Culture in Anthropological Perspective
Culture in Anthropological Perspective According to the definition given by E.B Taylor culture has been portrayed as a social heritage as the gift of society to an individual. Malinowski pointed out that the social heritage has both material and non-material aspects to it. Marett defines culture as communicable intelligence. Redfield defined it as the sum total of conventional meanings embodied in artifacts, social structure and symbols. This is an idealistic view of culture which stems from a recognition of the all important role which symbols play in the communication and acquisition of knowledge. Ruth Benedict propagates the formalistic, aesthetic view point of culture. According to this view culture is not so much to be conceived in terms of content of social life as in terms of its formal ordering and organization. Ruth Benedict considers the pattern of culture not its content. For Malinowski culture stands for a total way of life which secures for an individual the satisfaction of his biopsychic drives and the fulfilment of other wants and cravings and ultimately invests him with freedom. Radcliffe Brown regards culture as cultivation, the process of transmitting and acquiring traditions as a result of which society is perpetuated. Sociology and anthropology involve the systematic study of social life and culture in order to understand the causes and consequences of human action. Sociologists and anthropologists study the structure and processes of traditional cultures and modern, industrial societies in both Western and non-Western cultures. They examine how culture, social structures (groups, organizations and communities) and social institutions (family, education, religion, etc.) affect human attitudes, actions and life-chances. Sociology and Anthropology Sociology and anthropology combine scientific and humanistic perspectives in the study of society. Drawing upon various theoretical perspectives, sociologists and anthropologists study such areas as culture, socialization, deviance, inequality, health and illness, family patterns, social change and race and ethnic relations. Combining theoretical perspectives with empirical research allows students an opportunity to develop new insights and a different perspective on their lives and to understand everyday social life as a combination of both stable patterns of interaction and ubiquitous sources of social change. The sociology curriculum prepares the student for both academic and applied research careers in sociology and anthropology. It offers an essential liberal arts background for many careers and professions, including public service and administration, communications and public relations, law, business, medicine, journalism, arts management, environmental science, and other professions. In addition to offering a major in sociology, the department also offers a minor in sociology. Beyond the department itself, the faculty are centrally involved in the black studies, women's studies, environmental studies, and international studies programs. Our aim is to provide students with communicative and interpretative skills that will allow them to understand the meaning and consequences of human actions and relationships in society. Student will learn to use theoretical and methodological tools to analyze culture, human behavior, and social institutions
and to understand the relationship between individual biographies and the functioning of institutions. The theoretical and methodological courses in the curriculum provide intensive instruction in the analytical integration and critical application of sociological and anthropological theory and methodology. The theoretical courses provide an intensive examination of the various sociological perspective on human social behavior and on the social systems we create. They evaluate the different ways these perspectives gather and use evidence to make inference about the world in which we live. The department also offers extensive instruction and experience in research design and methodology including courses in research methods, qualitative and survey methodologies, social statistics, and computer approaches in social research. SOCIOLOGICAL- ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE/ THEORY Traffic has become a nightmare in the Philippines, specifically in Metro Manila.The heavy traffic in Metro Manila is not only caused by the lack of roads or the congestion of buses in the National Capital Region. The stressful traffic jams are also due to many other factors, such as the overpopulation of residents, congestion of private vehicles, inefficient services of rail transportation, and the ineffective traffic control management in the country’s capital region. Furthermore, the effects of Metro Manila’s traffic is not only limited to the delays suffered by the riding public but traffic congestion can also cause air pollution, noise pollution, vehicular accidents, and an unhealthy economy in the region and even in the national level. In 1988, 1.3 million motor vehicles were registered with the Bureau of Land Transportation. About 22 percent were motorcycles; 30 percent were private automobiles, and 38 percent were utility vehicles.A large number of the utility vehicles were jeepneys, jeeps converted for hire to carry passengers.In 1984 a Light Rail Transit system began operation in Metro Manila running from Baclaran in the south to Monumento in the North. The fifteen-kilometer system provided some relief from Metro Manila's highly congested traffic network. A SOCIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE: "TRAFFIC JAM AND CONGESTION IN THE PHILIPPINES" Traffic jam a situation in which a long line of vehicles on a road have stopped moving or are moving slowly. Traffic jam is one of the major problems in our society. Not only it causes air pollution that can give people sickness but also this affects our surroundings as well. Because of traffic it makes people’s lives uneasy in a way of, their money, time and efforts are wasted. Traffic is one of the reasons why we have slow growth of our economy because when the jeepney driver had refuel while its traffic, the 1 liter of gasoline is not enough for vice versa. If there’s no traffic, all the members in the society will benefit. The driver will have a higher income and the people could easily go to their desired destination. People’s health were affected due to air pollution one that gives diseases like respiratory diseases. The level of pollution in Metro Manila is 118 mg/ normal cubic meter the Ideal level is 90 mg/ normal cubic meter. Traffic jam is one of the major problems in the Philippines. It also affects the behaviour of the people because of the hitch that the traffic gives them. It destroys one’s patience and pushes them to act beyond their limitations because of irritation. We must have a good urban planner to fix our problem so that it would be easier for our fellow
countrymen to go to their work. If we have a super infrastructure the food prices would be lesser. Can you explain anthropological and sociological perspectives on culture and society? The short answer is by research. Sociological research falls into two general categories: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative data is collected through surveys, experiments, etc., explained by analyzing statistics, and then interpreted in the findings. Qualitative data is collected by use of focus groups, individual interviews, empirical observation, and ethnography. Qualitative data is analyzed by coding, picking out patterns, and then interpreting findings. Keep in mind that correlation does not equal causation. It is also difficult to make generalizations the research must collect a representative sample of the population (within the group of people studied) in order to claim generalizations. The researcher should remain as objective as possible.