CSEC ENGLISH A SAMPLE GUIDE
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A Caribbean Examinations Council® Study Guide
Imelda Pilgrim • Maria Darlington Anthony Perry • Joyce Stewart
A Caribbean Examinations Council® Study Guide
The basic skills Purpose and audience Word choice Word order Punctuation Paragraphing Putting it all together
2 2 4 10 20 28 34
Unit 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8
Reading and writing informative texts Understanding purpose and audience Identifying sequences Fact and opinion Select and use detail Interpret and respond to graphics How writers use words Reading and writing to summarise Writing to inform and explain
36 36 42 46 48 54 60 68 76
Unit 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
86 92 98 102 108 112 118
Unit 4 Reading and writing persuasive and argumentative texts 4.1 Fact and opinion 4.2 Bias and slant 4.3 Techniques of persuasion 4.4 Techniques of argument
124 124 128 132 140
Unit 5 Doing well in your exams 5.1 Doing well in Paper 1 5.2 Doing well in Paper 2
148 148 158
Unit 3 Reading and writing creative texts 3.1 Register, tone and mood 3.2 The writer, the narrator and the speaker 3.3 Characterisation 3.4 Creating character 3.5 Skills in descriptive writing 3.6 Writing descriptions 3.7 Structuring stories 3.8 Writing stories
Unit 6 Practice exam questions Paper 1: Multiple-choice questions Paper 2: Practice exam questions Glossary Index Acknowledgements
168 168 176 182 184 188
1 The basic skills Purpose and audience
LEARNING OUTCOMES In this section you will: • learn the meaning of the terms purpose and audience • recognise clues which help you to identify purpose and audience.
When a writer starts to write, he or she has an intended purpose: the reason or reasons why he or she is writing. For example, a writer may wish to inform, to persuade, to argue, to describe, to advise, to record, to explain or, simply, to entertain. Sometimes a writer may wish to achieve two or more of these purposes. As well as having an intended purpose, a writer will also have an intended audience. The audience is the targeted reader: the person or persons for whom the writer is writing. For example, possible audiences include: young children, teenagers, adults, males, females, elderly persons, religious persons, or individuals with a speciﬁc interest. Sometimes a writer may wish to target more than one particular audience.
1 Think about the following texts. For each one, decide what the writer’s purpose or purposes are likely to be. c A job application
b A newspaper sports article
a A diary entry
d A letter to a friend
2 Think about the following texts. For each one, identify the intended audience or audiences. c A school report
b A letter to a newspaper
d A bus timetable
a An advertisement for a sportswear sale
3 Basing your ideas on your own experience, list at least three main differences between textbooks written for junior school children and textbooks written for senior school children.
We can usually work out the intended purpose and audience by looking for clues in the text. Read the restaurant ﬂyer text and the commentary that follows it. The clues have been highlighted for you in the commentary.
This text is clearly an advertisement. It has two main purposes. One of these is to inform the reader about the restaurant as it gives details about where it is and the kind of food you can eat there. Another purpose is to persuade the reader to go there. Words such as ‘unlimited’, ‘mouth-watering’ and ‘famous’ are used to achieve this purpose. As it refers to a ‘unique dining concept’ it is likely that the intended audience is adults who like to dine out and who are looking for something different.
ACTIVITY 4 Read texts A–C. For each one, identify and record the purpose and audience. List at least two clues which helped you to identify these. You could record your ideas on a chart like the one below. Text
To inform and persuade
Adults who like to dine out
Details about the place Words such as ‘unlimited’ and ‘mouth-watering’ Reference to a ‘unique dining experience’
Once upon a time, not all bullfrogs were plain like their cousins, the lizards. Bredda Croaky was a special bullfrog. His skin glowed with all the rich colours of hibiscus ﬂowers. He used to croak all day long, so that other animals would admire him.
Anansi the spider didn’t like this. He grew jealous of Bredda Croaky and tired of his boastful croaking.
One day …
H. Patten and John Clementson, Clever Anansi and Boastful Bullfrog
Ramshackle homes bulldozed in Brazilian capital RIO DE JANEIRO, Brazil – Yesterday y authorities began the demolition off dilapidated homes in some of the Brazilian n capital’s most unstable slums. Following g last week’s Àoods, which killed over 2000 people around the city, many homes weree considered at high risk from mudslides. Overr 300 houses in the Morro de Uruba favelaa were bulldozed after residents had beenn evacuated on Sunday. Rio mayor, Eduardo Paes, has warned thatt 4,000 families occupying seven of the city’ss slums would soon face eviction in order to o destroy at-risk homes.
In this section you will: • identify when a formal or informal style is appropriate • express ideas in Creole and Caribbean Standard English • recognise the difference between the active and passive voices
As you have seen in Section 1.1, writers write for purpose and audience. These are the factors that determine both what they say and how they say it. Sometimes the writing can be informal and sometimes a formal style of writing is required. Diaries are often written using an informal style. This is because a diary entry is usually written by the writer as a personal record of their thoughts and activities. Blogs are a relatively new form of writing that are written online. In some ways similar to a diary, a blog often gives an account of the day-to-day detail of one person’s life. However, a blog has a much wider audience. Blogs are often written in an informal style to give the impression that the writer is talking directly to the reader. ACTIVITY
2 Read the following entry, taken from a blog written using many characteristics of Creole. The most obvious of these are highlighted for you. Me sea-wall walk shocked me to the core today. Mounds o’ plastic and oil drums banging against the steps, on the seaside of the harbour. I wonder if it is true, that there is a real link between pollution and cancer. And if there is, then why we still allow it in green land of Guyana? Why we supermarkets wrap vegetables and fruit in plastic? (Listen, the food don’t look appealing like that, supermarket owners. It look ready to serve up death in miniature shrouds). Why the chicken people sell chicken in it? Making it hallal (kosher) does make it wholesome? Why we salt-ﬁsh people wrap the ﬁsh in it? Why food vendors continue to sell food in it, then we dump it, blockingup we drains and rivers? Why we let it ﬂoat out to sea and poison the sea-life? If it is true that pollution is deadly, why we media don’t shout about it? nobody don’t give a damn no more.
• learn how to use metaphor and simile • improve your skills in the use of a dictionary and a thesaurus • experiment with using a wider range of vocabulary.
A Formal and informal
1 Separate the following into two lists:
a those that are likely to be written in an informal style b those that are likely to be written in a formal style. A diary entry; a letter of application for a job; a note to a friend; an email to a friend; a letter to a principal; a newspaper article; an exam essay; an advert targeting teenagers; a poster for a book sale.
For each one, identify how the word or phrase would be written in Caribbean Standard English (CSE). You could use a table like the one below. The ﬁrst three have been done for you. Creole
Caribbean Standard English (CSE)
Me sea-wall walk
My walk on the sea wall
why we still
why are we still
3 Using informal language write the text for your own blog entry. Your purpose is to share your ideas, feelings and/or experiences with your audience. Your audience is likely to be people of your own age. You could focus on a particular thing that has happened to you this week. Aim to write 150–200 words. 4 Highlight the places in your writing where your use of language is clearly different from CSE. By the side, identify how the word or phrase would be written in the more formal CSE.
B The active and passive voices
There are many times when writing in an informal style is not appropriate. One of these is writing in examinations. While you may use Creole when writing direct speech within a narrative, you must use CSE at all other times. As you may well spend much of your time talking in Creole, this means that you need to think carefully about the words you use and the order in which you place them.
So far you have considered how the use of Creole can create a more informal style and tone. The word tone is used here to describe the attitudes and feelings of the speaker to his or her subject. You can create either an informal or a formal tone using Caribbean Standard English. For example:
I think it’s going to be a really great carnival this year. (informal tone) It is thought that this year’s carnival will be a truly spectacular affair. (formal tone)
Many verbs can be active or passive.
When the verb is active, the subject performs the action, for example:
1 Copy the table below. Sort the sentences that follow into active and passive. Highlight the subject and the verb in each sentence as shown in the example. Active
One way of creating a more formal tone is through your use of the verb.
I placed the The book book on the was placed table. on the table. a A game was played by the children. b The children played a game.
I placed the book on the table.
c The prayer was read quietly by the woman.
This is called the active voice.
d She read the prayer quietly.
When the verb is passive, the subject is on the receiving end of the action, for example:
e You are considered innocent by this court.
The book was placed on the table.
This is called the passive voice. The passive voice is often used to create a more formal tone.
f This court considers you innocent. g A book was moved by the boy. h The boy moved a book.
C Figurative language Writers do not always use words literally. They sometimes use words to help create a speciﬁc image and expect their readers to interpret these words. ACTIVITY
I’m Not a Rock!
I can’t be your rock anymore I’m just a tiny, rolling stone That hasn’t got a place in life That hasn’t got a home Somehow got stopped as I rolled by By forces in my way And all this dirt that stuck to me’s Now begun to wash away I cannot be your rock at all I’m really just a lot … Of dirt that all got crushed together I am not a rock!
Miranda Sealy, ‘I’m Not a Rock!’
1 Read the poem above and answer the questions that follow.
a Clearly a writer cannot be a rock. What does the image of a rock suggest to you? What is the writer suggesting by saying this? b What is the effect of her describing herself as a tiny, rolling stone?
c Can you suggest what she is referring to in the line: ‘All this dirt that stuck to me’?
d What does the line ‘Of dirt that all got crushed together’ suggest to you about the writer’s feelings about her life?
In the above poem the writer is using words ﬁguratively. She refers to herself as a speciﬁc object, a stone that has gathered dirt, to help the reader understand the point she is making. This type of ﬁgure of speech is called a metaphor. Sometimes, rather than say something is something else, a writer will say something is like something else. For example:
She stood ﬁrm like a rock in times of trouble. She was like a tiny, rolling stone that gathered dirt along the way. This type of ﬁgure of speech is called a simile.
ACTIVITY 2 Which of the following ﬁgures of speech are metaphors and which are similes?
3 For each of the phrases a–f, state what effect is created by the use of the ﬁgure of speech.
a Love is a fragile blossom about to ﬂower.
4 Try writing your own metaphors and similes by completing the following sentences using language ﬁguratively. Love is … The moon shone on the sea like a … The swimmer was a … He ate hungrily like a ….
b The newborn baby was as cute as a cupcake. c The kite danced in the air like a carnival queen. d The lake was a shimmering mirror, gracefully reﬂecting the towering hills. e He focused the telescope and watched carefully like a menacing bird of prey.
Extended similes and metaphors
f The crocodile opened his mouth to reveal a row of shining white daggers.
Sometimes a writer will develop and extend a simile, for example:
The school children crashed through the playground like a bunch of wild animals preparing to corner and devour their prey.
ACTIVITY 5 Extend the following similes.
a His anger rose quickly and ﬁercely like a ﬁre …
b The teacher swept through the room like a hurricane … Sometimes a writer will develop and extend a metaphor. In the following passage the poet develops the idea of the city singing. The highlighted words show you how the metaphor has been extended.
If you listen, you can hear it. The city it sings. If you stand quietly, at the foot of a garden, in the middle of a street, on the roof of a house. It’s clearest at night, when the sound cuts more sharply across the surface of things, when the song reaches out to a place inside you. It’s a wordless song, for the most, but it’s a song all the same, and nobody hearing it could doubt what it sings. And the song sings the loudest when you pick out each note. The low soothing hum of air-conditioners, fanning out the heat and the smells of shops and cafes and ofﬁces across the city, winding up and winding down, long breaths layered upon each other, a lullaby hum for tired streets. Jon McGregor, If Nobody Speaks of Remarkable Things
ACTIVITY 6 Think about the sounds you hear in a playground and list them. Now use your ideas to develop your own extended metaphor. You could use the following sentences as your opening. If you listen, you can hear it. The playground is an orchestra.
D Using a wide range of vocabulary
To do well in your exam, you need to show that you have a wide vocabulary and the ability to choose the best words to suit your purpose. Using a dictionary
One of the most useful tools you have at your disposal is a dictionary. It helps you to: • ﬁnd the meaning of a word you do not know • pronounce the word correctly • spell the word correctly.
A dictionary is organised in alphabetical order. It is not just the ﬁrst letter of the word that counts. When you have several words starting with the same two, three or even more letters, you have to go further into each word to ﬁnd its alphabetical order.
1 Place each of the following sets of words into alphabetical order. a drastic
c grief grind frit grill grime grid grizzly grin grip grievance When you want to ﬁnd a particular word in a dictionary, you should look at the words in bold at the top of the pages. These are the ﬁrst and last words on that page. They are called guide words. If the word you are looking for comes between these two words alphabetically, you are on the correct page. 2 Look at the four words and below the guide words from four pages in a dictionary. Which page would you turn to in order to ﬁnd each word? skull skate skyscraper skill Page 966 sixteen sketch Page 968 skin-tight skylark Page 967 skew skint Page 969 skylight slap Your dictionary will help you broaden your vocabulary. Start to use it frequently.
Using a thesaurus
The English language is rich in synonyms: words that share a similar or related meaning. Lists of such words are contained in a book called a thesaurus. Take, for example, the simple word big. The following words are all synonyms of big: bulky, burly, enormous, extensive, gigantic, great, huge, immense, inﬂated, large, massive, ponderous, swollen. Is it any wonder that examiners despair when students, hoping to gain a CXC qualiﬁcation in English, continue to use the word big?
3 Write down as many words as you can which have a similar meaning to the simple word small. 4 Use a thesaurus to add to your list.
Using words precisely
A writer can better engage the interest of a reader, and impress an examiner, by using words with precise meaning. Take the simple sentence: The man walked down the path. Consider how each of the following creates a different impression of how he walked:
The man ambled …
The man swaggered …
The man limped …
The man hurried …
The man stumbled … The man staggered … The man strolled …
The man tip-toed …
With each of these alternatives, the writer is creating a precise impression for the reader.
A simple sentence can be further enhanced through the use of carefully chosen adjectives and adverbs. Take again the simple sentence: The man walked down the path.
The elderly man walked hesitantly down the muddy path. Adjective: a word which tells you more about a noun (person, place or thing)
Adverb: a word which tells you more about a verb (a word of action) ACTIVITY
7 Show a wider vocabulary range by writing down the following sentences and then adding well-chosen adjectives and adverbs: a The girl spoke to her friend. b The house stood on the hill. c The toy was thrown into the room. d The game was played in the ﬁeld. e The laptop was placed on the desk.
ACTIVITY 5 Now take the simple sentence: The girl said this yesterday. Think of as many different words that could be used to give a more precise impression of how the girl ‘said this’, for example ‘whispered’. List your alternatives. 6 Now look up ‘say’ in a thesaurus to see if you can add to your list.
8 Using different colours, highlight the adjectives and adverbs you have used in the sentences.
In this section you will: • learn about the different functions and types of sentences • make sure there is agreement between subject and verb, and noun and pronoun • practise using the correct tense for a verb • examine the differences between script, direct speech and reported speech • think about how to vary sentence structure
A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense. Sentences can have different functions. The main functions are: • a declaration or statement, for example: ‘Tigers are found in eastern and southern Asia.’ • a question, for example: ‘What happened next?’ • an exclamation, for example: ‘We won the competition!’ • an imperative or directive, for example: ‘Drink six to eight glasses of water a day.’ There are various ways in which sentences can be structured. There are three main types of sentence structure: A simple sentence is the ﬁrst kind of sentence you learnt to write. It consists of one main clause which makes complete sense on it own. For example:
The bus was late. We walked home. µ main clause
µ main clause
A compound sentence has two or more main clauses, usually linked by the coordinating conjunctions ‘and’, ‘or’, ‘but’. For example:
• experiment with different sentence structures and linking words.
A Sentence structures: functions and types
The bus was late and we walked home.
µ µ µ main clause conjunction main clause
In a compound sentence, each clause could stand as a sentence in its own right. A compound sentence can contain several main clauses, for example:
The bus was late and we walked home but it was a long way and we got caught in the rain. In complex sentences, the clauses are not of equal importance. One clause (the subordinate clause) is dependent on the other (the main clause). A subordinate clause cannot stand as a sentence in its own right, for example:
He said that the show would start when the audience was seated. µ main clause
µ subordinate clause
In the example above the two clauses are linked by the subordinating conjunction ‘when’. Other examples of subordinating conjunctions are ‘because’, ‘while’, ‘although’, ‘since’, ‘until’ and ‘after’. These are placed at the beginning of the subordinate clause.
ACTIVITY 4 When writing sentences, writers make decisions according to their purpose and audience. They vary the structure and type of their sentences according to the needs of their readers. Read the following extract. Identify the structure of each sentence. Why do you think the writer has not used complex sentences? Sam and Jasmine love to go to the beach. They like to play on the sand or sometimes they swim in the sea. They are both good swimmers. The waves are often high but they don’t mind. Sometimes their Daddy takes them to the rockpools. They take their nets and they look for little ﬁsh. The ﬁsh usually escape.
1 Identify each of the sentences below as simple, compound or complex. a The young man walked down the street smiling happily because he had got the job he wanted. b He walked towards the reception but there was no one at the desk. c He stopped abruptly. d Although it was almost dark, he could still see clearly. e They enjoyed the carnival and they won the prize for best ﬂoat. 2 Copy and annotate each of the above sentences to show main clauses, subordinate clauses and coordinating or subordinating conjunctions.
5 Continue the story about Sam and Jasmine, which is written for young children. Use only simple and compound sentences. Aim to write between eight and ten sentences.
3 Experiment using the conjunctions ‘and’, ‘or’, ‘but’ to form compound sentences by combining two or more of the following simple sentences. a The shopping centre was crowded. b The young couple went for a coffee. c There was a long queue. d They joined it. e A little girl was crying. f The security man spoke to her.
Another useful way of forming a sentence is shown below:
The young couple walked along the beach and they spotted a swimmer in trouble near the rocks. Walking along the beach, the young couple spotted a swimmer in trouble near the rocks. I wore my ﬁnest outﬁt and I cheerfully joined the carnival parade. Wearing my ﬁnest outﬁt, I cheerfully joined the carnival parade.
In the examples above, the second sentence uses the -ing form of the verb is used. The -ing form of the verb can be used with various other words, such as ‘when’, ‘before’, ‘while’, ‘after’, ‘without’, ‘instead of’. For example: After leaving school, the teacher drove home. Instead of listening to advice, the student decided to revise in her own way. You must sign the indemnity form before entering the race.
ACTIVITY 6 Restructure the following sentences, using the -ing form of the verb at the start. a The boy runs in the race and he trips over at the last hurdle. b The children walked to school and they saw a very unpleasant road accident. c I saw my best friend on the other side of the street and I called out to her. d I believed that all would turn out for the best and I put my faith in God.
Aim to experiment with the way you write your sentences.
B Agreement within sentences It is important that the different parts of a sentence match each other. There are some common mistakes that students make and that examiners would like them to avoid. Subject/verb agreement The verb in a sentence must agree with its subject in number and in person: Subject
Verb (singular) Verb (plural)
The children watches
Mr Jones (i.e. He)
Mr Jones and Mr Andrews (i.e. They)
Notice how it is the singular verb that often ends in an ‘s’!
Sometimes the subject of a sentence is a collective noun, which is a word that refers to a group. For example: crowd, team, ﬂock, herd. In such cases the verb needs to be singular:
The team Th team of cr criick icket keters ters tra raiins ins re regu g la gu larl rly. ly. y
However, if the collective noun is a plural, i.e. crowds, teams, ﬂocks, herds, the verb needs to be plural:
The team Th teamss off criick ket eter terss tr trai ain in re regu g la gu larl rly. ly. y
In a long sentence it is easy to forget the subject and so fail to write the correct form of the verb, for example: Wayne Wayn Wa e an and d Caro Caroll, w wh ho u ho use sed d to to g go o to to tth he ssam he ame e sc sch hooll as ho as George Ge g , was meeting g him in town.
If you ignore the subordinate clause (who used to go to the same school as George) you can see that this is wrong: Wa W ayn y e an and d Ca Caro role ro le wa wass me meet etin et ing in g hi him m in ttow own ow n. n. As ‘Wayne and Carole’ is plural, i.e. ‘they’, the verb should match this, i.e. ‘were meeting’. If in doubt, ask yourself: What is the main subject of this clause/ sentence? Is it singular or plural? Is the verb correct?
ACTIVITY 1 Correct the following sentences to make the verb agree with the subject. a There are a herd of goats in the ﬁeld. b The army are ﬁghting the enemy. c Various teams of student is competing in the contest. d The ladies’ group are going to the shops. e Our parish are supporting that charity.
2 Select the correct form of the verb for each of the following sentences.
a The shopkeeper said that imported goods and local fruit (is/are) never sold in his place.
b When I’m running I feel free, as though all my troubles (is/are) left behind me. c The boy and his mother (searches/search) for his books.
d Neither the dog, which is very large, nor the cat, which is very small, (likes/like) to drink water.
Making pronouns match
e The price of household goods and clothing (is/are) very reasonable in that store and (makes/make) it very competitive.
Pronouns often replace a noun in a sentence and help us to avoid repetition, for example:
The boys went ﬁshing and they caught several large ﬁsh for dinner. pronoun
The most common types of pronouns are:
• personal pronouns: I/me, you, he/him, she/her, we/us, they/them, it • possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs, its. It is important to make sure that any nouns and pronouns used are in agreement. ACTIVITY 3 Correct the following sentences to make the underlined nouns and pronouns agree. a One of the women selling in the market is well known for their sweet-tasting pineapples. b When my son came in, I told he to go down to town and see the Court’s celebrations. c The children were crying because they had lost they sweets. d Peter and I put us food in bags and set out on their bikes for the day. e It rained at the carnival but she was still a great day out.
Making tenses match A tense is a verb form that most often indicates time. English verbs have two basic tenses: past and present. These can be simple or continuous, for example: present I run (simple) I am running (continuous)
past I ran (simple) I was running (continuous)
They can also be perfect, for example: present perfect I have run I have been running (continuous)
past perfect I had run I had been running (continuous)
It is important to make sure that your tenses match within a sentence, for example: She looks across the ﬁeld and smiles at the child who is playing happily. The boy slipped and fell into a ditch because he was not looking where he was going.
The children had been running for the bus, but they stopped when they realised it was late.
It is possible to mix tenses in the same sentence, but you must always use the correct form, for example: past past present ¶ ¶ ¶ When I ﬁrst came here I went to the local church, but now I go to the one in town.
4 Correct the following sentences to make the underlined verbs agree.
a As she sat by the window, she thinks about the days she had spent on vacation. b After she had reached home, my mother begins to prepare dinner. c He sat on top of a covered well and holds a cold bottle of Ting in his hand. d Facebook was the site on the internet I love the most and I am grateful it was invented. e I have live here all my life so I understand why the people are doing this. f This is once a beautiful house but now it is just a ruin.
Notice how the word ‘now’ indicates the move from the past to the present.
Future time can be expressed in English in a number of different ways using ‘will’ or present tenses, for example: The children will arrive tomorrow. The children are going to arrive tomorrow. The children will be arriving tomorrow. The children are arriving tomorrow. The children arrive tomorrow.
ACTIVITY 5 The following sentences are each written in the future tense. a b c d
His mother is going to tell him off. The teacher is setting a test tomorrow. We will talk when we next meet There will be a book sale at the shop next week.
How many other ways can you write them in the future tense?
C Writing speech There are three different ways of recording the spoken word: script, direct speech and reported speech. Script This method is usually used by writers of plays. It may also be used to write the transcript of a speech or conversation. The main features of script are shown below:
On the beach as the sun goes down and night is falling.
Tariq: (angrily turning to face Matthew) Who told you I’d be here?
1 Write your own six to ten lines of script. Decide: • where the conversation will take place • the names of the two characters • what they will say to each other.
Matthew: Nobody told me. I just guessed this was where you’d come. We always used to come here when we were kids. I just guessed … that’s all. Tariq: Well we’re not kids anymore. I’ve got nothing to say to you. (shrugs and begins to walk away)
Matthew: (following behind) Wait! There’s something I have to tell you. Something that puts you in the clear.
You could base it on conversations you have had in school. Remember to use the main features shown above in your writing.
Direct speech is often used in narratives or stories. It may also be used in newspaper reports. The exact words spoken are still used but they have to be introduced so that the reader knows what is going on. Study the use of direct speech in the narrative and work out the correct answers to the questions that follow it on page 16. Night was falling on the beach as the sun dipped behind the horizon. Tariq heard a sound behind him and turned to face his old friend Matthew.
‘Who told you I’d be here?’ he asked angrily. ‘Nobody told me,’ Matthew replied. ‘I just guessed this was where you’d come. We always used to come here when we were kids. I just guessed … that’s all.’ ‘Well,’ Tariq responded, with a softer tone to his voice, ‘we’re not kids anymore. I’ve got nothing to say to you.’ He shrugged and started to walk away. ‘Wait!’ Matthew shouted following him determinedly. ‘There’s something I have to tell you. Something that puts you in the clear.’
ACTIVITY 4 Every sentence spoken starts with:
2 The spoken words are contained within:
a an exclamation or a full stop b a capital letter or inverted commas c a new line or a question.
a capital letters b inverted commas c apostrophes.
5 Every piece of speech is followed by:
3 Each time someone begins to speak, the writer:
a a question mark b an exclamation mark c a punctuation mark.
a leaves a line out b continues writing on the same line c starts a new paragraph.
6 Look back at the script you wrote in Activity 1. Rewrite it as narrative. 7 Underline the spoken words in your script and check that you have presented them correctly.
Reported speech, or indirect speech as it is sometimes called, is often used in ofﬁcial reports and newspaper articles. Reported speech gives the same information as direct speech, but in a different way.
8 Copy and complete this table, rewriting the direct speech as reported speech: Reported speech
He was angry and asked who had told him that he would be there.
‘Nobody told me’, Matthew replied. ‘I just guessed this was where you’d come. We always used to come here when we were kids. I just guessed … that’s all.’
Matthew replied that nobody had told him and that he had just guessed this was where he would be. He reminded him that they always used to go there when they were kids and repeated that all he had done was guess.
‘Who told you I’d be here?’ he asked angrily.
‘Well,’ Tariq responded, with a softer tone to his voice, ‘we’re not kids anymore. I’ve got nothing to say to you.’ ‘Wait!’ Matthew shouted, following him determinedly. ‘There’s something I have to tell you. Something that puts you in the clear.’
As you can see, reported speech requires quite a few changes from direct speech. There are: • changes of pronouns, for example: nobody told me Æ nobody had told him • changes of tense, for example: I just guessed Æ he had just guessed • changes of words to do with time and place, for example: I’d be here Æ he would be there • changes of verbs, for example: always used to come here Æ always used to go there. 9 Rewrite the direct speech in your own narrative as reported speech. Read it aloud to check that it makes clear sense.
D Sentence structures and linking words Good writers consider how to vary sentence structures and length to make their writing more diverse and interesting. There are many ways of doing this. Look at the following sentences:
John and Sam are close friends. They met at primary school. They are both 15 years old. They both enjoy listening to music.
These simple sentences are very repetitive. However, as you saw earlier, short sentences can be built up into longer sentences by using the conjunction ‘and’. But that too can make sentences sound very repetitive if used too much:
John and Sam are ﬁrm friends and they met at primary school and they are both 15 years old and they both enjoy listening to music.
However, there are several other ways in which the details in this sentence could be organised to give emphasis to different points, for example:
Although John and Sam met at primary school, they are now 15 and still ﬁrm friends who enjoy listening to music.
Having met at primary school, John and Sam are ﬁrm friends and, both being 15 years old, enjoy listening to music. John and Sam, ﬁrm friends who ﬁrst met at primary school and are now 15, enjoy listening to music. At 15 years old, John and Sam, who met at primary school and are still ﬁrm friends, enjoy listening to music.
Experimenting with different sentence structures is one of the best ways of ensuring that your writing in the examination is varied and interesting.
ACTIVITY 1 Experiment by rewriting the information contained in the following short sentences in one longer sentence. Try to write three different longer sentences for each set of sentences, as in this example: Swarmi ran for the school team. He came ﬁrst in the 100 metres. His team mates applauded him.
• Having come ﬁrst in the 100 metres when running for the school team, Swarmi was applauded by his team mates. • Swarmi’s team mates applauded him because he came ﬁrst in the 100 metres when running for the school team. • When running for the school team, Swarmi came ﬁrst in the 100 metres and his team mates applauded him. a Kylie K li was crowned d carnival i l queen. She Sh was delighted. d li ht d She Sh won a free makeover for her mother. b Larissa and Kamal went to the park. They sat on a bench. They talked about their holiday.
c The girl looked through the window. It was dark inside. She could see a mysterious ﬁgure.
In order to vary sentences structures you need to be able to:
• vary the order in which you present detail to the reader • use the right linking words and phrases. Linking words and phrases have a number of different purposes.
2 The most widely used linking words and phrases are listed below. They have a number of different purposes. Copy the following table and sort the words and phrases according to their purpose. You will ﬁnd that two columns contain more words than the others. Words which identify a person or thing
Words which explain
Words which qualify
Words which develop
Words which allow
Words associated with time
in order to that
in order whose
whom that even if
before unless so that
because while which
3 Choose ten of the linking words or phrases listed above. For each word you choose, write a sentence containing that word.
There is a link between the length of sentences and the kind of thing the writer is trying to say in them. Short sentences are usually clear and to the point. They are ideal for giving instructions. ACTIVITY 4 If you were a motorist, which of the following sets of directions would you ﬁnd most helpful? Explain the reasons for your choice.
nction At the road ju ceed ro P turn right. etres. m for about 200 ss pa ou y As soon as , ts h g the trafﬁc li tinue turn left. Con ely 2 at for approxim the ss Pa kilometres. ol ho sc he city park. T r is fo g in you are look r ou y on ly immediate left.
When you get to the road ju nction, which is of ten very busy, espe cially at lunch hour, you should take a righthand turn. You’ ll pass some sh ops and a supermar ket and possib ly a bank before yo u get to some trafﬁc lights about 20 0 metres alon g the road. When yo u get to these trafﬁc lights turn left and continue dr iving along this road through some more busy streets wi th lots of shop s and some business centres. After about 2 kilometres yo u’ll come to th e city park, which is where all the m ain parades start. Go a little bit further on past this pa rk and you’ll ﬁnd the school set back a bit on the le ft-hand side of the road .
5 Using short sentences, write a set of clear directions for how to get from your home to another place you know well.
LEARNING OUTCOMES In this section you will: • work out why we use punctuation when we write • revise how to use a wide range of punctuation marks • practise using a range of punctuation marks appropriately.
A The basics We do not use punctuation when we speak, so why do we need to use punctuation when we write? Read the extract below and work out some answers to this question. thesunsetslowlyoverthedistantdeepblueoceanschontalwatchedit wistfullybeforeslowlyrisingfromherchairontheverandaandmoving insideshewasstruckimmediatelybythecooloftheairconsystemitbreathed newlifeintoherandtoldhertohurryandpreparetheeveningmealasher childrenwouldsoonbearriving.
You have probably worked out that when we speak we use: • pauses to separate words and sentences • tone to give emphasis to questions and exclamations.
When we write we need to:
• leave spaces between words so the reader can see clearly where one word ends and another starts • use punctuation to help the reader make sense of what we have written – without punctuation, it is almost impossible for a reader to follow what we have written. You are now going to revise and practise how to punctuate sentences using:
• capital letters • full stops • question marks • exclamation marks • semicolons.
Capital letters Capital letters are used for a range of different reasons: • At the start of each sentence: The lady stopped and put her bag down. She looked around her with a puzzled expression. This town had changed so much. • For the personal pronoun I. • For the ﬁrst letter of proper nouns (people’s names, place names, names of days and months): On Tuesday Clarence will see Karen and he’ll ask her if she’s coming to the dance in June. • For the ﬁrst letter of titles of people and organisations: They asked the Principal, Mr Jameson, to attend the meeting of the Voluntary Association Committee.
• At the beginning of a new piece of direct speech: Angrily, he replied, ‘They didn’t tell us where they were going.’ • For the main words in titles of books, plays, games, ﬁlms, etc. His favourite book is The Cay and his favourite ﬁlm is The Lord of the Rings. ACTIVITY 1 The following extract has all the correct punctuation apart from capital letters. Rewrite the extract placing capital letters where needed.
hindus in trinidad celebrate the lesser-known religious festival of ganga dashara in ‘youthful stages’ of the marianne river in the month of june. devotees spend the day paying homage to several hindu deities, the most important being ganga ma, the river goddess who brought water to the earth.
a second religious river festival known as oshun takes place in august at the mouth of the salybia river in balandra. this orisha festival is similar to ganga dashara in many ways.
2 Twenty capital letters were needed to correct the extract. Check your work and see if you identiﬁed them all. If not, try again.
The main use of a full stop is to mark the end of a sentence: The alley was dark and narrow and full of shadows. The children crept nervously through it.
If you do not use full stops to punctuate sentences correctly, readers will ﬁnd it very difﬁcult to follow what you have written.
3 The following paragraph contains six sentences. The sentences have no capital letters at the start and no full stops at the end of them. Read the paragraph through ﬁrst to make sense of it and to identify the six sentences. leeches are segmented worms with a sucker at each end forest species hang by their rear sucker when a victim brushes past, they catch hold using the front sucker and start feeding leeches that feed on humans are common in rainforests in India they come out during the monsoon leeches usually fall off after feeding, but can attach themselves inside the nostrils of animals and, more rarely, to people who drink from streams BBC Wildlife Magazine, April 2006
4 Now rewrite the paragraph using capital letters and full stops in the correct places. 5 Read your punctuated version aloud. It should make clear sense. If it does not, you need to rethink where you have placed your punctuation marks.
Question marks and exclamation marks There are two other punctuation marks that can be used at the end of a sentence.
The question mark is used to mark the end of a question: How old are you? Who is that girl sitting at the back?
The exclamation mark may also be used at the end of an interjection: Oh no!
The exclamation mark is used to show expression and it is a command/imperative. It also marks the end of a sentence: Get out now!
6 Decide which of the following sentences should end in a full stop, a question mark or an exclamation mark and rewrite the paragraph.
Have H a you ever read d a bbookk you just could ldn’t ’ put downn— Well, if not, you need to try Smokescreen— It’s the action book with everything needed to keep you on the edge of your seat until the very last page— Like all the other books in this s ries,, this one’s a winnerr— Read it now— se
The semicolon can be used to take the place of a full stop between sentences that are closely linked in meaning, for example: The ﬁrst book was more interesting, with tales of mystery and adventure; the second one was just plain boring.
The semicolon may also be used to separate items in a list, when the items are too long to be separated by commas: The class raised the grand total by staging a wide range of events: a sponsored run through the centre of town; daily cake stalls throughout November; a book sale in the church hall; and, to their teachers’ great delight, a sponsored silence. The use of the semicolon is often very subtle. Look out for it in your general reading and make a note of how different writers use it.
B Commas and brackets Commas to separate items on a list
When you are writing lists in a sentence you need to separate the items with commas. The ﬁnal comma before the ‘and’ is usually left out. For example:
If you ever explore this area you ﬁnd you can go swimming in the warm ocean, play football on the green, visit a range of exciting shops and eat the most delicious foods.
ACTIVITY 1 Copy the following sentences. Place commas between the items in the lists to make the sentences easier to follow. a He opened the bag warily and inside found a crumpled note a rusty key some foreign coins a faded photograph and a suspicious-looking parcel. b Anti-virus software is provided to protect computers against infected ﬁles provide support systems and automatically update virus deﬁnitions.
Commas to mark off extra information When you give extra information about something or somebody, you use commas to separate it from the main sentence. For example:
Alf Johnson, 32, claimed he had bought the car the day before. Mr Johnson, a father of four, was unable to show a receipt and Judge Benjamin Carr, a most respected member of the Court of Justice, found him guilty of theft. ACTIVITY
2 Copy the following sentences. Underline the words that give you extra information and put commas around them:
The street watched in wonder when Charlie Sooner the well-known local hero was up to his tricks again. This time Charlie 72 climbed a ladder to rescue his neighbour’s cat. Mrs Elkin Charlie’s neighbour for 27 years had called for help when her cat had chased a bird up a tree and got stuck. Charlie war veteran and grandfather of eight didn’t hesitate.
Commas to separate different parts of a sentence
Commas help the reader to make sense of what you have written. They mark a pause, in the same way as we would pause when speaking. Say the following sentence aloud:
Although the bus was late he still got to school on time. To make clear sense of the sentence, you need to pause after ‘late’. That is where you place your comma: Although the bus was late, he still got to school on time.
The best ways to learn how to use commas well are to:
ACTIVITY 3 Read the following sentences aloud. Decide where commas should be placed. a He still got to school on time even though the bus was late. b On the other hand there might be a way to ﬁx it safely.
• take notice of how other writers use them • read your writing aloud, to help you work out where you need to place the commas. ACTIVITY 5 Read the following extract from a computer manual. Notice how the commas have been used to help the reader follow the meaning.
Your computer can catch a virus from disks, a local network or the internet. Just as a cold virus attaches itself to a human host, a computer virus attaches itself to a program. And just like a cold, it is contagious. Like viruses, worms replicate themselves. However, instead of spreading from ﬁle to ﬁle, they spread from computer to computer, infecting an entire system.
c Having set the alarm incorrectly Carl was very late for work. d Before you open the gate make sure the dog is in the kennel.
6 Write a passage that could be used in a manual or guide. It can be based on a thing or a place that you know something about. Aim to write 60–70 words and use sentences that need commas.
4 Rewrite the sentences placing the commas correctly.
Brackets may also be used to separate a section of writing from the main text so as not to disrupt the ﬂow of the sentence. For example:
Ki ston, King Ki t the capit th itall off JJamaica, i is sit ituatted d on tth he riich h pllains i off Liguanea (an ancient Arawak Indian name pronounced Lig-a-nee) between the cays and banks of the eastern coast and the mighty B ue Bl u Mountains.
I arrived i d latte ffor tth he b bus ((b by more th than tthi hirty t minut i tes)) but, t due to o the rains,, it still had not arrived. th
C Apostrophes and inverted commas Apostrophes
The apostrophe has two uses: • to show where one or more letters have been missed out (omission) • to show that something belongs to someone or something (possession).
Using apostrophes for omission
Instead of saying I am, we often use the shortened form of I’m, missing out the letter a. The apostrophe is used in writing to show that a letter or letters have been missed out. we are Æ we’re
is not Æ isn’t
they have Æ they’ve
cannot Æ can’t
The apostrophe is placed in the exact spot where the missing letter or letters would have appeared. ACTIVITY 1 Copy and complete the following. they are Æ ------------ should not Æ ------------
they would Æ _________ we have Æ _________
it is Æ _________ John is Æ _________ I have Æ _________ I will Æ _________
2 Copy and complete the following message. Use apostrophes to shorten the underlined words.
I would really like to join you on your birthday. Unfortunately, I have a meeting planned for the same date. Hopefully, I will be able to leave a bit early so it should not be too late to meet up with you. It will be good to see you again. Hope you are keeping well and have not had too many problems with work. 3 There are a few commonly used words that do not follow the normal rule. You need to learn these.
will not becomes won’t shall not becomes shan’t
Using apostrophes for omission
We rarely say the house of my friend. We would be more likely to say my friend’s house. In this case the apostrophe is used to show that the house belongs to the friend. The friend is the possessor. Where you place the apostrophe depends on whether the possessor is singular or plural.
Plural, ending in s
Plural, not ending in s
When the possessor is singular, as in the case of Paul, the apostrophe is placed after the word and an s is added.
When the possessor is plural and already ends in an s, we just add an apostrophe.
When the possessor is plural but does not end in an s, we add an apostrophe and an s.
For example: the friend of Paul Æ Paul’s friend
For example: the school of the girls Æ the girls’ school
For example: the children of the men Æ the men’s children
ACTIVITY 4 Copy and complete the following: a the daughter of the woman Æ ____________________________ b the football kits of the boys Æ ____________________________ c the homes of the women Æ ____________________________ d the passengers of the boat Æ ____________________________ e the staffroom of the teachers Æ ____________________________ f the toys of the children Æ ____________________________
It is important to remember that the possessive words yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs are not written with an apostrophe. The word it’s should only have an apostrophe when it is being used as the shortened form of it is.
5 The following passage should contain seven apostrophes to show possession. Rewrite the passage putting the apostrophes in the correct places.
Abduls mother told him not to go to Muhammeds house at all during the weeks holiday. However, while she was at work, he borrowed his brothers bike and went straight there. There was no one in, though the younger childrens toys were still out on the lawn. Abduls window was open and Muhammed climbed in through it, intending to wait for him. Unfortunately for Muhammed, he was spotted by the neighbours dog and then by the neighbour …
You have already revised how to use inverted commas in direct speech. Look back to pages 15–16 to refresh your memory.
The second main use for inverted commas is when a writer is quoting from another text, for example: The recipe instructed the chef to ‘stir in the spices’. Study the use of inverted commas for quotation by completing the following activities.
ACTIVITY 6 Read the advert for holidays in Barbados.
The place for you!
Barbados is a small but beautiful island with stunning beaches, friendly people, much to see and do, a serene atmosphere, and some of the best Caribbean resorts available. Looking for an island for your Caribbean honeymoon? In Barbados you will ¿nd the best Caribbean resorts for your romantic getaway. Choose from the many Barbados resorts and hotels that offer Caribbean honeymoon and wedding packages. Whether it’s for a Caribbean honeymoon, a family vacation or a group holiday, resorts in Barbados have the ideal accommodation for you. Let us help you ¿nd the perfect Barbados resort for your Caribbean holiday! Use our Barbados hotels search or select one of our Caribbean vacation packages with a choice of several hotels on the Caribbean.
7 Now study the extract below, from a student’s writing about the advertisement. The annotations help you to understand how to quote correctly from a text.
The writer targets the reader directly by using the word ‘you’ at the close of the title. The reader is shown that Barbados is suitable for different types of holidays, ranging from ‘a Caribbean honeymoon’ to a ‘group holiday’. The appeal to different groups is emphasised in the offer of ‘ideal’ accommodation for all. The advertiser reveals its function in the sentence: ‘Let us help you ﬁnd the perfect Barbados resort for your Caribbean holiday!’
Quotation marks are placed before and after the words taken from the advertisement.
g 8 Copy the following passage, which is also about the advertisement. Add inverted commas and a colon where needed.
More than one quotation can be used in the same sentence. A quotation can be used to give emphasis to a particular word or phrase. A colon can be used to introduce a longer quotation.
The opening list with its stunning beaches, friendly people, much to see and do is designed to tempt the reader. The notion that this is the best place to go to is emphasised by the use of the word perfect. It is recommended as a romantic location through its direct appeal to newly weds Looking for an island for your Caribbean honeymoon? The directives use and select further target and persuade the reader.
LEARNING OUTCOMES In this section you will: • use topic sentences to help you to identify what a paragraph is about • learn how to link ideas within and between sentences in a paragraph • decide on a logical order for a series of paragraphs • learn how to link paragraphs • learn how to plan for paragraphing.
A What is a paragraph? Most writing is organised into paragraphs. This helps the reader to follow more easily the points being made. Each paragraph marks a new stage or idea in the writing. In handwritten texts a new paragraph is usually signalled by the writer starting a new line about an inch in from the margin. In typed texts a writer sometimes leaves a line out. The ﬁrst sentence of a paragraph is sometimes called the topic sentence. It often gives you a clue as to what the paragraph is going to be about. Read ‘A Star is Born’ on page 29 and use the topic sentences to help you identify what each paragraph is about.
Sentences should follow a logical order within a paragraph. Here is a sentence breakdown of the ﬁrst paragraph of the passage:
Sentence 1 – statement about Rihanna’s childhood Sentence 2 – information about her birth Sentence 3 – information about her parents Sentence 4 – information about the school she attended when her parents split up Sentence 5 – information about her interest in music at this time
As you can see, there is a logical order in the way the details are given to the reader.
As well as having a logical order, the sentences of a paragraph must be coherently linked. Highlighting parts of the sentences can help you to see the connections between sentences. The highlighted parts of the following paragraph show you the connections of ideas within and between sentences.
There was nothing too unusual about Rihanna’s childhood. She was born as Robyn Rihanna Fentyy on 20 February 1988 in the Parish of St Michael, Barbados. Herr father Ronald was Bajann and herr mother, Monica, was Guyanese; theyy split whenn Rihannaa was fourteen. n At the time she was attending the Combermere High School in Waterford, St Michael. She always enjoyed singing to friends and family and it was at about this time that she formed a musical group with a couple of herr classmates.
ACTIVITY 1 Look again at the paragraph above. List: • all the direct references to Rihanna • all references to the time when her parents split up.
ACTIVITY 2 Now copy the second paragraph from the passage below. Track the references to the highlighted words through the paragraph and highlight them.
4 Highlight the links you have made within your paragraph.
Things changed for the young Rihanna in December 2003. A friend introduced her to Evan Rogers, a music producer from New York City who was on holiday in Barbados. From that point on, she never looked back. Together with Rogers, and co-producer Carl Sturken, she produced a demo CD containing twelve songs. The demo disc was sent to various record labels and people in the music industry and eventually it led to her signing a deal with the label Def Jam Recordings.
3 Write a coherent paragraph about yourself that could be included in a biography. Remember that ideas: • need to follow a logical order • should make links within and between sentences.
her to Evan Rogers, a music producer from New York City who was on holiday in Barbados. From that point on, she never looked back. Together with Rogers, and co-producer Carl Sturken, she produced a demo CD containing twelve songs. The demo disc was sent to various record labels and people in the music industry and eventually it led to her signing a deal with the label Def Jam Recordings.
There was nothing too unusual about Rihanna’s childhood. She was born as Robyn Rihanna Fenty on 20 February 1988 in the Parish of St Michael, Barbados. Her father Ronald was Bajan and her mother, Monica, was Guyanese; they split when Rihanna was fourteen. At the time she was attending the Combermere High School in Waterford, St Michael. She always enjoyed singing to friends and family and it was at about this time that she formed a musical group with a couple of her classmates.
A Star is Born
Success was soon to follow. In August 2005, the Def Jam label launched Rihanna’s debut album entitled Music of the Sun which Things changed for the made number 10 on the young Rihanna in December US Billboard 200 chart. In 2003. A friend introduced less than a year, Rihanna’s
second album entitled A Girl Like Me was released. It turned platinum and its ¿rst single, ‘SOS’, topped the charts, with a second entitled ‘Unfaithful’ also becoming an international hit. In her short time at the top Rihanna has sold millions of albums all over the world and has been awarded a number of titles including ‘World’s Best Pop Selling Female Artist’ in 2007’s World Music Awards and ‘Favorite Pop/Rock Female Artist’ in 2008’s American Music Awards. In 2008 she also received her very ¿rst Grammy Award: ‘Best Rap/ Sung Collaboration’ for her single ‘Umbrella’. Rihanna
has been con¿rmed for this year’s edition of the famous Rock in Rio festival. The event is one of the biggest music festivals in the world and will take place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
B Ordering and linking paragraphs As you have seen, you need to organise your ideas in a logical order within a paragraph. The paragraphs themselves also need to be sequenced in a logical order. ACTIVITY 1 A journalist is writing an article entitled ‘Tourism in the Caribbean’. Below is a list of the seven different areas he intends to cover in seven paragraphs. Decide the best order for him to cover these areas. 3
The importance of tourism to the Caribbean economy Why tourists come to the Caribbean How tourism can be improved Problems created by tourism Popular tourist destinations What the local people say about tourists The history of tourism in the Caribbean
a b c d e f g
As you will have realised, there are a number of different ways in which these paragraphs could be organised logically. The journalist ﬁnally decided to place his ﬁrst four paragraphs in the following order:
• The history of tourism in the Caribbean • Why tourists come to the Caribbean • Popular tourist destinations • The importance of tourism to the Caribbean economy Having a paragraph outline made the writing easier. As the journalist was not using subheadings, he then had to ensure that his paragraphs were linked in a logical way. While each paragraph moves the reader on to a new area, the paragraphs are linked by their opening sentences.
2 Read the four paragraphs written by the journalist on the next page. 3 Correctly match the following annotations to the opening sentence of each paragraph. • Refers to tourists of the past and today • Refers to tourists of the past • Refers to tourists of today and tourists of the future • Refers to tourists of today
4 The journalist still has three paragraphs to write. They are about: • how tourism can be improved • problems created by tourism • what the local people say about tourists. Write an appropriate opening sentence for each of these paragraphs.
Tourism in the Caribbean While early tourists favoured islands according to their nationality, with the English visiting Nevis, Barbados and Jamaica, and the French heading for Martinique, today’s tourist is more likely to pick an island for what it offers, rather than for its historical associations. Many visit Barbados for its beaches, while the waterfalls of Dominica draw a wide range of visitors, as does the Blue Hole of Belize. Scuba divers often head to Turks and Caicos, while those in search of romance, and even a wedding, might head for St Lucia. With visitor numbers being so high, tourism clearly plays an important part in the Caribbean economy. For countries such as Antigua and Barbuda, and the Virgin Islands, tourism is the biggest contributor, and it is not just the tour operators and hoteliers who make money. Farmers, ﬁshermen, merchants and those in the construction trade all beneﬁt from the steady stream of people with money to spend. However, there is a negative side in that the Caribbean is particularly susceptible to the fortunes of the world economy, though concern is growing as to what will happen if the visitors stop coming.
Tourists have been coming to sample the delights of the Caribbean for over 200 years. The Bath Hotel on the island of Nevis opened in 1778, the nearby hot springs being one of its main attractions for foreign visitors, and by the late nineteenth century the Caribbean was a popular destination for the wealthy and those with the time to make the journey. However, it was not until the advent of regular non-stop international airplane ﬂights in the 1960s that the market started to open up to the less rich, but equally adventurous, ‘common man’. Today, millions of tourists visit the Caribbean each year. They come both by air and by sea, some staying for just a few hours as they hop from island to island. The attractions of the islands remain as they always were: warm seas; dazzling coral reefs; beautiful beaches; stunning sunsets; and, of course, a warm and welcoming people. Visitors come to experience the frenzy of the carnival, the trials and triumphs of the golf course and the never-ending array of delicious foods.
C Planning for paragraphs The writer of the article about tourism in the Caribbean found it helpful to have an outline of what he wanted to write about in each paragraph. Before you can develop a paragraph plan, you need to think about your subject and gather ideas connected with it. Take, for example, the following task: Write an article for a school magazine in which you inform other students and parents about a recent school event. Start by identifying the purpose (what you are hoping to achieve) and the audience (who you are writing for) and highlight these in the question.
The next step is to make a note of ideas connected with the subject. You could list these or use a spidergram, as shown below. 7 p.m. on 6 June – parents come – everyone very nervous
Judges – no teachers – community leaders
Singing/dancing/ magic/comedy – worst and best acts – votes for best act
Staff/pupils – auditions and rehearsals
Hall packed – tickets $2
Principal speech at start – applause at end – everyone happy
Money going to support school sports teams
Once you have ideas, they need to be grouped and put in order. You could use four headings your ideas, for example:
Paragraph 1 – preparations Paragraph 2 – performances Paragraph 3 – judging Paragraph 4 – success Each paragraph heading can now be used as a ‘hook’ on which to hang your ideas, and you may think of new ideas to add. For example:
• Preparations: auditions and rehearsals – 7 p.m. on 6 June school hall – parents come – Principal’s speech • Performances: everyone very nervous – singing/dancing/magic/ comedy – worst and best acts • Judging: judges – no teachers – community leaders – votes for best act – tension – winner • Success: hall packed – applause at end – everyone happy – tickets $2 – $300 raised for school sports teams ACTIVITY
1 Choose one of the following writing tasks. • Write an article for your local newspaper advising parents on the most effective ways of dealing with their teenage children. • ‘Jewellery should not be allowed in schools.’ Write an essay giving your views on this subject. • Write a letter to an aunt who has been living in the US for the past 20 years and is visiting you and your family. Describe the place you live in and tell her of your plans for her visit. 2 Identify your audience and purpose.
3 Draw a spidergram and put down as many ideas as you can connected with your subject.
4 Decide on four paragraph headings under which to group your ideas.
5 Sort your ideas according to these paragraph headings, adding new ideas if you have them. Linking words
As you saw on Activity 3 on page 30, writers sometimes link paragraphs through the topic sentences. It is also possible to make connections between paragraphs by using a range of linking words and phrases. Here are some words and phrases that are useful for linking paragraphs.
a As well
Third ly …
s… Nevertheles Notw
ver … Howe
Secondly … y… LINK
With regard to …
As a direct co
Finally nsequence of
. This does not mean that … t to .. s a r t n In co
Look back at page 18. Make a list of the linking words and phrases given to you there. Add the words and phrases provided here to that list and learn them all.
Putting it all together
In this section you will:
1 Word choice Rewrite the following paragraph by changing and adding words to show you have a wide range of vocabulary.
We were waiting for the bus when it arrived. The driver took us to the bus station in town. When we got there we decided to go to the shops. Having spent about two hours shopping, we decided to meet up with some other friends. They met us in town. The ﬁrst thing we did was go back to their house to drop off our bags as they were so heavy. Then we set off back to town. We stopped at a café and had some lunch before going on to the market. There were lots of things to see there, including a really good toy stall where I bought my Christmas presents for all my nephews and nieces.
• review your learning in this unit • complete a piece of extended writing • complete an extension activity.
2 Word order In the following paragraphs, the writer has made several errors with subject/verb agreement, use of pronouns and use of tenses. Rewrite the paragraphs, correcting the errors.
I’ve been interested in running ever since I was about 10 and watch Usain Bolt winning three gold medals in the Beijing Olympics. I ﬁnd that running are a great way to keep ﬁt and lose weight. You don’t need to have the proper running shoes or clothes to go running though they does help. I only wears my Puma trainers for running so that me don’t wear them out too quickly. Since I start running, I’ve joined a club and now have a coach and my times is really improving. He make us work hard but she worth it. Last week I ran my personal best in the 200 metres. When me running me feel free, as though all me troubles is left behind and I don’t need to worry about anything anymore. My mother’s also very happy about it. Her says it keep me out of trouble!
3 Paragraphing Look back at the paragraph plan you made on page 33. You are now going to use it to help you write four paragraphs on your chosen essay title. Remember to: • write for purpose and audience • use similes and metaphors if appropriate • vary your vocabulary • vary your sentence structures • write in organised and linked paragraphs • use punctuation accurately to help your reader follow your ideas.
4 Punctuation The following paragraph has been written without punctuation. Copy it and punctuate it correctly.
Punctuation An ellipsis is a form of punctuation. It appears as three dots following a word.
the future holds many dreams and many worries for all of us i dont know any student who knows what he or she wants to do on leaving school do you theres a part of me which would just like to forget about getting qualiﬁcations and a job and travel the world however i know that if i did that my mum would kill me and my aunty sarah would probably never talk to me again mr sweeney my geography teacher thinks i should try to become a surveyor and i think i might enjoy that id need good grades in my exams so that I could go on and study further
An ellipsis may be used in the middle of a quotation to indicate that some words have been left out, for example:
The Minister said that, despite the current economic depression, ‘the signs with regard to employment and overseas sales … were promising for future security’.
Some writers may use an ellipsis at the end of a story to suggest that something is about to happen, for example: The boy turned sharply. He knew now what lay behind that dark and threatening door. Slowly, he turned the key …
At other times they may use it in the middle of a story to mark a pause in the action or the passage of a period of time, for example: All was quiet in the homestead as the sun set behind the distant mountains … Day broke and with it came the cries of the children. Look out for the use of the ellipsis when you are reading. Collect examples of it being used effectively and experiment with using it occasionally in your own writing.
A Caribbean Examinations Council® Study Guide
Developed exclusively with the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC®), this study guide will provide candidates in and out of school with additional support to maximise their performance in CSEC® English A.
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Written by an experienced team comprising teachers and experts in the CSEC® English A syllabus and examination, this study guide covers the elements of the syllabus that you must know in an easy-to-use double-page format. Each topic begins with the key learning outcomes from the syllabus and contains a range of features designed to enhance your study of the subject, such as: Engaging activities to transfer theory into practice and extend understanding Links to illustrate where skills are shared between topics. Examination-style practice questions to build conﬁdence ahead of your examinations
This comprehensive self-study package includes a fully interactive CD, containing multiplechoice questions and sample examination answers with accompanying examiner feedback, to build your skills and conﬁdence as you prepare for the CSEC® English A examination.
The Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC®) has worked exclusively with Nelson Thornes to produce a series of Study Guides across a wide range of subjects at CCSLC®, CSEC® and CAPE®. Developed by expert teachers and resource persons, these Study Guides have been designed to help students reach their full potential as they study their CXC® programme.
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