CU-TEP Practise Test1

November 4, 2017 | Author: Nikkie Dawar | Category: Akhenaten, Vitamin C, Cardiovascular Diseases, Vitamin, Wellness
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CU-TEP Practise Test1...


CU-TEP , Test A READING PART I As you read the following passage, choose the best answer to fill the blanks from the choices given below. Then blacken the number of your choice on your answer sheet. There are 15 blanks (Nos. 31-45) It has been repeatedly asserted by several reporters and critics that Japan has neither sincerely apologized for its wartime actions nor offered any substantial reparations or . Japan has clearly and repeatedly expressed its sincere

compensation. 31.

remorse and apologies, and has dealt sincerely with reparation issues. These apologies were irrefutably expressed, in







, statement





a cabinet decision and which has subsequently been upheld by


. prime ministers, including Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori. Mr. Murayama


that Japan “through its colonial rule and aggression, caused tremendous of many countries, particularly to 35.

damage and suffering to the 36.

of Asian nations. In the hope that no such mistake 38.

in the future, I regard,

in a spirit of humility, these irrefutable facts of history, and express here once again my 39.

of deep remorse and state my heartfelt apology.” With regard to reparations and compensation 40.

to the war, Japan has dealt with these issues 41.

from events related the Sam Francisco Peace

Treaty and other bilateral treaties. As far as Japan’s relationship with legally resolved. In accordance with these treaties, Japan renounced its assets abroad - 43.

to have

totaled $28 billion at the end of the war – leaving nearly ¥946 billion to a number of Asian countries, including the Phillipines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and the Republic of Korea, in reparations and 45.

payments. The majority of these payments were

made during the 1950s and 1960s, the monies offered being the most Japan could afford, given the economic and financial constraints of the day. 31. 1. In fact 2. In short 32. 1. by contrast 2. of course

3. In conclusion 4. In other words 3. in detail 4. on reflection

33. 1. was led on

3. was based on

2. was put on

4. was turned on

34. 1. supportive 2. successive 35. 1. said 2. told 36. 1. citizens 3. minorities

3. impressive 4. consecutive 3. spoke 4. uttered 3. occupants 4. dwellers

37. 1. ones

3. some

2. those

4. them

38. 1. could not be made 2. was made 39. 1. senses 2. feelings 40. 1. arose 2. arising 41. 1. on 2. along

3. will be made 4. has been made 3. reasons 4. ideas 3. arise 4. to arise 3. over 4. through

42. 1. supporting

3. important

2. relevant

4. concerning

43. 1. worth 2. valued

3. costing 4. estimated

44. 1. Otherwise

3. Furthermore

2. Therefore

4. Nevertheless

45. 1. few

3. their

2. any

4. other

INSTRUCTIONS PART II The reading passages have a number of questions following them. In each case, select the best answer for each question and blacken the number of your choice on the answer sheet. There are 45 items in PaRTS II-VI (Nos. 46 – 90). PART II Your July 3 special report, “The People Trade,” was special indeed. The terrible loss of life in Dover, England, is a dreadful tragedy. Human smuggling is an evil crime motivated purely by financial greed. To prevent any similar tragedies in the future, the British and European governments must crack down hard on all forms of illegal immigration and asylum seeking. For too long, Britain and Western Europe have been seen as a “soft touch” by economic-asylum seekers wishing to exploit the generous welfare systems of these countries. Most asylum seekers coming to the United Kingdom, for example, are found to be seeking economic betterment, and though their asylum claims are bogus, little is done to deport them because “host” governments fear being branded racist or fascist. Genuine refugees, fleeing real persecution, should of course always be helped, but the bogus ones, of whatever color, should be swiftly removed.

Dominic Shelmerdine London, England

46. The main idea of this passage is ____________. 1. the loss of life in Dover was a terrible tragedy. 2. there is a genuine refugee problem in the U.K. 3. illegal immigrants should be denied entry or deported 4. Western Europe welcomes economic refugees with open arms. 47. The term “soft touch” in line 7 suggests that Britain and Western Europe ___________.

1. are easy to reach. 2. do not have entry requirements. 3. treat asylum seekers with suspicion 4. accept economic refugees too easily 48. The word “bogus” in line 13 most nearly means _________ . 1. fake

2. alien

3. persecuted

4. exploitative

49. Britain and Western Europe seem reluctant to take action against illegal immigrants for fear of being accused of _________ . 1. job bias

2. gender prejudice

3. political persecution

4. racial discrimination

50. The writer believes that most asylum seekers to England are seeking _________ . 1. social status

2. financial gain

3. a political haven

4. religious freedom

PART III In a world among the clouds, entomologist David Hawks and I keep watch for the brilliant jewel scarab beetles of Honduras’s tropical montane forests. We wait like fishermen with nets cast, standing beside lighted white bedsheets spread on the ground. We collect jewel scarabs to estimate their population sizes and study their ecology and distribution. Dave joined me here in 1992, bringing his passion for jewels with him. Since then we and others have found seven new species in Honduras, and we rediscovered a species Not surprisingly, scarabs have also attracted commercial collectors. While many sell for a few dollars, a bright red specimen might fetch $ 200, the finest gold, $500. With such a bounty on scarab heads, some conservationists worry that populations could be depleted by the trade. But our research suggests otherwise. Catching insects isn’t like hunting jaguars. Millions of jewel scarab eggs, Iarvae, and pupae remain underground, while collectors but the most determined. Many cloud forests are a strenuous trek away ; others require a helicopter. The biggest threat to scarabs is not insect hobbyists but loss of habitat as tropical forests are converted to farms. We believe that regulated beetle collecting by local people-and, in time, beetle farming-could actually help slow this process. It has been successful elsewhere with butterflies and other insects. If a cottage industry developed, some local people might find that a treeless patch of land is worth less in the long run than a standing forest full of jewel scarab beetles. 51. Which of the following does NOT refer to scarabs ? 1. Jewels

2. Insects

3. Beetles

4. Butterflies

52. Where would you most possibly read this article ? 1. In a textbook

2. In a directory

3. In a catalogue

4. In a magazine

53. When the writer and his friend are in the tropical cloud forest, they feel _________ . 1. excited

2. worried

3. surprised

4. exhausted

54. What seems to attract collectors most is the scarab’s _________ . 1. size

2. head

3. color

4. variety

55. What did the writer and his friend find out in their research ? 1. New scarab species were very few. 2. Scarab populations will not be dying out soon. 3. Commercial collectors are losing money on scarab heads. 4. Conservationists were right in their predictions regarding scarab research. 56. The phrase “a cottage industry” (lines 24 – 25) refers to _________ . 1. beetle farming 2. jewelry business 3. construction industry 4. catching butterflies and other insects 57. The phrase “this process” (line 23) refers to _________ . 1. digging up scarab eggs for export 2. changing tropical forests into farms 3. catching scarabs for commercial purposes 4. transferring insect hobbyists by helicopter 58. The phrase “weeds out” (line 18) is closest in meaning to _________ . 1. pays for

2. takes in

3. drives at

4. gets rid of

59. The writer ends the passage with _________ . 1. support for the preservation of forests 2. support for the land development scheme 3. a strong argument for changing forests into farms 4. a favorable response to the growth of the scarab business 60. A good title for this piece would be _________ . 1. The Death of the Scarab Beetle 2. Scarab Beetles – a New Species 3. Encouraging News about Scarab Beetles 4. The Problems of Catching Scarab Beetles PART IV Taking vitamin C can reduce death rates by as much as 42 per cent for men and 10 per cent for women who have taken it in high doses, a study released on Thursday showed. The study by the UCLA School of Public Health, to be published Friday in the journal Epidemiology, found a strong relationship The study by the UCLA School of Public Health, to be published Friday in the journal Epidemiology, found a strong relationship between increasing does of vitamin C and a reduction in cardiovascular disease. In a 10-year follow-up study of 11,348 US adults, researchers found that men who took relatively high doses of vitamin C were 45 per cent less likely to die of heart disease than men in the lowest intake group, while women were 25 per cent less likely to die of heart disease than those who ingested little vitamin C. The researchers noted that claims that vitamin C improves health are not new. Vitamin C, which is found naturally in citrus fruits, potatoes and leafy vegetables, is often taken in tablet form to prevent ailments from scurvy to the common cold. But earlier data on long-term health effects of high intake of the vitamin have been sparse and inconclusive, they said.

They cited the UCLA study as the most comprehensive to date because it factors in age and sex of the subjects and a number of other variables, such as smoking and medical history. The researchers concluded that their findings support earlier indications that high levels of vitamin C and other antioxidant vitamins, such as A and E, reduce the risk of arteriosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. They also said the new research lends support to previously documents that high levels of vitamin C and other antioxidant vitamins, such as A and E, reduce the risk of arteriosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. They also said the new research lends support to previously documented trends showing higher consumption of vitamin C and significant declines in age-adjusted death rates that are only partly explained by declines in smoking and cholesterol levels. Surveys have shown that about one fourth of all US adults take vitamin supplements daily and about half use them less regularly. Vitamin C is the most common of all supplements and is the nutrient most likely to be consumed in quantities greatly exceeding the Recommended Dietary Allowance of 60 mg per day. For the UCLA study, researchers looked back at examination records from 1971 to 1974 for the group of adults aged 25 – 74 and followed up for mortality through 1984. In that time, 1809 people in the sampling died. The highest intake group studied took daily supplements containing vitamin C, primarily in the form of multi-vitamin pills. Most of those people took several hundred milligrams a day of vitamin C. 61. The population used in the research is ____________ . 1. non-smoking adults of all ages. 2. adults with different health problems. 3. adults of both sexes and different sexes. 4. children as well as adults of both sexes.

62. According to the finding of the UCLA study, vitamin C may ___________. 1. prolong life 2. affect ingestion 3. reduce cholesterol levels 4. increase cardiovascular disease 63. What is TRUE about vitamin C ? 1. It is not recommended for those who have cholesterol problems. 2. If taken at high levels, it may increase the risk of arteriosclerosis. 3. It can be taken in the form of pills as well as from natural sources. 4. Like other antioxidant vitamins, it has both advantages and disadvantages. 64. The UCLA study was claimed as the most comprehensive because it _______. 1. was conducted over 10 years 2. reports new and very useful findings. 3. reports new and very useful findings 4. contains various subjects and other health-related factors 65. From the UCLA study, the figure 1,809 (line 36) indicates ________. 1. a low death rate 2. a high death rate 3. nothing conclusive 4. deaths resulting from vitamin C overdose 66. “Scurvy” (line 15) is a kind of ________. 1. disease

2. mineral

3. nutrient

4. vegetable

67. The word “sparse” (line 17) is close in meaning to ________. 1. complete

2. confusing

3. informative

4. insufficient

68. The word “them” (line 30) refers to ________. 1. adults

2. surveys

3. quantities

4. supplements

69. According to the text, ________. 1. the highest vitamin C intake group is women 2. 25% of US men consume vitamin C every day. 3. people tend to take vitamin C more than the recommended daily amount 4. more than 50 % of US citizens take vitamin supplements once in a while 70. The main purpose of the article is to ________. 1. reveal the benefits of vitamin C intake 2. warn readers of the dangers of vitamin C 3. encourage people to take vitamin supplements 4. urge researchers to make further studies on vitamin C PART V Burma is an undeveloped country full of natural resources. However, the present reform movement seems to be content to vent its hot air through the foreign press and petty “rallies” while the few in power carefully sell all the national treasures, including timber, natural gas and gems, for their own benefit. The South Africans found their country finally in the power of the majority, only to find out that they inherited a country empty of all of its former wealth. Natural resources are alarmingly finite. When they have all been sold, there is nothing left but hard work to develop the country. And there is no wealth left to distribute among the people. Real reform is achieved through the time-honoured tradition used in every country in the modern word. It needs no foreign press coverage expressing the views of the expatriate nationals. No sanctions by the rich nations of the world are necessary or of any use. A zero percent record on this tactic speaks for itself.

All of you “downtrodden, overly policed and militarily dictated” Burmese who want to run your country with a democratic government must look no further than the other democracies of today as an example. Revolution doesn’t come without sacrifice. Stop complaining about international corporations investing while you contemplate (Mahatma) Gandhi and his non-violent tactics. The time is right for … If you can’t figure out the rest, you deserve every injustice you currently have. I hope this letter will end all further correspondence regarding all aspects of the Burmese reform movement and that The Nation will stop devoting any further space to any topic related to the useless leaders of such movements. Until the people of Burma have some progress to show towards revolution, let the only news be of new financial triumphs in the easy pickings of exploitation of Burma’s resources at the expense of the silent, apathetic masses. Dexter R Andersen FREEDOM FIGHTER 71. The writer of this letter ___________. 1. is a supporter of the military regime in Burma 2. is in favour of the Burmese democratic movement 3. feels that the Burmese democratic movement has been a failure 4. believes in achieving democracy in burma through peaceful means 72. The writer implies that like Burma, ___________. 1. South Africa had no natural resources left. 2. South Africa was run by a corrupt government. 3. South Africa was governed by a minority ethnic group. 4. the South African government failed to achieve power by peaceful means.

73. The writer does not believe that ___________. 1. international sanctions against Burma would work. 2. Burmese dissidents living abroad are largely ineffective 3. in a democracy, the Burmese would have to work hard to develop their country. 4. the international community needs to put greater pressure on the Burmese government. 74. The phrase “this tactic” in line 15 refers to ___________. 1. real reform

2. the expatriate

3. the use of sactions

4. extensive press coverage

75. According to the writer, the problem with the reform movement is that the Burmese ___________. 1. are far too short-sighted in terms of their goals 2. want to see more examples of democracy at work 3. are willing to resort to violent means to achieve their end 4. are used to being oppressed and don’t have the energy left to fight. 76. the writer feels that the Bumese democratic movement should ___________. 1. open a dialogue with the military regime 2. organize a revolution to achieve their ends. 3. consider adopting the non-violent tactics of Gandhi 4. gain more support from the international community 77. What is the best title for this article? 1. The Need for Action

2. Let the Burmese Suffer

3. Complaint and Reform

4. Burma and South Africa

78. The phrase “to vent its hot air” (lines 2 – 3) means to ___________. 1. calm its fear

2. suppress its anger

3. release its feeling

4. review its position

79. The world to complete “The time is right for …”(line 22) should be ___________. 1. revolution

2. negotiation

3. cooperation

4. comtemplation

80. The last sentence of the letter seems to be ___________. 1. sarcastic

2. defensive

3. informative

4. encouraging

PART VI The large copper bowl lay within my grasp, undisturbed for 1,500 years since it had been placed upside down over the dead man’s face. Our them had worked more than a month to reach this point in the excavation of one of the richest and most intriguing tombs ever found in Peru-the tomb of a Moche leader. The Moche inhabited a series of river valleys along the arid coastal plain of northern Peru from about A.D. 100 to 800. Through farming and fishing, they supported a dense population and highly stratified society that constructed irrigation canals, pyramids, palaces and temples. Although they had no writing system, the Moche left a vivid artistic record of their activities in beautiful ceramic vessels, elaborately woven textiles, colorful murals, and wondrous objects of gold, silver and copper. Finding undisturbed Moche tombs is rare in an area that has been looted for more than four centuries, yet from 1997 to 1999 our team of U.S. and Peruvian researchers discovered three extraoridinary tombs at Dos Cabezas, an ancient settlement in the lower Jequetepeque Valley. Outside each burial chamber was a miniature tomb containing a small copper statue meant to represent the tomb’s principal occupant. Each tomb also contained a remarkably tall adult male who would have been a giant among his peers. Gently lifting the copper bowl, I expected to see a skeletonized face. But stead, looking up at me with inlaid eyes, was an exquisite gold-and copper funerary mask. We

were all astonished and knew then how important these tombs could be to unraveling the mystery of the Moche. 81. What is the tone of the writing ? 1. Dull

2. Advisory

3. Personal

4. Informative

82. What is the writer doing at the beginning of the text ? 1. Lifting a bowl up

2. Looking at a body

3. Laying a mask down

4. Learning over a valley

83. Why did the writer go to Peru ? 1. To dig up tombs. 2. To do business in art objects 3. To study the geographical area 4. To help people improve their lives 84. Who is most likely to be telling this story ? 1. A reporter

2. A Peruvian art lover

3. The leader of the excavation

4. The chief of the medical team

85. Who lay in the tombs mentioned in the text? 1. Rulers

2. Clergymen

3. Philosophers

4. Common people

86. The phrase ‘giant among his peers” (line 21) means ___________. 1. bigger than anyone else 2. bigger than the average 3. bigger than the researchers 4. bigger than modern Peruvians 87. What is missing in the Moche records ? 1. Art

2. History

3. Language

4. Agriculture

88. How did the Moche identify who was in the tomb? 1. A miniature tomb 2. A burial chamber 3. A tall adult male figure 4. A small cooper statue placed outside 89. The word “unraveling” (line 25) means ___________. 1. hiding

2. solving

3. starting

4. changing

90. Why did the writer say that finding undisturbed Moche tombs is rare? 1. No one is interested in Moche tombs. 2. Most Moche tombs have been robbed. 3. Moche tombs have never been found before. 4. There aren’t many Moche tombs in this area.

WRITING Writing I: The items in this section consist of sentences with four parts underlined. Select the part (1,2,3 or 4) which is incorrect. 91. Until about 10,000 years ago, before plants and animals were domesticating, 1


humans belonged to hunting-and-gathering societies. 3


92. A single hog farm can produce as much as 2.5 million animals per year, with a 1


solid-waste output exceeding that of many big cities. 3


93. Devoted to farming and cottage industries, the Amish live an incredible 1



industrious yet materially simple life. 4 94. Not only will Aztec, the 300-foot-long submarine be able to cruise 50 feet below 1



the Arctic’s ice-covered surface but it should travel almost 1,000 miles in just two 4 weeks. 95. Society, like the human body, is made up of parts, each of which serve to 1



maintain the functioning of the larger system. 4 96. Families not longer have the same traditions and values they had in the past. 1




97. Scientific studies have shown that unless material is reviewed, most of them 1


will be forgotten in a surprisingly short amount of time. 3


98. Painting helps physical handicapped children to overcome their disabilities by 1


training them to impose control upon themselves. 3


99. Cleaning products, for example, are often given lemon or pine scents because of 1



people link those scents with cleanliness. 4 100. In spite an enormous increase in agricultural production, many countries 1 around the globe are incapable of feeding their growing population. 2



101. If television had been invented a thousand years ago, will nations have been 1



significantly more homogeneous than they are now ? 4 102. Locusts have been enemies of man since he first learns to cultivate crops. 1




103. New automobiles are designed to run on low-octane fuel containing little or none 1 lead.




104. The loss of forested areas have greatly reduced the ability of watershed land to

retain water in the wet season and release it into streams in the dry season. 105. It is a fear that unregulated entry of illegal, or even legal immigrants 1



could take away jobs and business opportunities during an economic recession. 4 106. Although the survey shows that people want their homes to be nice and clean,

but they apparently do not want to spend too much time taking care of them. 107. No one on earth has ever imagined that they’ll be able to overcoming death and 1



live forever. 4 108. People are not always rational. For example, we often do not perceive things as 1


they actually are and they tend to make initial judgements based on limited 3


experience and information. 109. A major earthquake measuring 6.6 on the Richter scale struck near Los Angeles, 1 killing at least 55 people and caused $ 30 billion in damage. 2



110. As of December 1, the law requires every front seat passengers to wear seat belts. 1




111. “Greenpeace” is trying to protect our earth in that this small planet 1 is being ravaged and its limited resources are fast disappearing. 2



112. Polar areas on the earth have their own type of desert. Although water existing 1


in the form of ice, it is not available to support life. 3


113. In times of famine, everyone in the village doesn’t have neither money nor food. 1




114. Reservoirs were built by the Egyptians along the Nile to store water for 1


irrigation crops during the dry season. 3


115. Psychologists are now convincing that day-to-day problems, which frequently 1


seem unimportant, can affect the length of one’s life.

116. In 1637, the English colonists and other Indian tribes almost entirely wiped out 1 the Pequot Indian tribe, whom had been living in the southeastern corner of 2



Connecticut. 117. Across the globe, government are relying more on wind power and another 1


alternative energy sources, and less on oil and gas. 4


118. In 1928, Alexander Fleming, while conducting an unremarkable study on 1 bacteria, discovered inadvertently that mould growing on one of his cultures 2


was killed the bacteria. 4 119. It has been calculated that if the emission of greenhouse gases continues at the 1


present rate, the increase in temperature would have been enough to cause a rise in 3 sea level of between 24 and 30 cm by 2030. 4 120. Besides American cinema, over the last forty years or so, we have seen very 1


strong film industries emerged from many other countries.


CU-TEP , Test B

READING PART I Read the following passage and choose the best answer to fill in the blanks from the choices given. Then blacken the number of your choice on your answer sheet. There are 15 blanks (Nos. 31-45) A survey by the Japan-China Investment Promotion Organization shows that 85% of








The picture is different, 31___________for the smaller number of local market-oriented manufacturers. More than 40% of them are in the red, a figure worse than that of their Western competitors. With China’s 32. ___________ into the World Trade Organization, the trend will turn toward a stronger local-market orientation. 33. ___________


Japanese firms must tackle the issue of profitability. Many see the problem as a result of Japanese firms’ high reliance on expatriates, who head 90% of all Japanese joint ventures in China. 34.


actually presents a double bind. Japanese firms find qualified local workers hard to attract and keep 35.

the latter believe they are allowed only limited participation in

decision-making. 36. also believe career opportunities are limited due to the 37. _______ on Japanese staff for top management posts. These firms are further hampered because a Japanese top layer is unable to 38. _______ communicate with lower-level local staff that are better tuned to local-market conditions. 39.

________, the absence of sound

middle-management restricts information flow and prevents timely market decisions. No one needs such problems; China is a 40. ______________ enough country to crack. True, its market holds great potential; its relatively 41. ___________ regional industrial centres allow multinational companies increasingly to integrate their Chinese production into their global 42. ___________ But amid these positive

trends are 43. ____________ Consequently, the combination of fluid uncertainty and a huge profit potential makes the Chinese business environment 44. _____________________ . It sets China 45. _______ not only from industrialized countries, but also from developing economies like Thailand. 31. 1. however 2. moreover 32. 1. entry 2. access 33. 1. By far 2. At least 34. 1. Who 2. What 35. 1. during 3. because 36. 1. locals 2. citizens 37. 1. trail 2. focus 38. 1. presently 2. adequately 39. 1. Still 2. Thus 40. 1. tough 2. worthy 41. 1. terrified 2. enlarged

3. in general 4. on the whole 3. intake 4. income 3. There fore 4.




4. Then 3. unless 4. although 3. residents 4. inhabitants 3. breath 4. practice 3. insufficiently 4. exceptionally 3. This 4. Then 3. traditional 4. independent 3. qualified 4. sophisticated

42. l. networks 2. broadcasts 43. 1. defaults 2. complexes 44. 1. smart 2. unique 45. 1. apart 2. nearby

3. gateways 4. workshops 3. addictions 4. challenges 3. confident 4. sympathetic 3. adjacent 4. parallel

INSTRUCTIONS PART II – VI Read the-passages -and choose the best answer for each question. Then blacken the number of your choice on your answer sheet. There are 45 items in PARTS II - VI (Nos. 46 - 90). PART II I share the disgust of right-thinking people across the world at the appalling crime of drug trafficking but I am sad to learn that four more offenders were executed by firing squad on April 18. The death penalty is wrong in all cases. Worldwide studies show that it does not have a deterrent effect any stronger than that of other strict but humane punishments. It denies the right to life affirmed in Article 3 of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The United Nations Commission for Human Rights has called for the progressive limitation of the use of the 10 death penalty as the way towards more civilised punishments. The death penalty brutalises everyone involved in its application. Your paper would do well to campaign against this out-of-date and barbaric practice. Leslie Sturges Chester, England

46. The writer feels outraged about ____________ . 1. people involved in drug trafficking 2. the outcome of the worldwide studies 3. this inhumane crime deterrent practice 4. the number of people put to death on April 18 47. The word "deterrent" (line 5) means ____________ . 1. cruel

2. pleasant

3. desirable

4. discouraging

48. The writer's main purpose is to ____________. 1. dramatize the idea that killing is a sin 2. call for a ban on this inhumane penalty 3. remind other readers of what happened on April 18 4. promote another alternative to deal with serious crime 49. We learn from the text that ____________ . 1. other punishments might be just as effective as the death penalty 2. the writer doesn't believe that drug trafficking is a serious crime 3. people who are not involved in such an inhumane practice can also be psychologically affected 4. the UN Commission for Human Rights has not yet succeeded in finding more civilised punishments 50. The writer expresses his opinion in a(an) ____________ tone. 1. doubtful

2. persuasive

3. exaggerated

4. philosophical

PART III On a morning in the year 1353 B.C. a young pharaoh of Egypt rose before dawn to greet the sun with a poem he loved and perhaps had written-: “Beautifully you appear from-the horizon of heaven,” he prayed as sunlight .began to flood Egypt’s capital city of Thebes. To him the rays of the sun were the embodiment of an ancient god named Aten, whom he passionately revered. “Oh living Aten, who initiates life Oh sole god, without another beside him!” This was no ordinary morning for the king-nor for ancient Egypt. Pharaoh Amenhotep III had died, and this teenage son now had the power to elevate Aten above all the other gods in Egypt's pantheon, even above the all powerful Amun, who for hundreds of years had ruled in Thebes as king of the gods. Soon this enigmatic young man would change his name to Akhenaten, “he who is effective for Aten.” With his queen, Nefertiti, he would plunge Egypt into a religious revolution that shattered centuries of tradition. He would elevate Nefertiti to divine status, giving her more influence than perhaps any other queen had known. And he would abandon Thebes to build a huge new capital, today known as Amarna. Alchenaten, Nefertiti, and the boy pharaoh Tutankhamun-perhaps Akhenaten’s son born to a secondary wife-have been called the Pharaohs of the Sun. Their reign was brief. Akhenaten ruled just 17 years, and within a few years after his death in 1336 B.C., the old orthodoxy was restored. Akhenaten's enemies soon smashed his statues, dismantled his temples, and set out to expunge all memory of him and Nefertiti from Egypt’s historical record. But the controversy the couple created lives on. Egyptologists still struggle to piece together the story of this renegade pair. Swept up in religious passion, they brought the vast and powerful Egyptian empire to the brink of collapse. “You're never going to find two Egyptologists who agree on this period,” said Nicholas Reeves, a British Egyptologist.

51. The young pharaoh in the first paragraph was 1. Aten

2. Amun

3. Akhenaten

4. Amenhotep

52. How does the writer feel about Tutankhamun's origin? 1. Biased

2. Negative

3. Uncertain

4. Indifferent

53. How old was Akhenaten when he died? 1. 23-29

2. 30-36

3. 37-46

4. 47-53

54. The passage implies that Akhenaten and Nefertiti were amongst the rulers. 1. most hated

2. most beloved

3. least religious

4. least powerful

55. The phrase “the old orthodoxy” (lines 23-24) refers to ___________ . 1. worshipping the sun god

2. having statues in temples

3. having Aten as the only god

4. glorifying Amun as king of the gods

56. The word “dismantled” (line 27) means ___________ . 1. destroyed

2. renovated

3. abandoned

4. constructed

57. The following events marked the religious revolution during Akhenaten’s reign EXCEPT ___________ . 1. Amun was no longer worshipped 2. Aten became a religious tradition 3. Nefertiti was elevated as a goddess 4. Thebes was restored as the divine city. 58. The tone of the article to Akhenaten’s revolution is ___________ . 1. positive

2. praising

3. accusing

4. religious

59. Which of the following statements is NOT true? 1. Nefertiti was not very powerful. 2. Nefertiti was Tutankhamun’s stepmother. 3. The young pharaoh was not born Akhenaten. 4. The name of Akhenaten's capital is not identified. 60. What do you expect to read about after the last paragraph? 1. The discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb 2. The fall of the powerful Egyptian empire 3. Archaeological sites in Egypt where Nicholas Reeves st0udied 4. Different views Egyptologists have towards Akhenaten’s reign PART IV Depression, symptoms of which can range from insomnia, lack of concentration and fatigue to emotional paralysis and suicidal thoughts, has always been considered a disease of life’s middle or later years, but doctors are now reporting a surprising surge in cases among younger people. Why is depression striking earlier and more often? Dr. Robert Hirschfeld, chief of the mood, anxiety and personality disorder research branch at the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), points to the tremendous social changes of the past 20 years. These include the shifting roles of men and women, the flood of women into the work force, and the acceleration of geographic movement that separates people from the support of their families and friends. But you also may be able to help yourself. Here, from leading 15

authorities, are

five approaches: 1. Do something constructive. Write down a daily plan of action from wake up to lights out. List everything, including showers and meals, because if you're really depressed, even little tasks can seem large. Break complicated activities into small, discrete steps; they'll seem more manageable.

2. Lend a hand. Volunteer work, community service or such neighbourly gestures as shopping for the elderly can have a therapeutic effect. 3. Schedule joy. Focus on social interactions, especially get

togethers with

friends, projects that make you feel competent, such as mastering a new skill, and pleasurable events, including dinner out or a movie. 4. Exercise regularly. Scientists think that aerobic exercise activities like walking, jogging, swimming and bicycling may boost your self-confidence, improve your sense of well-being, and heighten your energy. And, by helping you relax, they can reduce the tension and anxiety that contribute to depression. 5. Brighten your day. A light-sensitive depression in which mood slumps coincides with dark winter months. You can introduce more light in your home yourself by creating a brighter indoor environment. By choosing a daytime activity, such as walking or jogging, you can get natural light. Before embarking on self-therapy for what you suspect is mild depression, get a physical exam to make sure your health is good. Then set a two-week target. If you don’t feel better by then, or if you feel worse or have suicidal thoughts at any time, talk to your doctor. 61. According to the text, it was generally believed in the past that __________. 1. anyone could suffer from depression 2. only young people suffered from depression 3. middie-aged and old, people suffered depression 4. men tended to suffer serious depression more than women 62. Which of the following is NOT a cause of depression? 1. Children being more independent 2. Men and women changing their roles 3. Women tending to take jobs outside the home 4. People being deprived of help from their families

63. To help you cope with depression, making a list of what to do __________ . 1. will make it easier for you to manage 2. can occupy you with something for a while 3. will enable you to see more meaning in what you do 4. can ensure you that you will not forget even one point 64. If you are depressed, you should NOT __________ . 1. keep to a schedule 2. try to solve problems 3. stay alone and keep to yourself 4. socialize with friends and acquaintances 65. Exercising every day can help depressed people

__________ .

1. have a good figure

2. cut down stress and worry

3. forget about their problems

4. spend some free time profitably

66. The word "surge" (line 4) means __________ . 1. decline

2. change

3. increase

4. uncertainty

67. The phrase "lend a hand" (line 21) means __________ . l. help

2. demand

3. sacrifice

4. ask for help

68. It can be inferred from the passage that __________ . 1. doing something constructive can be helpful 2. a self-therapy approach also works well with extreme depression 3. a depressed person sensitive to light should not spend time outdoors 4. looking after a lonely patient is recommended for a depressed person 69. It is believed that depression can be made worse by

__________ .

1. bad food

2. bad weather

3. too much exercise

4. too many social activities

70. Before setting a two-week target on self-therapy, depressed people should ______. 1. plan it in detail 2. consult their doctors 3. be ready to face disappointment 4. be sure that they are physically healthy PART V Over the last 20 years I have watched various governments and presidents ignore the warnings of the scientists. The massive amounts of vehicular and industrial pollution in the United States now equal 25 percent of the world's pollution and have damaged forests, caused lakes to turn acid, killing all life in them, and increased health problems. Why would the United States allow this to happen? The answer of course is money and power. The cost of reducing and ridding the country of this curse would be hundreds of billions of dollars to the government and business community. The facts are plain: businessmen don’t want strict pollution laws passed, businessmen give money to politicians to get re-elected, politicians want the money to keep coming so they can keep their power, and so no pollution control laws are passed. The U.S. government and business have known for a long time that this problem would have to be addressed, and now is the time. A law requiring the reduction of vehicle pollution should be passed requiring that all vehicles manufactured after the year 2000 emit no more than 5 percent pollution gases. Of course, the car industry and oil companies would stop those laws from being passed. The same follows for industrial pollution laws, with a 20 5 percent reduction each year starting in the year 2000 until a level of 5 percent pollution, is reached. The government would have to provide tax write-offs and probably financial assistance to achieve these goals. The U.S. Government should encourage other countries to follow.

This is the right thing to do for a government that wants to be a world leader. You have to pay a price for that title. As for the rest of the world, there is hardly a country with a coastal area that will not lose land if the polar ice continues to melt and raises the ocean levels, and Thailand is definitely on that list. Harry C. Howerton 71. According to the writer, pollution from industrial and vehicular sources ________. 1. is a long-standing problem 2. has been reduced to 25 percent 3. is mainly due to badly designed cars 4. has been a main source of environmental pollution 72. The word “them” (line 5) refers to ________. 1. lakes

2. forests

3. the United States

4. vehicles and industries

73. The reason for the continued existence of pollution is that ________. 1. scientists have yet to find a solution to the problem 2. anti-pollution laws have been ignored and are not strict enough 3. the technology does not exist to significantly reduce emissions 4. elimination runs contrary to powerful commercial and political interests 74. The phrase “this curse” (line 9) refers to ________. 1. wealth

2. pollution

3. technology

4. money and power

75. Which of the following is TRUE according to the text? 1. There are technological obstacles to reducing industrial emissions. 2. The U.S. acts as a role model for countries with pollution problems. 3. Laws should be passed to immediately reduce pollution to 5 percent. 4. Given proper laws, it would be possible to reduce pollution to 5% within a few years.

76. As a world leader, the U.S. Government should do all of the following EXCEP ________. 1. fund the project 2. offer tax incentives 3. seek the co-operation of other nations 4. request financial assistance from others 77. The writer believes that in the future, ________. 1. Thailand has nothing to fear from rising ocean levels 2. mean temperatures throughout the United States will not rise 3. global warming will cause flooding in coastal cities around the world 4. the U.S. will have to subsidize anti-pollution measures in other countries 78. The word “Addressed” (line 15) is closest in meaning to ________. 1. ignored

2. talked to

3. dealt with

4. written about

79. The word “write-offs” line 23) means ________. 1. laws

2. rebates

3. increases

4. cancellation

80. The writer says that Thailand ________. 1. causes problems to other countries 2. isn't concerned about pollution problems 3. should cooperate in solving pollution problems 4. will be affected by flooding like other coastal countries

PART VI Off San Juan Island in Washington's Puget Sound, a fine mist brushes the little--boat-and just- as suddenly vanishes. The vapour looks like a loose wisp of rainbow and smells like overcooked broccoli. The skiff bounces on over Salmon Bank, where cold, nutrient-rich water wells up from the deep and forges a thick food chain. We head for a silver commotion of adolescent herring to starboard. Salmon, dogfish sharks, or both might have forced this school of juveniles to the surface. The fish quickly drew sharp-eyed diving birds-rhinoceros auklets, guillemots, and cormorants-which force the herring into a churning ball. A harbour seal, rolling in the middle with its mouth open, suddenly scoots off to one side. The birds take flight. The next instant, a whale explodes upward through the ball, then sinks out of sight, leaving a ring of ripples with fish scales glinting in the

centre and, once again, the

aroma of broccoli steamed beyond its time. “That,” says Jonathan Stern, a Florida State University marine biologist, trying to steer while scribbling notes in the rain, “is minke whale breath.” Also known as little piked whales and pikeheads, minkes are the smallest members of a family of baleen whales called rorquals. The group includes 120-ton blue whales and other titans such as humpbacks, seis, and fins. Minkes, 22 to 33 feet long with a weight of just 5 to 10 tons, seem downright svelte by comparison. Nevertheless, a 19th-century German a







pikehead with a blue. As a joke, the whalers took to calling the littlest rorquals

Meincke whales.

81. What makes fish stay around Puget Sound ? 1. Quality of water

2. Abundance of food

3. Humidity of climate

4. Nature of environment

82. The word “juveniles” (line 8) means __________. 1. young fish

2. captured fish

3. fish on the move

4. fish form other waters

83. Which of the following is a fish name? 1. Herring

2. Auklets

3. Guillemots

4. Cormorants

84. What is Jonathan Stern looking for? 1. Fish

2. Whales

3. Other evidence

4. Tidal formations

85. The breath of the minke whale reminds Jonathan of ________. 1. the size of the fish 2. a certain kind of food 3. the smell of a harbour seal 4. the temperature of the misty morning 86. The word “That” (line 17) refers to ________. 1. The aroma of overcooked broccoli 2. The herring forced to move very nervously 3. A ring of ripples with fish scales shining in the centre 4. A harbour seal rolling in the middle with its mouth open 87. Which of the following is the biggest in size? 1. Minke

2. Rorqual

3. Pike head

4. Blue whale

88. The word “svelte” (line 24) means ________. 1. slim

2. hugh

3. heavy

4. smelly

89. Where is Jonathan Stern at the time of relating this story? 1. In a small boat 2. On San Juan Island 3. At Florida State University 4. On a plane flying over Puget Sound 90. Which word best describes the weather? I . Hot

2. Wet

3. Cloudy

4. Freezing End of the Reading Test

Writing 1 : Each item in this part consists of -a sentence with four parts underlined. Select the part (1,2,3 or 4) which is incorrect. 91. Starting next year, Japan will require that all electronic goods is recycled. 1


The devices will be sent to the original manufacturer for proper disposal. 3


92. Sunscreens work by coating the skin with a barrier that either absorbing sunlight 1



and converts it to heat or reflects it away from the skin. 4 93. Because their size and cost, the only people who used early computers worked for 1




the Defense Department or the Census Bureau. 94. Despite it is the world's major exporter of agricultural products, Brazil is a 1



country plagued by chronic and widespread poverty. 4 95. During the Cultural Revolution, many artifacts from China long history and other 1


objects that suggested the accumulation of worldly possessions were destroyed. 3


96. Up to 95 percent of the coral reefs in the Philippines has been damaged by 1


cyanide which fishermen dump in the water to scare fish to the surface. 3


97. The Foundation has been developed a way of producing shelters for refugees 1 which are vastly superior to tents and much cheaper. 2



98. The only effective way to protect endangered species like the Bengal tiger is to 1


shutting down the markets for their by-products. 3


99. Each culture has its own ideas not only about what it is important in the world 1



but also about how people should act. 4 100. Under a law that will become effective next month, those of whom traffic in 1


rugs may face a life sentence in prison. 3


101. Some scientists have suggested that the depletion of the ozone layer, which 1 locks much amount of the sun's ultraviolet radiation, is contributing to the rise in 2


skin cancer. 102. Growing vegetables and fruit three times a year, the hilltribe people now 1


earn money in one season more than they could possibly earn in one year 3 planting opium poppies.


103. Temporary sleep disturbances during times of personal crisis are normal. 1


On the other hand, chronic insomnia may be a sign of seriously physical or mental illness. 3


104. The latest survey conducted six years ago indicated that an estimate 1



2,000 wild elephants have survived in the shrinking wilderness in wildlife 4 sanctuaries and 16 national parks. 105. Some physicians oppose mercy killing on the grounds that it is contrast to the Oath of Hippocrates that all doctors must take. 3


106. The luxurious hotels along the coast are not longer opened in winter 1


since there is very little business at that time. 3


107. The astronauts launched a giant communications satellite, performed 1 a variety of experiments and checking all the systems of the redesigned 2



108. It is language which makes man human. Not other animals have a code 1


that enables them to talk about things in the world. 3


109. Concerning with a population boom, the Chinese government has introduced 1


a series of family planning programs, including the one-child-per-family policy. 3


110. Neither the right to vote or equal opportunities in getting a job have been easy 1




accomplishments for women. 111. Normally, elephants are placid and timid animals, but when aroused they 1



could have been extremely dangerous. 4 112. The danger associated with nuclear power stations are the accidental release 1




of radioactivity. 113. Evidence is strong that UV intensity is not the principal factor in determining 1



the skin cancer dead rate. 4 114. Heavily rainfall and high temperatures throughout the year are necessary 1



to support the luxuriant growth of tropical rain forests. 4 115. Advertisers use propaganda techniques to convince you to buy a product, 1 or at least to make the product so well known as you will buy it without thinking. 2



116. One of the strongest arguments against globalization is that developed countries 1


already have a greater share of resources, and globalization will only enforce theirs 3


wealth and power. 117. Although parents and schools having the most direct influence on children, 1 I businesses nonetheless exert a strong, and often negative, influence on juveniles 2 by way of their advertisements and of the goods they choose to produce. 3


118. A person in the United States who breaks the law maybe required to do community 1


service, send to jail, and in some states, put to death, depending on the crime. 3


119. More and more workers today are positively uninteresting in long-term job security; 1


instead, they are joining firms for the sole purpose of accomplishing short-term 3 professional goals, then leaving to face the next 4 challenge. 4 120. If drastic measures are not taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions over the next 1 couple of decades, it is likely that many Arctic species and the indigenous peoples 2 which rely on them would not have survived the 21St century. 3


CU-TEP , Test C READING PART I Read the following passage and choose the best answer to fill the blanks from the choices given. Then blacken the number of your choice on your answer sheet. There are 15 blanks (Nos. 31-45) There is an international movement afoot to develop a set of guidelines to help companies decide what kinds of economic, environmental and social information to measure and report to the public. The Global Reporting Initiative, or GRI, 31. __________ the Coalition for Economically Responsible Economies and the United Nations Environment Programme. 32. ___________more than 1,000 companies now disclose such information, their usefulness for 33. _____________ purposes is limited 34. ____________ each reports dissimilar types of information in various formats, 35. ____________

different measurement 36. ____________. Now firms

37. _____________using the GRI guidelines as a framework 38. __________ their reports. Some of these companies-in Asia, 39. ___________ include Excel Industries of India and NEC and Kirin Brewing from Japan-collected and reported corporatewide performance 40. ___________ for the first time this year. Other companies in the Philippines, Malaysia and Thailand 41. ___________to experiment with the guidelines, provide suggestions and participate in the dialogue to further develop the guidelines. As with any standard-setting body, it is 42. __________that the discussion and guideline-development process include a diversity of voices. Corporate, non governmental and public 43. ________ from developing and transitional economies must be more 44. ____________ about becoming-and staying-involved in these 45. ___________. Indeed, the “standardization” of reporting guidelines will be a hollow process without robust involvement by myriad regional and institutional

representatives from Asia. 31. 1. is sponsored by

3. is protected from

2. is defended against

4. is redundant with

32. 1. Besides

3. Similarly

2. However

4. Although

33. 1. compared

3. comparing

2. compare 34. l. as 35. 1. during 2. because 36. 1. locals 2. citizens 37. 1. trial 2. focus 38. l. presently 2. adequately 39. l. Still _ 2. Thus 40. l. tough 2. worthy 41. 1. terrified 2. enlarged 42. 1. networks 2. broadcasts 43. 1. defaults 2. complexes

4. comparative 2. or

3. just

4. even 3. unless 4. although 3. residents 4. inhabitants 3. breath 4. practice 3. insufficiently 4. exceptionally 3. Then 4. Finally 3. traditional 4. independent 3. qualified 4. sophisticated 3. gateways 4. workshops 3. addictions 4. challenges

44. l. smart 2. unique 45. 1. apart 2. nearby

3. confident 4. sympathetic 3. adjacent 4. parallel

INSTRUCTIONS PART II Read the passages and choose the best answer for each question. Then blacken the number of your choice on your answer sheet. There are 45 items in PARTS II – VI (Nos. 46-90). PART II Dear Editor, I was surprised to read your description of Thai society as “heterogeneous” and “tolerant of other races” (Femme, January 20). This in a country where its own citizens are treated as second class (hill tribes; Isaan people), and outsiders are tolerated only because they have most of Thailand's wealth (ethnic Chinese) or are perceived to be wealthy (Westerners). Your definition of heterogeneous obviously doesn't include farangs. If I walked down the street in my home country, pointing at people and saying “black man”, ”Asian”, “Polynesian”, and the like, chances are I'd be in hospital before I got to the corner. Thais can only get away with this insulting behaviour because they have such a homogeneous, insular society. This is demonstrated by the laws regarding marriage to a foreigner. I have two uncles who have married foreigners, who have had no trouble emigrating and seeking employment. Contrast this to a colleague of mine who has been married to a Thai for a number of years, and still has to go .through the indignity of yearly trips to the Immigration Department and Labour Ministry offices to renew visas and work permits. This is just the tip of the iceberg.

I have recently come to the conclusion that no matter how long I live here, or how well I speak Thai, I (and other longer term residents) will always be treated as an outsider or a wallet on legs. Kevin Watkin Kamphaeng Phet 46. The main purpose of the writer is to. 1. criticize the way the Thai society discriminates against its own people 2. point out the difficulties a foreigner may confront when marrying a Thai 3. express disapproval and give his point of view regarding the nature of Thai society 4. explain to the editor the difference between the terms “heterogeneous” and “homogeneous” 47. “This” (line 14) refers to 1. the true nature of Thai society 2. renewal of visas and work permits 3. how well Thais tolerate other races 4. a definition of a heterogeneous society 48. “This is just the tip of the iceberg.” (lines 19-20) means 1. not only that; there is worse to come 2. the Immigration officers are unhelpful 3. the immigration procedures are very complex 4. one has to be firm and knows one's limitations if one marries a Thai 49. The writer's phrase "a wallet on legs" shows that he is l. now carrying a lot of cash in his wallet 2. a millionaire boasting about his wealth 3. very fortunate to have been born a westerner 4. considered as nothing more than a source of income to Thais

50. We can infer from the letter that the writer 1. is a lawyer

2. is a well-to-do man

3. married a Thai woman

4. feels discriminated against

PART III A few years ago, in my hometown of Trondheim, Norway, a five-year-old girl called Silje was beaten up by three boys of her own age' knocked unconscious and left to freeze to death in the snow. People were shocked. Teachers and childcare officers were not alone in wanting to know where the adults had been when this happened. The children, it transpired, had been playing outdoors unsupervised. Silje’s death could easily have prompted a change of heart, but it didn’t. Norwegians decided that the occasional rare accident or tragedy is a price worth paying for allowing children to experience

the riches of a world roamed freely.

In Britain, unfortunately, parents have taken the opposite view. In recent years, they have become not so much wary about letting their children go unsupervised as plain terrified. A survey carried out for the Children's Society and the Children's Play Council, British's charities that promote play, found that almost 80 per cent of parents say the main reason they stop their children from playing outside is fear of strangers. Nevertheless, the chance of a child being killed by a stranger is no greater now than it was in the 1950s: less than 1 in a million. Even in school playgrounds, the unsupervised interactions of children with their peers are being limited. Partly because of fears about bullying and security, there is an increasing anxiety about school break times. Clearly, we need to ask some serious questions about what this relentless supervision is doing to kids. Unsupervised play isn't just a childhood luxury we can do without; _________.

Study after study has shown that it helps to develop

children's ability to negotiate social rules and to create their own. In short, taking risks in childhood goes hand in hand with developing new skills; nothing ventured,

nothing gained. It takes a brave parent to grant children freedom to play unsupervised. But unless we do, we may stunt the social development of a generation. And that's not a risk worth taking. 51. According to the passage, after Silje’s death, Norwegian parents _________. 1. took their children to play in the playground 2. let their children play at their friends’ houses 3. stopped their children from playing outside alone 4. allowed their children to play outdoors as they used to 52. In the writer's view, British parents can be best described as ____________ 1. carefree

2. indecisive

3. responsible

4. overprotective

53. A good title for this passage would be ___________ . 1. Child Dangers

2. A Right to Play

3. A Child's Experience

4. The Right Way to Raise a Child

54. The main purpose of the writer is to ____________. 1. support children's outdoor play 2. report the news on child brutality 3. compare ways to raise children in two countries 4. blame parents for letting their children play outside alone 55. Which of the following statements is true ? 1. More kids are victims of strangers nowadays than in the past. 2. British parents are better at raising kids than Norwegian parents. 3. Playing unsupervised, kids are likely to learn how to exist in society. 4. Due to a high chance of tragic incidents, children should not play outdoors alone. 56. The psychological factor that mainly contributes to parents' reaction to kids’ play Is __________ . 1. fear

2. care

3. need

4. anger

57. The word “wary” (line 12) means __________. 1. angry

2. happy

3. doubtful

4. concerned

58. The word “that” (line 32) refers to ____________ . 1. parents monitoring children 2. allowing children to play unsupervised 3. allowing children to become independent 4. preventing children from developing social skills 59. Which of the following could complete the blank in line 26? 1. it is risky

2. it is vital

3. it is safe and secure

4. it is a waste of money

60. The last paragraph mainly discusses _____________. 1. the effects of supervision on kids 2. the steps brave parents should take 3. the advantages of playing outdoors 4. the skills that help develop kids' growth PART IV Most newborn babies sleep 17 to 18 hours per day. By age 10, this has dropped to 9 to 10 hours, and it continues declining during adolescerice: Two-thirds of adults sleep seven to eight hours per night, while one-fifth of adults sleep less than six hours and one-tenth sleep more than nine. During old age, sleep diminishes to an average of 6.5 hours a .night. For the average adult, then, seven or eight hours a night is “normal.” But is it necessary? Some good sleepers worry that they regularly fall short of the Big Eight. They needn't. Psychologist Wilse Webb, at the University of Florida, psychiatrist Ernest Hartmann at Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston, and others have found that those who naturally sleep less than six hours a night are happier, better adjusted, and more active than longer sleepers. Such people, says the University of Arizona's

Larry Beutler, may "have their whole nervous system wired quite efficiently. They may have more energy, make more social contacts, and establish better socialsupport systems than more sluggish people.” Some people fear insomnia and its presumed effects so strongly that the fears aggravate their sleeplessness. But what's the real effect of a few lost hours? Several sleep-restriction studies have shown that one rotten night (with as little as two hours of sleep) doesn't really affect people's performance the next day, although they may feel more irritable, hostile, fatigued or unhappy. William Dement and Mary Carskadon (Stanford) found in another study that when young adults get only five hours of sleep a night for a week, some become “pathologically sleepy” by the week's end. But the cumulative effects disappear after one good night’s sleep. Sleep deprivation can have devastating effects if it is total. Psychologist Allan Rechtschaffen of the University of Chicago produced profound, lethal, metabolic changes in rats totally deprived of sleep from less than a week to more than a month. But true sleep deprivation is very hard to arrange, since animals and humans sneak in “micro-sleeps.” Long-suffering chronic insomniacs may say they “never catch a wink of sleep,” but they're rarely totally sleep deprived,

and usually get at least a

few hours a night. 61. According to the passage, how much sleep is enough for an average adult? 1. 7-8 hours 2. Less than 6 hours 3. More than 9 hours. 4. Depending on each individual’s health

62. What is the main idea of the second paragraph? 1. Despite sleeplessness, people can lead a happy social life. 2. Good sleepers are overconcerned about their lack of sleep. 3. It is not necessary for all people to sleep eight hours a night. 4. Longer sleepers are more active than people who sleep less. 63. The phrase “the Big Eight” (lines 8-9) refers to . 1. the longest period of hours an adult should sleep per night 2. the longest period of days an adult can suffer sleep deprivation 3. the number of hours that a healthy person should spend sleeping 4. the number of studies done by sleep-restriction experts in this field 64. The phrase "such people" (line 13) refers to people who ____________ . 1. are good sleepers

2. are longer sleepers

3. lack six hours of sleep

4. sleep less than six hours

65. The word "aggravate" (line 19) means ____________ . 1. lessen

2. worsen

3. improve

4. eliminate

66. According to the study at Stanford, the undesirable effects of sleeplessness 1. continue for many days 2. need psychiatric treatment 3. are normal among young adults 4. disappear after one night of sleep 67. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that ___________. 1. only rats are totally deprived of sleep 2. sleeplessness is harmful if it lasts more than a month 3. “micro-sleeps” are likely to be short quality sleeps 4. chronic insomniacs experience a state of true sleep deprivation

68. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage? 1. Working adults generally need fewer sleeping hours than people of older age. 2. Being sleepless for a night does not seriously affect people's activities the next day. 3. The fear of insomnia may cause people to feel irritable, hostile, fatigued or unhappy. 4. Because people don't pay attention to sleeplessness, they suffer from insomnia more and more. 69. The studies mentioned in the passage seem to have

__________views towards

sleeplessness and its consequences. 1. similar

2. certain

3. negative

4. opposing

70. The tone of this passage is __________. 1. persuasive

2. pessimistic

3. informative

4. argumentative

PART V For some reason unbeknown to me, the subject of gun control has never been seriously debated in Thailand. Every time there is a surge in bank robberies or contract kill-ings, the proliferation of firearms is rarely where the blame is laid. Most people assume that the law is already sufficient despite the fact that it imposes such light penalties on illegal gun possession. As a result, virtually everyone from the average drug dealer to the professional gunman has relatively easy access to a gun. The existence of hired gunmen has long been acknowledged by the authorities. And yet there has been only a feeble attempt to suppress their number. Maybe most of us believe that the victims are of questionable background themselves. However, the recent murder of an Australian expatriate by hired gunmen

should wake us up to the reality that some victims are law-abiding people who are unfortunate enough to cause sufficient displeasure to certain influential persons. At the moment, the way the authorities deal with hired gunmen is to put those under suspicion on a watch-list and prosecute them after they kill someone. We should start questioning whether it is more effective to reduce the number of contract killings and other forms of gun violence by deterring a gunman than by pressing charges against him after he has committed a crime. Whereas a ban on the possession of guns by civilians is probably unwise because it will leave homeowners vulnerable to armed robbery, there is nothing wrong with revising the law to forbid people from carrying guns outside the home. Heavy penalties should also be imposed on those who violate the law. Judging from the effectiveness of Malaysian and Singaporean law, which impose very severe penalties in suppressing gun violence, we can see that Thai law must impose much heavier penalties in order to be an effective deterrent. Somchart Chantasiriwan 71. The reason why firearms are easily accessible is that 1. the authorities are not interested in the issue 2. people do not take the subject of gun control seriously 3. there are too many licensed gun dealers and too many gunmen 4. the existing law imposes light penalties on the illegal possession of a gun 72. The phrase “their number’ in paragraph 2, (line 10) refers to the number of __________. l. guns

2. authorities

3. drug dealers

4. hired gunmen

73. The writer mentions “the recent murder of an Australian expatriate” (line 13) to 1. give an example of the type of person targeted by professional victims 2. prove his point that the victims of hired gunmen have a doubtful background 3. explain why the authorities should deal with the subject of a gun ban more seriously 4. make the reader aware of the fact that victims of contract killings can be honest Citizens 74. In the writer's opinion, an effective way to reduce gun violence is to _________. 1. prevent people from using guns 2. put contract killers on a watch list 3. question the alleged suspect on the scene 4. press charges against suspects after they commit another crime 75. The writer _________the prohibition of gun possession by members of the public in general. 1. questions

2. encourages

3. understands

4. is opposed to

76. A good title for the passage would be ____________. 1. Gun Possession - A Study 2. The Proliferation of Firearms 3. Laws to Control the Possession of Guns 4. Time to Take out Hired Killers with Gun-Control Laws 77. Which is NOT one of the suggestions for revising the gun control laws? 1. Imposing heavy penalities on gun possession 2. Adopting Malaysian and Singaporean style laws 3. Prohibiting citizens from carrying guns in public 4. Limiting the types of gun that are legally for sale

78. According to the writer, there are many gunmen in Thailand for the following reasons, EXCEPT __________ . 1. guns can be bought easily 2. records of gunmen are not available 3. the police haven't made any effort to get rid of them 4. the public tend to think that the victims often deserve to be attacked 79. We learn from the first paragraph that _________. 1. most Thai people realize that the law should be revised 2. many Thai people don't pay attention to the subject of gun control 3. when there are killings, the increase of guns is always mentioned as the cause 4. the writer understands why the subject of gun control has never been discussed in Thailand 80. The word “deterrent” (line 29) is closest in meaning to __________. 1. violation

2. prevention

3. reinforcement

4. encouragement

PART VI “They’ve found a new banana’ in grid 50.” Tracy Alsberg, a young archaeologist from the University of Chicago, is passing on the morning scuttlebutt from the dig at the ancient city of Ashkelon on the Mediterranean coast of Israel. I have taken a break from the sweltering July heat and humidity to browse through 14 years of excavation records at her team's field office in a nearby hotel, but the new banana sends us back into the sun. “Banana is our code word for human skeleton,” explains Alsberg as we head over to grid 50, one of three active dig sites at Ashkelon this field season. In Israel, she explains, some Orthodox Jewish groups believe that human remains should not be disinterred. The previous season, members of one of those groups staged a protest after hearing that archaeologists were excavating skeletons from tombs of well-to-do Canaanites, pre-

Israelite settlers of ancient Palestine. So this season team members speak in code. Today Ashkelon is a forgotten name outside of Israel, and even there people know it mainly as a beachside city whose national park fills with bathers and picnickers at weekends. But as far back as 3500 B.C. Ashkelon was a major seaport. Strategically located on the trade routes from Turkey and Syria to Egypt, it witnessed the rise and fall of numerous cultures besides the Canaanite, including Philistine, Phoenician, Greek, Roman, Byzantine and Crusader. The biblical Goliath probably walked its streets, as did Richard the Lion-Heart, Alexander the Great, Herod and Samson before he met Delilah. It was destroyed in 604 B.C. by the Babylonian king Nebuchadrezzar and again, for the final time, in A.D. 1270 by the Mamluks, the Islamic dynasty that ruled Egypt at the time. 81. What is the story mainly about? 1. Israeli history

2. Ashkelon city

3. Alsberg's stay

4. A Jewish religious group

82. Why did Alsberg and the writer have to leave the office? 1. To walk in the sun

2. To survey an open tomb

3. To examine human remains

4. To receive an excavation team

83. What does “banana” refer to? 1. A hotel

2. A coast


A record

84. How did some local people feel about the digging? 1. Hostile

2. Neutral

3. Welcoming

4. Indifferent

85. Why do people go to Ashkelon now? 1. To relax

2. To work

3. To study

4. To shop

4. A skeleton

86. What did Ashkelon used to be in the old days? 1. A port

2. A park

3. A field

4. A museum

87. What aspect of Ashkelon does the writer describe in the last paragraph? 1. Its rulers

2. Its history

3. Its politics

4. Its geography

88. What is the tone of the article? 1. Helpful

2. Supportive

3. Informative

4. Argumentative

89. Why do team members use a code word? 1. Their work is illegal. 2. It is easy to remember. 3. Local people don't like their work. 4. It is common practice among archaeologists. 90. What does “it” (line 22) refer to? 1. Egypt

2. Ashkelon

3. A trade route

4. An ancient tomb End of the Reading Test

WRITING Writing I: Each item in this part consists of a sentence with four parts underlined. Select the part (1,2,3 or 4) which is incorrect. 91. With-more parents in the work force, a great number of children is being left alone at 1

2 3

home at a young age. 4 92. It is estimated that in the world as a whole, more than 2.5 million premature deaths 1


each year can be attributed to smoking cigarette. 3


93. Consumers have no way of knowing that a particular food contain biotech ingredients 1


as disclosure on food labels is not mandatory by law. 3


94. Usually, corporate crimes, such as the manufacturing and marketing of unsafe products, 1


tax evasion and money laundering are handled not by the police but by regulatory 3 agencies with a few power. 4 95. Criminals find it difficult to get jobs when they leave prison. Alike, patients from 1



mental institutions may have problems finding employment. 4

96. Caffeine is one of the most commonly consumed substance, found naturally in coffee 1



and tea, added to soft drinks, and compounded into more than 1,000 drugs. 4 97. The warming of the earth’s climate, known as the greenhouse effect, could altering the 1


landscape of Canada, flooding some areas and turning others into dustbowls. 3


98. The destruction of the rain forests partly result from slash-and-burn agriculture, where 1


poor people use the land for a while and then move on when it is depleted. 3


99. The measures proposed by the authorities to relieve the water shortage ranging from 1



the construction of reservoirs to economical water consumption. 4 100. Soot is made up tiny particles, such as coal, wood, and oil that have not been burned. 1




101. Since their high vitamin and low calorie content, mushrooms are included in certain 1



diets. 4 102. Film directors can take far great liberties in dealing with concepts of time and space 1


than can stage directors. 4


103. The first phrases that a learner of any language becomes acquainted with are 1


The basic ones in which are used to greet friends and strangers alike. 3


104. An abacus is a counting frame that was most widely used device for doing arithmetic 1


in ancient times and the use of which has persisted into modern times in the Orient.



105. Whether or not our country should ban arms sales is an extreme difficult 1



and controversial question. 4 106. If the superpowers had not wasted a vast amount of money on the military, their 1



manufacturing productivity would not suffer. 4 107. Drugs such as alcohol, tobacco and cocaine when taking often and in large does have 1



the potential for addiction. 108. Learning to relax can be as effective in avoiding high blood pressure as take 1


3 4

drugs to combat hypertension. 109. Good preparation for examinations is an obvious path to success; yet it is a path 1


that must be clearly planned and carefully follows. 3



110. Hijacking is a newly form of drawing public attention to apolitical cause by placing 1


the safety of airline passengers and crew in jeopardy. 3


111. At the present time, medical science can’t do nothing for paralyzed victims of brain 1


and spinal cord injuries because, unlike other cells, nerve cells do not regenerate. 3


112. Home freezing has become an increasing popular method of food preservation. 1




113. We can see that those poor people are not trying to earn a living themselves, but rather 1


are asking another for money. 3


114. Since very early times, people were searching for medicines to heal wounds and cure 1




diseases. 115. Despite personal computers have been around for quite sometime, some people 1


haven't yet learned how to live in harmony with them. 3


116. Ecologists predict almost unanimously that by the end of this century, humans 1


will have exterminated 20 percent of all species are alive on the planet today. 3


117. Most states in the United States now depend on revenues from state lotteries and use 1


them for good causes, such as improving public education, maintaining state parks, and 3 to develop environmental programs. 4 118. Indisputably, advertisements inform us as to a nation's values, attitudes, and priorities 1


what are activities worthwhile, what the future holds, and what is fashionable and 3


attractive. 119. Since Internet material is not easily confined within national borders, we 1


can only successfully regulate children’s access to adult material on the 3 Internet by 3 way of international cooperate. 4 120. Were the loss of the scant annual rainfall of Cape Verde to become a long-term 1


feature, it is doubtful whether even careful farming practices could have saved the 3 way of life there.


CU-TEP , Test D READING PART I Read the following passage and choose the best answer to fill the blanks from the choices given. Then blacken the number of your choice on your answer sheet. There are 15 blanks (Nos. 31-45) Many people laugh contemptuously when they hear of “siesta,” the Spanish tradition of napping or having a short period of sleep in the middle of the day. However, recently scientists indicated that the human body 31.___________have an afternoon nap. A wide range of scientific studies suggest that 32. ___________



biological tendency for people to fall asleep in the middle of the afternoon 33. ___________they have had a full night's sleep. In a series of studies, volunteers 34. ________ in an underground room for weeks. They were completely isolated from all 35. ________ of time. The volunteers were told 36.whenever they wanted. Without any 37. ________ to external time measures, the volunteers tended to sleep in two time periods - one long session at night and another shorter one 38. ___________ lasted for about 2 hours in the afternoon. The naps typically 39. ___________12 hours after the middle of the longer period of sleep. 40. ___________ source of evidence is the napping behavior of children. 41. ___________ with frequent naps all through the day, children give up the last nap in the middle of the afternoon. 42. __________ , there is repeated evidence that performance drops in the mid-afternoon - and accidents 43. ________________ from sleepiness increase at this time. 44. ___________, rather than being a function of any culture, naps seem to be a(n) 45. ___________human need. Now you don’t need to feel guilty about your afternoon snooze!

31. 1. meant to _ 2. meant for 32. 1. it is 2. there is 33. 1. even if 2. regardless of 34. 1. were put 2. should be put 35. 1. scales 2. pointers 36. 1. not to sleep 2. not to be sleeping 37. 1. referral 2. referring 38. 1. only 2. entirely

3. was meant to 4. was meant for 3. it has 4. there are 3. despite 4. whether 3. were putting 4. should have been put 3. criteria 4. indicators 3. to sleep 4. to be sleeping 3. reference 4. being referred 3. when 4. which

39. 1. followed

3. appeared

2. happened

4. woke up

40. l. Another 2. Others 41. 1. Begin 2. Begun 42. 1. Nonetheless 2. Additionally 43. 1. result 2. resulting

3. Other 4. The others 3. Began 4. Beginning 3. After all 4. In contrast 3. as a result 4. resulted

44. 1. Thus

3. On the other hand

2. Similarly

4. Consequently

45. 1. inborn

3. artificial

2. insufficient

4. traditional

CONSTRUCTIONS PART II – VI Read the passages and choose the best answer for each question. Then blacken the number of your choice on your answer sheet. There are 45 items in PARTS II - VI (Nos. 46 - 90). PART II Smarting over dumb ideas Today we have Smart bus stops, Smart taxi stands, Smart street signs and now a Smart pedestrian crossing. Soon we will have Smart cards for ID's. All very commendable schemes and taking the Land of Smiles in the right direction. What we now need are Smart ministers. One definition of smart is “characterised by sharp quick thought, bright” and this applies to the thinking behind Khun Apirak’s ideas. Another definition of smart is “to suffer or pay a heavy penalty” and this applies to the government's proposed even earlier closing of petrol stations.I would like to see a coherent justification with supporting evidence to show the need to close stations earlier. I, for one, am not in the habit of driving for the sake of driving; I do what I need to, to get to work and buy the necessary items with which to survive. I would suggest that most people are of the same thought: why would we choose to drive for no reason? So I would like an explanation of how the early closing of stations will have any positive impact on energy saving measures. BEMUSED IN BANGKOK

46. The main idea of the text is _____________. 1. the word “smart” has two different meanings. 2. all the “Smart” projects reflect that Thailand is advancing socially 3. people should help save energy by driving less and therefore consume less petrol 4. the proposed energy-saving measure of the early closing of gas stations is ridiculous 47. How does the writer probably feel about Khun Apirak’s policies? 1. neutral

2. impressed

3. indifferent

4. disapproving

48. According to the text, despite the high gas price people continue using their cars because. 1. they are not satisfied with the available public transportation 2. it is necessary for them to drive to work and to do other errands 3. they do not see the importance of the early closing of gas stations 4. they are used to driving and can afford the gas price no matter how high it is 49. The word “we” (line 13) refers to __________. 1. people who drive for the sake of driving 2. people who support energy saving measures 3. people who have to drive to work and for other reasons 4. people who agree with the proposed early closing of gas stations 50. The writer might change his mind about this energy saving measure if there were 1. better bus stops, taxi stands, street signs and pedestrian crossing 2. promising development plans to ensure that Thailand is in the right direction 3. some kind of study that confirms the advantages of early closing of gas stations 4. a clear explanation and practical examples of how drivers can save more gasoline


PART III I bet many of you have seen Star Wars, Jurassic Park, Multiplicity, or many of the other movies that describe cloning. Most of what you see : hi these movies is false. What you don't know is that cloning could be dangerous, to the clone and to our society as a whole. It's unethical to have a human clone. What about identity? Humans are guaranteed the right to their own personality. What would happen if we bypassed those rights by giving them someone else's genetic identity? True, personality is not limited to someone's genes, but the clone would share the physical appearance or genetic defects of the cloned individual. Also, there is a large power struggle here. Cloning involves a degree of power and control over another person's physical identity and that violates their rights and degrades their unique individuality. The person doing the cloning would have more power than any parent would have. Cloning would also deal with killing embryos. You might not have known, but Dolly, the sheep that was cloned in 1996, was one of over 200 sheep embryos and hers was the only embryo that survived: The rest died or were thrown away. Imagine if the failure rate was that high when we started to clone humans. More than 200 embryos, the start of 200 human beings, would die for the sake of just one embryo that would have the same DNA as someone else. Cloning someone, at this present time, would be extremely dangerous to the birth mother and the clone. In studies done on cows, 4 out of 12 birth mothers died. There is also a very high abnormality rate for the clone. There is a very high failure rate, which is shown in the cloning of Dolly. Even if you had a few good embryos, miscarriages have been prominent in animal tests. So, should we forge ahead in the world of cloning? I say no. The risks outweigh the . It's dangerous to the clone and to the birth mother. We would be

killing innocent human lives in the process as well. It would also be a violation of a clone's right to its own genetic identity and individuality. 51. According to the writer, films like Star Wars, Jurassic Park, and Multiplicity . 1. provide a good description of cloning 2. provide an incorrect picture of cloning 3. present the idea that cloning is dangerous 4. raise controversial issues regarding cloning 52. The tone of the passage is __________ . 1. optimistic

2. humorous

3. informative

4. argumentative

53. The word “bypassed” (line 7) is closest in meaning to ___________. 1. ignored

2. adjusted

3. protected

4. overplayed

54. According to the passage, the clone and the cloned share the following XCEPT ___________. 1. character

2. genetic defect

3. genetic identity

4. physical appearance

55. According to the third paragraph, ___________. 1. power over one's identity means violation of one's rights 2. the clone would struggle for more power over the cloned 3. the majority of society are against cloning as it violates human rights 4. individuality would be degraded if a person loses control over his/her Identity

57. From paragraph 4, we can infer that ________. 1. the failure rate will be high if there are too many embryos 2. usually one embryo will survive during the process of cloning 3. at least 200 embryos are needed to guarantee the success of cloning 4. most embryos are killed due to insufficient food and inappropriate temperature 58. According to the passage, which statement is TRUE? 1. The birth mother has a very high abnormality rate. 2. A very small number of clones will be in a perfect condition. 3. Cloning is now a safer process as a result of scientific advance. 4. The failure in cloning is mostly caused by insufficient research funds. 59. The word "prominent" (line 28) can be best replaced by ___________. l.

taken place

3. clearly seen

2. pointed out 4. experimented

60. Which of the following could complete the blank in line 30? 1. lives

2. reasons

3. benefits

4. dangers

PART IV Look around and you will be surprised at how much our everyday life depends on one thing: oil. From petrol to plastics, oil is an indispensa' dfe component of their production process. And here comes the worry: we all know that oil is a nonrenewable resource. But now this situation is about to change. Mix a pile of manure (basically agricultural waste) with some zinc oxide, angle a few giant mirrors towards the mixture, turn on the sun and steam the result. It may not sound appetising, but Michael Epstein and his colleagues at the Weizmann Institute of Science, in Israel, think that this recipe represents a novel way of collecting solar energy to generate what many hope will be the fuel of the future-hydrogen. Readers who remember their chemistry lessons may recall mixing zinc with hydrochloric acid in a test tube and standing by, lighted splint in hand, ready to ignite the hydrogen that is given off. Zinc reacts similarly with water-or, rather, steam-in this case stripping the oxygen from H2O, and, once again, leaving the hydrogen. Industrialising that process, though, relies on finding a cheap way of turning the zinc oxide that results back into metallic zinc, so that the material can be recycled. And this, courtesy of the Weizmann Institute's Solar Tower Laboratory, is what Dr Epstein has done. The tower's 64 seven-meter-wide mirrors track down the sun and focus its rays into a beam with a power of up to 300 kilowatts. In Dr Epstein's experiment, the beam was used to heat a mixture of zinc oxide and charcoal. The charcoal (which is pure carbon) reacted with the oxygen in the zinc oxide, releasing the zinc. This instantly vaporised and was then extracted and condensed into powder, which can be used to extract hydrogen again. At the moment, the cheapest way of making hydrogen is a process called reformation, which also uses steam, but reacts it with natural gas, a fossil fuel.

Dr Epstein thinks that if his process were scaled up, it would cost the same as reformation. It would also have the advantage over reformation that no fossil fuel need be involved, and so there is no net contribution of climate-changing carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. In the meantime, the powdered zinc produced can also be employed in a different form of energy technology-zinc-air batteries. These are used to power certain sorts of electronic device. So, even if your car never runs on second-hand solar energy, one day your laptop might. 61. The most appropriate title for this passage would be ___________. 1. The next step toward a hydrogen economy 2. Chemistry and the sun: the new use of solar energy 3. When the oil wells run dry-a countdown to doomsday 4. From basics to brilliance-breaking the frontier of science 62. The passage implies that hydrogen is ___________. 1. very promising as a fuel 2. used to power electronic devices 3. the cheapest alternative source of energy 4. the most efficient form of energy known to mankind 63. The word “it” (line 26) refers to ___________. 1. steam

2. hydrogen

3. fossil fuel

4. natural gas

64. The word “novel” (line 9) in this context is closest in meaning to ________. 1. strange

2. imitative

3. incredible

4. innovative

65. The tone of paragraph 2 seems to be _________ . 1. formal

2. academic

3. surprising

4. light-hearted

66. From paragraph 3, we can infer that Dr. Epstein's process of making hydrogen. 1. is safe but complicated 2. is expensive unless zinc is recycled 3. may be costly if done on a large scale 4. requires only a basic knowledge of chemistry lessons 67. Dr. Epstein's method and reformation are similar in that both


1. use water or steam

2. are relatively costly

3. react with a fossil fuel

4. are environmentally friendly

68. The following are the features of second-hand solar energy EXCEPT ___________. 1. it can power vehicles 2. it can be kept in a form of battery 3. it is produced from powdered zinc 4. it is the by-product of hydrogen extraction 69. It is likely that Dr. Epstein's experiment, if successful, could _________. 1. replace natural gas

2. help ease the oil crisis

3. store more solar energy

4. produce little carbon dioxide

70. One can expect to find this passage in a __________. 1. business report

2. tabloid newspaper

3. scientific magazine

4. company newsletter

PART V As well as being blessed with sun-kissed paradise islands and pale, white sands, the Maldives, the tourist haven, is cursed with mounting evidence of an environmental catastrophe. To the naked eyes, the signs of climate change are almost imperceptible, but government scientists fear the 5 sea level is rising up to 0.9 cm a year. Since 80% of its 1,200 islands are no more than one meter above sea level, within 100 years the Maldives could become uninhabitable. The country’s 360,000 citizens would be forced to evacuate. The Maldives' survival as a sovereign nation is truly at stake. No


it was the first country to sign up to the Kyoto Protocol, which sets targets for cuts in industrialized countries' greenhouse gas emissions. No wonder that Male, the capital, is surrounded by a 3 meter-high wall, which took 14 years to construct at a cost of $63 million. Unable to foot the bill themselves, the government happily accepted aid from Japan, which paid for 99% of the cost. But the wall offers protection for just one of the Maldives' 200 inhabited islands and then only against tidal surges rather than the rising sea level, the longerterm threat. The country's fishermen no longer use the “Nakiy”, a centuries-old weather guide based on stellar constellations which climate change has made all but irrelevant. The weather here is becoming more volatile and less predictable. The alignment of the stars no longer offers much guidance. The Maldives government is encouraging forestation to prevent beach erosion and is backing a plan to clean litter and debris from the country's coral reefs-a natural barrier against tidal surges which changes to the fragile ecosystem have placed in peril. In June 2004, the President of the Maldives wrote to the US President George Bush, in a rather optimistic attempt to persuade him to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. So far he is yet to receive a response. This minnow of a nation faces a mammoth task-to

persuade members of the US government, whether officials in the Bush administration or lawmakers on Capitol Hill, to make long-term decisions from a global perspective, rather than short-term choices based on national self-interest. The Maldives can exert moral pressure and press its strong scientific case but not much more. So come here fast, before it disappears. This is a paradise faced with extinction. 71. The sentence “The Maldives’ survival as a sovereign nation is truly at stake” (line 9) means __________ . 1. The nation, having survived for so long, is now under threat 2. It costs a huge amount of budget to help the nation to continue to exist 3. Nations all over the world are concentrating on the Maldives' survival 4. The tourist spots and natural environment of the Maldives are of high value 72. Which of the following is NOT a consequence of the environmental catastrophe? 1. rising sea level

2. coral reef debris

3. the changing climate

4. ineffective use of the “Nakiy”

73. The Maldives has dealt with the environmental problem by _________. 1. cutting the greenhouse gas emissions 2. building coral reefs as walls against tides 3. growing trees along the country's coastlines 4. returning to the ancient method of weather forecast 74. Which of the following is TRUE? 1. The surging sea level is hardly noticeable by human's eyes. 2. Two hundred inhabited islands are surrounded by the protective walls. 3. The inhabited islands are submerged more than one meter below the sea level on average. 4. The Kyoto Protocol urges all nations to deal with their own environmental problems.

75. Which of the following has the same relationship as “minnow” and “mammoth” in the clause “This minnow of a nation faces a mammoth task” (lines 28-29)? 1


3. disappearing---existing

2. poor---luxurious 4. important---unimportant

76. The phrase “ make long-term decisions from a global perspective” (lines 30-31) refers to _________. 1. giving a reasonable response 2. signing up to the Kyoto Protocol 3. neglecting household gas emissions 4. constructing concrete flood defenses 77. The President of the Maldives _________. 1. exerted moral pressure against global leaders 2. has not received any reply to his optimistic state letter 3. urged international leaders to accept the Kyoto Protocol 4. supported the Bush administration’s decisions in terms of the Kyoto Protocol 78. The main idea of the passage is __________. 1. the Maldives is suffering from a deadly environmental problem 2. tidal surges are considered a major threat to the Maldives’ survival 3. the wall surrounding the capital will not be able to protect the island from the long-term threat 4. the President of the Maldives tried to persuade the US President to change the Kyoto Protocol

79. The passage implies that __________. 1. this paradise may be faced with extinction if the US does not give it a hand 2. the Maldives did not have enough budget for the tidal protective walls 3. the US rejection of the Kyoto Protocol is based on its national selfinterest 4. officials in the Bush administration and the US lawmakers are to support the Kyoto Protocol 80. The tone of the author is ____________. 1. urgent

2. relaxing

3. doubtful

4. optimistic

As one of the most spectacular sites in the Middle East, Petra has long attracted travelers and explorers. During the 19`h century, the site was visited and documented by several Europeans, after J.L.Burckhardt's initial visit. A synthesis of Petra was published by Libbey and Hoskins in 1905, presenting one of the first overviews in print. Archaeological excavations began in earnest at the turn of the century, with the earliest scientific expedition being published in Arabia Petraea in 1907, by A. Musil. In the 1920's, R.E. Brunnow and A. von Domaszewski surveyed the site and published an ambitious mapping project in their Die Provincia Arabia. This survey has since undergone many necessary revisions, the most recent of which was published by Judith McKenzie in 1990. Modern excavations continue to increase our understanding of the site and correct the work of earlier scholars. In 1958, P.J. Parr and C.M. Bennett of the British School of Archaeology began an excavation of the city center which remains the most informative and scientific to date. Recently, the Petra/Jerash Project, undertaken by the Jordanian Department of Antiquities, the University of Jordan, the University of Utah, and Swiss archaeologists, have excavated a number of monuments at these two sites. Architectural remains now visible at Petra indicate a thriving city; however, despite almost 100 years of excavation, only one percent of the city has been

investigated. The Great Temple was first explored by Brunnow and von Domaszewski, but it was Bachmann, in his revision of the Petra city plan, who postulated the existence of a “Great Temple”, aligned with the Colonnade Street, lying on the hillside to the south. He speculated that the temple was approached through a monumental Propylaeum with a grand staircase leading into a colonnaded, terraced Lower Temenos, or sacred precinct. Given the promise of the Great Temple precinct and its importance in understanding Petra's architectural and intercultural history, it is remarkable that it remained unexcavated until 1993 when the Brown University investigations began. 81. Petra is __________. l.

a survey project

3. an archaeological site

2. a book of expedition 4. a temple in the Middle East

82. You can find information about the earliest description of Petra in the work of ___________ . 1. A. Musil 2. J.L. Burckhardt 3. Libbey and Hoskins 4. R.E. Brunnow and A. von Domaszewski 83. The word “which” in “... the most recent of which was published ...” (line 12) refers to ___________. 1. sites

2. revisions

3. excavations

4. Die Provincia Arabia

84. Which statement is TRUE according to the passage? 1. The city center was not excavated until the mid nineteenth century. 2. Judith McKenzie wrote a book describing her survey in the nineteenth century. 3. The more recent excavations, the more accurate the information we learn about Petra. 4. Only one percent of the city is to be surveyed since archaeologists have undergone a lot of studies for almost 100 years. 85. The phrase “these two sites” (line 20) refers to __________. 1. Petra and Jerash 2. a thriving city and the city center 3. Great Temple and Colonnade Street 4. the University of Jordan and the University of Utah 86. We can infer from the last paragraph that Bachmann based the physical plan of the Great Temple on __________. 1. the excavated staircase

2. his recent study of Petra

3. the remains of the temple

4. his theoretical assumption

87. The excavation of the Great Temple is important because l. it confirms that Bachmann's theory is correct 2. the Great Temple was the heart of the ancient city 3. it provides an insight into Petra's architecture and culture 4. the Great Temple directed visitors to another important structure Propylaeum End of the Reading Test

WRITING Writing I: Each item in this part consists of a sentence with four parts underlined. Select the part (1,2,3 or 4) which is incorrect. 91. Besides proving to be a virtual gold mine for food sources, oceans hold the answer to 1



questions about the historically development of both life and planet. 4 92. Thailand should focus on building up the domestic market and cooked chicken exports 1


while waiting a future opportunity to re-enter the fresh chicken market. 3


93. “Sriburapa” or Kularb Saipradit is remembered as a thinker, a journalist and a fight for 1



human rights. 4 94. The popularity of Italian cuisine grew considerably in Bangkok over the past three to 1




five years. 95. In 1975, the French started a commission which tried stopping, and even gave fines 1



for, the use of English words. 4 96. Some experts are so convincing that colors have a strong effect on us that they believe 1 colors can be used to heal. 4



97. Young professionals, in particularly, tend to be very busy and do not have much time to 1



sit at a restaurant to eat lunch. 4 98. It seems likely that in the future the practice of medicine will consist with a combination 1


of approaches drawn from a variety of cultures. 99. Despite of a U.S. Supreme Court decision in June to uphold the ban on medical 1



marijuana, drug companies are not discouraged. 4 100. To generate donations for scholarships that send need kids to college, Bill Jones relies 1



on his ability to motivate others. 4 101. CIALIS can cause your blood pressure drop suddenly to an unsafe level if it 1


is taken with certain other medicines. 3


102. Using a camouflage device, Fabien Cousteau believes, allow scientists to capture 1



animal behavior in a purer way. 4 103. This book discusses how having a healthy lifestyle and avoiding stress will less your 1 chance of having a stroke. 4



104. Their objective is to explore, questioning and supplement the story of Jim Thompson 1



and his love of Thailand’s cultural heritage. 4 105. Bananas are different from most other cultivated plants in that almost all of the 1



varieties lack of seeds. 4 106. Ford Motors will conduct an environmental impact assessment that will I be detailed 1


the impact of the products and manufacturing facilities on greenhouse gas emissions. 3


107. The Revenue Department uses computers to check tax return computations, to 1


determine the reasonableness of deductions, and for verifying the accuracy of 3 reported income. 4

108. Higher diesel prices have done which even the tsunami failed to do forcing local fish 1



sellers to raise their prices. 4 109. Join the movement towards organizational excellent, and see the competitiveness of 1


your organization being greatly and rapidly enhanced. 4


110. In the letter signed by the entire staff, it was asked when would they receive the 1



promised pay increase. 4 111. Very little is known about the origins of the HIV virus except that it is a fairly recent 1


development which it is a major obstacle for those seeking its cure. 3


112. Having defeated his Turkish enemies, Ataturk then defeated the Greeks and literally 1


thrusted them back into the sea. 3


113. Che Guevara, an Argentinean doctor, who became one of the leaders of the Cuban 1


revolution and encouraged revolution throughout Latin America. 3


114. When the kidneys are hit by too much food waste in the form of uric acid, the acid 1



crystallizes in joints, causes pain. 4 115. People, alike bystanders at a crime scene, assume that someone else will help. 1




116. Flowers, trees and other plants take water to replace that which is lost from their leafs 1 to the atmosphere.




117. Experts say that pretend play, in addition being so much fun, deserves a central place 1



in children’s lives. 4 118. During large outbreaks in recent years in Taiwan and Malaysia, fatalities 1


attributable to foot and mouth disease has been reported. 3


119. We consider no one as having the same kind of skin, hence our treatment for your skin 1



is not the same as your friend. 4 120. Only when gold foil is made into gold leaf it-becomes affordable enough and flexible 1


enough to be used almost like paint. 4


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