Deductive and Inductive approach to Grammar presentation

January 21, 2018 | Author: Pakraz Jamraz | Category: Inductive Reasoning, Learning, Project Based Learning, Teachers, Applied Psychology
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of deductive and inductive approach to grammar presentation?...


c                     Introduction: There are basically two ways in which a learner can achieve understanding of a rule: the deductive (rule-driven) path and the inductive (rule-discovery) path. Deductive : This technique simply means providing learners with the ready grammar rule, describing detail how the new structure is formed, what its components are, and in what type of context it can be used. All the information is given in the form of a minilecture, during which the teacher usually employs grammatical terminology. After the explanation, the learners are provided with examples illustrating the new structure, which they analyse, and are subsequently asked to apply the rule to new sentences. They are typically expected to memorise the rule. This approach is most frequently used in science and engineering where The instructor introduces a topic by lecturing on general principles, then uses the principles to derive mathematical models, shows illustrative applications of the models, gives students practice in similar derivations and applications in homework, and finally tests their ability to do the same sorts of things on exams. Inductive: Inductive teaching and learning is an umbrella term that encompasses a range of instructional methods, including inquiry learning, problem-based learning, project-based learning, case-based teaching, discovery learning, and just-in-time teaching. Instead of basing on a teacher-fronted transmission-style classroom, This is a student-centred approach that allows learners to become deeply involved in the language they are studying and offers potential for reflection. In the process of experiential learning (learning-and-doing) they feel more important, are less passive, and do not get bored so easily during the lesson. Therefore, the inductive technique can render great service to teachers who have problems with keeping their students disciplined, concentrated and occupied, as it partly obviates these problems. Knowing that they can work out the rules from examples by themselves greatly increases learnersƞ motivation, makes them attentive, more actively involved inƜand confident and enthusiastic aboutƜthe learning process rather than simply passive recipients, and at the same time contributes to its effectiveness.

 e example of a conducted lesson using deductive approac : J   






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 e example of a conducted lesson using inductive approac : As the study phase started I wrote four examples on the board as followed and asked students to guess what is wrong with each red crossed example of positive and negative and what changes from sentence one to two are causing mistakes. Later on they guessed the rule of using of some and any in affirmative and negative sentences. Board work:


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ave got some flowers.â ´ractice : ave got any flowers.ù They take ______ (some/any) sugar in tea avenƍt got any flowers.â ce donƞt want _______ (some/any) errors. avenƍt got some flowers.ù

 e advantages (pros) of Deductive approac are : V It gets straight to the point, and therefore can be time-saving. V It respects the intelligence and maturity of many ƛ especially adult ƛ students and acknowledges the role of cognitive processes in language acquisition. V It allows the teacher to deal with language points as they come up, rather than having to anticipate them and prepare for them in advance. (Scott Thornbury, (1999) How to Teach Grammar. Longman)  e dangers (cons) of deductive approac are: V îeductive approach can be seen as dull over technical and demotivating. V It encourages the belief that learning a language is simply a case of knowing the rules.  e advantages (pros) of inductive approac : V The inductive method has the obvious advantage that what the learners discover themselves, they are more likely to remember; a principle expressed in the words of Blaise Pascal (1623-62): ƠPeople are generally better persuaded by the reasons which they themselves have discovered than by those which have come into the minds of others.ơ Brudnik et al. (2000) note that students generally remember approximately 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, 30%

of what they see, 50% of what they hear and see, 70% of what they say, and 90% of what they do by themselves ƛ just as the best way to learn to cook well is not merely to observe an expert chef in a culinary show, but to prepare meals following his/her instructions. V Students are more actively involved in the learning process, rather than being simply passive recipients: they are therefore likely to be more attentive and more motivated.  e dangers (cons) of inductive approac : V The time and energy spent in working out rules may mislead students into believing that rules are the objective of language learning, rather than a means. V Students may hypothesise the wrong rule or their version of the rule may be either too broad or too narrow in its application.

·onclusion: In this article we have looked at a range of ways of presenting grammar explaining the distinction between : ù îeductive approaches to grammar, where the rule is given and then applied to examples ù 2 e approaes , were e rle   ere by ge eral  g fr m example A  e a  ge f  g ee : ù It is direct and no nonsense and can be rather efficient ù It respects studentsƞ intelligence, expectations, and learning style And inductive approach: ù chere the students are more actively involved and engaged ù It solve the discipline issues and keep the students mentally existed in class as well as physically. And their disadvantages: ù Ñsing pep e approa which means starting the lesson with grammar and rules presentation , may be off putting for some students. ù A teacher centred lesson is always rigged and, makes the learning environment dry and increases TTT (teacher talking time) interaction and decreases STT (students talking time). ù Ñsing p e approach can mislead students into believing the knowing grammar is objective rather than a means. ù It can mislead students to the wrong discovery of rules via generali ation from examples. ^urt d d d

er reading: ºeremy Harmer, Te rae  E  La ae Tea , L ma . Scott Thornbury, How to te ch Gr  r, Long n. Dichael Swan, A acical Enlih ae, Oxfo d e.

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