Compilation on Datura...
Dhatura Dhatura Metal Linn.
Compilation of Agadtantra Evum Vidivaidyak (Forensic Medicine & Toxicology) Under the guidance of Vd.Abhay Patkar H.O.D.
(Dept.of Agadtantra) Vd.Bhushan Mogal Lecturer
(Dept. of Agadtantra) Students Nirgude Anjali P.
S. Walvekar Neha R.
Patil Sumedha S.
Rathod Priyanka D. S.
INDEX Page No.
Sr.No. Topic 1
I) Samhita Kala •
II) Laghutrayi •
III) Madhyam Kala •
I) According to Ayurveda •
Action on Dosha
Action & Uses according to Ayurveda & Siddha
Species & cultivate
Matra / Dose
Signs & Symptoms of poisoning
I) External II) Internal
Treatment of poisoning
I) According to Ayurveda II) According to Modern
Post mortem apperance
I) External II) Internal
Sushruta Uttar Tantra
Ashtang Hriday Sustrasthan
PHOTOGRAPHS Sr.No. 1
Name of photograph Botany of plant
Pg No. i
Useful Parts- Fruit,Leaf,Flower
Poisonous Part- Seeds(Beeja) Signs & Symptoms - Dermatitis of Skin
-Dilatation of Pupils and Redness of Eyes Formulation - Asthamatic Cigarettes
1) HISTORICAL REVIEW
• Samhita Kala A) Charak Samhita Aacharya
Madhvasava and Manashiladilepa (Ref C.Ch.7- Kushthachikitsa) B) Sushrut Samhita Dhatura root is the content of Mushikakalpa which is used for Alarkavisha (dog bite) (Ref.Su.K.7/53-59)
• Sangraha Kala : A) Ashtang Hridayam Use of Dhatura Fala (fruit) in Kakkurdanshachikitsa (Ref. A.H. -38/35-37) B) Ashtang Sangraha Signs and symptoms of Dhatura poisoning are mentioned. (Ref. 40/181-184) Use of Dhatura Fala (fruit) in Mushikalarkavisha. (Ref. 46/6971)
• Laghutrayi : A) Sharangdhar Samhita : Dhatura is one of the content in Dhaturatailam (Ref-9/ 199) and Sannipatabhairava Rasa (Ref - 12/233-247) B) Bhavprakash Dhatura included under Guduchyadi Varga (1st part) Use of Dhatura in Samanyajwara (Ref -2nd part/177-179)
C) Yogratnakar (Uttararadha) Dhatura Part
Dhatura Fala (fruit)
3) Kameshwar Rasa
4) Kameshwar Modak
Shlok No. 7,8
Bhavna 6) Sannipatikjwar
Dhatura Fala (fruit)
Shlok No. 2
Bhasma 7) Bhairavarasa
One of the content
Madhyam Kala : Nighantu
D) Bhaishajyaratnawali There is reference of Dhatura as a Upavisha (ref. 2/165) Reference of Dhatura Shodhan (Ref. 2/166, 176) 1) Sannipatikjwara
Dhatura Fala (fruit)
Jwarachikitsa Prakaran 5/311
2) Tridoshaj Jwara
(Dhatura Bij) 3) Nasya
5) Sannipatik Jwar
6) Different types of Jwarankushrasah
Jwara 7) Kafaj-Jwara
E) Rastarangini There
Chaturvinshastarang, Bradhnashodhahar, Pralapantakrasah (Ref. Shlok No. 342, 360, 369) Description of Matra of Dhatura (Ref. 367-368) Use of Dhatura in Alarkavisha Diseases
1) Dantapidahar (Krimidanta)
4) Manspeshigat Vataprakopa
5) Vatpida Sandhivat
6) Yukalikhadikam Hanti
2) VERNACULAR NAME Region
Dhattura, Dhutura, Dhatura
Ummattu, Unmatta, Unmattam
Safed Dhattura, Dhatur, Dhatura, Dhaatura
3) SYNONYMS उन्मत- उन्मतं करोतित सेविवितारं मदकृत्विात् इतित उन्मतः । कनकाहय- कनकं आहयोत यस्य सः। िकतब- िकतविः धुर्तरलोतकाः सि अन्त अस्य ग्राहकाः इतित। मातुर्ल- मा- नाडसिसत तुर्लाडसस्य इतित । मदन- मदयित ग्लपयित अङ्गमदकरत्विात्। मातुर्लपुर्त्रक- मातुर्लस्य धन्तुर्रस्य पुर्त्रः इतवि इतित। धतुर्र- धयित धातुर्न् व्रणश्लेवष्मादीश्च इतित । धस्तुर्र- धुर्सयित काि अन्तयुर्क्तं करोतित शरीरम् । धुर्सकाि अन्तकरणेव । - (विण्यर ,कांतीयुर्क्त) तुर्यरतेव िहनि अस्त जन्तुर्न् व्रणादीश्च । इतित तुर्री धुर्धासौ तुर्रश्चेवित धुर्स्तूरः ।।(Ref-Adarsha Nighantu)
Synonyms of Dhatura Nighantu
1) Priya Nighantu
Dhattur, Dhurta, Matul, Unmatta
2) Raj Nighantu
Dhattur, Kitav, Dhurta, Unmatta, Kankahya, Shath, Matulak, Shyam, Madan, Shivashekhar, Kahla, Mohan, Kantakphal, Shiva
3) Nighantu Aadarsha
Dhattura, Unmatta, Madkar, Dhustur, Dhurta, Gantapushpa
Dhattur, Dhurta, Dhuttur, Kitav, Turi, Unmatta, Kankahya, Matul Devata, Madan, Mahamohi, Shivapriya
5) Yadavji Trikamjee
Dhattur, Kanak, Dhurta, Unmattak
4) CLASSIFICATION •
According to Ayurveda :
Kula : kantakari kula Varga-According to Nighantus Nighantu
Constituent : Chetan Dravya Morphology : Karya Dravya Use : Aaushadhi
5) PROPERTIES Properties Of Dhatura according to Ayurveda : Rasapanchaka: Rasapanchak Rasa
Ref. Tikta- kashaya- katu
Action on Doshas : •
Action : 1)
The alkaloids atropine, hyoscyamine & hyoscine first stimulate the higher centers of brain, than the motor centers & finally causes depression & paralysis especially of the vital centers in the medulla.
The respiration is first stimulated then depressed, & the heart centre is stimulated. - (Reddy)
By acting on CNS, it inhibit secretions of saliva and sweat gland.
It dilate the pupil and stimulate heart regulation centre. -(Parikh)
appearance and have a similar characteristic odour & a bitter taste. The plant as a whole has narcotic, anodyne and antispasmodic properties, analogous to those of belladonna it causes dilation of the pupil when locally applied in wattery solution equal in effect to atropine solution of the strength of 1 in 120. 6)
Dried seeds are thought to be more powerful soporific than the leaves.
Vaidyas regarded the drug as intoxicant, emetic, digestive, antispasmodic & healing.
The black variety is considered to be more powerful. Indian materia medica. (Volume I)
6) ACTION & USES IN AYURVEDA & SIDDHA 1)
Tikta rasam, ushna veeryam, katu vipaka
Leaves : Swasa, kasa, externally fomentations, ulcers, poisonous bites, earache.
Fruit : vata diseases karappan, granthi.
Seeds : Diarrhoea, antipoison, intoxicant, fevers. Externally for piles, vata diseases.
Black variety is more potent & aphrodisiac. Indian materia medica ( Volume-I)
Uses : - Plant contains many useful phytochemicals which renders it of benefit for using treatment of many kind of diseases. Notably the leaves are frequently use as remedy for asthma & proctatile caugh.
7) USEFUL PART (Prayojyaanga)
Patra(leaves), Puspha (flower) & Beeja (seeds) are useful parts of plats.
8) BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION A) Taxonomy : •
Kingdom - Plantae
Sub Family - Solanoideae
- D. Metal
(Unranked) - Angiosperms
(Unranked) - Eudicots
(Unranked) - Asterids
B) Species Dhatura is a group of nine species of vespertine flowering plants belonging to the family solanaceae. They are known as Angel's Trumpets sometimes sharing that name with closely related genus Brugmansia. They are also sometimes called moonflowers, one of several plant species to be so. Dhatura's precise and natural distribution is uncertain. Owing to its extensive cultivation & naturalisation throughout temperate & tropical regions. Its distribution within Americas, however, most likely restricted to united states & Mexico, where the highest diversity of species occurs. Some south American plants formally thought of as Dhaturas are now treated as belonging to distinct genus.[Brugmansia differs from Dhatura i.e. woody making shrubs or small tress, in that it has
pendulus flowers rather than erect ones. Other related genera include Hyoscyamus and Atropa.
Today experts classify only nine species of Dhatura•
Dhatura ceratocaula- Torna Loco
Dature discolour- Desert Thorn- apple
Dhatura ferox- Long spined Thorn apple
Dhatura inoxia- Thorn apple, Moon flower
Dhatura metel- Devil's trumpet
Dhatura leichhardtii- Leichhardt's Dhatura
Dhatura quercifolia - Oak-leaf thorn apple
Dhatura wrightii- Sacred Dhatura,Sacred Thorn-apple
C) External morphology An erect spreading annual or biennial plant grows upto 1.5m in height. •
Leaves : Simple, alternate, triangular and unequal at base.
Flowers : Large, solitary, purpulish white coloured.
Fruits : Globose capsules covered with numerous yellowish brown seeds.
This plant belongs to N.O. solanaceae, as its flowers and fruits are supposed to have been blessed by Lord shiva, they are known as shivashekhara.
There exists 2 different varieties , viz. Dhatura alba a cohite flowered plant (Safed Dhatura) & Dhatura Niger, a black or rather deep purple flowered plant or (kula Dhatura).
Both these varieties grow commonly on waste places all over India, have bell- shape of flowers & have more or less sphericao
projections & contain yellowish - brown seeds. 4)
Dhatura stromonium (thorn apple) grows in India at high attitudes through out the temperate Himalayas.
All parts of these plants are poisonous but the seeds and fruits are considered to be the most noxious. They yield active principles hyoscine which is converted into atropine during the process of extraction.
Identity, Purity, strength - Foreign matter=Not more than 2% Total ash=Not more than 16%
D) Species & CultivatesIt is difficult to classify Dhatura as to species, and it often happens that descriptions of new species are accepted prematurely. Later it is found that these "new species" are simply varieties that have evolved due to conditions at a specific location. They usually disappear in a few years. Contributing to the confusion are the facts that various species such as D.wrightii and D.inoxia are very similar in appearance, and that the variation within a species can be extreme. For example, Dhatura have the property of being able to change size of Plants, size of leaf & size of flowers all depending on location. The same species, when growing in a half-shady damp location can develop into a flowering bush half as tall as a person, but when growing in a very dry location-will only grow into a thin little plant just higher than ankles, with tiny flowers & a few miniature leaves.
9) TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION OF DHATURA Chemical constituents and its action •
The active principles contains the alkaloids Laevohyoscyamine. Hyoscine or scopolamine and traces of atropine.
It has been suggested that atropine does not exist as such in Dhatura plant, but is a recemic form of hyoscyamine, which is converted into atropine during the process of extraction.
In Dhatura plant, its leaves & flowers contain salts especiallyMeteolodine.
Also oil contain in seeds-12%
Leaves contains 0.045% volatile oil.
The active constituents in Dhatura plant include scopolamine. atropine hyosaymine and other Tropanes.
Scopolamine present in higher concentration Hyoscyamine in all varieties.
1) Atropine • •
Atropine is an antimuscarinic agent.
It competitively binds muscarinic reports, thus interrupting parasympathetic innervations.
It doesn't block Nicotinic receptor, consequently, there is little or no action of skeletal muscular junction or autonomic ganglion.
The postganglionic receptor sites are located in autonomic receptor cells found in smooth, muscles, cardiac muscle, C.A., atrial and endocrine gland.
It is both a central and peripheral muscarinic blocker and its actions last approximately 4 hrs.
There especial used to reduce activity in gastrointestinal tract to reduce hypermotility of bladder to decrease salivation and to dilate pupils.
Atropine can produce varying effects on the cardiovascular system, depending on dosage.
At low doses (