DJM1012 Mechatronic Workshop Practice-Machining Report.docx
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: DIPLOMA IN MECHATRONICS (DEM)
: WORKSHOP 2 – MACHINING
: TAMILARASAN S/O ARUMUGAM
MATRIX NUMBER : 15DEM14F1040
: PN.NOR HAKIMAH EN.SHARUDDIN
INTRODUCTION Processing to complete the project, which has been using two machines, that is Lathe machine and Bench Grinder. Both of these machines are needed to to complete the project. The machines has their own functions and their own usage.Lathe is a machine used to perform jobs such as cutting parallel to the outer or inner surface. Machine tool that spins a block of material for various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling and deformation with tools that are used for the workpiece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis or rotation. Usually wood lathe used in change, metalworking, glass and metal spinning work. Lathe can also be used to form pottery and lathe is the best design knowledge into the potter's wheel.
1) Bed : Usually made of cast iron. Provides a heavy rigid frame on which all the main components are mounted.
2) Ways : Inner and outer guide rails that are precision machined parallel to assure accuracy of movement.
3) Headstock : Mounted in a fixed position on the inner ways, usually at the left end. Using a chuck, it rotates the work.
4) Gearbox : Inside the headstock, providing multiple speeds with a geometric ratio by moving levers.
5) Spindle : Hole through the headstock to which bar stock can be fed, which allows shafts that are up to two times the length between lathe centers to be worked on one end at a time. 6) Chuck: 3-jaw (self centering) or 4-jaw (independent) to clamp part being machined.allows the mounting of difficult work pieces that are not round, square or triangular.
7) Tailstock : Fits on the inner ways of the bed and can slide towards any position the headstock to fit the length of the work piece. An optional taper turning attachment would be mounted to it.
8) Carriage ; Moves on the outer ways. Used for mounting and moving most the cutting tools.
9) Cross Slide : Mounted on the traverse slide of the carriage, and uses a hand wheel to feed tools into the work piece.
10)ToolPost:: To mount tool holders in which the cutting bits are clamped.
11) Compound Rest : Mounted to the cross slide, it pivots around the tool post.
12) .Apron : Attached to the front of the carriage, it has the mechanism and controls for moving the carriage and cross slide.
13) Lead Screw : For cutting threads.
The another one that we use is this project is Bench Grinder.A bench grinder is a type of bench top grinding machine used to drive abrasive wheels. A pedestal grinder is a larger version of a bench grinder that is mounted on a pedestal, which is bolted to the floor. These types of grinders are commonly used to hand grind cutting tools and perform other rough grinding. Depending on the grade of the grinding wheel it may be used for sharpening cutting tools such as lathe tools or drill bits. Alternatively it may be used to roughly shape metal prior to welding or fitting. A wire brush wheel or buffing wheels can be interchanged with the grinding wheels in order to clean or polish work-pieces. Grinding wheels designed for steel should not be used for grinding softer metals like aluminium. The soft metal gets lodged in the pores of the wheel and expand with the heat of grinding. This can dislodge pieces of the grinding wheel. This arrangement allows a coarse wheel to be mounted at one end a fine at the other. All rough grinding is carried out using the coarse wheel, leaving the finishing operations to be done on the fine wheel.Bench Grinder used to make the tool before processing project done.The tool used is metal.Therefore, to form the size or shape of the tool a Bench Grinder needed.
# FACING Facing is the machining of the end surfaces and shoulders of a work piece. In addition to squaring the ends of the work, facing provides a way to cut work to length accurately. Generally, only light cuts are required since the work will have been cut to approximate length or rough machined to the shoulder.
# TURNING Turning is the machining of excess stock from the periphery of the work piece to reduce the diameter. In most lathe machining operations requiring removal of large amounts of stock, a series of roughing cuts is taken to remove most of the excess stock.Then a finishing cut is taken to accurately “size” the work piece.
# PARTING A parting tool is deeper and narrower than a turning tool. It is designed for making narrow grooves and for cutting off parts.
# DRILLING A lathe can also be used to drill holes accurately concentric with the center line of acylindrical part.
# BORING Boring is an operation in which a hole is enlarged with a single point cutting tool. A boring bar is used to support the cutting tool as it extends into the hole. Because of the extension of the boring bar, the tool is supported less rigidly and is more likely to chatter. This can be corrected by using slower spindle speeds or by grinding a smaller radius on the nose of the tool.
OBJECTIVE This is case study to explain about the concepts of machining and further the knowledge about how the machine work basically and to show the principle that involved in develop this machine.I also would like to approaches about the process thought identical actually are different from other machine process. The objectives of developing this machining are below: 1) Identifying the types of machines that are in the workshop used to make the project. apart from being able to recognize the existing machinery, the user get functions known in the information of a project to be produced.
2) In addition, to get the skills on the machine and learn the ins and outs of the existing machinery.
3) To carry out a project, it can provide a knowledge, methods and techniques of correct in doing a project.
4) Besides, knowing the safety measures while turning and learn methods and techniques to properly handle lathe and confident no matter lathe flat face, vertical or tiered.
5) Even be able to use measuring tools and testers correctly and accurately.
SAFETY PRECAUTION In machining operations, always keep safety in mind, no matter how important the job is or how well you know the machine you are operating. Listed here are some safety precautions that you must follow: 1.Before starting any lathe operations, always prepare yourself by rolling up your shirt sleeves and removing your watch, rings, and other jewelry that might become caught while you operate the machine. 2.Wear goggles or an approved face shield at all times whenever you operate a lathe or when you are near a lathe that is being operated. 3.Be sure the work area is clear of obstructions that you might fall or trip over. 4.Keep the deck area around your machine clear of oil or grease to prevent the possibility of slipping or falling into the machine. 5.Always use assistance when handling large work pieces or large chucks. 6.Never remove chips with your bare hands. Use a stick or brush, and always stop the machine. 7.Always secure power to the machine when you take measurements or make adjustments to the chuck. 8.Be attentive, not only to the operation of your machine, but also to events going on around it.Never permit skylarking in the area. 9.Should it become necessary to operate the lathe while the ship is underway, be especially safety conscious.(Machines should be operated only in relatively calm seas.) 10.Be alert to the location of the cutting tool while you take measurements or make adjustments. 11.Always observe the specific safety precautions posted for the machine you are operating.
TOOLS & EQUIPMENTS Tools
Cutting tool holder
1. The grinding tool according to the shape and angle the desired.
2. Is a 23mm diameter steel cut with a Hacksaw Machine for length steel products according to the desired size of 115mm. 3. After getting the required steel,switch on the lathe. Use a red code of E, for I use A which are 140 and to use B II of 445. 4. While making practical use or cooler must be must be turned on. 5. Lathe work process started with the first part of the harsh the outer skin to remove. for starters, must be lathe work little by little until outer skin been exhausted indiameter. 6. Then, the lathe particular steel until get a diameter of 15mm.
7. On the the end of all, make a circle or evenly distribute with a circle at the end particular steel. but only part of the steel only the required .to align, the tool must be be corner 15°. 8. Length of 10mm from part of flattened mixture and a little tick.
9. Measurements marked that longer diameter must be downsized until got length just 12mm and 10mm.
10. After, measuring 20mm length particular steel and mark. 11. Began to lower the part of after marked just the same as diameter of 12mm on the the rear of.
12. When equipped length of the steel and get the 100mm length. if the length exceeded length steel the required, must be lopped it by leveling the part gradually to got the desired length steel. Length of 45mm on the 12mm diameter steel. 20mm 70mm
12mm 10mm 100mm
13. When got length steel 100mm. change the tool at an angle of 40° by using the spanner. Then, larikkanya until a tapered the part and a sharp front 14. Change the tool at an angle of 10° and the lathe longer until be on the length marked. 15. On completion, particular steel will look like a pencil.
16. On the the rear of his steel, should be made by using the drill chuck a hole
17. When a hole is made, the project has been completed the practical process.
The surface of good finish product was smooth although there got line marking at the surface.It may be due to the vibration of cutting tools.On the other hand,because of the three jaws spindle,the surface also got marking.Apart from that,there were no discontinuities at the work piece. Before operating the machine students should check the machine whether it is safe and appropriate by clean and lubricate the machine.Be sure all guards are in position and locked in place.Turn the spindle over by hand to be sure it is not locked nor engaged in back gear.Then,move the carriage along the ways.There should be no binding.Check cross slide movement.Mount the desired work holding attachment.Adjust the drive mechanism for the desired speed and feed.Besides,clamp the cutter bit into an appropriate tool holder and mount it in the tool post.Do not permit excessive compound rest overhang as this often causes tool “chatter” and results in a poorly machined surface.Lastly,mount the work.Check for adequate clearance between the work and the various machine parts.
By the end of the laboratory,we can know the working principles of lathe Machine.In a lathe machine the operations,which are done is defined as a job.The job is held in a chuck or between centers and rotated about its axis at a uniform speed.The cutting tool held in the tool post is fed into the work-piece and the cutting tool,therefore the materials is removed in the form of chips and the desired shape is obtained. In our project,it was based on the lathe.The most common operations which can be carried out on the lathe that we should know are facing,drilling,turning and parting.Facing is almost essential for all works.In this operation,the work piece towards the outer surface or from the outer surface to the center,with the help of a cross slide.Drilling is an operation of making a hole in a work piece with the help of a drill.In this operation,the work piece is held in a chuck and the drill is held in the tailstock.The drill is fed manually into the rotating work piece,by rotating the tailstock hand wheel.Turning is an operation of producing various steps of different diameters in the work place.This operation is carried out in the similar way as plain turning. At the end of the laboratory,major parts of the lathe machine are bed,headstock,tailstock,carriage,it have five major parts.They are a saddle,crossslide,compound rest,tools post,apron.Lastly,power feed and thread cutting mechanism.As we know,practice made things perfect.To get the best results of the project,we must practice all out before starting our project.Besides,we needed extra time to finish the project to get the best results.This will give us more experienced about lathe process.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/17390328/Introduction-to-Lathe-Operations Some books in lathe(JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY) http://www.mini-lathe.com/ http://fie-conference.org/fie2008/papers/1706.pdf Pearson book:Manufacturing and engineering technologys