Difference between sale and agreement to sell
Difference between sale and agreement to sell- under Transfer of Property...
TRANSFER OF PROPERTY PROJECT
Difference Between Sale & Agreement to Sell
Submitted By Rahul Rajan Roll No. 545 545 VIth Semester
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF ADVANCED LEGAL STUDIES (NUALS)
The Transfer Of Property Law, 1882
What is a Sale? A "sale" is (colloquially) a completed transaction where the only remaining duties of the buyer may be timely rejection after inspection, and the only remaining duty of seller is to honor any express or implied warranty. This assumes the full price was paid during the sale and the goods were deliered, otherwise, the sale is not technically complete.
What is an agreement to sell? An "agreement to sell" is a contract that enisions (or defines) a future sale, thus all conditions precedent and other terms (deliery, payment, etc), continue to be "executory", that is, are yet to be fully carried out. A breach of this contract could result in a court order of specific performance, or for damages caused by the loss of the opportunity to buy or sell.
The Transfer Of Property Law, 1882
The Distinction !ection (#) of the sale of $oods Act defines a contract of sale of goods as % &a contract whereby the seller transfers or agrees to transfer the property in goods to the buyer for a price'. The definition of contract of sale of goods reeals that either actual sale or an agreement to sell both are coered under the act. ut, there are certain differences between the two. here in a contract of sale, the property in the goods is immediately transferred from the buyer to the seller it is called a sale. here under a contract of sale, the transfer of property in the goods is to ta*e place in the future or after the fulfillment of certain conditions, it is called +An agreement to sell'. A sale and an agreement to sell can be distingished as!"
#$ Trans%er o% &ro&ert' (o)nershi&*!
n a -sale-, the property in goods passes to the buyer immediately at the time of ma*ing the contract. n other words, a sale implies immediate coneyance of property so that the seller ceases to be the owner of the goods and the buyer becomes the owner thereof. t creates a jus in ram, i.e., gies right to the buyer to enjoy goods as against the whole world. n -an agreement to sell-, there is no transfer of property to the buyer at the time of the contract. The coneyance of property ta*es place later so that the seller continues to be the owner until the agreement to sell becomes a sale either by the expiry of certain time or the fulfillment of some condition. Thus where A agrees to buy / *g wheat from and the wheat is yet to be weighed, the transaction is an agreement to sell because as per !ection 00, in such a case the property does not pass to the buyer till the goods are weighed and the buyer has notice thereof. The transaction becomes a sale and the property in the goods passes to the buyer after the wheat is weighed and the buyer has notice thereof. An agreement to sell creates a just in personam, that is, it gies a right to either buyer or seller against the other for any default in fulfilling his part of the agreement.
The Transfer Of Property Law, 1882 t is worth noting that this is the basic point of distinction between a -sale- and -an agreement to sell.- All other points of distinction follow from this basic difference, i.e., whether the property in the goods has passed or is yet to pass from seller to buyer, on the other hand, in case of an agreement to sale where the ownership in the goods is yet to pass from seller to the buyer, such loss has to be borne by the seller. ii) Ris+ o% ,oss1
The general rule is that, unless otherwise agreed, the ris* of loss passes with property. n case of sale, if the goods are destroyed the loss falls on the buyer, een if the buyer is not in possession of goods because the ownership has been transferred. n an agreement to sell, the loss is to be borne by the seller because the ownership has still not passed on to the buyer, een if the buyer has possession of it. iii) Conse-ences o% .reach 1
n case of sale, if the buyer fails or refuses to pay the price of the goods, the seller can sue for the price, een if he has the possession of goods. n an agreement to sell, if the buyer fails to accept and pay the price, the seller can sue him only for damages and not for the price, een if the goods in possession of the buyer. n case of sale, if the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay the price of the goods, the seller can sue for the price, een though the goods are still in his possession. n case of an agreement to sell, if the buyer fails to accept and pay for the goods, the seller can only sue for damages and not for the price, een though the goods are in the possession of buyer. /$ Right o% resale!
n a sale, the property is with the buyer and as such, the seller (in possession of goods after sale) cannot resell the goods. f he does so, the subsequent buyer haing *nowledge of the preious sale does not acquire a title to the goods. The original buyer can sue and recoer the goods from the third person as owner, and can also sue the seller for the breach of contract as well as for the tort of conersion. The right to recoer the goods from the third person is, howeer, lost if the subsequent buyer had bought them bonafide without notice of the preious sale (!ec. 2/).
The Transfer Of Property Law, 1882 n an agreement to sell, the property in the goods remains with the seller and as such, he can dispose of the goods as he li*es and the original buyer can sue him for the breach of contract only. n this case, the subsequent buyer gets a good title to the goods, irrespectie of his *nowledge of preious sale. 3urther, goods forming the subject matter of an agreement to sell can also be attached in execution of a decree of a court of law against the seller. ) .'ers 0nsol1enc' 1
n a sale, if the buyer becomes insolent before he pays the price of the goods, the seller will hae to delier the goods to the official assignee or receier and he can only claim diidend for the price of the goods. n an agreement to sell, if the buyer becomes insolent and has not paid the price, the seller can refuse to delier the goods to the official assignee or receier until paid in full. n a sale, if the buyer is adjudged insolent before he pays for the goods, the seller, in the absence of a -right of lien- oer the goods, must delier the goods to the 4fficial 5eceier or Assignee. The seller is entitled only to a rateable diidend for the price of the goods. ut in an agreement to sell, in these circumstances, the seller may refuse to delier the goods to the 4fficial 5eceier or Assignee unless paid for, as ownership has not passed to the buyer. i) Seller2s 0nsol1enc' 1
f the seller becomes insolent then in case of sale the buyer is entitled to recoer the goods from the official assignee of receier since the ownership has been transferred to the buyer. n case of an agreement to sell, if the buyer has paid the full price, he can only claim a rateable diidend and not the goods because the property in the goods still rests with the seller. n a sale, if the seller is adjudged insolent, the buyer is entitled to recoer the goods from the 4fficial 5eceier or Assignee, as the property in the goods rests with the buyer. 4n the other hand, in an agreement to sell, if the buyer has already paid the price and the seller is adjudged insolent, the buyer can only claim a rateable diidend (as a creditor) and not the goods, because property in them still rests with the seller.
The Transfer Of Property Law, 1882 ii) Natre o% Contract 1 A sale is an executed contract. An agreement to sell is an executary contract.
iii) T'&es o% 3oods1
A sale can only be in the case of existing and specific goods. An agreement to sell mostly ta*es place in the case of future and contingent goods.
The Transfer Of Property Law, 1882
1. Wood v. Manley (1!"# 11$% &!4
A sale has the immediate effect of transferring property, where as in an agreement to sell the property is to pass at some time or future or subject to some condition. The sale of the whole of the haystac* on the seller6s far, the buyer haing the liberty to ta*e away when he li*es, is an immediate. '. White v. il)s (11!# 5 *aunt 1"+
A contract to sell a portion of the oil from the seller6s cistern is an agreement to sale, since it is agreed to be carried out in future or on some condition. n other words, this transaction does not hae immediate effect. !. ,nion o- India v. *ara hand% $IR 1/"/ M0 11
The buyers rights are only personal against the seller, that is, a jus in personam. 7e can sue only for damages for breach and not for recoery of goods. A contract to sell coal8ash which might accumulate at a particular pump house has been held to be an agreement to sell future goods. 4. Sale By *rans-er 2- 3oument 2- *itle *o oods
The +sale by transfer of documents of title to goods6 has been interpreted by judiciary in many
9ormally the sale is effected by endorsement of transport documents. 4n the bac*side of the document li*e, :.5. the endor can put his signature and transfer the documents to buyer. As held by ombay 7igh ;ourt in case of ;hhaganlal !achand (