D7263.26013 Laboratorio Determinación de la densidad (peso unitario) del Suelo Las muestras

August 21, 2018 | Author: Alejandro Zambrano Valbuena | Category: Density, Soil, Porosity, Physical Quantities, Nature
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Descripción: Laboratorio Determinación de la densidad (peso unitario) del Suelo Las muestras 1 escuela colombiana de in...

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Designation: D7263  −  09

Standard Test Methods for

Laboratory Determination of Density (Unit Weight) of Soil Specimens1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D7263; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of  original origin al adoption or, in the case of revis revision, ion, the year of last revision. revision. A number in paren parenthese thesess indicates the year of last reappr reapproval. oval. A superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Sco Scope pe 1.1 The These se test methods methods des descri cribe be two ways of det determ ermini ining ng thee to th tota tal/m l/moi oist st an and d dr dry y de dens nsiti ities es (u (uni nitt we weig ight hts) s) of in inta tact, ct, disturbed, remolded, and reconstituted (compacted) soil specimens. Density (unit weight) as used in this standard means the same as “bulk density” of soil as defined by the Soil Science Society of America. Intact specimens may be obtained from thin-walled thin-w alled sampling tubes, block sample samples, s, or clods clods.. Specimenss th men that at ar aree re remo mold lded ed by dy dyna nami micc or sta static tic co comp mpac actio tion n proced pro cedure uress may als also o be mea measur sured ed by thes thesee meth methods ods.. The These se methods apply to soils that will retain their shape during the measurement process and may also apply to other materials such suc h as soi soil-c l-ceme ement, nt, soi soil-l l-lime, ime, soi soil-b l-bent entoni onite te or sol solidifi idified ed soil-benton soil-b entonite-ceme ite-cement nt slurries. It is commo common n for the densi density ty (unit weight) of specimens after removal from sampling tubes and compaction molds to be less than the value based on tube or mold volumes, or of in-situ conditions. This is due to the specimen swelling after removal of lateral pressures. 1.1.1 1.1 .1 Meth Method od A cov covers ers the pro proced cedure ure for mea measur suring ing the volume of wax coated specimens by determining the quantity of water displaced. 1.1.1.1 1.1.1 .1 This method only applies applies to specimens in which the wax will not penetrate the outer surface of the specimen. 1.1.2 Method B covers covers the procedure procedure by means of the direct measu mea sure remen mentt of th thee di dimen mensi sion onss an and d ma mass ss of a sp speci ecimen men,, usually usu ally one of cyl cylind indric rical al sha shape. pe. Int Intact act and rec recons onstitu tituted ted/  /  remolded specimens may be tested by this method in conjunction with strength, permeability (air/water) and compressibility determinations. 1.2 The values values stated in SI uni units ts are to be reg regard arded ed as the standard. The values stated in inch-pound units are approximate. 1.3 All observed observed and calculated values values shall conform conform to the guidelines guidel ines for signifi significant cant digits and rounding established established in Practice D6026 Practice  D6026..

1.3.1 The method 1.3.1 method use used d to spe specif cify y how data are col collect lected, ed, calculated, or recorded in this standard is not directly related to the accuracy with which the data can be applied in design or other uses, or both. How one applie appliess the results obtained using this standard is beyond its scope. standard d doe doess not purport purport to add addre ress ss all of the 1.4   This standar safe sa fety ty co conc ncern erns, s, if an anyy, as asso socia ciated ted wi with th its us use. e. It is th thee responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro priate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

2. Referenc Referenced ed Documents 2.1   ASTM Standards: 2 D653 Termino erminology logy Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contain Contained ed Fluids D698 Test D698  Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft 3 (600 kN-m/m3)) D854   Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by D854 Water Pycnometer D1557 1557 Test  Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics isti cs of Soi Soill Usi Using ng Mod Modified ified Ef Effor fortt (56 (56,00 ,000 0 ftft-lbf lbf/ft /ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3)) D1587 Practice D1587  Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes D2166 T D2166  Test est Metho Method d for Uncon Unconfined fined Compr Compressive essive Stren Strength gth of Cohesive Soil D2216 Test D2216  Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass D2487   Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering D2487 Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System) D2488 Practic Practicee for Descri Description ption and Ident Identification ification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure) D3550 Pra Practic cticee for Thi Thick ck Wall, Rin Ring-L g-Line ined, d, Spl Split it Bar Barrel, rel, Drive Sampling of Soils D3740 Practic Practicee for Minimu Minimum m Requir Requirements ements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as

1

These test methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D18 Committee D18 on  on Soil and Rock and are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D18.03 Subcommittee  D18.03   on Texture, Plasticity and Density Characteristics of Soils. Current edition approved March 15, 2009. Published April 2009. DOI: 10.1520/  D7263-09.

2

For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or contact ASTM Customer Service at [email protected] For  Annual Book of ASTM  Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on the ASTM website.

D7263 − 09 Used in Engineering Design and Construction D4220 Pra Practic ctices es for Pre Preser servin ving g and Tr Trans anspor portin ting g Soil Samples D4318   Test D4318 Test Met Method hodss for Liq Liquid uid Limi Limit, t, Pla Plastic stic Lim Limit, it, and Plasticity Index of Soils D4753 Guide D4753  Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing D6026 Practice D6026  Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data E2251 Specification E2251  Specification for Liquid-in-Glass ASTM Thermometers with Low-Hazard Precision Liquids 2.2   Other Reference: Soil Science Society of America  America  Glossary of Soil Science Terms3 3. Terminology 3.1 Refer to Terminolo Terminology gy D653  D653  for standard definitions of  terms. 4. Sign Significan ificance ce and Use 4.1 Dry density density,, as defined defined as “density “density of soi soill or rock” in Terminology  D653  D653 and  and “bulk density” by soil scientists, can be used to convert the water fraction of soil from a mass basis to a volume basis and vise-versa. When particle density, that is, specific spe cific gra gravit vity y (T (Test est Met Method hodss   D854) D854) is al also so kn know own, n, dr dry y density can be used to calculate porosity and void ratio (see Appendix X1). X1). Dry density measurements are also useful for determining degree of soil compaction. Since moisture content is variable, moist soil density provides little useful information excep ex ceptt to es estim timate ate th thee we weig ight ht of so soil il pe perr un unit it vo volu lume me,, fo forr example, pounds per cubic yard, at the time of sampling. Since soil volume shrinks with drying of swelling soils, bulk density will vary with moisture content. Hence, the water content of  the soil should be determined at the time of sampling. 4.2 Densitie Densitiess (un (unit it wei weight ghts) s) of rem remold olded/ ed/rec recons onstitu tituted ted spec sp ecime imens ns ar aree co comm mmon only ly us used ed to ev evalu aluat atee th thee de degr gree ee of  compac com paction tion of ear earthe then n fill fills, s, emb embank ankmen ments, ts, etc. Dry den density sity values are usually used in conjunction with compaction curve values (Test Methods D698 Methods  D698 and and D1557  D1557). ). 4.3 Den Density sity (unit (unit weight) weight) is one of the key compone components nts in determining the mass composition/phase relations of soil, see Appendix X1. X1. NOTE   1—The 1—The qu qual alit ity y of th thee re resu sult lt pr prod oduc uced ed by th this is st stan anda dard rd is dependent depend ent on the com compet petenc encee of the per person sonnel nel per perfor formin ming g it and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 Practice D3740 are  are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3740 Practice D3740 does  does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on several factors; Practice D3740 Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of these factors.

5. Appar Apparatus atus 5.1 For Method A the following following apparatus are requi required: red: 5.1.1   Balance— All All balances must meet the requirements of  Specification D4753 Specification  D4753 and  and this section. A Class GP1 balance of  0.01 g readability is required for specimens having a mass up 3

Available online: www.s www.soils.org/sssagloss/index.ph oils.org/sssagloss/index.php. p.

to 200 grams and a Class GP2 balance of 0.1 g readability is requir req uired ed for specimens specimens having having a mas masss ove overr 200 grams. grams. For method A, the balance must be capable of measuring the mass of the specimen suspended in water. This is usually accomplishe pli shed d by a weig weighin hing g hoo hook k bui built lt into the bal balanc ancee for that purpose, or a yoke assemblage is placed upon the pan which suspends a thin, non-absorbent string or wire, that is, a nylon line, etc., below the balance into the water reservoir. 5.1.2   Drying Oven— A therm thermostatica ostatically lly contro controlled, lled, prefe preferrably of the forced-draft type, capable of maintaining a uniform temperature of 110 6 5°C throughout the drying chamber. 5.1.3   Wax— Non-shrinking, Non-shrinking, paraffin and/or microcrystalline wax wa x th that at ha hass a kn know own n an and d co cons nstan tantt de dens nsit ity y, rr, to four signifi sig nifican cantt figu figures res and tha thatt doe doess not cha change nge aft after er rep repeate eated d melting and cooling cycles. NOTE   2—The 2—The waxes generally used are commercially commercially availab available le and have density values in the range of 0.87 to 0.91 g/cm3 or Mg/m3.

Wax-Melting Container— Used 5.1.4   Wax-Melting U sed to melt the wax, but should shoul d not allow the wax to overh overheat. eat. A contain container er heated by hot water,, prefer water preferably ably thermo thermostaticall statically y contro controlled, lled, is satisfa satisfactory ctory.. The wax should be heated to only slightly above the melting point to avoid flashing of the wax vapors and to permit quickly forming a uniform surface coating of wax.  Warning— Vapors  Warning—Vapors given off off by molten wax ignite spon spontaneou taneously sly above 205° 205°C C (400°F) and should not be allowed to come in contact with the heating element or open flame. 5.1.5  Wire Basket— A wire basket of 3.35 mm or finer mesh of approximately equal width and height of sufficient size to cont co ntai ain n th thee sp speci ecime men. n. Th Thee ba bask sket et sh shall all be co cons nstr truc ucted ted to prev pr even entt tra trapp ppin ing g ai airr wh when en it is su subm bmer erge ged. d. Th Thee ba bask sket et is suspended suspe nded from from the balance by a fine thread or string. string. A hairn hairnet et may ma y al also so be us used ed in li lieu eu of th thee ba bask sket et fo forr sm smal alle lerr so soil il specimens. 5.1.6   Container— A container or tank of sufficient size to contain the submerged basket and specimen. 5.1.7   Specimen Container— A corrosion-resistant container of suf suffficie icient nt size to con contain tain the spe specim cimen en for wate waterr con conten tentt determination. 5.1.8   Thermometer— Capable Capable of measuring the temper temperature ature range within which the test is being performed graduated in a 0.1 degree C division scale and meeting the requirements of  Specification E2251 Specification  E2251.. Container Hand Handling ling Appa Apparatus—  ratus— Gloves 5.1.9   Container Gloves or sui suitab table le holder for moving and handling hot containers. 5.1.10   Miscellaneous— Paintbr Paintbrush ush,, tri trimmi mming ng too tools, ls, spe specicimen containers, and data sheets provided as required.

5.2 For Method B the following apparatus apparatus are needed: 5.2.1   Balance— See 5.1.1 See  5.1.1.. 5.2.2  Drying Oven— See 5.1.2 See  5.1.2.. Specimen-Size Measu Measurem rement ent Devices Devices—  — Devices 5.2.3   Specimen-Size Devices used to determine the height and width or diameter of the specimen shall sha ll mea measur suree the res respec pectiv tivee dim dimens ension ionss to fou fourr sig signifi nifican cantt digits and shall be constructed so that their use will not indent or penetrate into the specimen. NOTE   3—Circum 3—Circumferen ferential tial measu measuring ring tapes are recom recommend mended ed over calipers for measuring the diame calipers diameter ter of cylind cylindrical rical specimens. specimens.

D7263 − 09 5.2.4   Apparatus for Preparing Reconstituted or Remolded  Specimens (Optional)— Such Such apparatus is only required if these types of specimens are being tested. 5.2.5   Miscellaneous Specimen en trim trimmin ming g and Miscellaneous Appar Apparatus—  atus— Specim carving tools including a wire saw, steel straightedge, miter box and vertical trimming lathe, specimen containers, and data sheets shall be provided as required. 6. Samp Samples les and Test Specimens Specimens 6.1   Samples— Intact Intact samples shall be preserved and transported in accordance with Practice   D4220   Groups C and D soil. Compacted or remolded specimens shall be preserved in accordance with Practice  D4220  Group B soil. Maintain the samples samp les tha thatt are sto stored red pri prior or to test testing ing in non non-co -corro rrodib dible le airtight containers at a temperature between approximately 3° and an d 30 30°C °C an and d in an ar area ea th that at pr prev even ents ts di dire rect ct co cont ntac actt wi with th sunlight. 6.2   Specimens— Specimens Specimens for testing shall be sufficiently cohesi coh esive ve and firm to mai maintai ntain n sha shape pe dur during ing the meas measuri uring ng procedure if Method A is used, see   1.1.1.1. 1.1.1.1.  Specimens shall have a minimum dimension of 30 mm (1.3 in.) and the largest particl par ticlee con contain tained ed wit within hin the test spe specim cimen en sha shall ll be smal smaller ler than one one-ten -tenth th of the spe specim cimen’ en’ss sma smalles llestt dim dimens ension ion.. For specimens having a dimension of 72 mm (2.8 in.) or larger, the larges lar gestt par particl ticlee siz sizee sha shall ll be smal smaller ler tha than n one one-six -sixth th of the specimen’s smallest dimension. If, after completion of a test on an int intact act spe specime cimen, n, vis visual ual obs observ ervatio ations ns ind indicat icatee tha thatt lar larger ger particles than permitted are present, indicate this information in the remarks section of the report of test data. 7. Pro Procedu cedure re 7.1 Rec Record ord all ide identi ntifyi fying ng inf inform ormatio ation n for the spe specim cimen, en, such as project, boring number, depth, sample type (that is, tube, trimmed, etc.), visual soil classification (Practice D2488 (Practice D2488), ), or other pertinent data. 7.2   Method A—Water Displacement: 7.2.1 Determi Determine, ne, if not previously previously established, established, the density of the wax to be used to four significant digits (see  5.1.3  5.1.3)). 7.2.2 Prepar Preparee specimens in an enviro environment nment that minimizes any changes in water content. For some soils, chang changes es in water content are minimized by trimming specimens in a controlled enviro env ironme nment, nt, suc such h as a con contro trolled lled hig high-h h-humi umidit dity y roo room/  m/  enclosure. 7.2.3 If required, required, cut a specimen meeting the size requirements given in 6.2   from the sample to be tested. If required, trim the specimen to a fairly regular shape. Re-entrant angles should be avoided, and any cavities formed by large particles being bein g pul pulled led out sho should uld be pat patche ched d car carefu efully lly with mat materia eriall from the trimmings. Handle specimens carefully to minimize distur dis turban bance, ce, cha change nge in sha shape, pe, or cha change nge in wat water er con content tent.. Typi ypicall cally y, for mos mostt sam sample ples, s, cha change ngess in wate waterr con content tent are minimized minimiz ed by trimming specimens, in a contro controlled lled environment, such as a controlled high-humidity room/enclosure. 7.2. 7. 2.4 4 De Deter termi mine ne an and d re reco cord rd th thee mo mois istt ma mass ss of th thee so soil il specimen ( M t ) to four significant figures in g or kg. 7.2.5 7.2 .5 Cov Cover er the spe specime cimen n with a thi thin n coa coatt of melted wax, eithe eit herr wi with th a pa pain intb tbru rush sh or by di dipp ppin ing g th thee sp spec ecim imen en in a container of melted wax. Apply a second coat of wax after the

first coat has hardened. The wax should be sufficiently warm to flow when brushed brushed on the specimen, specimen, yet it should not be so hot that it dries the soil. NOTE 4—If overheated wax comes in contact with the soil specimen, it may cause the moisture to vaporize and form air bubbles under the wax. Bubbles may be trimmed out and filled with wax.

7.2.6 Det 7.2.6 Determ ermine ine and rec record ord the mass of the wax wax-co -coated ated specimen in air ( M C ) to four significant figures in g or kg. 7.2. 7. 2.7 7 De Dete term rmin inee an and d re reco cord rd th thee su subm bmer erge ged d ma mass ss of th thee wax-coated specimen ( M sub) to four significant digits in g or kg.. Th kg This is is do done ne by pl plac acin ing g th thee sp spec ecim imen en in a wi wire re ba bask sket et hooked onto a balance and immersing the basket and specimen in a co cont ntain ainer er of wa water ter.. In or orde derr to di dire rect ctly ly me meas asur uree th thee submerged mass of the wet soil and wax, the balance must have been previously balanced (tared to zero) with the wire basket completely comple tely submerged submerged in the container of water water.. Make sure that the specimen and basket is fully submerged, and that the basket is not touching the sides or bottom of the container. 7.2.8 Record the temperature temperature of the water to 0.1 degrees C. NOTE 5—Maintain water bath temperature and submerged basket depth the same as when calibrated or zeroed.

7.2.9 Remove the wax from the specimen. specimen. It can be peeled off after a break is made in the wax surface. 7.2. 7. 2.10 10 Deter Determi mine ne th thee wa water ter co cont nten entt to th thee ne near ares estt 0. 0.1 1 percent in accordance with Method  D2216  D2216.. NOTE 6—The water content may be determined from an adjacent piece of soil or from trimmings if appropriate, for example, if the wax becomes difficult to remove from the specimen. Note in the report if water content is not from the specimen itself.

7.3   Method B—Direct Measurement: 7.3.1   Intact P repare are int intact act sp speci ecimen menss fr from om Intact Spe Specime cimens—  ns— Prep large block samples or from samples secured in accordance with Practice D1587 Practice  D1587 or  or other acceptable tube sampling procedures, dur es, suc such h as Pra Practic cticee   D3550. D3550.   Specimen Specimenss can be obt obtain ained ed from intact block samples using a sharp cutting ring. Handle samples/specimens carefully to minimize disturbance, changes in cross section, or change in water content, see  6.1  6.1.. Specimens are usually cubical or cylindrical in shape. NOTE 7—Core sampling might be difficult or impossible in gravelly or hard dr hard dry y so soils ils.. Wet so soil ilss te tend nd to be mo more re pl plas asti ticc an and d su subj bjec ectt to compression.

7.3.1.1 Specim 7.3.1.1 Specimens ens obtained obtained by tube sampling may be tested without extrusion except for cutting the end surfaces plane and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the sampling tube. The heig he ight ht an and d in inne nerr di dime mens nsio ions ns of th thee tu tube be ma may y be tak taken en to represent specimen dimensions. NOTE 8—Some soils may expand into the sampling tube with a resultant change in volume from the original in-situ condition.

7.3.1.2 Tri 7.3.1.2 Trim m specimens in an environment environment that minimi minimizes zes any change change in wat water er con content tent,, see   7.2.2. 7.2.2.   Where Where rem remova ovall of  gravel or crumbling resulting from trimming causes voids on thee su th surf rface ace of th thee sp speci ecime men, n, car caref eful ully ly fil filll th thee vo void idss wi with th remolded soil obtained from the trimmings. When the sample condition permits, a vertical trimming lathe may be used to reduce cylindrical specimens to a uniform diameter.

D7263 − 09 7.3.1.3 After obtaining uniform dimensions, place the specimen in a miter box or trimming collar (especially for friable soils) and cut the specimen to a unifo uniform rm height with a wire saw or other suitable device, such as a sharpened steel straightedge. Perform Perfo rm one or more water content determinations determinations on materia materiall obtained during the trimming of the specimen in accordance with Test Method  D2216   for the estimated water content(s). Final water content shall be performed on the whole specimen or representative representative slice (if other testing such as plasticity limits, Test Metho Methods ds   D4318, D4318,   are requir required ed)) at th thee en end d of th thee te test. st. Determine and record the mass (g) and dimensions (mm) of the specimen to four significant digits using the applicable apparatus described in 5.2 5.2.. A minimum of three height measurements (approximately 120° apart if three, 90° apart if four, etc.) and at least three diameter measurements at the quarter points of the heig height ht shall be mad madee to determine determine each the ave averag ragee height and diameter of cylindrical specimens. A minimum of  three measurements each of length, width and height shall be made to determine the volume of cubical specimens. NOTE   9—Test Method  D2166  D2166,,   section 6.2, describes a procedure for preparing intact test specimens for stren preparing strength gth testin testing. g.

Remolded/Reconstituted nstituted (Compac (Compacted) ted) Specimens—  7.3.2 Remolded/Reco Specimens shall be prepared as prescribed by the individual assigning assign ing the test or as prescr prescribed ibed by the applica applicable ble related test procedure. After a specimen is formed, trim (if necessary) the ends perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, remove the mold, and determine the mass and dimensions of the test specimens in accordance with 7.3.1.3 with  7.3.1.3.. The height and inner dimensions of  the mold may be taken to represent specimen dimensions. NOTE  10—It is common for the density (unit weight) of the specimen after removal from the mold to be less than the value based on the volume of the mold. This occurs as a result of the specimen swelling after removal of the lateral confinement due to the mold.

8. Calc Calculat ulations ions Water Conte Content, nt, w— Calculate 8.1   Water Calculate in accord accordance ance with Test Method D2216 Method  D2216  to four significant digits.

8.2 Calcula Calculate te the moist density to four significant significant figures as follows: 8.2.1   Method A—Water Displacement: r m 5  M t  / @ ~~ M c 2  M sub! / r w ! 2

~~ M 

c

2  M t ! / r r ! #

(1 )

where:  M t  = mass of moist/t moist/total otal soil specim specimen, en, g, = mass of wax-c wax-coated oated specime specimen, n, g,  M c submerged d paraff paraffin-coa in-coated ted specimen, specimen, g,  M sub = mass of submerge 3 3 = density of paraf parafffin, g/cm or Mg/m , rr = de dens nsity ity of wa wate terr at test temper temperatu ature re,, g/ g/cm cm3 or rw 3 Mg/m , (see Test Methods  D854  D854,, Table 1), and = den density sity of of total total (moist) (moist) soil soil specimen specimen,, g/cm3 or rm 3 Mg/m . 8.2.2   Method B—Direct Measurement: r m 5 ~ M t  / V  V !

where: volume ume of of moist moist soil soil specimen specimen,, cm3. V  = vol 8.2.2.1   Cylindrical Shape:

(2 )

V  5 ~ p d 2 h ! /4000

(3 )

where: d  = averag averagee speci specimen men diameter diameter,, mm, and and h = averag averagee specimen specimen height, height, mm. 8.2.2.2   Cubical Shape: V  5 ~ l w h ! / 4000

(4 )

where: l = ave averag ragee length length,, mm, w = ave averag ragee width, width, mm, mm, and and averag ragee heig height, ht, mm. h = ave 8.3 Calc Calculat ulatee the dry density density for either either meth method od A or B as follows: r d  5 r m / ~ 1 1 w /100 !

(5 )

where: density sity of soil, soil, g/cm g/cm3 or Mg/m3, and rd  = dry den w = water content content of soil specime specimen n (in percent) percent),, to nearest nearest four significant digits digits.. 8.4 Calc Calculat ulatee the moist/tot moist/total al and dry uni unitt weig weights hts to fou fourr significant figures for either method A or B as follows: g m 5 62.428 r m  in lbf/ft3

and

g d  5 62.428 r d  in lbf/ft3

g m 5 9.80665 r m  in kN/m 3

and

g d  5 9.80665 r d  in kN/m 3

(6 )

where: moist/total unit unit weig weight ht of specime specimen, n, and gm = moist/total unit we weigh ightt of soil soil spec specimen imen.. gd  = dry unit 9. Repor Report: t: Test Test Data Sheet/Form Sheet/Form 9.1 The report (data (data sheet) shall contain the following following (see Appendix X2 and Appendix X3 ): 9.1.1 9.1 .1 Ide Identifi ntificati cation on of the sam sample ple (ma (mater terial) ial) bei being ng tes tested, ted, such as project, boring number, sample number, test number, container number, etc., 9.1.2 Sample depth in meters (feet) below ground ground surface or elevation in meters (feet) (if applicable), 9.1.3 9.1 .3 Classificat Classification ion of soi soill by Pra Practic cticee   D2487, D2487, if de dete terrmined, or visual classification of soil (group name and symbol) as determined by Practice  D2488  D2488,, 9.1.4 9.1 .4 Moist/to Moist/total tal and dry den density sity (un (unit it weig weight) ht),, to fou fourr significant digits, 9.1.5 Water content (in percen percent), t), to four significant significant digits, 9.1.6 9.1 .6 Met Method hod used used (A or B), and 9.1.7 9.1 .7 Whethe Whetherr th thee sp speci ecimen men was in intac tact, t, dis distu turb rbed, ed, re re-molded, or reconstituted (compacted). 10. Pre Precisi cision on and Bias 10.1   Precision— The The precision of the procedure in this test method for measuring the density (unit weight) of cohesive soil specim spe cimens ens is bein being g dete determi rmined ned.. In add additio ition, n, Sub Subcom committ mittee ee D18.03 D18.0 3 is seekin seeking g pertinent data from users of the test method. 10.2   Bias— Since Since there is not an accepted reference material suitable for measuring the bias for this procedure, a statement on bias cannot be made.

D7263 − 09 11.. Keywo 11 Keywords rds 11.1 11 .1 densit density; y; poro porosity; sity; saturation; specimen; unit weight weight;; void ratio

APPENDIXES (Nonmandatory Information) X1. RELA RELATIONSHIPS TIONSHIPS AMONG SOIL PHASES; POROSITY POROSITY,, VOID RATIO, & SA SATURA TURATION TION USING METRIC UNITS

X1.1 X1. 1 Let: n e S  V  V v V s w Gs rd 

 M d 

= = = = = = = =

porosity,, %, porosity void rat ratio, io, saturati satu ration, on, %, volume vol ume of soi soill spec specimen imen,, cm cm3, volume vol ume of of voids voids in in soil soil specime specimen, n, cm3, volume vol ume of of solids solids in soil soil specim specimen, en, cm cm3, water wat er cont content ent of soi soill specim specimen, en, %, spec sp ecifi ificc gr grav avity ity of so soil il so soli lids ds in so soil il sp speci ecime men n as determined by Test Methods  D854  D854,, = dry density of soil soil specime specimen, n, Mg/m Mg/m3, and = dry mass mass of soil soil in soil soil specim specimen, en, g.

X1.2 Then:

n5

V v V 

3 100 5

V  2 V s V 

V  2 3 100 5

 M d  Gs



3 100 5

e

3 100

11e

(X1.1)

e5

V v V s

5

V  2 V s V s

V  2 5

 M d  Gs

 M d 

5

n

100 2 n

5

G sw S 

 

(X1.2)

Gs S  5

wGs r d  G s 2 r d 

5

G sw e

 

(X1.3)

D7263 − 09

X2. EXAMPLE DAT DATA SHEET DISPLACEMENT METHOD—A DISPLACEMENT UNIT WEIGHTS, VOID RATIO, POROSITY, AND DEGREE OF SATURATION (DISPLACEMENT METHOD—A) NAME

DATE

JOB NO.

LOCATION BORING NO.

SAMPLE NO.

DEPTH/ELEV.

DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE WATER CONTENT SAMPLE OR SPECIMEN NO. TARE NO. TARE PLUS WET SOIL TARE PLUS DRY SOIL MASS WATER IN GRAMS TARE DRY SOIL WATER CONTENT

M w  M d  w  WEIGHT-VOLUME RELATIONS

SAMPLE OR SPECIMEN NO. TEST TEMPERATURE OF WATER, T, °C SOIL AND WAX IN AIR WET SOIL MASS WAX IN GRAMS WET SOIL AND WAX IN WATER DRY SOILA SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SOIL WET SOIL AND WAXB WAX VOLUME WET SOIL IN CC DRY SOIL M  SOIL M d  / G  G s  LBS PER WET UNIT WEIGHT s M t  / V  V d 3 62.4 CU FT DRY UNIT WEIGHT s M d  / V  V d 3 62.4 VOID RATIO s V 2 V s d / V  V s  POROSITY,%  f s V 2 V s d / V  V g 3 100 DEGREE OF SATURATION f V w  / s V 2 V s d g 3 100

%

%

%

%

% %

% %

% %

% %

M t 

M d  G s 

V  V s  gm  gd 

e  n  S 

VOLUME OF WAX = WEIGHT OF WAX / SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF WAX = VOLUME OF WATER = V  = V w  =  M w  / SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF WATERC A

B

C

IF NOT MEASURED DIRECTLY, MAY BE COMPUTED AS FOLLOWS: M  FOLLOWS: M d 5 M t  / s 1 1 0.01 0.01w  w d

VOLUME OF WET SOIL AND WAX

s WT OF WET SOIL & WAX IN AIRd 2 s WT OF WET SOIL & WAX IN WATERd DENSITY OF WATER AT TEST TEMPERATURE

SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF WATER IN METRIC SYSTEM = 1 (APPROX)

REMARKS

COMPUTED BY

CHECKED BY

D7263 − 09

X3. EXAMPLE DAT DATA SHEET VOLUMETRIC VOLUMET RIC METHOD—B UNIT WEIGHTS, VOID RATIO, POROSITY, AND DEGREE OF SATURATION (VOLUMETRIC METHOD—B) NAME

DATE

JOB NO.

LOCATION BORING NO.

SAMPLE NO.

DEPTH/ELEV.

DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE WATER CONTENT SAMPLE OR SPECIMEN NO. TARE NO. MASS IN GRAMS

TARE PLUS WET SOIL TARE PLUS DRY SOIL WATER TARE DRY SOIL

M w 

M d  w  WEIGHT-VOLUME RELATIONS

WATER CONTENT

%

%

%

%

% %

% %

% %

% %

SAMPLE OR SPECIMEN NO. CYLINDER NO. CENTIMETERS MASS IN GRAMS SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SOIL VOLUME IN CC LBS PER CU FT

HEIGHT OF CYLINDER INSIDE DIAMETER OF CYLINDER WET SOIL AND TARE TARE WET SOIL DRY SOILA WET SOIL (VOLUME OF CYLINDER) DRY SOIL M  SOIL M d  / G  G s  WET UNIT WEIGHT s M t  / V  V d 3 62.4 DRY UNIT WEIGHT s M d  / V  V d 3 62.4

H  D 

M t  M d  G s  V s  gm  gd 

e  n  S 

VOID RATIO s V 2 V s d / V  V s  POROSITY,%  f s V 2 V s d / V  V g 3 100 DEGREE OF SATURATION f V w  / s V 2 V s d g 3 100 VOLUME OF CYLIND CYLINDER, ER, V   V  =  = (pD 2H ) / 4 VOLUME OF WATER = V  = V w  =  M w  / SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF WATERB A

B

IF NOT MEASUR MEASURED ED ON ENTIRE SPECIMEN, SPECIMEN, MAY BE COMPUT COMPUTED ED AS FOLLOW FOLLOWS: S: M   M d 5 M t  / s 1 1 0.01 0.01w  w d

SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF WATER IN METRIC SYSTEM = 1 (APPROX)

REMARKS

COMPUTED BY

CHECKED BY

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