Dismemberment of East Pakistan, Bangladesh, pakistan syudies
Introduction After the conflict between west Pakistan armed forces and Bengali nationalist movement named “multi Bahia” full support of India and 1971 war between India and Pakistan; jointly gave birth of new state in world named Bangladesh 1947 subcontinent was divided among two nations Pakistan and India . Muslim majority regions are included in Pakistan while Hindu majority areas are included in India . Pakistan includes two regions geographically separated areas named East Pakistan and west Pakistan .In march 1971 the political senerio and cultural nationalism results army operation in west Pakistan . In response to many causes to become separate nation Bengali separated from Pakistan .Army operation against east Pakistan led to civil war . Members of the east Bengal regiment, East Pakistan rifles, East Pakistan police and other Bengali military and paramilitary forces jointly make a rebellion platform named (mukti bahini) to fight against West Pakistan army who was conducting operation in East Pakistan. India was giving strategic and economic aid to east Pakistani rebellions (mukti bahini) . December 1971 war between India and Pakistan started . Pakistan was unable to defend dacca and announcement of new state Bangladesh was established . This was a great moral, and material loss beard by the patriotic Pakistanis . Political causes population v/s parity Pakistanis majority population was in east Pakistan . According to population number they should be given more political power but the political power unjustly was in the hands of west Pakistani leaders especially Punjabi . West Pakistanis insist on population based representation of nation ,of assembly . But west Pakistani establishment not want to shift political power to east Pakistan . West Pakistan establishment present a formula of “one unit” . Its mean that all west Pakistani provinces to be one province . This was only to balance the population of west Pakistan province with east Pakistan . East Pakistani leader ship was wanted 56% seats of their province in accordance to their population .
Language issue it was a seed planted by hindus to finish the national unity among Pakistanis . This issue is before the birth of Pakistan . hindus had organized demonstration in support of Bengali language even during the period of Quaid-e-azam . This issue remained undissolved for many years. However it was resolved in constitution of 1962 .where Urdu and Bengali both was declared as national languages . But is was too late because it has planted the seeds of hatred. International mother language day ===> on 21 February 1952 several student and civilian lost their lives in police crackdown . This day referred in Bangladesh and in west Bengal as language martyred day .later on in memory of 1952 killings UNESCO declared this day as a international mother language day in 1999 .
Dictatorship and rule of army after the assassination of prime minister liaqat ali khan military took over the government . Ayub khan banned the freedom of expressions .this gave birth to gutter politics .people don't feel themselves free and safe. Assassination of political rights of east Pakistan east Pakistan noticed that establishment was not generous with east Pakistani leadership. Whenever a Bengali priminister elected like khawaja nazimudin , muhammad ali bogra and hussain shaheed suhrawardy . They were largely dispose by Pakistani establishment . And this behavior was on its peak when awami league won the election of 1971 . awami league have a straight forward and constitutional right to establish their government in Pakistan .but zulfiqar ali bhutto refuse to allow awami league to form government . Military imbalance Bengali's were under-represented in the Pakistan military . There were very few officers of east Pakistan were at command positions . And all others are at infantry positions . And overall there was less army people then Punjabi and push ton . And there was only 15 combat aircrafts and under strength infantry in east Pakistan .In
other worlds east Pakistan can be victimize by India any time . This becomes the Bengali's to feel insecure. Cultural differences we are also different from each other with the cultural aspects . there was distance of 1600 km among east and west Pakistan . And there was much difference between living style of two areas of nation .peoples of east Pakistan was different from west Pakistan in point of view of food in point of view of dress and due to distance of 1600 km there was no mutual interaction . At time peoples of west Pakistan seen to make fun of life style pf east Pakistan . To minimize the cultural difference and to come near to each other there was need to consolidate the ideology of Pakistan which was the base of Pakistan . Economic causes east Bengal had always remained economically backward . hindus landlords and industrialist who remain in Calcutta
exploited the resources .and earning was spent in
Calcutta instead of Bengal. After partition it was considered that Bengali's were able to utilize their resources but unfortunately border was not sealed completely and its was quite easy for Bengali hindus to live in both countries . They continue their bussines and continue to influence state affairs. And hindus smuggles the capital to Calcutta .no effective step was taken to stop smuggling and this create economic disparity among east and west Pakistan .this also create a bitter sense of deprivation which was encouraged by selfish elements .this seed of hatred eventually grew into the tree of Bangladesh .and sheik h mujeeb also use to say that i have smelled the patson from the roads of Islamabad
Economic exploitation of spendings West Pakistan (consisting of four provinces: Punjab .Baluchistan , sarhad , and sindh , divided country politically and received more money from the common budget than the more populous East. , there was more spending in west pakistan
Spending on West Year
Pakistan (in crore Rupees)
1950– 55 1955– 60 1960– 65 1965– 70 Total
Spending on East
Amount spent on East as
Pakistan (in crore Rupees) percentage of West
Source: Reports of the Advisory Panels for the Fourth Five Year Plan 1970-75, Vol. I, published by the planning commission of Pakistan (Quick reference: crore = 107, or 10 million)
And less in East Pakistan Foreign intervention Indian intervention India from the first day of creation struggling for the piece of Pakistan . This was a fact that Pakistan have surrounded India from two sides .and in order to crush Kashmirs its was to reduce the size of Pakistan. All the seeds of hatred was planted by India among west Pakistan and east Pakistan . (mukti bahini ) a group of rebellions east formulated by India and fully supported by India strategically and economically .all the ammunition used by rebellions was given by India . and India attacks on west Pakistan using the reason that India is helping Bengalian peoples . And Pakistan defeated by Indian army and rebellions . Israel's intervention in war of 1971 Israeli pilots fly the Indian fighter plans and bombing in Pakistani areas and Israel gives aid to India Russian intervention
Russia gives strategic aid to mukti bahini . And support India strategically . Russia also gives support in UNO . On November 21 , 1971 India literally invaded east Pakistan .on December 5 ,1971
present a cease fire resolution in united nation which was
vetoed by Russia. After that Italy , Japan and seven other countries present cease fire resolution which was again vetoed by USSR. On December ,7 Russia itself move the cease fire resolution . Pakistan did not accept this resolution . But why it is yet to be revealed . This was far better than surrendering. Super power's conspiracies its is thinkable that why USA have not supported us in war of 1971 . it is an factable conspiracy that both USA and USSR want the partition of Pakistan .because they wants to use East Pakistan as a base against china. the Russian interest is quit clear but even America also wants the partition of Pakistan . Another proof of this fact is that America did not object when Israel supplied the American weapons to India and America did not allow jordan and saudi arab to supply American ammunition .
Immediate causes yahya khan's rule when ayub khan failed to control the law & order situation he handed over the power to journal yahya khan on march 25, 1969 . and he announced the imposition of martial law . Yahya khan was in constant touch with political leaders . Seeing the political behavior of yahya khan the speculation began that yahya khan is seeing himself in a long term head of state. Yahya khan observe this speculation and to wash off this impression yahya khan announced a new election commissioner and announcement maid for the new elections. Critical situation in east Pakistan due to clash between voter lists in Urdu or Sindhi or Bengali .yahya khan issued the cod of conduct . And with the restoration of political activities , east Pakistan was rapidly moving towards bloody civil war. Pro-mujeeb students held a convention and demanded secularism. This was a first ever deviation from ideology of Pakistan . After that a public
meeting was held by jamaat-e-islami. This rally was attacked by awami league .and many killed and wounded .this shows that martial law authorities was unable to control the situation . Legal framework order (LFO) on march 28, 1970 yahya khan announced that the elections would be held on 5, October 1970 . and next day LFO was announced for new constitution
Response to the 1970 cyclone Elections were postponed due to 1970 bola cyclone in the East Pakistan. A week after the landfall, President Khan conceded that his government had made "slips" and "mistakes" in its handling of the relief efforts for a lack of understanding of the magnitude of the disaster. On 19 November students held a march in Dhaka protesting the slowness of the government response. As the conflict between East and West Pakistan developed in March, the Dhaka offices of the two government organizations directly involved in relief efforts were closed for at least two weeks, first by general strike and then by a ban on government work in East Pakistan by the Awami league . This is one of the first times that a natural event helped to start a civil war. Election and results On December 7, 1970 election was conducted. And largest winning party was Awami league with 160 seats out of 162 in East Pakistan .and no seat in West Pakistan. And Pakistan people’s party wins the 81 seats from West Pakistan. After the flood and mistakes in handling the flood relief and a propaganda of arrest and free of Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-rehman strengthened the awami league and regional parties and Yahiya khan takes a blunt decision of conducting elections in currents circumstances in which hatred for west Pakistan was at peak. These results was not unfortunate Awami league not given power due to sheikh's six points
Politically and constitutional this was the right of Awami league to formulate government but Bhutto refuses to admit mujeeb-ur-REHMAN as a prime minister of Pakistan. This was against the feelings of East Pakistan and increase hatred. Six points of mujeeb-ur-REHMAN After the Tashkent declaration the all political parties was get together for the revival of true democracy. In these circumstances sheikh mujeeb-ur-REHMAN formulate and present his six points and launch a massive propaganda campaign to win public support. The six points are as follows. 1. There should be a federal paramilitary system in country. National assembly should be elected by means of direct elections and provinces should be given representation in it in accordance with their population. 2. The federal government should have two subjects that are defense and foreign affairs. 3. Separate currencies should be introduced in both parts of country. In case of single currency, constitutional safeguard should be provided to stop the transfer of wealth from East Pakistan to West Pakistan. 4. Only the provinces have rights to impose taxes and federal government should be given required share from the money collected from taxes provinces should be free to formulate their economic policies. 5. The federal government should control the foreign exchange and the requirements of federal government should be fulfilled in accordance with the decided proportion provinces should be free to establish trade links with other countries, send trade delegations to them and conclude trade agreements with them. Both the provinces should operate their own foreign exchange accounts separately. 6. In order to pay his full role in national security, provincial government should have the right to form their own military and paramilitary forces. These six points are for that the provinces should be changed into small states and a weak federal government should be the head of state. Sheikh Mujeeb has started the drama for separation... The tussle for power Constitutional crisis was held in Pakistan. After the elections with every passing day Bhutto-mujeeb differences began to more intense .Yahiya khan failed to do any resolvement .and Bhutto insist on power sharing .he said that no one san force PPP to
sit on opposition benches and regarding the constitution he proposed three points .which are as follows. 1. The president, the PPP and Awami league should get together and settle the affair .in such a situation the constitution could be prepared before 120 days. 2. PPP and awami league should jointly solve the problem. 3. Both the wings of country have separate constitution. Thus Bhutto was the first politician who proposed the separate constitution in both part of country. But sheikh was insist of his six points .Bhutto says that Punjab and sindh is real power of country and should be given part in making of constitution .Bhutto stated that the six point are poison for the country. In answer to that the awami league secretary tajjudin respond that peoples have given us mandate through their votes to form government and to frame the constitution .more over that past has gone when Punjab and sindh was the real power of state. On January 3, 1970 in awami league rally they hoisted the Bangladesh flag “jai bangle” on 12 January Yahiya khan met with sheikh mujeeb if he resolve six points and new prime minister of Pakistan but Yahiya khan disappointed with mujeeb's behavior then Yahiya khan went to larkana and have the negotiations with Bhutto . On January 27 zulfiqar Ali Bhutto went to Dacca but these negotiations was of no use Indian intervention in this critical situation On January 30, 1971 the Indian aero plane was high jacked and land on Lahore airport. Bhutto negotiate with high jackers but at last aero plane was set on fire .India blame Pakistan and banned air service between east and west Pakistan to fly over Indian territory . And Indian media has launched full propaganda in favor of sheikh mujeeb. And India supply large quantities of ammo to Indian saboteurs. Boycott and postponement of national assembly sessions after that on 13 February 1971 yahya khan called the national assembly session on march 3 in Dacca .on 15 February Bhutto boycott the session .on 17 February Bhutto forbidden any PPP MNA to go Dacca saying that Dacca is a butcher place. In answer sheikh mujeeb refuses to come in Islamabad saying Islamabad a butcher place. After February 20 it was realize that two parties have reached the position of no return. Then yahya khan called the martial law
administrator and governor of East Pakistan and issues the orders of military actions .n more military was sent to East Pakistan .when awami league saw the mobilization of troops they show their willingness to amend six points provided yahya khan himself visit to West Pakistan. Yahya khan refuses to go Dacca and sheikh mujeeb also directed to usmani of expected military action. He invited the MNA’s on 28, February in Dacca and gave assurance that he would accept reasonable demands But Bhutto threatens that no one will go to Dacca. On March 3, yahya khan announced the postponement of elections. On this occasion Sheikh Mujeeb told governor ahsan that if yahya khan announces the next date then he can control his people. Governor told yahya that please announce the next date tonight then it will be too late. But yahya khan gives no response. Civil war As the governor said to yahya khan that if you don’t announces the next date of national assembly session. It will be too late. This was true. On the very next date Awami league starts strikes .Flames could be seen from every where in Dacca. On 7, March 1971 sheikh delivered a speech in racecourse ground and announces his further four points to call the assembly session on 25, March 1971.thes points are given below. 1. The immediate lifting of martial law. 2. Immediate withdrawal of all military personnel to their barracks. 3. An inquiry into the loss of life. 4. Immediate transfer of power to the elected representative of the people before the assembly meeting 25 March. He urged "his people" to turn every house into a fort of resistance. He closed his speech saying, "Our struggle is for our freedom. Our struggle is for our independence." This speech is considered the main event that inspired the nation to fight for their independence. General Tikka Khan was flown in to Dhaka to become Governor of East Bengal. East-Pakistani judges, including Justice Siddique, refused to obey tikka khan. Between 10 and 13 March, Pakistan International Airlines cancelled all their international routes to urgently fly "Government Passengers" to Dhaka. These "Government Passengers" were almost all Pakistani soldiers in civilian dress. MV Swat, a ship of the Pakistani Navy, carrying ammunition and soldiers, was harbored in Chittagong Port and
the Bengali workers and sailors at the port refused to unload the ship. A unit of east Pakistani rifles refused to obey commands to fire on Bengali demonstrators, beginning a mutiny of Bengali soldiers. Last attempt Peoples of West Pakistan were condemning Bhutto and Yahya Khan for this situation. On march 10, Bhutto request Sheikh mujeeb to save Pakistan at all cost. But this was not sincere request and just for publicity that west Pakistani people realize that Bhutto is struggling to save Pakistan. On march 14, Bhutto demanded the transfer of power to both majority parties in East and West Pakistan. Awami league consider this Bhutto’s suggestion as desire of partition of country. On 10, march 1971 negotiations was again held between Bhutto, Sheikh mujeeb and yahya this was also failed which indicates the tussle of power. The military operation The military operation named operation search light was started on 23 March 1971. The Pakistani flag eas removed from everywhere in Dacca. And a separate government was maid and Sheikh mujeeb appointed usmani as a chief of army of Bangladesh. And India clearly announces to supply aids and ammunition to these rebellions of Pakistan. Rebel as well as citizen began to b killed in name of restoration of law and order situation in East Pakistan. Because of this Tikka khan known as butcher of East Pakistan. by taking control of the major cities on 26 March, and then eliminating all opposition, political or military, within one month. Before the beginning of the operation, all foreign journalists were deported from East Pakistan. it was not only in Dacca. It also affected all parts of East Pakistan. Residential halls of the University of Dhaka were particularly targeted. The only Hindu residential hall the Jagannath Hall was destroyed by the Pakistani armed forces, though the Hamood-ur-Rehman commission in Pakistan concluded that overwhelming force was used at the university. Hindu areas suffered particularly heavy blows. By midnight, Dhaka was literally burning, especially the Hindu’s eastern part of city. Apparently peace was restored but at the same time international media was reporting the cruelty oh Pakistani army. They were reporting the atrocities of our army. And the Indian terrorists began to go back to their country. Some East Pakistani population who was against the separation of country and who was supporting the solidarity of country began to join hands of rebellions because of cruelty of Pakistani
Army. And at the time situation was in he hands of Pakistan but at the time Indian involvement do the same as the “Hindu bunniya “always do. India with the support of Russia makes a rebellion platform named “mukti bahini “. Initially there were 50 thousand trained guerillas in this rebellion platform. The Pakistani military was to take actions against them, but increasing numbers of Bengali soldiers defected to the underground "Bangladesh army". These Bengali units slowly merged into the Mukti Bahini and strengthen their ammunition supply from India. And Hindu bunniya also starts to blame and degrade Pakistan at world level and succeeded well and unfortunately Pakistan took any action against this propaganda. yahya khan believe that piece is occurred in East Pakistan. And on 4, September 1971 all rebels were forgiven and released but this was a fresh aid to rebellions movement. Indo-Pak war of 1971 Mukti bahini ” rebellions resistance Bangladesh forces command was set up on 11 July, with Col. usmani as commander in chief, Lt. Col. Abdur Rab as chief of Army Staff and Group Captain A K Khandker as Deputy Chief of Army Staff and Chief of Air Force. There was a number of Pakistani soldiers who was belong resident of East Pakistan was also include in mukti bahini. And sector to fight with Pakistan. Commanders chosen from defected officers of Pakistan army who joined the Mukti Bahini to conduct guerrilla operations and train fighters. Most of their training camps were situated near the border area and were operated with assistance from India. Start of conventional war On 21, November 1971 India officially attacks on Pakistan. Indian Prime Minister Indri Gandhi declared war on Pakistan and in aid of the Mukti Bahini, then ordered the immediate mobilization of troops and launched the full-scale war against Pakistan. This marked the official start of the Indo-Pakistani War. During war The Pakistani soldiers at start fought very well at all sector of war. And Indian Army failed on every front. But due to mutiny There was many Bengali soldier in Pakistan
Army who commit mutiny during crucial times of war e.g. the attempt of Bengali pilot officer try to high jack the fighter plane of nishan-e-haider Rashid minhas. And to give India the secrets of Pakistan by stated Bengali rebel. And due to no supply of ammunition from a very far distance India's intelligence agency, the RAW played a crucial role in providing logistic support to the Mukti Bahini during the initial stages of the war. Militants have destroyed all the ways of transport and soon the Dacca airbase was also destroyed then it was impossible to supply reinforcement to Pakistan Army. And then in the absence of Pakistani fighter planes in Dacca it was very easy for India to land their Paratroopers in West Pakistan. In this situation Pakistani army in West Pakistan could only be saved by applying pressure on western boarder. But it was no any attack by Pakistan before 3, December and even on this front a defensive war was fought. And because of mutiny in Pakistan Army by the Bengal regiment our troops was pushed back several miles at Sialkot sector. And overall as a whole face to face shelling was continued. Surrendering Pakistan's Lt. Gen A. A. K Naizi signs the document of surrender on 16 December, surrendering his forces to Lt. Gen jagjit Singh aurora. On 16 December 1971, Lt. Gen A. A. K Naizi of Pakistan Army located in East Pakistan signed the document of surrender. Over 90,000 Pakistani troops surrendered to the Indian forces making it largest surrender since world war two. Bangladesh was admitted in the UN with most voting in its favor, but China vetoed. However, the United States was one of the last nations to accord Bangladesh recognition. In 1972 the Simla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan. This ensured that Pakistan recognized the independence of Bangladesh in exchange for the return of the Pakistani surrendered troops. It released more than 90,000 Pakistani Arrested soldiers in five months. And all Pakistani areas was returned except of Kargil (which would in turn again be the focal point for a war between the two nations in 1999). Resolutions passed in UNO for cease fire On 5, December America passed a resolution which was vetoed by Russia. On 6, December Italy passed resolution which is again vetoed by Russia. On 7, December Russia itself moved a resolution but it was rejected by Pakistan. But why? It is yet to be realiz. But This was better then surrendering. On 8, December 104 countries passed
cease fire resolution but it was rejected by India. And on December all Pakistani troops laid down there weapons. Result of war A new Muslim state was come into being existence. And Pakistan was no more biggest Islamic country of world. 56% population was reduced and 90000 soldiers were arrested by India. The India who blame Pakistan as a destroyer of human rights the Indian singled out supporters of Pakistan and kill them badly. A large number of Muslim women were sold in bazaar of Calcutta. After the Pakistan being come into existence this was again the victimization of labho ram.