: a. 8 Bits b. 16 Bits c. 32 Bits d. 128 Bits 30. a. b. c. d.

Which is the false statement: TCP enable dataflow for monitoring It avoid network saturation TCP makes communication between server and client. In TCP/IP model Internet layer is closest to the user.

31. a. b. c. d.

Which is not the application level protocol: FTP S/MIME PGP HTTP

32. a. b. c. d.

RDP server runs on: Computers Switches Routers Servers

33. a. b. c. d.

RDP client runs on: Clients Routers Hosts Switches

34. a. b. c. d.

Which is the false statement: Telnet is used for remote login. FTP can transfer files between two hosts. TFTP rely on TCP. SMTP used to send mail message.

35. a. b. c. d.

The default port for SMTP is: 21 23 25 80

36. a. b. c. d.

SNMP used for: Sending Message Network management Domain Management Sending files

37. a. b. c. d.

Which agency assign IPs: IEEE ANSI ICANN BSNL

38. a. b. c.

Which is the component of IP: Client Identifier Network Identifier Host Identifier

d. Both b and c 39. a. b. c. d.

Which IP address is reserved for loop back or local host: 192.168.0.0 127.0.0.0 127.0.0.1 None of these

40. a. b. c. d.

Which class of IP is used in smaller organizations: Class A Class B Class C Class D

41. a. b. c. d.

The size of the IPv4 is: 16 Bits 32 Bits 64 Bits 128 Bits

42. a. b. c. d.

Which is the part of IP: Netid Subnetid Hosted All of these

43. a. b. c. d.

The subnet mask 255.255.0.0 belongs to: Class A Class B Class C Class D

44. a. b. c. d.

Who provide us internet: TCP ISP FTP HTTP

45. a. b. c. d.

In which method we can connect to internet Dial-up SLIP PPP All of these

46. URL stands for: a. Universal Resource Locator

b. Uniform Resource Locator c. Uniform Radio Locator d. None of these 47. a. b. c. d.

Which is not the server side programming language: JSP ASP JavaScript PHP

48. a. b. c. d.

FTP can be runs on: Unix Linux Dos/Windows All of these

49. a. b. c. d.

In HTTPS ‘S’ is stands for: Simple Secured Server None of these

50. a. b. c. d.

Which is not the requirement of internet: Operating System Dos Web browser Modem

51. a. b. c. d.

The maximum speed of Modem is: 32 Kbps 56 Kbps 64 Kbps 128 Kbps

52. a. b. c. d.

Which protocol is used for browsing website: TCP HTTP FTP TFTP

53. a. b. c. d.

Which is not the browser: Internet Explorer Opera Mozilla Google

54. a. b. c. d.

Which is not the search engine: Altavista.com Google.com Facebook.com Yahoo.com

55. a. b. c. d.

Email stands for: Easy mail Electronic mail Electric mail None of these

56. Which is the chatting application: a. b. c. d.

Yahoo messenger Google earth You tube None of these

57. Which service provide 3D view of earth: a. b. c. d.

Google Earth Wikipedia Skype None of these

Learn How to Type Fast The ability to type quickly, accurately and without seeing at the keyboard is a huge advantage beside the nature of your work at computer system. Having good typing skills is essential in today’s society where almost everything is computer based and hence requires typing on a keyboard to input texts and messages frequently . 1. Fast touch typing can save a lot of time at school and colleges when taking notes, writing assignments and chatting with friends online. 2. In the workplace, people who type quick have a natural edge to get more things done and win the acceptance. 3. If you likes chatting and communicates forums, typing fast will save you a lot of time and allow you to say more. 4. For journalists, blogger and writers, skilled typing abilities will help you in your day to day job. 5. For secretaries and administrators, typing is a fundamental job requirement. This is also true for a range of other typing related jobs such as for data entry operators and LDC.

Touch Typing Touch typing is typing without looking at the keyboard. The idea is to teach your fingers the location of each keys. Typing Speed is measured in Words Per Minute (WPM), commonly used in typing test examination and recruitment. For the purposes of WPM measurement a word is standardized to five characters or keystrokes. Therefore, “write” counts as one word, but “understand” counts as two words and blank space also count as one character.

Tips for increasing your typing speed Body Posture :

This is the basic of learning the typing skills. You have to sit straight with a comfortable height of the chair from where you can see to your monitor. Your end of the palm must be grounded to the end of the keyboard or surface where your keyboard is placed. Place your fingers correctly on the keyboard. Never try to type with your fingertips or nails.

Placement of fingers on Keyboard : The F and J keys have a raised bar or a dot allowing your finger to identify them. Once you have placed your two indexes on those keys, the other fingers are placed on the keys next to them. 'A' 'S' 'D' 'F' and 'J' 'K' 'L' ';' are the base positions for your fingers. Your fingers go from the base position to the key that you want to press and after pressing the key it backs at base position. In order to type fast you have to be careful about which finger to use to press a key. Take a look at the drawing below.

Each color match a finger. For example the right index is pink and has to type only the pink keys. Always try to type with both hands. Divide groups in the keyboard for both hands. Always use thumb of any hand for press the space bar.

Memorize the position of Keys : To become a good typist you have to memorize the keyboard and create a mental map of the associated fingers. You have to be able to press any key without even thinking. For example if I say 'E' you have to think move the middle finger up and press 'E' instantly. You can only achieve this through practice. You have to build up the muscle memory of each finger.

You can type with much more speed without seeing to the keyboard. It is very easy if you practice daily for it. In initial few days let there be mistakes in typing but don't look towards keyboard, instead try to remember the keys.

Use of Shortcut Keys :

Shortcut keys are very handy for computer users. Shortcuts keys help provide an easier and usually quicker method of navigating and using computer applications. While writing content you can easily format the text if you make use of shortcut keys, which will save your further time of formatting the document. Maximize use of keyboard shortcut's instead of using mouse because when you move your hand form keyboard to mouse and again set's to the right key position consumes much time.

Practice makes man perfect :

Without practice no one can be a good typist. Try to give an hour daily as practice session for Typing. You can use IndiaTyping for practice. IndiaTyping will show you real time accuracy, speed statics and it never allows you go further without type correct character for your typing speed improvement.

Key ideas 1) Place your indexes on 'F' and 'J'. 2) Use same finger all time to type each key. 3) Don't look at the keyboard, your eyes should always look at the screen

We all know that typing speed matters. Whether you’re applying for a job as a paralegal or an executive assistant, being able to type quickly and accurately might be the only skill that stands between you and another equally qualified applicant. Can you type 65+ words per minute? If you didn’t have the benefit of taking a typing course or two in school, that might not be the case. So, how do you get those skills up to par in a short period of time so that you can compete for these high paying positions? Here’s 5 shortcuts that will help you increase your typing speed in no time. We don’t guarantee overnight results but, if you follow these tips you’ll definitely get a leg up on the competition.

Technique Matters Touch typing is 80% technique, 10% accuracy and 10% speed. People who are masters at touch typing will tell you that without proper hand position and typing technique, you’ll only be able to type so fast. Think about it, there is no way that the person using the hunt and peck method will ever be as fast as someone who uses proper technique on a QWERTY keyboard. Using the proper technique will make learning to type much easier and open a world of opportunities when it comes to increasing typing speed.

Errors are Opportunities for Improvement When you first start learning to touch type, you’re going to make some errors. In fact you might make a lot of them. Your success really depends on how you view making those mistakes – do you see them as a failure or as an opportunity to improve? People who see their mistakes as an opportunity to improve generally learn faster than people who don’t. Your mindset plays a big part in how quickly you learn and how much information you are able to take in.

Repetition Never Gets Boring Touch typing is all about muscle memory, which means that your muscles will need some time to adjust to the new techniques that you are learning. The best and quickest way to do this is through repetition. By doing the same exercise over and over you will be able to ingrain those movements into your muscle memory. If you are using an online typing tutor, set a high standard for yourself. Make a decision to master a technique 100% before moving on to the next lesson.

This may seem more time consuming upfront but, if you do this the subsequent lessons will be easier since they are built upon the techniques taught in the previous lessons.

Good Posture Can Work Wonders Posture is one of the most overlooked factors when it comes to learning to type quickly. Poor posture not only takes a toll on your muscles, but can affect your energy levels and accuracy as well. Good posture while typing will keep up your energy levels and also allow your fingers to rest in the correct position. Keeping correct posture allows you to type faster, more accurately and will help prevent injury. The correct posture to have while typing is relaxed with feet squarely on the floor and wrists level with the keyboard.

Don’t Look at the Keyboard Another great trick to help you increase your typing speed in a short period of time is to avoid looking at the keyboard. Initially, this may result in more mistakes, but you will learn the positions of the keys at a much higher rate without using the keyboard as a crutch. Because it can be tempting to simply look down at the keyboard, try covering the keyboard and your hands with a piece of paper while you type. Or, if you really want to challenge your self, Das Keyboard Ultimate is a keyboard with blank keys that will literally force you to learn the keys via motor-skills.

Practice, Practice, Practice… Finally, the best way to increase your typing speed is through good old practice. While practice isn’t necessarily a shortcut and requires dedicated effort, it really is the best way to see results. Even if you practice your typing skills for 30 minutes each day for a month, you will see an improvement that can make all the difference in helping you land your dream job.

SAFETY SIGNS & COLOUR AT WORK Objectives: At the end of this unit, you will be able to know and understand: •

State the common causes for accidents



State the functions of signboards



Part of the four basic categories of safety signboards



Give examples of each category of sign boards.

1.1 CAUSES FOR ACCIDENTS Accidents happen due to causes which cannot be foreseen. Most accidents are a result of human error, ignorance, neglect, forgetfulness or recklessness. Most accidents can be prevented. Normally accidents do not just happen. They are caused. Causes for accidents are many, some of the important ones are: · - Un-awareness of danger

- Disregard for safety - Negligence - Lack of understanding of proper safety procedures - Untidy condition of workplace - Inadequate light and ventilation - Improper use of tools 1.2 SAFE ATTITUDES People's attitudes govern what they do or fail to do. In most cases accidents occur when someone is working with unsafe equipment or in an unsafe situation. These situations which cause accidents because the working person has failed to do certain things. Most accidents do not just happen. Accidents are caused by those who, for example, damage equipment or find that it is facility but don't set it right or at least report it to the concerned people. Anybody who sees a hazard and does nothing about it is contributing to the possibility of an accident. Knowing the possibility of an accident if a worker does not bother about it that by itself is enough to ensure a workman is crippled for life. He might not have caused the accident, but could have definitely prevented it. 1.3 SAFETY SIGNS AND COLOUR AT WORK Safety signs and colour are useful tools to help protect the health and safety of employees and workplace visitors. Safety signs are used to:

• • • • • •

Draw attention to health and safety hazards Point out hazards that may not be obvious Provide general information and directions Remind employees where personal protective equipment must be worn Show where emergency equipment is located Indicate where certain actions are prohibited

Colour attracts attention and can be used extensively for safety purposes. For example, colour can be used as an additional safety measure to identify the contents of pipes and the nature of the hazard. The choice of colour also draws attention to the probability of a hazard causing harm. For example, the colour red is used to indicate a definite hazard. A potential hazard is communicated by the colour yellow. When employees are aware of the hazards around them and take the necessary precautions, the possibility of an injury, illness or other loss is minimized. However while safety signs and colours are valuable in warning of hazards, they are not substitutes for eliminating or reducing those hazards, whenever possible. This guideline will help your workplace to effectively use safety signs and colours for the protection of employees and visitors alike. 1.4 SIGN CATEGORIES

As shown in the table below, there are three basic sign categories used in the workplace: Each category is distinguished by its shape. These categories are divided into sub-categories that can be recognized by their colour. Regulatory • Warning • Information Each category is distinguished by its shape. These categories are divided into sub-categories that can be recognized by their colour 1.5 SIGN TYPES One of three sign types should be used to communicate a message: • Symbol signs • Symbol signs with text • Text signs Use symbols that are simple and easy to learn and recognize. Include simple wording (text) to help explain the meaning of the symbol or to provide more information. Text signs should only be used when no appropriate symbols exist. Check the CSA international standard CAN/CSA Z321-96 to see if the topic or message you want to convey is listed. Examples of the three types of signs are shown below, based on the CSA standard.

Question Excerpt 1. This sign tells you that a substance is

A. B. C. D.

harmful toxic corrosive dangerous to the environment

2. this sign means

A. B. C. D.

leaking roof wear waterproof clothes emergency shower fire sprinklers

3TThis sign tells you where:

A. B. C. D.

to go if there is a fire fire extinguishers should be kept a fire will start flammable materials should be kept

A. B. C. D.

4 Fire exits are coloured: blue and white red and white green and white red and yellow

5. A truck has to tip materials into a trench. Who should give signals to the truck driver? Anyone who is there A. Someone standing in the trench B. Anyone who knows the signals C. Anyone who is trained and competent D. 6.

This sign means: wear ear protection is if you want to you must wear ear protection you must not make a noise caution, noisy machinery

A. B. C. D. 7.

Yellow and black signs mean: you must do something you must not do something hazard or danger safe conditions

A. B. C. D. 8.

A. B. C. D.

This sign means: no access onto the scaffold no entry without full Personal Protective Equipment no entry for people on foot no entry during the day

9.

A. B. C. D.

Red and white signs with a red line mean: you must do something you must not do something hazard or danger safe condition 10.

A. B. C. D.

This sign means: caution, cold materials caution, hot materials carry out work using one hand you must wear your safety gloves

11. Which of the following indicates a hazard which may require this safety sign to be

A. B. C.

displayed? Large metal pieces being thrown accross the room by industrial fans. Small airborne particles from metal face grinding. Mice with parachutes.

12.

Which safety equipment must be worn when this sign is displayed? (Check all that apply.) Breathing Apparatus/Dust Mask Oakleys Sunglasses Cricket Helmet Overalls or other protective clothing A pair of pink rubber gloves A pair of protective welders gloves Gumboots Vans Sneakers Fully enclosed leather footwear

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. 13.

What signage would need to be displayed if an angle grinder was producing sparks like this? 4. When welding or grinding in a public area, it is a requirement by law that correct signage be displayed. True A. False B. 5. If a safety sign is removed from the workplace by a member of staff, they must immediately replace it with a newer version. True A. False B.

SAFE LIFTING AND CARRYING TECHNIQUES 3.1: CAUSES OF INJURY A majority of the accidents reported while working, involve injuries caused while lifting and carrying loads. Wrong lifting techniques will result in injury to the person as well as damaging the load. Wrong lifting techniques can result in injury even when the load lifted is not heavy. When a load is lifted without following the correct technique, the muscles and joints get strained. The most common type of injury due to the wrong way of lifting is injury to the back. Another cause for injuries during lifting and carrying may be, because of tripping over an object and falling, or striking an object with the load 3.2. TYPES OF INJURY AND METHODS TO PREVENT THEM

Figure 3.1 Cuts and abrasions Cuts and abrasions are caused: •

By rough surfaces and jagged edges



By splinters and sharp or pointed projections as shown in Figure 3.1

To avoid cuts and abrasions to hands, leather gloves should be worn for protection. But while lifting large or heavy loads, body contact may be involved which must be avoided. Crushing of feet or hands The feet or hands should be positioned so that they cannot be trapped by the load. Timber wedges can be used when raising and lowering heavy loads to ensure the fingers and hands are not caught and crushed. To avoid crushing of feet, safety shoes with steel toe caps as shown in Figure 3.2 should be used

Figure 3.2 Strains to muscles and joints Strains to muscles and joints may be the result of: •

lifting a load which is too heavy, or



lifting incorrectly.

Sudden and awkward movements such as twisting or jerking during a lift can put severe strain on muscles. Injury to the back is most often caused by lifting loads which are either too heavy or by employing a wrong method of lifting. Lifting from a standing position (stoop lifting) with the back rounded as shown in Fig increases the chances of back injury This method must, therefore, be avoided. The human spine is not an efficient weight lifting machine and can get easily damaged if incorrect load lifting techniques are used The stress on a rounded back can be up to six times greater than it is when the spine is kept straight. 3.3. POINTS THAT MAKE AN OBJECT/LOAD, DIFFICULT TO CARRY Although weight is a factor which makes it difficult to carry an object, it is not the only factor. This is because, if the size and shape of an object is awkward to handle, it becomes more difficult to carry such loads than it is to carry heavy loads of easy-to-handle and of small size. This is because, the load which requires the arms to be extended in front of the body, gives more strain on the back and stomach than a compact object carried close to the body. Shown in figure 3.3

Figure 3.3

The absence of handles as natural handling points can also make it difficult to raise and carry objects. •

The weight a person can lift also depends on the age, physique and his experience in lifting and handling heavy loads

3.4. PREPARATION BEFORE LIFTING OR SHIFTING HEAVY LOADS A load which seems light enough to carry at first, will become progressively heavier the farther you have to carry it. Hence it is advised not to be over confident.  Before lifting or shifting a load, get answers to the following questions •

Is the load heavy?



Wherefrom and whereto should the load be moved?



Can you handle it atone or do you need assistance?

 Before lifting and carrying a load make sure that the route in which you are going to carry the load is clear of obstacles and is stable and not slippery.  Before carrying a load, make sure that the place where the load has to deposited/placed is clear and stable.  Be ore carrying a load, make a trial lift to ensure that you are able to see around and over the load when you are carrying it. 3.5. CORRECT BODY POSTURE BEFORE BEGINNING THE LIFT IN KINETIC METHOD OF LIFTING • FEET- Place your feet about 18 inches (45cms) apart, with one foot slightly forward, in the direction of movement. This gives a good balance and provides a secure basis for lifting. • • • • •

KNEES- Slightly bends your knees (but NOT fully bent as in a squat). BACK - Keep your back straight, although the body may be inclined forward. ARMS - Keep your arms as close in to the body as possible. The further the arms are extended the greater the strain. Elbows too should be kept in. GRIP- Ensure that the grip on the load for lifting is firm and secure. HEAD- Keep your head erect with the chin in

3.6. MANUAL LIFTING TECHNIQUE USING KINETIC METHOD • Approach the load. Stand erect and facing the direction of travel. Keep your feet 18 to 20 inches wide apart. Place one feet slightly forward. • Sit in a squatting position with your legs slightly apart. And the load to be lifted held close to the body. Hold the load at its handles or it natural safe grip points. • Before lifting keep your back as straight as possible. Straighten your legs. Look directly ahead. • Slightly lean back and raise the upper part of the body to the vertical position, while lifting the load. • Keeping the load touching your body. Carry to the place where it is to be placed. If you have to make a turn while carrying, turn the whole body in one movement. • Bend at the knees to a semi-squatting position. Keep the back and head erect and look straight.



Lower the load slightly and rest your elbows on the thighs to rest. Place the load smoothly without jerks on surface.

3.8. SHIFTING OF WORKING TABLES • Before shifting, finalize the place where the table has to be shifted. • Confirm that the new-place is free from obstacles and the ground is stable. • Clear the travel way so that the table could be moved freely without damaging any objects on its way. • Disconnect all electrical connections made to the table. • Remove tools, equipments, if any, from the table. • Depending on the size and weight of the table take the assistance of one or more persons. • Make sure that the height of the person(s) assisting you is more or less the same as your height to ensure balanced lifting and shifting. • Make your assistant(s) hold the table at suitable grip points and at intervals suitable to balance the load when lifted. • Lift the table simultaneously at all positions to a height of 3 to 4 inches above the ground level. • Travel simultaneously towards the destination point carrying the table slowly and without losing the grip. • While carrying the load, keep your back as straight as possible and look straight. • Place the table slowly and simultaneously at its destination. • Make necessary electrical connections. 3.8.SHIFTING OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENTS/INSTRUMENTS • Disconnect the electrical connections and other external prods/wires. • Take care to prevent damages to the knobs and controls during lifting and transporting. • Get yourself familiar with the load and weight distribution inside by lifting them up by few inches from its place. • Lift the equipment at its handle/grip points. • Carry the equipment holding it close to your body and walk slowly to its destination. • Place the equipment gently over the surface without any jerk. 3.9. BASIC STEPS OF SAFE LIFTING AND HANDLING • Size up the load and check overall conditions. Don't attempt the lift by yourself if the load appears to be too heavy or awkward. Check that there is enough space for movement, and that the footing is good. "Good housekeeping" ensures that you won't trip or stumble over an obstacle. • Make certain that your balance is good. Feet should be shoulder width apart, with one foot beside and the other foot behind the object that is to be lifted. • Bend (he knees; don't stoop. Keep the back straight, but not vertical. (There is a difference. Tucking in the chin straightens the back.) • Grip the load with the palms of your hands and your fingers. The palm grip is much more secure. Tuck in the chin again to make certain your back is straight before starting to lift. • Use your body weight to start the load moving, then lift by pushing up with

• • • •

the legs. This makes full use of the strongest set of muscles. Keep the arms and elbows close to the body while lifting. Carry the load close to the body. Don't twist your body while carrying the load. To change direction, shift your foot position and turn your whole body. Watch where you are going! To lower the object, bend the knees. Don't stoop. To deposit the load on a bench or shelf, place it on the edge and push it into position. Make sure your hands and feet are clear when placing the load.

Make it a habit to follow the above steps when lifting anything-even a relatively light object. 3.10.TEAM LIFTING MUST BE COORDINATED • If the weight, shape, or size of an object makes the job too much for one person, ask for help. •

Ideally, workers should be of approximately the same size for team lifting.



One individual needs to be responsible for control of the action to ensure proper coordination. If one worker lifts too soon, shifts the load, or lowers it improperly, either they or the person working with them may be injured.



Walk out of step

3.11.LIFTING HEAVY OBJECTS • Safe lifting of heavy items requires training and practice. For example, we've probably all seen a small person move heavy feed sacks with apparent ease. •

The secret lies in taking the proper stance and grip.



When equipment is available, it should be used to lift and carry heavy objects.



Loaders, forklifts, hoists, etc. are made for this purpose.

3.12. DO’S" AND "DON'TS" OF SAFE LIFTING AND CARRYING Do Don't Tuck in the chin to keep the back as straight as possible while lifting.

Use your back muscles to do lifting. Try to lift an item that is too heavy of Awkward.

Lift with the strong leg muscles.

Twist your body while carrying an object.

Ask for help with the heavy, awkward Attempt team lifting items. without proper coordination. When possible, use mechanical equipment to move heavy items.

Steps Planning

Lifting

Techniques •

Size up the load and check overall conditions



Check route for clearances and obstacles



Use a handcart or dolly, etc. when possible



Break down large and heavy loads



Know your limits



Seek help if necessary



Take extra care with awkward tasks

Remember to use the “5” L’s of Back Safety • Load • Lungs • Lever • Legs • Lordosis – keep your back straight

Carrying

Hold the load close to your body • Look where your are walking • Take extra care carrying up and down stairs • Don’t twist your body, move your feet to turn

Lowering

Bend your knees to lower the load • Don’t trap your fingers and toes • Pull it down first, then slide it

into place •

Don’t over-reach or stretch

FIRE AND FIRE EXTINGUISHERS OBJECTIVES: On completion of this lesson you shall be able to : • State the effects of a fire break out • State the conditions required for combustion relevant to fire prevention • State the general precautionary measures to be taken for fire prevention • Determine the correct type of fire extinguisher required for a particular function. • State the meaning of electric shock • State the factors that determine the severity of a shock • State the severity of shock based on the voltage level 4.1. FIRE Fire is nothing but burning of a combustible material. For combustion the three main requirements are shown in Figure 4.1

Figure 4.1 4.2. Fuel Fuel can be any combustible substance in the form of a solid, liquid or gas. Examples; wood, paper, petrol, kerosene, LPG etc., The fuel will catch fire and burn provided a high enough temperature(heat) is brought about and a continuous supply of oxygen is given. It is important to note that without fuel; combustion cannot take place. 4.3. HEAT Fuels will begin to burn at a certain temperature. Different types of fuels need different temperatures to catch fire and burn. For example, wood needs a higher temperature to catch fire and burn than paper. Petrol needs much lesser temperature to catch fire and burn than Paper. Generally liquid fuels give off vapor when heated. It is this vapor which ignites. Some liquids such as

Petrol do not have to be heated as they give off vapor at room temperature (15°C - 25°C} itself. It is important to note that without heat, fuel cannot get ignited (catch fire) and hence combustion cannot take place 4.4. OXYGEN Oxygen exists in air. The amount of oxygen in air is sufficient to continue the combustion once it occurs. Hence to keep a fire burning, oxygen is a must. It is important to note that without oxygen, combustion can- not continue to take place. · 4.5. CONTROLLED AND UNCONTROLLED FIRE Fire is a boon to mankind. Without fire, there would not be cooked food or hot water for bath as and when we want it. At the same time if the fire does not get constrained to a place of requirement, fire can become a bane (curse) to. mankind An uncontrolled fire .can cause such a disaster Which not only leads to destruction of material but also endanger the life of persons, hence, the lesson one must never forget is, keep the fire under control. Every effort must be made to prevent uncontrolled fire. When there is a fire outbreak, it must be controlled and extinguished immediately without any delay. 4.6. PREVENTING FIRE The majority of fires begin with small outbreaks. If this is not noticed, fire goes out of control and will be on its way of destruction. Hence, most fires could be prevented if suitable care is taken by following some simple common sense rules as given below • Do not accumulate combustible refuse such as cotton waste, waste or cloth soaked with oil, scrap wood, paper, etc. in odd corners. These refuse should be in their collection bins or points • Do not misuse or neglect electrical equipments or electrical wiring as this may cause electrical fire. Loose connections, low rated fuses, overloaded circuits causes over heating which may in turn lead to fire. Damaged insulation between conductors in cables cause electrical short circuit and cause fire. • Keep away clothing and other materials which might catch fire from heating appliances. Make sure the soldering iron is disconnected from power supply and is kept safe in its stand at the end of the working day. • Store highly flammable liquids and petroleum mixtures such as thinner, adhesive solutions, solvents, kerosene, spirit, LPG gas etc. in the storage area exclusively meant for storage of flammable materials. • Turn off blowlamps and torches when they are not in use. 1.

Write the methods of Preventing from fire …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4.7 CONTROLLING AND EXTINGUISHING FIRE Isolating or removing any of three factors illustrated in Fig , will control and extinguish fire. There are three • basic ways of achieving this. • Starving the fire of fuel To remove the fuel which is burning or cut further supply of fuel to the fire. • Smothering To stop the supply of oxygen to the fire by blanketing the fire with foam, sand etc. • Cooling To reduces the temperature of the fire by spraying water and thus cooling the fire. By any one of the above three methods, fire can be first controlled and then extinguished. For the purpose of determining the best method of extinguishing different types of fires, fires are classified under four main classes based on the type of fuel as given in Table Classification of Fire

Fuel involved

Class A Fire

Wood, paper cloth etc. Solid materials

Precautions and extinguishing Most effective method is cooling with water. Jets of water should be sprayed on the base

Class B Fire

Flammable liquids & liquefiable solids

Should be smothered. The aim. is to cover the entire surface of the burning liquid. This has the effect of cutting off the supply of oxygen to the fire. Water should never be used on burning liquids Foam, dry powder or C02 may be used on this type of fire

Class C Fire

Gas and liquefied gas

Extreme caution is necessary in dealing with liquefied gases. There is a risk of Explosion and sudden outbreak of fire in the entire vicinity. If an appliance fed from a cylinder catches fire shut off the supply of gas. The safest course is to raise an alarm and leave the fire to be dealt with by trained personnel.

Dry powdered extinguishers are used on this type of fire. Class D Fire

Involving metals

The standard range of fire extinguishing agents is inadequate or dangerous when . dealing with metal fires. Fire in electrical equipment: Carbon dioxide, dry powder, and vaporizing liquid(CTC) extinguishers can be used to Deal with fires in electrical equipment. Foam or liquid (e.g. water) extinguishers must not be used on electrical equipment at all.

4.8. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Different fire extinguishing agents should be used for different types of fires as listed in Table Using a wrong type of extinguishing agent can make things worse. A fire extinguishing agent is the material or substance used to put out the fire. These extinguishing materials are usually (but not always) contained in a container called the 'fire extinguisher' with a mechanism for spraying into the fire when needed. There is no classification for electrical fires as such as these are only fires in materials where electricity is present. To control electrical fire in a building the electrical supply should be cut off first. 4.9TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Many types of fire extinguishers are available with different extinguishing agents to deal with different classes of fires as shown in Figure 4.2 Always check the operating instructions on the extinguisher before use

Figure 4.2 4.9.1.Water-filled extinguishers In water-filled extinguishers, as shown in Fig 4.3 there are two types based on the method of operating the extinguisher. a) Cartridge type b) Stored pressure type

Figure 4.3 A) GAS CATRIDGE TYPE (B) STORED PRESSURE TYPE In both the methods of operation, the discharge can be interrupted as required. This is to conserve the contact area and to prevent unnecessary damage to the material due to water. 4.9.2.Foam extinguishers

These may be stored pressure or gas cartridge types as shown in Figure 4.4

Figure 4.4 Most suitable for: •

Flammable liquid fires



Running liquid fires.

Not to be used in fires where electrical equipment is. Involved.

4.9.3. Dry powder extinguishers Extinguishers fitted with dry powder may be of the gas cartridge or stored pressure type as shown in Figure 4.5 Appearance and the method of operation is the same as that of water-filled one. The main distinguishing feature is the fork-shaped nozzle. Powders have been specially developed to deal with Class D fires

Figure 4.5 4.9.4. Carbon dioxide (C02) This type is easily distinguished by the distinctively shaped discharge horn as shown in Figure 4.6 . These extinguishers are suitable for fires on flammable liquids and liquefiable solids. Best suited where contamination by deposits must be avoided. Not generally effective in the open air

Figure 4.6 4.9.5. Halon Extinguishers Carbon tetrachloride (CTC) and Bromochlorodinuoromethane (BCF). They may be either gas cartridge or nonconductive. Shown in figure 4.7

Figure 4.7 The fumes given off these extinguishers are dangerous especially in confined space. 4.10. GENERAL PROCEDURE TO BE ADOPTED IN THE EVENT OF A FIRE • Raise a loud alarm by using any of the following. Adopt any one method of giving an alarm signal for fire breaking in your institute/ workshop.

o Raising your voice and shouting Fire! Fire! Fire! ... To call the attention of others. o Running towards the fire shouting Fire! Fire! and actuate fire alarm/bell/siren. This alarm/bell/siren. to be actuated only in case of fire.

o Any other means by which the attention of others can be called and are made to understand there is a fire break out. •

On receipt of _the fire alarm signal, do the following:



o

stop the normal work you are doing

o

turn off the power for all machinery and equipments

o

switch off fans/air circulators/exhaust fans

o

Switch off the mains if accessible.

If you are not involved in fire o

evacuate the working premises

o

close the doors and windows, but do bolt

o

assemble at a safe open place along with the others

o

If you in the room/place where the fire has broken out, leave the place calmly through the emergency exit.



If you are involved in the fire fighting team, o



Take instructions/give instructions for an organized way of fighting the fire. If you are taking instructions

o

Follow the instructions systematically. Do not panic.

o

Do not get trapped in fire or smoke in a hurry.



o

If you are giving instructions,

o

Assess the class of fire (class A,B,C or D)

o

Send for sufficient assistance and fire brigade

o

Judge the magnitude of the fire. Locate locally available suitable means to put-out the fire.

o

Ensure emergency exit paths are clear of obstructions. Attempt to evacuate the people and explosive materials, substances that can serve as further fuel for fire within the vicinity of the fire break.

o

Allot clear activity to person’s involved in firefighting by name to avoid confusion.

o

Control and extinguish the fire using the right type of fire extinguisher and making use of the available assistance effectively.

After fully extinguishing the fire, make a report of the fire accident and the measures taken_ to put out the fire, to the authorities concerned.

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION, RISK ASSESSMENT AND RISK CONTROL 5.2.1Introduction Employers have a duty to ensure, as far as practicable; that employees are not exposed to hazards at the workplace. There is a specific requirement for employers to carry out a risk management process. It involves a three-step process to: •

Identify hazards;



Assess risks; and



Control risks.

To assist in carrying out the risk management process, consideration should be given to: •

Previous injuries, ‘near miss’ incidents or accidents which have occurred at the workplace or other similar workplaces;



Relevant codes of practice and guidance notes;



Consultation with employees, safety and health representatives (if any) and safety and health committees to find out any problems associated with performing tasks or jobs;



Encouraging employees to report work-related injury or illness symptoms;



Walk-through inspections of the workplace. Consider using checklists; and



Records or statistics that could indicate potentially unsafe work practices.

5.2.2. Identifying Hazards The first step in the risk management process is identifying hazards. This involves recognizing items that may cause injury or harm to the health of people. There are a number of ways to identify items or potential situations that may cause an injury or harm. Choosing an appropriate process or procedure for identifying hazards will depend on the nature of the work environment and hazards involved. Hazard identification processes or procedures may include: •

Developing a hazard checklist;



Examining records of past incidents and injuries at the workplace;



Examining data for similar workplaces;



Carrying out inspections of the workplace (consider using checklists);



Consulting relevant codes of practice and guidance notes;



Encouraging employees to report work-related symptoms;



Consulting employees and safety and health representatives and committees (if any); and



Talking to industry associations and other similar businesses.

A hazard identification process or procedure may range from simple checklists for specific equipment, such as workstations, to a more open-ended appraisal of a group of related work processes. Generally, a combination of methods will provide the most effective results. 5.2.3. Common hazards at office The safety and health hazards at office may include (but are not limited to): •

An inadequate physical working environment increasing the risk of injury or harm;



Inadequate workstations increasing the risk of muscle and soft tissue injuries;



inadequate work organization increasing the risk of muscle and soft tissue injuries, as well as work-related stress symptoms and fatigue including vocal and visual fatigue;



Acoustic incidents and background noise increasing the risk of an acoustic injury occurring; and



Inadequate headset hygiene increasing the risk of infection.

These hazards can be associated with overcrowding, poor workstation design, non-adjustment of workstations to suit the individual, repetitive work, work overload (such as when demand suddenly increases), insufficient ‘time out’, abusive customers, long spread of hours, faulty telephone equipment, hot disking and sharing headsets 5.2.4Controlling Risks The third step is to implement control measures to eliminate or reduce the risk of people being injured or harmed and ensure the measures are monitored and reviewed on an ongoing basis. There is a preferred order of control measures ranging from the most effective to the least effective in eliminating or reducing the risks of injury or harm. This is outlined in the following manner. •

Elimination — removing the hazard or hazardous work practice from the workplace. For example:



o

Modifying workstation design;

o

Modifying work organization with task analysis and job redesign;

o

Modifying work shifts;

o

Replacing faulty equipment; and

o

Preventing mobile phones being used inside the office.

Substitution — substituting or replacing a hazard or hazardous work practice with a less hazardous one.

For example, replacing equipment and workstations with better designed ones. •

Isolation — isolating or separating the hazard or hazardous work practice from people involved in the work or people in the general work area. For example: o

Locating fax machines in specifically designated areas away from employees; and

o

Ensuring noisy work areas, such as printers and photocopiers, are located away from employees.



Engineering controls — if the hazard cannot be eliminated, substituted or isolated, an engineering control is the next preferred measure. For example: o

Repairing and maintaining equipment;

o

Promptly repairing network faults;

o

Installing acoustic shock prevention devices in telephone sets;

o

Reducing background noise levels;

o

Providing more space between operators/operator groups or installing acoustic barriers; and

o

Adjusting lighting to reduce glare.

o

Administrative controls — this includes introducing work practices that reduce the risk, such as implementing measures to ensure procedures, instruction and training are provided,

For example: o

Implementing acoustic incident reporting and action plans;

o

Implementing or improving customer contact and dispute resolution procedures; and

o

Implementing job rotation.

5.3. Workstation Layout and ergonomic Guideline 5.3.1Signs and symptoms of injury You may notice pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness while on the job. Sometimes these sensations are signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal injury (MSI). Other times, they are just part of the normal human condition, and can be ignored. Signs and symptoms may be associated with: •

Repetitive movements



Awkward postures (for example neck bent forward or wrist bent backward)



Static postures (holding body parts in one position for extended periods of time)

The risk of injury increases the longer you perform repetitive movements or work with awkward or static postures. The risk of injury also increases if more than one of these factors is present while you are working. Signs and symptoms of injury may appear suddenly, or they may appear gradually over a period of weeks, months, or years. Sometimes signs or symptoms are worse when you move in certain ways at work or at home. We all experience discomfort in our lives at work and at home. Some discomfort may be relieved by adjusting your workstations. Symptoms may indicate certain conditions such as those affecting muscles, nerves, and tendons. Consider the following examples:



Muscles are prone to fatigue and strain when overworked.



Compression of a nerve by inflamed surrounding tissue can cause Irritation.



Recurring irritation of tendons can lead to tendinitis or tenosynovitis.

5.3.2. Aches and Pains

5.3.3Suggested Workstation Dimensions and adjustment Ranges

5.3.4. Adjust your chair The chair position may be uncomfortable for you as a result of one or more of the following: •

Seating that doesn’t adequately support your back may increase fatigue and contribute to poor posture.



Seating that is too high or too low may result in symptoms in your neck, shoulders, back, or legs.



Seating that is too low may require you to use awkward arm postures to reach up to the work surface, or may cause you to sit with your knees raised, increasing the stress on your lower back.



Sitting for long periods without varying your posture increases fatigue.

When you begin to feel discomfort, you may have held a position too long. Avoid fatigue and discomfort by varying your posture regularly throughout the workday. You can do this by adjusting your chair and standing or walking occasionally. Your chair controls should be simple to use so it’s easy for you to adjust your chair, while seated, regularly during the workday 5.3.5.Rearrange your workstation layout. Your computer workstation should be arranged so that you can use comfortable postures when working with the monitor, keyboard, mouse, documents, and other items.

Monitors If you work with a computer, you should have your eyes tested about every two years, or more frequently if you are experiencing problems with your vision. Keeping your screen at the optimal height and viewing distance will help prevent or reduce eye strain and muscle tension in your neck, shoulders, and upper back. Screen height The top line of text on your computer screen (not the top of the monitor) should be at eye level, as shown on page 6. Most of the screen will be slightly below eye level. If you don’t have an adjustable monitor support, adjust the monitor height by placing stable, stackable materials underneath the monitor to bring the top of the screen to eye level. An adjustable monitor support is handy if you share a workstation because it makes adjusting the height of the monitor quick and easy. Viewing distance The distance between your eyes and the screen when sitting in a typing position should be about arm’s length. Your ears should be in line with your shoulders when you view the monitor. Prescription eyewear Eyeglasses or contact lenses prescribed for general use may not be adequate for computer work. Prescription lenses can be made to maximize vision and comfort when working at a computer, either as glasses specifically for computer use or as bifocal or multifocal glasses. To determine your visual needs for working with a monitor, your ophthalmologist or optometrist will need the following information: •

Measurements from your eyes to the monitor screen, work documents, and keyboard — for more accuracy, have someone else take these measurements.



The size of the screen — Measure diagonally across the screen, and add on approximately 2–3 cm (1 in.).



A description of your job tasks — Describe your daily routine at the computer and how much time you spend each day at different tasks.



A description of the programs used — Mention whether you use text or graphics programs, and describe typical type sizes and screen background colours.



Type of lighting — describe the lighting you work under (for example, natural light, fluorescent light, or lights under a cupboard or shelf).

Dual monitors Consider the following when setting up a dual-monitor workstation: •

Place both monitors at the same optimal height as for a single monitor.



Make sure both monitors are no closer than arm’s length away to avoid excess neck rotation. If necessary, increase the font size so you can place each monitor at least an arm’s length away from you.



Position your main monitor so it is straight in front of you and in line with your keyboard and chair. Position your second monitor right next to the main monitor.



If you use both monitors equally, place them side by side and adjust your body, keyboard, and mouse so your body and neck are straight.



Increase your mouse speed to reduce the amount of movement required to move the cursor across both screens.

Keyboards If your keyboard is adjusted properly, you will be able to keep your wrists straight while typing. This is a posture that may decrease the potential for injury. To obtain the optimal keyboard height, follow these guidelines: •

Adjust the keyboard surface up or down so that your wrists are straight



When your fingers are on the middle row of keys.



If your keyboard surface doesn’t adjust this way, raise or lower your chair until you can hold your wrists straight while touching the middle row of keys. Your work surface should be just below your elbows, and your forearms should be parallel to the floor, with your elbows at your sides.

You can also make a slight adjustment to the keyboard angle and height by folding the small legs, found on the underside of most keyboards, in or out. In most cases, you will need to keep the legs folded in to keep the keyboard flat and prevent bending of your wrists. Palm or wrist supports Do you tend to drop your palms or wrists while typing? If so, you could develop sore wrists. A palm or wrist support can provide support during rest periods from typing. When typing, do not rest on the support. Rest your wrists occasionally when you stop typing or mousing, by placing your palms (not your wrists) on the support. The support should be similar in thickness to your keyboard and narrow in depth so that it only touches the palm, not the wrist. It should be made of a soft, smooth, rounded material.

Don’t bend your wrists up (as illustrated) or down while typing.

If your wrists are straight while typing, you decrease the risk of injury. The mouse and other pointing devices Like your keyboard, if your mouse or other pointing device is at the proper height, you will be able to keep your wrists straight, shoulders relaxed, and elbows by your sides. This is typically a comfortable position that may decrease your risk of injury. The mouse Consider the following guidelines for using a mouse: •

Keep your mouse at the same height and as close to your keyboard as is practical. Don’t reach further than necessary to use your mouse. Move it closer, if possible, or use the mouse in your opposite hand.



Some computer furniture doesn’t provide enough room to place the mouse in the preferred position — you may have to get an extension to the keyboard surface for your mouse. Make sure you have enough space to move the mouse freely.



Keep your wrist straight while using the mouse. Avoid bending your wrist back or to either side. Use a full arm motion from the shoulder when guiding the mouse.



Relax your hand over the mouse. Don’t hold it too tightly.



Take your hand off the mouse when you are not using it.



If you are experiencing discomfort in your hand or wrist, try increasing the mouse’s pointer speed.



If you are having difficulties with your mouse, consider these options:



Use the mouse with your non-dominant hand.



Move the mouse closer to you.



Use a keyboard that has the number pad on the left side, or one without a number pad.



Use a different type of pointing device. Shown in figure 5.5

Figure 5.5 Don’t bend your wrist from side to side while using the mouse. Instead, try to move your whole arm to keep your wrist straight Other pointing devices Other pointing devices such as styluses, tablets, and trackballs should also be within a comfortable reach if you use them often or for long periods of time. These devices are often used by graphic artists, draftsmen, engineers, and others involved in specialized computer work such as computer-aided drawing. Keep your wrists straight and your upper body relaxed when using these devices. To obtain the optimal working posture for using a pointing device, follow these guidelines: •

Adjust the work surface up or down so that your wrists are straight when you are using it.



If your work surface doesn’t adjust this way, raise or lower your chair until you can hold your wrists straight

5.3.6.Laptops or notebook computers Laptop or notebook computers can be very convenient because they can take up less room and are easier to transport than conventional desktop computers. However, laptops can be more difficult to adjust to allow for good working postures. Consider using separate components (peripherals) when you are using your laptop computer at your workstation. For example, you can use the laptop screen as your monitor, and attach an external keyboard and mouse. Using separate components allows each one to be independently adjusted. If you have visual difficulties, plugging the laptop in to a larger external monitor may be helpful. If you are unable to use external components, consider the tasks you will be working on, and adjust your laptop accordingly: •

When reading lengthy documents, raise the screen to eye level to avoid bending your head downward.



When typing intensively, lower the keyboard so that your elbows just clear the top of the work surface, your arms are by your sides with about a 90-degree angle at the elbow, and your wrists are straight.



Take a break from your laptop. Do other jobs that don’t involve using a computer. It is better to take several short breaks, where you can change your posture, rather than one long break.

Multi-user and multi-task workstations Workstations used by more than one person or for a variety of tasks should be height adjustable. If you work at a multi-user or multi-task workstation, you should be able to adjust it quickly to suit you and the

task at hand. Adjustable workstation components such as monitor stands, keyboard supports, and work surfaces allow you to do this. Adjustable chairs and footrests are key components for multi-user workstations — they help each user obtain the optimal working height. You should also receive training in how to adjust the equipment and how to determine the correct posture for different tasks Documents Poor placement of the documents you look at while typing may lead to muscle discomfort or eye strain.

Figure 5.6 Poor placement of documents while typing can lead to awkward postures To reduce the need for these movements, place the documents as close as possible to the screen, with the documents at the same height and viewing distance as the screen. See “Placement of documents.” If your work is mostly data input, move the monitor to one side and place the document in front of you, at the same height and viewing distance as the monitor. If the document is too heavy or large for a standard document holder, you can improve the viewing angle and distance by using a binder or some other object on your desk to prop the document up. You can also purchase stands designed for large documents. Placement of documents: If you need to look back and forth from the screen to the documents, place your hard copy on a document holder, close to and at the same height and viewing distance as the monitor. Shown in figure 5.7

Figure 5.7 For data input, move the monitor to one side and place the documents in front of you 5.3.7.Exercises to reduce muscle tension and eye strain Daily stretching exercises aren’t a substitute for a proper workstation or equipment, or a cure for persistent pain or discomfort. However, they can help reduce muscle tension and eye strain. The stretches described in this section take about five minutes to complete. Repeat each stretch three to five times. You can do all of these exercises or select specific ones to relieve tension in particular muscles or areas of your body. If you do an exercise that stretches one side of the body, you should also do it on your other side to balance your exercise routine. Before starting to exercise, see your health care provider if you have a medical condition or injury in a part of the body involved in any of the exercises Body Part

Exercise or Stretch

Shoulders



Squeeze your shoulder blades together with your elbows lifted away from your body. Imagine you have a pencil between your shoulder blades and you are trying to trap it and then release it.

Back



Hold your arms straight in front of you, and stretch them forward. Raise your arms above your shoulders, and stretch them upward.



Sit relaxed, feet flat on the floor. Imagine a cable attached to the top of your head pulling you up. Hold for a count of three, and then relax. Repeat three times



Clench your fists, then release them, spreading out your fingers. Hold each position for a count of three.



In a sitting or standing posture, drop your arms to your side. Gently shake out your arms and hands.



Lift your lower leg from a seated posture, leaving your knee bent slightly. Rotate your

Wrists and hands

Lower limbs

ankle slowly. Point your toes and then pull them toward your shin. • QUESTIONNAIRE:

Stand up and take a short walk

MANAGING HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK OBJECTIVES: On completion of this lesson you shall be able to: •

How to prevent from office accidents



Layout of your office for safe working



Controlling hazards in your office



Action plan taking in emergency

6.1. INTRODUCTION Historically, the office has been considered a relatively safe and healthy place to work. Increasingly, however, office workers have expressed concerns about the office environment and their working conditions. These concerns are also reflected in complaints of discomfort, anxiety, irritation and general job dissatisfaction and can be measured in terms of sick leave, absenteeism and job turnover. This chapter discusses major areas of concern related to health and safety in the office. Accidents that occur in offices are frequently due to poorly designed office environments and improper office procedures. The rate of office accidents declines when office workers are informed of potential hazards and safe work practices. Training regarding general safety precautions for work in an office reduces both the number and severity of accidents. Office workers are increasingly sensitive to the effects of computer video display terminals (VDTs) upon their health and safety. Individuals who use computers with VDTs commonly report stress-related and musculoskeletal disorders. If such disorders are to be reduced, computer workstations must accommodate the needs of office workers. Concern over air quality in offices has generated various health-related symptoms that are known collectively as the “sick building syndrome.” Indoor air pollution and inadequate ventilation are presently subjects of intense study. The ambience of interoffice surroundings has caused problems for office workers. Such factors as improper temperature, inadequate humidity, and even colors of walls and furnishings are now known to be sources of discomfort. These are situations that should be considered in creating a safety, healthful and efficient office environment. 6.2. GENERAL OFFICE SAFETY Concern for safety is not a typical concern for the office worker because the office is not generally perceived as a hazardous environment. As this book shows, potential safety hazards do exist in the office and, if not corrected, can result in decreased productivity and possible serious injury. 6.3. TYPES OF OFFICE ACCIDENTS The most common office accident is falling. Falls account for the greatest number of disabling injuries. They result in the most severe injuries and the highest percentage of lost workdays due to such injuries.

Falls from chairs occur when workers lean back to tilt their chairs, place their feet on a desk, sit down without looking, and rise from or move around in a chair. Falls on stairs also occur, but more precaution is usually exercised on stairs because the fall hazard they pose is recognized. Slips, trips and falls can result from poor housekeeping such as wet sur- faces, electrical cords improperly placed and walkways obstructed by trash. Falls also occur when workers stand on chairs or other office furniture to reach elevated objects. Injuries from strain and overexertion frequently occur when office workers attempt to move or improperly lift heavy objects. Office workers sustain muscular and back injuries by carrying or moving books, office furniture, equipment and supplies without assistance. They may exacerbate such injuries by the stretching, twisting and bending required by the office routine. Office workers are injured when struck by objects. File drawers may fall from the cabinet when pulled too far, type- writers can fall from a rolling table, or doors opened from the side opposite the worker may strike the employee. Similarly, injuries occur when workers strike objects. Employees bump into doors and desks. File cabinets inadvertently left open are a source of injury. Infectious cuts are caused by sharp objects normally found in office environments, such as staples and pens. Fingers can get caught under the knife edge of a paper cutter. 6.4. OFFICE HAZARD CONTROL The process for controlling hazards in the office is similar to that for controlling hazards in industrial settings. The preferred means of hazard control is to eliminate the hazard (engineering controls). Another means is minimizing exposure to the hazard (administrative controls). Office-related hazards are controlled by carefully considering the office environment and by following office safety procedures. 6.5. OFFICE ENVIRONMENT The layout of an office should incorporate the principles of work flow, taking into consideration safety and health, efficiency, and convenience. Recommended that handrails for stairs are required to be located 30 to 34 inches above the tread surface. Standards enforced under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of North Carolina (OSHANC) also address stairs. Generally speaking, enclosed stairways with four or more risers and less than 44 inches wide require a handrail on one side. Enclosed stairways wider than 44 inches require a handrail for both sides. Regardless of stair width, there must be a stair railing for each open side. An intermediate stair railing is required for stairs wider than 88 inches. Doors that open into a passageway can pose a hazard to oncoming traffic. Guardrails can be used to minimize that hazard or the floor can be painted to mark the swing area. Exits should be unobstructed and well illuminated. Emergency lighting is required for exit hallways or paths. Inadequate illumination caused by glare or shadows that interfere with vision can contribute to accidents. Illumination levels should be consistent to reduce visual fatigue created when one moves from bright surroundings into dark ones. The office layout should not require employees to face windows, unshielded lamps or other sources of glare

6.6. HAZARDS FROM ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT • Using only proper equipment. • Arranging electrical extension cords to avoid tripping hazards. • Installing proper receptacles. Electrical appliances such as coffee makers, radios and lamps can become sources of fire or electrical shock. Appliances should be equipped with electrical plugs that have a ground prong, or the appliance should be marked “double insulated” by the manufacturer. Electrical extension cords must never be used as a substitute for permanent wiring. When extension cords are a temporary necessity, they should be taped down, clipped to the back of desks or covered with a rubber passageway if they cross the floor. All fuses and circuit breakers must be identified. This is easily accomplished by placing a label on each fuse or circuit breaker switch and a corresponding label on each receptacle and light switch. This practice will reduce the time needed to identify a specific fuse or circuit breaker when there is a need to turn it off. Floor surfaces should have a slip-resistant finish. Tripping hazards can be minimized by immediately replacing defective tiles and carpet or worn floor mats. Slip-resistant floor wax can give polished floors a higher coefficient of friction. Floor mats and runners offer a more slip-resistant protection for stairways or lobby entrances. Offices should have an area specifically designed for storing supplies. Materials should be neatly stacked in stable piles with the heaviest pieces on the bottom. Office equipment should not be placed on the edge of a table or desk. 6.7. OFFICE SAFETY PROCEDURES Following safe work procedures in the office can prevent many accidents. Running in offices must be prohibited. Those walking in a passageway should keep to the left. Accidents result when persons stand in front of doors, so employees should stand clear of the door swing path. Employees should not attempt to carry stacks of materials that are high enough to obstruct vision. If an elevator is available, it should be used instead of carrying stacks of material up flights of stairs. Proper attention should be given to the act of ascending or descending stairs. Stairways should not be areas for congregation. Those using the stairs should not crowd or push. Falls on stairs occur when people are distracted through conversation or by turning to another person while descending. Individuals should not stand near doors at stairways. Fall hazards can be prevented through good housekeeping in the office. Spilled liquids should be cleaned up promptly, and loose objects and broken glass should be removed when first noticed. Broken glass should be immediately vacuumed or swept and the fine pieces should be picked up with a damp cloth. Poor sitting habits can also lead to falls. Rolling in one’s chair across the floor, leaning sideways in a chair to pick up objects from the floor, and leaning back in the chair with feet on the desk are excellent examples of poor office safety procedures.

Filing cabinets can be a major cause of accidents and should be used with care. When using filing cabinets, follow these safety tips: • • • • • • •

Close all file drawers immediately after use. Close the file drawer with the drawer handle and not using feet. Open only one file drawer at a time to avoid toppling the cabinet. Never leave an open drawer unattended and never open a drawer if someone is underneath it. Never climb on open file drawers. Remove small stools (used to access upper file cabinet drawers) from passageways and safely store them. Wear finger guards to avoid paper cuts.

Other unsafe office procedures include storing pencils with points upward, placing scissors or knives with the point toward the user, using paper cutters without proper guards, and placing glass objects on a desk or table edge. Employees using lounges and eating areas should follow good housekeeping and safe operating procedures to prevent exposure to microwaves and burns from hot plates and coffee makers. Check your progress: 1) Write the types of office accidents: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………… 2) Write these point of office safety procedures : …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………… 6.8. EMERGENCY Action Plan As a general recommendation, employers should develop an emergency action plan to address emergencies that the employer can expect in the workplace. Examples of such foreseeable emergencies are fire, toxic chemical releases, hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards and floods. Some of the key components of an emergency action plan are the following: Emergency escape procedures and escape routes for employees to follow in the event of an emergency. These procedures should include floor plans that indicate the appropriate evacuation routes. • • •

How to account for all employees following evacuation. The rescue and medical duties for those employees, if any, who are to perform them. The preferred means of reporting fires and other emergencies.



Names or regular job titles of people responsible for the emergency action plan.

Employers are required to have both an emergency action plan and a fire prevention plan when portable fire extinguishers are provided, even though they are not intended for employee use. The elements of a fire prevention plan are: • • • •

Identification of the major workplace fire hazards and their proper handling and storage. Potential ignition sources (e.g., smoking) and their control procedures and the type of fire protection equipment or systems that can be used to control a fire. Names or regular job titles of personnel responsible for fire suppression equipment or systems. Names or regular job titles of personnel responsible for controlling fuel source hazards

Choose the correct option.

1) Which of the following health related problems can occur if one does not maintain good personal hygiene? a. Bad breath b. Smelly feet and shoes c. Head Lice d. All of the above 2) Which of the following is a type of office accidents? a. Vehicle accident b. Striking of vehicle with any pedestrian c. Falling from the chair d. None of the above 3) One should not wash hands regularly, especially before preparing or eating food and after going to the toilet? a. True b. False 4) First-Aid required for the patient to get medical aid as soon as possible? a. True b. False 5) An inadequate physical working environment can increase the risk of injury or harm? a. True b. False

Note: Write answers of following questions in 50 words.

Question 1

Write the common cause of accidents

Question 2

Write the types of artificial respiration.

Question 3

Write the types of wounds

Question 4

What do you mean by ABC of first aid?

Question 5

What is first aid for burn injury?

Question 6

Write the Types of injury?

Note: Write answers of following questions in 30 words.

Qu No. 01- Write the meaning of symbols given be

low.

Qu no. 2-Write the common cause of accidents:

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Qu no.3- write the types of wounds: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Qu no.4 write all immediate precaution needs to be taken if a person suffer from extensive burn : ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Qu no.5 Write down the main causes of injuries. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Qu no.6 write down the Basic steps of safe lifting and handling: Short answer type questions (Give answers of following questions in 30 words) 1. How to Shifting of working tables 2. Write the MANUAL lifting technique? 3. How to Shift electronic equipments/instruments? 4. Write the Types of injury? 5. What is the basic way of controlling fire? 6. What are the four classes of fire? 7. What is the general procedure to be adopted in the event of a fire? 8. Write down some action and treatment for electric shock. 9. Write the Effects of electric shock. 10. How we can identify Hazards. 11. Write the types of office accidents: 12. Write down point of office safety procedures 13. How to control office hazard? 14. How to control Hazards From Electrical Equipment?

15. What are the types of office accidents? 16. How we maintain food safety? 17. How we control body order? 18. What action we take when something stuck in someone

throat?

19. How we prevent accidents? 20. What areas at Home which have a High Potential for Accidents? 21. What are the most common food borne illness? 22. What is Traceability systems? 23. Write the methods of Preventing from fire. 24. Outline the safety measures to be adopted in excavation work in order to avoid accidents. 25. Mention some of the main aims of ventilation. 26. What are the safety consideration in plant layout? 27. What are various methods in controlling outdoor and indoor noise? Write short note on 28. Internal transport and safety 29. Housekeeping and maintenance 30. Plant layout 31. Environmental Control 32. Fire Escape 33. Fire Towers 34. Exits 35. Fire Control and Fire Fighting 36. Industrial toxicology 37. Personal Protective Equipment 38. Breathing Aparatus 39. Mechanical Hazards 40. Machine Guard and Safety devices 41. Hand tool and Power tool 42. Lifting Equipment 43. Pressure Hazards 44. Adverse effect of noise 45. Safety Campaign 46. Safety and Productivity 47. Safety Audit 48. Temperature hazards 49. Safety Leadership 50. Role of Communication in Safety Management

Question Bank on Personality Module of NSDC 1. a. b. c. d.

Communication skills List communication skills in your profession You like to communicate by meeting / writing / over the phone / messages How effective are you as a communicator? Do you take feedback of your communication?

2. a. b. c. d.

Receive feedback Why is feedback important? You like what type of feedback – formal, informal; written / verbal? You like to get feedback on your works? Do you give others feedback on their work / approach?

3. a. b. c. d.

Teamwork Do feel comfortable working with others or like to work alone? How many people do you have in your team? What is the benefit of working in a team? How do you share works in your team?

4. a. b. c. d.

Professional skills What is the importance of having professional skills? List some important professional skills in your profession. How often you revise / upgrade your skills? Do you have any professional development plan in your organization?

5. a. b. c. d.

Reflective Thinking What is reflective thinking? How is reflective thinking useful in working? Are you given some training on reflective thinking? How often do you do reflective thinking?

6. a. b. c. d.

Soft skills Name some soft skills Which soft skills do you have? Is there provision for soft skills training in your organization? How soft skills help in working professionally?

7. a. b. c. d.

Behavior skill How do express your disagreement? How do you express strong objection to a point? How often there is a dispute, chaos among colleagues in your organization? Is there a formal training / orientation of behavior expected of employees in your organization?

8. a. b. c. d.

Etiquette and manners What is the difference between etiquette and manners? What is mannerism? Name some e mail etiquette List some party manners

9. Decision making a. Do you think decision making skills are necessary to lead a successful professional life? b. Name some decision making skills? c. How often you take decisions independently? d. Do you research, analyze your past decisions? 10.Motivation a. How do you know if someone is motivated? b. How do you get motivated? c. What is done in your organization to motivate employees? d. What is done in your organization to appreciate the motivated employees?

11.Time management a. How often you find that time is less for the task assigned to you? b. Do you do your works on time? c. What is done in your organization to check that employees come on time? d. Are you given works with expected time limit to complete it properly? 12.Stress management a. Do you often feel tired at work? b. Do feel you have more works than you can handle comfortable? c. How often do you or people in your organization shout, speak ill, use foul language? d. Do you often have to take office work home or stay late hours at office? 13.Leadership a. Is the leadership line clear in your organization? b. Is your work well defined and you know whom to report? c. Do you usually take decisions in good time or you postponed taking decisions? d. Do you review your decisions? 14.Team building a. What is the importance of a long term team? b. In your organization, do you see team works, same people doing same works over a long period of time? c. Do have professional friends outside your current organization with whom you team up? d. Can you name any corporate team outside your organization? 15.Letter writing a. Do feel comfortable writing letters – formal, informal on e mail or on paper? b. Do like to receive letters?

c. How often do you write letters and of what types? d. Do have to handle lot of mail as a part of your working? 16.Situational communication a. How do you communicate emergencies? b. How comfortable you feel in discussing problems with the boss? c. How comfortable you feel in addressing opposite gender colleague or boss? d. Are comfortable in discussing pay raise, leaves, other benefits?

View more...

Comments

Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.
SUPPORT KUPDF