Design and Deployment of Outdoor Mesh Wireless Networks

May 21, 2018 | Author: Cisco Wireless | Category: Wireless Lan, Wi Fi, Ieee 802.11, Mimo, Wireless Network
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Covering outdoor wireless products involved in delivering outdoor broadband wireless services for Service Providers Muni...


Design and Deploy Deployment ment of Outdoor Mesh Wireless Wir eless Networks Netw orks BRKEWN-2027 Navde Na vdeep ep Jo Joha harr Technical Marketing-Wireless Networking Business Unit July 12, 2011

Agenda 

Outdoor Wireless Opportunity

Cisco Outdoor Wireless W ireless Architecture

Cisco Outdoor Wireless W ireless Portfolio Portfolio

Applications & Deployment Examples

Q &A

Associated Sessions and Recommended Readings  Associated


Managing Managing an an Enterpr Enterprise ise WLAN with Wireless Control Control System (WCS) (W CS)

BRKEWN-2011 

BRKEWN-3013 W ireless LAN Radio Spectrum Management Best Practices

 Prerequisites BRKEWN-2010

Design and Deployment of Enterprise

WLANs BRKEWM-3016 Understan Understanding ding

RF Fundamenta Fundamentals ls and the Radio Design of W ireless Networks Networks

Wireless Connectivity Outdoors

What is Outdoor Wireless all about? Broadband Tech

End user devices

WiFi, HSPA, HiperLan MaNet, LTE…


What is outdoor wireless?


Small Cells Increase Existing Capacity Macro


Networks Networks are the best solutions signi ficantly Spectrum Allocation is not increasing significantly onl y answers to exponential Small Cells are the only growth in Data Traffic

26x Growth

Consumer Business


Macro Capacity Average Macro Cell Efficiency

1000    h    t 100   w   o   r    G 10

1 1990







Future networks networks supporting the mobile m obile Internet will need to seamlessly integrate i ntegrate a lot more smaller cells

Service Provider Wi-Fi Levels of Adoption Adoption Wi-Fi Value to the SP

Reduce Churn

Local Low Cost WiFi Vendors

WebAuth Side Business

3G Offload

3G-like Experience (EAP-SIM)


Cisco Cis co WiF WiFii an and d WiFi WiFi Me Mesh sh is read ready y for for Outdo Outdoors ors Standard

Cost effective 

No licenses

Large ecosystem of suppliers

 Availability

CPE and client client devices devices interoperability 

 Attention

from the industry (ex. Security)

of client devices

Zero on-going communication communication costs 

Bandwidth Efficient

Why WiFi Outdoors?

Multipurpose network

Scalability & Ease of use

Large unlicensed unli censed spectrum spectrum (> 300 MHz)

Just keep on adding nodes

Low impact for new sites

Can deliver throughput where you want it

Outdoor extension of the indoor Wireles W ireless s LAN

 

Cisco Outdoor Wireless Architecture

Cisco Outdoor Wireless Bridging L3/L L3/L2 2 swit switch ch 5GHz/2.4 GHz

L2 swit switch ch

Point To Point L2 swit switch ch


Point To Multipoint

Bridging: basic LAN to LAN wireless connectivity

Cisco Outdoor Wireless From Bridging to Mesh 2.4 GHz Access

L3/L L3/L2 2 swit switch ch

RAP (Root AP)


MAP (Mesh AP) Backhaul 5/2.4 GHz

L2 swit switch ch

5 GHz Access

Backhaul 5GHz


MAP Wired access 5 GHz Access

Mesh Deployment Flexibility:  LAN-to-LAN connectivity  Multiple hop backhaul and 5GHz wireless wireless client access access  2.4 GHz and  Ethernet Access Access to wired clients  LAN-to-LAN in motion with Work Group Bridge (WGB)

Cisco Unified Wireless Network Architecture Overv Overview iew Mobility Services Engine (MSE)

WCS WC S Navigator

Network Network Control System (NCS) or Wireless Control System (WCS)

Centralized WLAN Centralized W LAN architecture 

Wireless LAN Context Aware Controller(WLC) CAPWAP

WIDS Essenti Essential als/aWIPS s/aWIPS

Planning Tools


802.1 802. 11n and 802.1 802.11a/g 1a/g

Monitor and migrate

 Advanced

mobility  Highly scalable services such as Real-ti l-time me visibilit visib ility y for  Rea seamless, seam less, L3RF roaming roam ing and control metro-scale deployments policy Simplified standalone access

points implementation and reduced configure  Easily maintenance controller contr ollers s  – WLAN Roaming Seamless using SNMP

between Indoors &  – Access points Outdoors using CAPWAP Interoperability Full Built-in support for

Clean Air / Spectrum Intelligence

Outdoor Mesh


Mobility Services among all Mesh pl atforms platforms 

Standalone/Lightweight Access Points

 – Context –  –Aware Highly Scalabl Scalable Network Network Services e (Location)

Multilevel Security  – Adaptive Wireless Client Devices and Wi-Fi W i-Fi Tags Tags

Intrusion Prevention System (wIPS) network from  Protects

malicious activity and Wired ed and wir eless wireless  Wir

Wireless Wireles s Controller Product Portfolio   s   e   r   u    t   a   e    F    &   e   c   n   a   m   r   o    f   r   e    P

APs: Up to 500 APs: Clients: Up to 10,000 I/O: Cat6K Backplane Wireless Services Module 2

APs: Up to 500 Clients: Up to 7,000 I/O: Up to 8 –1Gig. SFP

Cisco 5500 Series Wireless Controller 

APs: Up to 50 Clients: Up to 500 I/O: Up to 4Gig 4Gig (2P (2PoE) oE).. Cisco 2500 Series Wireless Controller 

APs: Up to 50 Clients: Up to 500 I/O: ISR G2 Backplane

Mobility Domain Size: 36000 APs


counted counted as one AP  Mesh not supported on Flex 7500

Wireless LAN Controller  on Services Ready Engine


1k 1.5k

2k 2.5k 3k

3.5k 4k

4.5k 5k

5.5k 6k 6.5k

7k 7.5k

# of Clients Supported (Scale)

8k 8.5k

9k 9.5 .5k k 10 10k k

Cisco Wireless Mesh Intelligent Wireless Wireless Solution 

Deployment Flexibility Different types types of traffic

Self-configuring, self-healing Mesh Zero-touch configuration Cisco’s Adaptive Wireless Path (AWPP)

Protocol for fault-tolerant Mesh deployments 

di fferent Layers Layers Scalability at different Network grows based on needed coverage

Provides seamless user mobility

Robust embedded Security

Integrated Wireless Management NCS: Converged Access Management for wired and wireless Networks

WCS: one console for operational visibility, visibility, control, troubleshooting, and reporting Deployment time reduced by 50%


Cisco Wireless Mesh MAP

Deployment Deployme nt Flexibility Ethernet in mesh header WLAN Controller



Mesh carries two types of traffic: Wired Wir ed client traffic Wireless client traffic

CAPWAP in mesh header Mesh header CAPWAP CAPWAP traffic traffic

MAPs dynamicall dynamically y build a tree with the best path to the RAP

Cisco Wireless Mesh Self-configuring, Self-healing Mesh

Optimal parent selection selects the path “ease” across each available backhaul

Ease based on number of hops and link SNR SNR (Signal Noise Ratio)

AWPP uses uses a “Parent Stickiness” value to mitigate mit igate Route Flaps

AWPP integrates 802 802.1 .11h 1h DFS (Dynamic Frequency Selection) for radar detection and avoidance


Neighbor Parent MAP

Adaptive Wireless Path Protocol (AWPP) establishes the best path to the Root


Cisco Wireless Mesh Scalability at different layers Access Point 32 MAPs per RAP (recommended) (recommended) 8 Hops (4 recommended) 16 MBSSIDs MBSSIDs per AP (512 at WLC)

Management NCS manag manages es up up to 1500 15000 0 APs APs & 1250 WLCs WCS mana manages ges up to 3000 3000 APs APs & 750 WLCs

More RAPs RAPs for secto sectorr capacity capacity


Controller Up to 72 Controllers can be part part of of an N+1 N+1 or N+N+1 N+N+1 cluste clusterr Dynamic Dynamic RF optimizati optimization on on access link for additional radios

Cisco Wireless Mesh Seamless user mobility

Inter-controller Roaming L3 Roaming Roamin g Intra-controller




Tunnel EoIP Tunnel Eo IP B to A AP-22












47 122 0




10 1 0 1 0 2

Cisco 1500 Series Wireless Broadband Platform

Modular Radio Design Multiple radios Multiple Uplinks

Models:  1552(802.11N) 1522 1524PS 1524SB

MRC Maximal Ratio Combining access radio improves receiver sensitivity for clients by up to 4.7 dB

FIPS-ready Fiber SFP Opti Option on

140-2 Certifiable

Connection to available municipal fiber provides greater network throughput

Hazardous Location-ready

Internal Battery Internal Backup Option Run time up to 3 Hrs Flexibility to turn off

Power over Ethernet Port Provides powers and Ethernet connectivity for 802.3af cameras, sensors, and other compliant devices


Rugged, Industrial Enclosure

Aux/Console Cable

DC Input

PoE PoE Out Out

PoE In


Paintable Enclosure Can be painted to match surrounding structures

AC Input

-40 C to + 55 C with Solar Loading IP67 IP 67,, NEM NEMA A - 4X

Integrated DOCSI DOC SIS S 3.0 Cab Cable le Modem Option

Cisco Aironet 1500 Series Series Mesh Outdoor Outdoor Access Poin Points ts AP1552Cable/Ethernet (802.11n (802.11n))

AP152 AP 1522 2 Cabl Cable/Fib e/Fiber er Docs Do csis is 2. 2.0 0


Cable Modem

Docsis Docs is /Eur /Euro-Doc o-Docsis3.0 sis3.0

4.9 to 5.8

Client Access

Client Access

Backhaul & Client Access

Backhaul & Client Access

AP1524 AP1 524 PS (Public (Public Safety Safety))

AP1524SB AP 1524SB (Seria (Seriall Backhau Backhaul) l) AP1552E/H (802.11n)


Backhaul & Client Access

5.8 2.4 4.9 Client Access

5.0 2.4 5.0 Client Access

Backhaul & Client Access

1550 Series Development Highlights 

1552: Dual-Band Dual-Band (2.4 (2. 4 & 5 GHz), 4 Models 

5 GHz includes only Upper ISM Bands (5.725  – 5.850 GHz)

40 MHz BW channel support, Data rates < = 300 Mbps

DOCSIS DOCSIS 3.0 (8x4)/ (304 (304 x108) Mbps Mbps or EuroDOCSIS EuroDOCSIS 3.0 (4x4) / (152 x 108) Mbps Cable Modem

MIMO (2X3), 2 SS (Spatial Streams)

Dual band, omni-directional omni-direc tional antennas Stick anten antennas nas,, 4 dBi dBi (2.4 GHz), GHz), 7 dBi dBi (5 GHz) GHz) • 3 Stick array, Low Profile, Single Radom, 2 dBi • 3 element array, (2.4 GHz), GHz), 4 dBi (5 GHz) GHz)

CleanAir CleanAir 2.4 GHz Spectrum Intel Intellige ligence nce

ClientLink Legacy Beam Forming

Universal Access for 5GHz 5GHz clients clients


DFS capabil capability ity to detect detect 0.5us 0.5us pulses pulses


  m   c    5  .    3    1

Strand slope adjustment

Cisc Ci sco o Airo irone nett 80 802. 2.1 11n 15 1550 50 Ser Serie ies s 1552 C

1552 E

Integrated ted  Integra

DOCSIS DOCSIS 3.0 (8x4) (8x4) /EURODO /EURODOCSIS CSIS (4x4) (4x4) CM  Uplinks – Cable  No Battery Backup  Power over Cable (40 -90VAC) PoE out out  No PoE  No SFP  Built-in Dual Band Antenna

 External Antennas  Uplinks –

Fiber/Ethernet  Battery Backup ( 6AH)  AC Powered ( 100 – 480 VAC )  No Cable Modem PoEoutt port (802.3 (802.3af) af)  PoEou  Power Injector option Stic k Antennas  Dual Band Stick Console Port AC Power Connector Fiber Port

PoEin PoEin Port Port

PoEout PoEout Port Port

1552 H 1, Div 2/Zone 2 hazardous location certified  External Antennas  Uplinks – Fiber/Ethernet  Battery Backup ( 6AH)  AC Powered ( 100-240VAC)  Power Injector option  No Cable Modem PoEoutt port (802.3 (802.3af) af)  PoEou

1552 I

 Class

 Lightweight,

All models can be powered using 12 VDC

Low Low power & energy efficient  Uplinks – Ethernet  No Battery Backup  AC Powered (100 -277VAC) PoE out out  No PoE  No SFP  Built-in Dual Band Antenna

Cisco Cisc o 155 1552H 2H Haza Hazardou rdous s Locat Locations ions Certification

Div 1 > Div 2 (North America) ; Zone 1 > Zone 2 (Europe) 

Class 1, Division 2/Zone 2 is for Occasional Environments like oil sand open pit mining.  Class 1, Division 1/Zone 1 is for Environments with full time ignitable concentrations of flammable gases, vapors or liquids  CSA Hazardous Location certification for US and Canada: Class I, Division 2 (AIR-LAP1552-HZ-A/N-K9). Power Entry Module, Gr Grou oups ps A, A,B, B,C, C,D D wit ith h T5 (1 (120 20 deg deg C) temp code certification for worldwide worldwide deployment: deployment:  ATEX certification Class I, Zone 2 (AIR-LAP1552-HZ-E-K9). Power Entry Module, Gro Group ups s IIC, IIB, IIA wi with th T5 (12 (120 0 deg deg C) temp temp code  For Class I, Zone 1/Division 1 requirements: use TerraWave explosive proof enclosures Antennas  Certified with Antennas Haz Haz Loc Loc Module Module Conduit Piping Terminal Block

Pole/Wall/ Strand Mount Standard pole pole mount bracket br acket can also be wall mounted AIR-BAND-INST-TL= Pole Diameter Range  supported from 2” to 16 “ 

Pole/Wall Mount AP1552I AIR-ACCPMK1550=

2 Steel Straps

Band-it system Pole Clamp M8 stud and and threaded threaded holes

Pole/Wall Mount AP1552 AP155 2 E/H (same (same as AP152 AP1522) 2) AIR-ACCPMK1550=

Strand Mount AP1552C AIR-ACCSMK1550 $0 AIR-ACCSMK1550= AIR-ACCSMK1550= (Spare Kit) Ki t)

Cisco Cisc o Airo Aironet net Indo Indoor or Mesh Ac Acces cess s Poin Points ts 11abg    d   e   z    i    d   e   g   g   u    R

11n 1242


11n + CleanAir





   d   e    t   e   p   r   a    C


Extra License for Mesh APs orderabl orderable e directly directly in Mesh Mesh Mode Mode



Comprehensive suite of WiFi certifie certified d product products s

Hardw Ha rdware are Plat Platfor forms ms - Brid Bridgin ging g

AP1410 5.8 GHz bridge brid ge and AP

AP 1242 (with 3rd party enclosure)

AP1310 2.4GHz bridge and AP

Exalt r5005 5 GHz P2P

AP 1252/1262/3500e (with 3rd party enclosure) AP150 AP1500 0 serie series s Mesh AP

Exalt r5005: key features High throughput: 162 Mbps (40 MHz channel)

Hardware-based 128-bit AES

Throughput symmetry control up to 80:20

Captive 23 dBi antenna Layer 2 switch, 3 ports (1 PoE) Ethernet rate limiting

Configurable, constant Ethernet latency: 0.5-5ms

ExtendAir r5005

Cisco Solution Plus

High density collocation: ExaltSync ™ Built-in Spectrum Analyzer

Exalt r5005: key differentiation 100 Mbps Interference Test 120

100    d   s   e   p   r    b   u   s   M80   a   (   e   t    M  u   p    2   h 60   r   g   e   u   y   o   r 40   a   h    L   T    )

ExtendAir 802.11n* Competitor










Interference (dB )

Very Reliable Reliable P2P P2P technology technology



Cisco Cis co 1310 1310/14 /1410 10 and Exten ExtendA dAir ir r50 r5005 05 At-a-Glance Feature Comparison ExtendAir r5005




5 GHz

5 GHz

2.4 GHz


Single carrier microwave not Wi-Fi® 



162 Mbps

~28 Mbps

~28 Mbps

8 [10]*, 16 [20], 32 [40]

20 MHz

20 MHz

1xFE (PoE) + 2xFE

1xFE (PoE)

1xFE (PoE)

Yes / Yes

Yes / Yes

Yes / Yes

Rate Limiting




Symmetry Control




128-bit AES




Spectrum Analyzer




LOS requirement

LOS only

LOS / NLOS possible but not recommended

LOS / NLOS possible but not recommended


PTP only






Throughput (L2) Channel BW Ethernet Ports VLAN / QoS

List Price per End

Typical Backhaul Throughput and Latency

Avg 2-3 msec msec latency per hops







MAX Throughput (20MHz (20M Hz BH BH))

112 Mbps

83 Mbps

41 Mbps

25 Mbps*

15 Mbps*

MAX Throughput (40MHz (40 MHz BH BH))

206 Mbps

111 Mbps

94 Mbps

49 Mbps

35 Mbps*

Latency < 10 ms per Hop, 0.3-1 0.3 -1 milliseconds typical

Hops Outdoor: code supports 8 Hops; 3 –4 Hops are recommended recommended

Nodes 20 MAPs MAPs per RAP are are recomme recommended nded

Software Features

Aspects of 802.11n MIMO

40MHz 40MH z Chan Channels nels

Packet Aggregation

Backward Compatibility

MIMO (Mul (Multiple tiple Input, Input, Multiple Multiple Output)

With Beam Forming Transmissions Transmissions Arrive in Phase, Increasing Signal Strength Without Beam Forming Transmissions Transmissions Arrive out of Phase and signal is weaker

Performed by Transmitter (Talk Better)

Beam Forming

Ensures Signal Received in Phase

Increases Receive Sensitivity

Maximal Ratio Combining

Works with non-MIMO Clients

Spatial Multiplexing

Beam Forming gives a gain of 4 dB in DL only for Legacy Data Rates

ClientLink (Beam Forming) Essential Facts 

Beam Forming is effective in downstream only

Measureable Measureable advantages: Increased SNR at cell edges Provides

Increased downstream data rates at cell edges

Provides Increased downstream throughput at cell edges 

Beam Forming Forming is is based on AP3500 AP3500 based product product

Beam Forming only applicable to legacy rates of 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48 and 54 Mbps

Aspects of 802.11n 40MHz 40MH z Chan Channels nels

Packet Aggregation

Backward Compatibility

MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output) Without MRC Multiple Signals Sent; One Signal Chosen

With MRC Multiple Signals Sent and Combined at the Receiver Inc Increa reasin sing g Fide Fidelity lity



Performed by Receiver (Hear Better)

Beam Forming

Combines Multiple Received Signals

Increases Receive Sensitivity

Maximal Ratio Combining

Works with non-MIMO and MIMO Clients

Spatial Multiplexing

MRC gives a gain gain of 4.7 dB in UL for for all Data Rates Rates

MRC av availa ailable ble for 802. 802.1 11a/ 1a/g/n g/n Combined Effect (Adding all Rx Paths)

3 Antennas Antennas Rx Signals Signal s

Software features Dynamic backhaul data rate

For Your Reference (Software Rel. 6.0 onwards)

Each Link uses Best Possible Rate as per its link l ink quality

Software features Backhaul client access

For Your Reference (Software Rel. 7.0 onwards)

AP with two 5 GHz Radios AP1524SB Extended Client Access Access can be be unchecked independently from GUI

Warning Messages

(Cisco Controller)> config config mesh client-access enable  enable  (Cisco Controller)> config config mesh client-access enable  enable  extended 

UA/EUA can be configured from WCS

Software features Backhaul channel deselect

For Your Reference (Software Rel. 7.0 onwards)

Feature helps end user to regulate/restrict set of channels that get assigned to Linear chain chai n automaticall automatica lly y. The set is chosen from the DCA DCA list ist

Best suited for avoiding avoid ing known known source sour ce of interferences interf erences or for outdoor mesh interoperability with with indoor mesh mes h or work group bridges (WGBs).

DCA list

Radar affecting ch 136, 140

100 104 108 112 116 132 136 140



Ch 100

Ch 108

These channels will will NOT be assigned assi gned

Software features Backhaul channel deselect

For Your Reference (Software Rel. 7.0 onwards)

Software features Backhaul channel deselect

For Your Reference (Software Rel. 7.0 onwards)

Choose the list of channels that the mesh network will w ill use

(Controller) >show advanced 802.11a channel 

Software features Backhaul channel deselect

For Your Reference (Software Rel. 7.0 onwards)

Warning Message

Software features Backhaul channel deselect: when w hen useful? Better Frequency Planning Planning can be done on two adjacent adja cent linear spurs to reduce co-channel interference RAP

1 Hop

2 Hop

3 Hop


1 Hop

2 Hop

Universal access

LRF (Link Role Flexibility) Flexibility) WGB on 5 GHz AP on 2.4 GHz

Station 1

Station 2

Software features Mobile Mobil e Access for Vehicles Vehicles Both 5Ghz radios are equipped with a Directional antenna to optimize the coverage of the rail


CH 149 RAP 2 CH 149

802.11 Hotspots

Work Group Bridge (WGB)

RAP 1 CH 161

CH 161

CH 153

CH 157

RAP CH 153

isco Router in Vehicle

CH 149

AP152 AP1524 4 SB RAP CH 161

CH 161

Software features Preferred Parent Selection

For Your Reference (Software Rel. 7.0.116 onwards)

Preferred Parent (P.P) (P.P) can be configured configu red on an AP

P. P will be selected for the following conditions:

P.P parent parent is the best parent

P.P link SNR is at least least 20dB 20dB (In (In this case, case, othe otherr parent parents, s, however good, are ignored)

P.P has link SNR between between 12 and 20 20 dB, but but no other other parent parent is significantly significantly better better (SNR (SNR more than 20% better). better). For lower lower than than 12dB 12dB SNR, P.P P.P config configurati uration on is ignored ignored

P.P is not blacklisted blacklisted

P.P is not in silent mode due to DFS. DFS.

P.P is in the same Bridge Group Name (BGN). (BGN). If no other parent available in the same BGN, the child will join the P.P using the default BGN

Software features Preferred Parent Selection (Cisco Controller Controller 1) >config mesh parent preferred preferred Name>   (Cisco (Cisco Controll Controller er 1) >config >config mesh mesh parent preferre preferred d MAP1SB ?  Child addr> radio mac of the preferred parent none clear configured parent


(Cisco (Cisco Controlle Controllerr 1) >config mesh mesh parent parent preferred preferred MAP1SB 00:24:13 00:24:13:0f:92:00  :0f:92:00  (Cisco (Cisco Controll Controller er 1) >show >show ap config config general general   Name>  (Cisco (Cisco Controll Controller er 1) >show >show ap config config general general MAP1SB  MAP1SB  Cisco AP Identifier.............. Identifier............................ ................ .. 40 Cisco AP Name.................... Name................................ ................ .... MAP1SB Country code........... code............... ........ ......... ........... .......... ....... ... US - United States Regulatory Domain allowed by Country............. 802.11b g:-A 802.11a: A, ou tdoo tdoor r mesh mesh -AB -AB  AP Country code........... code................ .......... ........... ........... ....... .. US - United States   AP Regulatory Domain.................... Domain............................. ......... 802.11bg:-A 802.11b g:-A 802.11a:-A  Switch Port Number . ....................... ............................. ...... 1  MAC Address.................... Address................................ .................. ...... 00:24 :50:34:21:00 IP Add ress Configu ration.................. ration......................... ....... DHCP IP Address ......................... ..................................... .............. .. 10.51 .1.175 IP NetMask.......... NetMask ..................... ....................... .................. ...... 255.25 5.255.0 Ethernet Port Duplex............................. Auto Ethernet Port Speed.............................. Auto  AP Link Li nk Latency.................... Latenc y................................ .............. .. Disabled  Rogue Detection.................... Detection................................ .............. .. Enabled   AP TCP MSS Adjust.................. Adjust..... ......................... .............. .. Disabled 

  Mesh preferred parent............................ 00:24:13:0f:92:00


What Wh at is CleanAir CleanAir Tec echno hnolog logy y? Locate



Wireless LAN Controlle Controllerr



Classificationprocessed processed  •Classification on onAccess AccessPoint Point Interferenceimpact impactand and  •Interference data da data dat ta asent sen sent sen t to t toWLC WLCfor forrealrea realrea l- ltime timeaction action WCSand andMSE MSEstore storedata data  •WCS for forlocation, location,history, history,and and troubleshooting troubleshooting

Maintain Air Quality

Visualize and Troubleshoot

CH 1


Cisco CleanAir

CH 11


Network Visibility Context Aware Aware Services Serv ices enable WCS W CS to show Interferer’s Interfer er’s location location

Map – Air Quality View

Zone of Impact

Mesh APs

Interferer Details

Self Healing and Optimization Interference Aware RRM Event Driven RRM

Maximizes Maximizes performance p erformance by avoiding interference

CH 1

CH 1

CH 11

CH 1

Self Healing to avoid Wi-Fi Wi -Fi degradation degradation

Persistent Device Avoidance Self Learning to increase reliability

Clean Air for Mesh

For Your Your Reference (Software Rel. onwards)

Clean Air on 2.4 2.4 GHz for for AP1552 AP1552 & AP3500 AP3500 in Bridge Bridge (Mesh) (Mesh) mode

Interferers detected by Clean Air on 2.4 GHz include

AP1552 AP1552 offers offers Clean Clean Air in Bridge Bridge (Mesh) Mode -there is no other mode available

No Clean Air on 5 GHz (Backhaul)

No Monitor Mode

No Spectrum Connect Mode (SE-ConnectAP)

CleanA Clea nAir ir Rec Recomm ommend endatio ations ns for Outdo Outdoors ors 

AP Density Density recommend recommendation ation for CleanAir CleanAir remains remains the same as normal Mesh AP Deployment (800/1000 feet cell radius)

APs should should be RF neighbors neighbors for any possibil possibility ity of Merging (spatial proximity)

Location Resolution in the Outdoors is to the nearest AP

Devices generally are located near the AP which which is physically closest to the device

Outdoor Custom Calibration possible from onwards

Location Location error error may double double withou withoutt custom calibration calibration model model

Installation with a low density of sensors has the possibility possibili ty of having duplicate entries of interferes

Mixing Mixing CleanAir CleanAir (AP1552 (AP1552) and Legacy AP’s (AP152X) operating in Local Mode (serving clients) is Not supported – nor is recommended

PMAC PMA C Mer Merge ge in Ou Outdo tdoors ors

PMAC Convergence Convergence and Merging depends depends upon  Density of the Sensors  Quality of the observed classification APs  RSSI from the interferer to the APs  RF neighbor list at the APs

Cluster Center Center - is the closest AP to the device

After PMAC PMAC signature signature merging merging

one can can identify identify which which APa can hear hear the the device

CleanAir WLC enable (WCS identical under Configure=>Controllers)

EDRRM EDRRM & PDA off off by Default


CleanAir is enabled by Default on the AP Interface it is disabled Globally Globally by default on the controller.

WLC CLI (Cisco Controller) Controller) >config >config 802.11a/b 802.11a/b cleanair cleanair enable

MSE – Context Aware WCS=>Services=>MSE=>Context WCS=>Services=>MSE=>Conte xt Aware Service=>Administration=>tracking Service=>Administration=>tracking parameters

Disabled by Default

1 interfe interferer rer = 1 CAS license license

MSE – Co Conte ntext xt Awar ware e - His Histor tory y WCS=>Services=>MSE=>Context WCS=>Services=>MSE=>Conte xt Aware Service=>Administration=>History Service=>Administration=>History Parameters Parameters

Disabled by Default

Clea Cl eanA nAir ir Li Lice cens nsin ing g 

A CleanAir AP is the license no special controller license required – will work with WCS W CS Base

Adding an MSE – requires WCS W CS Plus for location

CAS (Context Aware) Aware) license required for f or Interference location

100 Permanent Interferers licenses are embedded in MSE. Interferer Licenses open up as Clean Air APs are detect detected, ed, in stages stages of of 5 per CleanA CleanAir ir AP

Interference and Client location functionally identical – and use the same sam e license count

If license is 1000, and interferers are 500, then 500 clients can be displayed

Design & Planning

Design & Planning General Considerations 

RF Nature: Not an Exact Science, Especially Especi ally in Unlicensed Unli censed Spectrum Spectrum

Mesh: AP-to-AP Backhaul Distance Capability Capabil ity should be

W iFi Network Network Planning Involves:

2x AP-to-Client

Site Survey to Identify: AP AP Location & Height, Line-of-Sight Line -of-Sight (LoS)/Partial LoS, Interference, Access to wired wir ed backhaul (i.e. Max # Hops), …

Client type (Smart Phones, Tablets, Laptops, …) Weakest Link typically typicall y would would be the Uplink on a Smart Phone

User Experience: Minimum Throughput to User, User, Type of Applications (Internet, Video, Gaming, ….)

CAPEX & OPEX available avai lable for project; Match Match to type of Service, Robustness of Coverage, …

Regulatory Considerations; different countries countries allow all ow different Tx power at different Frequency Bands.

Type of AP Used: AP1552E&H (External ( External Ant.), AP1552C&I (Integrated Ant.) 

AP1552E, AP1552H : Antenna Gain 2.4 GHz (4 dBi), 5 GHz (7 dBi)

AP1552C, AP1552I: Antenna Antenna Gain 2.4 GHz (2 ( 2 dBi), 5 GHz (4 dBi)

Current Standards and Directives:

For Your Reference

The 5 GHz Bridging Spectrum 4.94

4.99 5.15

2 Channels


Radiated Power EIRP inc anten antenna na

Europe Radiated Power EIRP inc Anten Antenna na



4 Chan Channe nels ls 4 Chan Channe nels ls


UNII-2 Extended


11 Channels



5 Channels ISM 30 dBm

33 dBm



17 dBm

27 dBm

Indoor only

Indoor / Outdoor

Indoor /Outdoor

23 dBm (200 mW)

23 dBm (200mW)

11 Channels 30 dBm

Indoor only

Indoor only

6 channels (*) 27 dBm

5 Channels UNII-3, 30 dBm

Indoor /Outdoor

DFS DF S + TPC req requi uired red (** (**)) (*) 6 channel channe l available today: 120, 124, 128 disabled disabled to be compliant compliant with DFS DFS rules in Canada Canada 116 &132 disabled to be compliant complia nt with new FCC Enforcement to protect TDW TDWR R (**) Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) – Transmit Power Control (TPC)


Current Standards and Directives: Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) requirements Frequency (MHz)

1 5150 – 5250 (UNII-I) DFS Not Required

2 5250 – 5350 (UNII-II) 5470 – 5725 (UNII-II extended)

3 5725 – 5850 (ISM) DFS Not Required Required


36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 100 104 108 112 116 120 124 128 132 136 140 149 153 157 161 165

DFS required by Regulations Regulations to allow allow WLAN to shar share e the 5GHz 5GHz band band with with Rada Radarr  All Cisco products are compliant 

Best Practices for Radars: Do

a Survey Surve y and contact the local local authorities to know if there are radars nearby Use

“Full Sector Mode” that prevents

MAPs to be isolate isolated d after detecting a radar Correctly mount mount the APs (spacing Correctly and antennas alignment) Remove the radar affected channels from the Controller Controller channel list

Cisco Mesh M esh Antennas Antennas 2.4 & 5 GHz Dual Band Antennas Antennas for AP1552 AP1552E E and AP1552H AP1552H Part Number


AIR-ANT -ANT25 2547 47V V-N

Dual Dual Band and 2.4 2.4 (4d (4dBi Bi)/ )/5 5 GHz GHz(7 (7dB dBi) i),O ,Omn mnii-D Direc irecti tion onal al

2.4 GHz Antennas for AP1520 Series Part Number



2.4 GHz, 5 dBi Compact Omni-Directional


2.4 GHz, 5.5 dBi Compact Omni-Directional


2.4 GHz, 8 dBi Omni-Directional

4.9/5 GHz Antennas for AP1520 Series Part Number



5.25 to 5.85 GHz, 4 dBi Right Angle Omni-Directional


4.9 to 5.85 GHz, 8 dBi Compact Omni-Directional


5.725 to 5.825 GHz, 9.5 dBi Sector


4.9 to 5.85 GHz, 14 dBi Patch


4.9 to 5.85 GHz, 17 dBi 90o Sector

Design and planning Network Architecture Architecture (an example) Small Small village in Digital Divide WLC

LOS 5GHz 5GHz link up up to 8 km


5GHz/  2.4GHz




Business Area in Digital Di gital Divide 5GHz/  2.4GHz


Service Provider Network

Design & Planning (A Domain) 1 met meter= er= 3.28 3.28 ft 1 m ilile = 1 .6 .6 1 k m

Guidance 

AP-to-Client Distance   

 

AP1522: AP1552C/I: AP1552E/H:

2.4 GHz (A Domain) 600 ft/180 m 800 ft/250 m 1000 ft/300 m

Recommendations Recommendations AP to AP (Backhaul) = 2 X (AP ( AP to Client Distance) 

1 sqsq-met meter= er= 10. 10.7 7 sqsq-ft ft 1 sq sq -m -m ilile = 2 .6 .6 s qq-k m

AP to AP = 2x(AP-Client) AP1522: 1200 ft/366 m AP1552C/I: 1600 ft/500 m AP1552E/H: 2000 ft/600 m

AP Density  AP1522: AP1552I:  AP1552C & AP  AP1552E & AP1552H:

25 AP/sq-mile = 10 AP/sq-km 14 AP/sq-mile = 5.3 AP/sq-km 9 AP/sq-mile = 3.5 AP/sq-km

Assumptions:   

Height: APs are at 33 Ft (10 m); Client @ 3.3 ft (1 m) Throughput: > 1 Mbps. Decreasing AP-AP Distance improves coverage Near LoS. Flat Terrain Environment

Design & Planning Guidance- Greenfield Deploy Deployment ment in a Flat Environment AP-to-Client Cell Radius @ 2.4 GHz


AP 1552C/I: AP 155 1552E/ 2E/H:

R= 250 met meters R= 300 300 met meter ers s


• AP-Client Coverage 2.4 GHz • AP-Client Coverage 5 GHz • AP-AP Backhaul Coverage 5 GHz • AP-AP Distance ≥ 2x AP -Client Distance

Range Calculator US/partner/products/ps11 /ps11451/products_imple 451/products_implementation_des mentation_design_guides_list.h ign_guides_list.html tml

Design & Planning

For Your Reference

SNR vs Ba Bandwi ndwidth dth 11a/ 11a/g g (Table is also valid for 1522 2.4 GHz radio with 3 Rx ) 11a MCS

MRC Gain from from 3 RXs RXs Modulation Min SNR (dB) (dB)

Fade Margin (dB)

Req.Lin Re q.Link k SNR (dB)

6 Mb/s 

BPSK 1/2





9 Mb/s 

BPSK 3/4





12 Mb/s 

QPSK 1/2





18 Mb/s 

QPSK 3/4





24 Mb/s 

16QAM 1/2





36 Mb/s 

16QAM 3/4





48 Mb/s 






54 Mb/s 

64QAM 3/4





(*) (*) LinkS LinkSNR NR = Mini Minimum mum SN SNR R - MR MRC C + Fade Fade Margi Margin n (9 dB dB))

Design & Planning

For Your Reference

SNR SN R vs vs Ba Bandwidt ndwidth h 5 GHz GHz 11n 11n # of Spatial Streams 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

11n MCS


Min SNR (dB)

MRC Gain fro from m3 RXss (d RX (dB) B)

Fade Margin (dB)

Link SNR (dB)

MCS 0  MCS 1 MCS 2  MCS 3  MCS 4  MCS 5  MCS 6  MCS 7  MCS 8  MCS 9  MCS 10  MCS 11 MCS 12  MCS 13  MCS 14  MCS 15 

BPSK 1/2





QPSK 1/2





QPSK 3/4





16QAM 1/2





16QAM 3/4










64QAM 3/4





64QAM 5/6





BPSK 1/2





QPSK 1/2





QPSK 3/4





16QAM 1/2





16QAM 3/4










64QAM 3/4





64QAM 5/6





(*) (*) LinkS LinkSNR NR = Mini Minimu mum m SNR SNR - MR MRC C + Fade Fade Margi Margin n (9 dB dB))

Sectorization AP to AP AP distance dista nce as per the Range Recommendations Recomm endations

3 Hops 1 Hop to RAP

2 Hops to RAP

3 Hops to RAP




One Square Mile, 25 Cells (max)

Bridge Group Name (BGN)-Sectorization 

Logically groups groups APs and controls the association of the radios

For adding capacity we recommend recomm end that you have more than one RAP in the same sam e sector, sector, with the same BGN, but on different channels

A factory default BGN is empty (NULL VALUE). BGN is a string of Eleven characters maximum

Mesh APs with incorrect BGN, can still join a running network network using BGN BG N as the word word “Default” “Default ”

AP using “default” BGN Associate After 15

clients, and forms forms mesh relationships rel ationships

minutes APs will go to to SCAN state rather than Rebooting

Site Survey and deployment Get creative, use different tools

Site Survey and deployment Collocating Colloca ting APs APs • • • •

Proper spacing = better performance and coverage Minimum Vertical Separation Separation of of 3 meters (10m if on adjacent adjacent channels) channels) Antennas vertical alignment is another important im portant factor Consider Consider RF interferences: interferences: use Spectrum Expert

Site Survey and deployment Grounding the AP

1- Outdo Outdoor or Light Contro Controll 2- Streetl Streetlight ight Adap Adapter ter 3-Copper Grounding wire POWER INJECTOR

10 AW AWG G or Larger Ground Wire

Street Light Power Tap supports supports 100 to 480 VAC

Site Survey and deployment Environmental impact

Equipment Inside

Deployment Examples

Target Areas for W i-Fi Offload Where Wher e People Go!

Monetizing Coverage and Capacity with Next Generation Hotspot 1




Next Generation Hotspot 802.1x , EAP-SIM, E AP-SIM, EAP-AKA Auto SIM credentials Encrypted Wi-Fi Link 802.11i Network Discovery 802.11u

Seamless authentication & Wi-Fi roaming roaming - Wireless Wireless Broadband Alliance

Mobile “concierge” “concierge” service enablement MSAP





Carrier class solution

Simplifies network discovery and selection for seamless cellular data offload

Extends existing SIM-based authentication techniques over encrypted Wi-Fi

Enables locationbased and valueadded services

Customer Experience Transformatio ransformation n MSAP- Mobility Service Advertisement Protocol Protocol Reach customers at the moment of choice Secure Wi-Fi Network Discovery

Special offers today

Receive transient applications without user intervention

A New Mobile Experience Experi ence for Mobile Subscribers Subscriber s

High Density Deployments –Super Bowl XLV Cowboys Stadium 

942 indoor and outdoor AP’s

24 Wireless W ireless Controllers

WCS in continuous operation

+50,000 AT&T AT&T clients in the stadium s tadium

96.5% Successful Authentication

(Target 96%) 

100% Service Availability

(Target 99.99%) 

67GB Total Data Data Traffic from fro m all al l

AT&T Wi-Fi Wi-Fi users

Service Provider Wi-Fi – Convention Center Mobile Mobil e World World Congress Con gress 2011 

Operate free Wi-Fi W i-Fi Hotspot Hotspot network for attendees CleanAir – Intelligent Reliability ClientLink – High Density Coverage Video Stream – Quality Video Band Select – Optimized Throughput

Cisco Cloud Connect Managing wireless wireless cloud servic serv ices

Service Providers Wi-Fi Deployments 

Continuous coverage coverage for NY metro area with more than 25,000 25,000 APs (indoor (indoor and outdoor) outdoor)

Internet access on commuter commut er Rails Rails & Ferries feeding f eeding into NY city

Large convention coverage in Madison Square Garden & Radio City Music Hall  Increases customer stickiness with differentiated Wi-Fi W i-Fi service for reduced customer churn


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