CURRICULAR LANDSCAPE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY
summary of curricular landscape for the 21st century...
SUMM ARY OF CURRI CULAR LANDS CAPE FOR THE 21ST CENTU RY
Hans Kenneth F. Broce Catherine S. Canghagas Merabel B. Lagos Justin T. Maasin
Conielyn M. Mondido Patricia Ann F. Palencia Nelia L. Soliquez
Curriculum for the 21st Century Teaching and Learning Introduction According to www.21st Century Schools, 2008, education should be “bold that breaks away from the mold.” It will be flexible, creative, challenging and complex. This special topic will most likely describe the curriculum in the current century. The scenario is based on the global education trends as influenced by the current and future worldwide needs developments. The Context: Some of the emerging factors or conditions frequently mentioned in various fora, discussion, dialogues that will shape the curriculum of the century include the following: 1. Globalization of economies where power is centered in Asia with China leading 2. Dependence on international markets that need global perspectives from entrepreneurs and workers 3. Increased concern and positive actions about environment degradation, water and energy shortage, global warming, pandemics (AIDS, flu, others) 4. Nations competing for power blocks 5. Internationalization of employment due to increased global migration, increased opportunities for working overseas, greater need to have multinational work teams 6. Science and technology edge as drivers of gaining economic edge 7. The knowledge economy as the generator of most wealth and jobs The 21st century curriculum would depend on an integrative approach – one that unites core academic subjects, interdisciplinary themes, essential skills in which modern pedagogies, technologies, resources and contexts, work-together to prepare students for modern life. DISCUSSION A. Emerging Curricula for the 21st Century Learners Curricularists say that the 21st Century curricula should be inspiring and challenging for both the teachers and learners. ACARA in 2012 mentions the following characteristics of a curriculum: 1. Local, national, global
2. 3. 4. 5.
Research driven Co-development Multi-cultural Sustainable
Curriculum Blueprint for the 21st Century A curriculum blueprint is a tool that guides curriculum makers and users in their journey to achieve the goal.
m z u ’w s h W rg iL la p n o tc e ? k d x fT H M fi y A v
The Learner Learning activities are arranged to help all learners meet the curriculum and achieve well.
Perkins in Jacobs (1989) mentioned that a curriculum must go beyond content knowledge with strong emphasis on the 21 st century skills. Assessment is authentic and requires real-world audiences. The Global Classroom Comparison of the 20th Century Classroom and the 21st Century Classroom 20th Century Classrooms
21st Century Classrooms
Teacher-centered, fragmented curriculum, learners working in isolation, memorizing facts Time-based Focus on memorization of discrete facts Lesson focus on lower level of Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension and application
Textbook-driven Passive learning Learners work in isolation-classroom within four walls Teacher-centered: Teacher dispenser of information.
Problem of discipline Little to no student freedom Fragmented column Low expectations Teacher is the sole judge. Curriculum is irrelevant to learners
Pencil and paper is the primary vehicle od learning and assessment. Diversity of learners is ignored. Literacy in the 3 Rs: Reading, ‘riting, ‘rithmetic
Learner-centered, integrated curriculum, learners working together, understanding facts Outcome-based Focus on What students Know, can DO, and are Like after all the details are forgotten Learning is design on upper levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy: analysis, evaluation and synthesis; considers Multiple Intelligences and Emotional Quotient Research-driven Active learning Learners work collaboratively with classmates and others around the world, borderless and global Student-centered: Teacher is the facilitator, coach, and guide at the side. Students and teachers mutually respect each other. Great deal of student freedom Integrated and interdisciplinary High expectations to succeed Self, peer and other assessment Curriculum is connected to students’ interests, experiences, talents and the real world. Performance, products and multiple forms of media are used for learning and assessment. Curriculum addresses learners’ diversity. Multiple literacies of the 21st centuryaligned to living and working in a globalized new millennium. Global model based upon the needs of a globalized, high tech society
Factory model, based upon the needs of employers of the 19th century scientific management. Driven by standard testing Standard testing has its place. Multiple ways of assessment of
learning and for learning The critical attributes of the 21st century curriculum and education are:
Integrated and interdisciplinary Global classrooms/globalizations Student-centered Research-driven Technologies and media 21st Century Skills Relevant, rigorous and real world Adapting to and creating constant personal and social change and lifelong learning
B. Skills for the 21st Century Learners and Teachers Learners and teachers should embrace the necessary skills to address the need of the millennium. These include: 1. Literacy 2. Numeracy 3. Information and communication technology competence 4. Ethical behavior 5. Personal and social competence 6. Intercultural understanding Multi-literacies embrace overacting clusters that would address the different life skills. These include:
Media literacy Financial literacy Arts and creativity Ecoliteracy Cyberliteracy Physical fitness and health literacies Globalization and multicultural literacies Social/emotional literacies
8 Skills required for learners of the 21st Century:
gather, analyze, and synthesize information work independently to a high standard with minimal supervision lead others through influence be creative and turn such creativity into action think critically and ask the right questions
understand others’ perspectives and the entirety of the issue communicate effectively using technology work ethically, firmly based in both the society and the planet as a whole
These were renamed as Survival Skills by Tony Wagner (2006) in his book, The Global Achievement Gap as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
critical thinking and problem solving collaboration across networks and leading by influence agility and adaptability initiative and entrepreneurship effective oral and written communication accessing and analyzing information curiosity and imagination
On the other hand, the 21st Century skills set by Singapore Ministry of Education, (MOE) points to the following clusters: Cluster of 21st Century Skills for Teachers and Learners Cluster of Skills for the 21st Century Learning and Innovation Skills
Specific Descriptors Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Creativity and Innovation Oral and Written Communications Knowledge, Information, Media and Content Mastery Technology Literacy Skills Information Literacy Media Literacy ICT Literacy Life Skills Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self Direction Teamwork and Collaboration Social and Cross-Cultural Skills Productivity and Accountability Leadership and Responsibility Citizenship Skills Valuing of Diversity Global Awareness Ecological and Environmental Awareness Values, Ethics and Professionalism
5 Frames of Thinking by Howard Gardner (2006) in his book Five Minds of the Future:
The The The The The
Disciplined Mind Synthesizing Mind Creating Mind Respectful Mind Ethical Mind
There are various research-supported approaches that have been proven to be effective ways of enhancing learning in the curriculum. Among the many are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
problem based learning (pbl) cooperative learning using real world context/experiential learning simulations re-living historical events
C. Core Values at the Heart of the 21st Century Curriculum Singapore’s Ministry of Education (2012) has the following core values in the 21st Century Curriculum: 1. Respect 2. Responsibility 3. Integrity 4. Care 5. Resilience 6. Harmony 4 core values in Basic Education Curriculum: Maka-Diyos (pro-God) Maka-tao (pro-man) Maka-bayan (pro-country) Maka-kalikasan (pro-nature) In the current K to 12 curriculum, in Values Education, at the core are: Respect and Truth Love and Goodwill Spirituality Justice Respect of Nature Nationhood Peace
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS The curriculum of the 21st century guides teachers and learners on how to navigate their future. Schools must change its paradigm. Classrooms should be designed differently. Tools and methods of teaching which have become irrelevant and ineffective should be replaced. Teachers have to update, enhance and develop in order to catch up with the 21st century skills.
I need to remember the following: Concepts: 21st century curriculum demands 21st century skills 21st century curriculum is holistic and integrative 21st century curriculum focuses on essentials and deep understanding 21st century curriculum respects diversity of culture and national boundaries and enhances sustainability 5. 21st century curriculum recognizes the five frames of the minds which are necessary for thinking 6. 21st century curriculum develops survival skills 7. 21st century curriculum is anchored on universal core values 8. 21st century curriculum requires 21st century teachers 9. 21st century curriculum responds to globalization 10. 21st century curriculum defines education of the future 1. 2. 3. 4.
Skills: 1. 21st century skills require higher level of thinking skills, doing skills and valuing skills. 2. 21st century skills refer to what can be utilized by both the teacher and learners in understanding, creating and innovating. 3. Literacy in the 21st century goes beyond the fundamentals of listening, reading, writing, speaking, and viewing but includes multi-literacies. Values: 1. Core values are rooted in the 21st century curriculum. 2. National curriculum differs in the core values which are informed by the country’s vision, aspiration and culture. 3. Universal core values of the 21st century curriculum transcend nations.