core abilities tahap 3 modul 4
modul 4 core abilities tahap 3...
JABATAN PEMBANGUNAN KEMAHIRAN KEMENTERIAN SUMBER MANUSIA ARAS 7 & 8 BLOK D4, KOMPLEKS D 62502 PUTRAJAYA
KERTAS PENERANGAN PROGRAM / PROGRAM
NCS – CORE ABILITIES (Z009)
TAHAP / LEVEL
NO. DAN TAJUK MODUL/ MODULE NO. AND TITLE
04 – TEAM WORK DEVELOPMENT 03.13 : DEVELOP AND MAINTAIN TEAM HARMONY AND RESOLVE CONFLICTS
KEBOLEHAN / ABILITIES
02.11 : CONVEY INFORMATION AND IDEAS TO PEOPLE 03.14 : FACILITATE AND COORDINATE TEAMS AND IDEAS 06.07 : DEVELOP AND MAINTAIN NETWORKS AT THE END OF THIS MODULE, TRAINEES WILL BE ABLE TO:1. DEVELOP AND MAINTAIN TEAM HARMONY AND RESOLVE CONFLICTS
OBJEKTIF MODUL / MODULE OBJECTIVE
2. CONVEY INFORMATION AND IDEAS TO PEOPLE 3. FACILITATE AND COORDINATE TEAMS AND IDEAS 4. DEVELOP AND MAINTAIN NETWORKS APPLY PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES
NO. KOD/ CODE NO TITLE / TAJUK:
Page : 1 of 9
TEAM WORK DEVELOPMENT
TUJUAN / OBJECTIVE(S): The objective of this topic is to:1.
Develop and maintain team harmony and resolve conflicts
Convey information and ideas to people
Facilitate and coordinate teams and ideas
Develop and maintain networks give full understanding regarding problem solving strategies that can be apply in organization or in personal life.
NO. KOD/ CODE NO
2 of 9
INTRODUCTION A team (A unit of two or more people who interact and coordinate their work to accomplish a specific goal.) is a unit of 2 or more people who interact and coordinate their work to accomplish a specific goal. This definition has three components. First, 2 or more people are required. Teams can be quite large, running to as many as 75 people, although most have fewer than 15 people. Second, people in a team have regular interaction. People who do not interact, such as when standing in line at a lunch counter, or riding in an elevator, does not compose a team. Third, people in a team share a performance goal, whether it is to design a new type of hand calculator or write a textbook. Students often are assigned to teams to do class work assignments, in which case the purpose is to perform the assignment and receive an acceptable grade. Although a team is a group of people, the two terms are not interchangeable. An employer, a teacher, or a coach can put together a group of people and never build a team. The team concept implies a sense of shared mission and collective responsibility. Work team effectiveness is based on two outcomes productive output and personal satisfaction. Satisfaction pertains to the team’s ability to meet the personal needs of its members and hence maintain their membership and commitment. Productive output pertains to the quality and quantity of task outputs as defined by team goals. The factors that influence team effectiveness begin with the organizational context. Important team characteristics are the type of team, the team structure, and team composition. Managers must decide when to create permanent teams within the formal structure and when to use a temporary task team. Team size and roles also are important. Managers must also consider whether a team is the best way to do a task. If costs outweigh benefits, managers may wish to assign an individual employee to the task. These team characteristics influence processes internal to the team, which in turn affect output and satisfaction. Leaders must understand and manage stages of development, cohesiveness, norms, and conflict in order to establish an effective team. These processes are influenced by team and organizational characteristics and the ability of members and leaders to direct these processes in a positive manner. In the following sections, we will examine types of organizational teams, team structure, internal processes, and team benefits and costs.
TYPES OF TEAMS Many types of teams can exist within organizations. The easiest way to classified teams is in terms of those created as part of the organization’s formal structure and those created to increase employee participation. 2.1.
Formal teams (A team created by the organization as part of the formal organization structure) are created by the organization as part of the formal organization structure. Two common types of formal teams are vertical and horizontal, which typically represent vertical and horizontal structural relationships. These two types of teams are illustrated in Exhibit 1. A third type of formal team is the special-purpose team.
NO. KOD/ CODE NO
3 of 9
A vertical team is composed of a manager and his or her subordinates in the formal chain of command. Sometimes called a Functional team or a command team, the vertical team may in some cases include three or four levels of hierarchy within a functional department. Typically, the vertical ream includes a single department in an organization. A financial analysis department, a quality control department, an accounting department, and a human resource department are all command teams. Each is created the organization to attain specific goals through members’ joint activities and interactions. 2.3.
A horizontal team is composed of employees from about the same hierarchical level but from different areas of expertise. A horizontal team is drawn from several departments, is given a specific task, and may be disbanded after the task is completed. The two most common types of horizontal teams are task forces and committees. A task force is a group of employees from different departments formed to deal with a specific activity and existing only until the task is completed. Sometimes called a cross-functional team, the task force might be used to create a new product in a manufacturing organization or a new history curriculum in a university. Several departments are involved, and many views have to be considered, so these tasks are best served with a horizontal team. Contact among team members was intense, and principal players met every day. A committee is generally long-lived and may be a permanent part of the organization’s structure. Membership on a committee is usually decided by a person’s title or position rather than by personal expertise. A committee often needs official representation, compared with selection for a task force, which is based on personal qualifications for solving a problem. Committees typically are formed to deal with tasks that recur regularly.
NO. KOD/ CODE NO
4 of 9
As part of the horizontal structure of the organization, task forces and committees offer several advantages:1.
they allow organization members to exchange information;
they generate suggestions for coordinating the organizational units that are represented;
they develop new ideas and solutions for existing organizational problems; and;
they assist in the development of new organizational practices and policies.
Special Purpose Team
Special-purpose teams are created outside the formal organization structure to undertake a project of special importance or creativity. A special-purpose team is still part of the formal organization and has its own reporting structure, but members perceive themselves as a separate entity. The formal teams described here must be skillfully managed to accomplish their purpose. 2.5.
Employee involvement through teams is designed to increase the participation of low-level workers in decision making and the conduct of their jobs, with the goal of improving performance. Employee involvement started out simply with techniques such as information sharing with employees or asking employees for suggestions about improving the work. Gradually, companies moved toward greater autonomy for employees, which led first to problem-solving teams and then to self-directed teams. Problem-solving teams typically consist of 5 to 12 hourly employees from the same department who voluntarily meet to discuss ways of improving quality efficiency, and the work environment. Recommendations are proposed to management for approval. Problem-solving teams are usually the first step in a company’s move toward greater employee participation. 3.
CRITERIA TO DELEGATE JOB 3.1.
Delegated more on tasks in the path.
Focus to expedite the completion of task.
Work Scope Requirements
Delegated to meet the requirement as best as possible.
Ensuring that more support given if individual does not meet full requirements.
Delegated to match tasks with Individual Traits.
Based on Dr Holland 6 Human’s Personal Traits. Please refer to table 1
NO. KOD/ CODE NO
5 of 9
Shy, genuine, persistent, stable, conforming, practical
Mechanic, drill press operator, assembly-line worker, farmer
Analytical, original, curious, independent
Biologist, economist, mathematician, news reporter
Sociable, friendly, cooperative, understanding
Social worker, teacher, counselor, clinical psychologist
Conforming, efficient, practical, unimaginative, inflexible
Accountant, corporate manager, bank teller, file clerk
Self-confident, ambitious, energetic, domineering
Lawyer, real estate agent, public relations specialist, small business manager
Imaginative, disorderly, idealistic, emotional, impractical Table 1
Painter, musician, writer, interior decorator
Delegate bases on the ability to work harmoniously in a group.
Assist in avoiding conflicts and job-dissatisfaction.
LEADERSHIP Six traits that differentiates leaders from non-leaders: i)
Drive. Leaders exhibit a high effort level. They have a relatively high desire for achievement, they’re ambitious, they have a lot of energy, they’re tirelessly persistent in their activities, and they show initiative.
Desire to lead Leaders have a strong desire to influence and lead others. They demonstrate willingness to take responsibility.
Honesty and integrity Leaders build trusting relationships between themselves and followers by being truthful or non-deceitful and by showing high consistency between word and deed.
Self-confidence Followers look to leaders for an absence of self-doubt. Leaders, therefore, need to show self-confidence in order to convince followers of the rightness of goals and decisions.
Intelligence Leaders need to be intelligent enough to gather, synthesize, and interpret large amounts of information and to be able to create visions, solve problems, and make correct decisions.
NO. KOD/ CODE NO
6 of 9
Effective leaders have a high degree of knowledge about the company, industry, and technical matters. In-depth knowledge allows leaders to make well-informed decisions and to understand the implications of those decisions. 5.
APPRECIATION OF ACHIEVEMENT Reinforcement, and punishment, the core tools of operant conditioning, are either positive (delivered following a response), or negative (withdrawn following a response). This creates a total of four basic consequences, with the addition of a fifth procedure known as extinction (i.e. no change in consequences following a response). It's important to note that organisms are not spoken of as being reinforced, punished, or extinguished; it is the response that is reinforced, punished, or extinguished. Additionally, reinforcement, punishment, and extinction are not terms whose use are restricted to the laboratory. Naturally occurring consequences can also be said to reinforce, punish, or extinguish behavior and are not always delivered by people.
Reinforcement is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with greater frequency.
Punishment is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with less frequency.
Extinction is the lack of any consequence following a response. When a response is inconsequential, producing neither favorable nor unfavorable consequences, it will occur with less frequency.
Four contexts of ‘Operant Conditioning’ are:i)
Positive reinforcement Occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a favorable stimulus (commonly seen as pleasant) that increases the frequency of that behavior. In the Skinner box experiment, a stimulus such as food or sugar solution can be delivered when the rat engages in a target behavior, such as pressing a lever.
Negative reinforcement Occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus (commonly seen as unpleasant) thereby increasing that behavior's frequency. In the Skinner box experiment, negative reinforcement can be a loud noise continuously sounding inside the rat's cage until it engages in the target behavior, such as pressing a lever, upon which the loud noise is removed.
Positive punishment Occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by an aversive stimulus, such as introducing a shock or loud noise, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.
Negative punishment Occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of a favorable stimulus, such as taking away a child's toy following an undesired behavior, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.
TEAM CONFLICT The final characteristic of team process is conflict. Of all the skills required for effective team management, none is more important than handling the conflicts that inevitably arise among members. Whenever People work together in teams, some conflict is inevitable. Conflict can arise among members within a team or between
NO. KOD/ CODE NO
7 of 9
one team and another. Conflict refers to antagonistic interaction in which one party attempts to block the intentions or goals of another. Competition, which is rivalry among individuals or teams, can have a healthy impact because it energizes people toward higher performance. However, too much conflict can be destructive, tear relationships apart, and interfere with the healthy exchange of ideas and information. 7.
BRAINSTORMING Brainstorming uses a face-to-face, interactive group to spontaneously suggest ideas for problem solution.’’ Brainstorming is perhaps the best- known decision aid; its primary role is to supply additional creative solutions. Kodak encourages continuous brainstorming and has created a “humor room” where workers can relax and have creative brainstorming sessions. The room is filled with videotapes of comedians, joke books, stress-reducing toys, and software for creative decision making. The brainstorming technique encourages group members to suggest alternatives regardless of their likelihood of being implemented. No critical comments of any kind are allowed until all suggestions have been listed. Members are encouraged to brainstorm possible solutions out loud, and freewheeling is welcomed. The more novel and unusual the idea, the better. The object of brainstorming is to promote freer, more flexible thinking and to enable group members to build on one another’s creativity. The typical session begins with a warm-up wherein definitional issues are settled, proceeds through the freewheeling idea-generation stage, and concludes with an evaluation of feasible ideas. Brainstorming is an unrestrained flow of ideas in a group with all critical judgments suspended. The group leader must decide which of the seventy-five questions are most appropriate to the issue or problem being addressed. Moreover, the group leader isn’t expected to use all of the questions in a single session. 7.1.
Procedures of Brainstorming
Introduce the process.
Suspend Judgment Criticism is ruled out. Participants must withhold critical judgment of ideas until later
Free Wheel (Let yourself go) The wilder the idea, the better: taming down an idea is easier than thinking up new ones,
Encourage Quantity (All ideas accepted) The greater the number of ideas, the greater is the likelihood that some will be useful.
Cross-fertilize (Build on ideas of others) In addition to contributing ideas, participants should suggest how ideas of others can be turned into better ideas, or how two or more ideas can be merged into still another idea.
State the problem.
Appoint a Recorder.
Restate the problem. Prefaced by ‘How to _____’
Select a Restatement.
Look for similarities. Incorporate similar points / remove similar statement.
Group the ideas
NO. KOD/ CODE NO
8 of 9
Examples of questions that could he used in a brainstorming session are:
How can this issue, idea, or thing he put to other uses?
How can it he modified?
How can it he substituted for something else, or can something else be substituted for part of it?
How could it he reversed?
How could it be combined with other things?
NETWORKING The Grapevine Communication We have studied in the previous level about formal types of communications such as upward, downward and lateral communication. In this level we cannot leave our discussion of communication networks without discussing the grapevine — the informal organizational communication network. The grapevine is active in almost every organization. Is it an important source of information? One survey reported that 75 per cent of employees hear about matters first through rumors on the grapevine. Certainly the grapevine is an important part of any group or organization communication network and well worth understanding. It identifies for managers those relevant issues that employees consider important and anxiety producing. It acts as both a filter and a feedback mechanism, picking up on the issues employees consider relevant. More importantly, from a managerial point of view, it is possible to analyze what is happening on the grapevine — what information is being passed, how information seems to flow along the grapevine and which individuals seem to he key conduits of information on the grapevine. By being aware of the grapevine’s flow and patterns, managers can stay on top of issues that concern employees and, in turn, can use the grapevine to disseminate important information. Since the grapevine cannot be eliminated, managers should ‘manage’ it as an important information network. Rumors that flow along the grapevine also can never be eliminated entirely. What managers can do, however, is minimize the negative consequences of rumors by limiting their range and impact. How? By communicating openly, fully and honestly with employees, particularly in situations in which employees may not like proposed or actual managerial decisions or actions. Open and honest communication with employees can affect the organization in various ways.
NO. KOD/ CODE NO
9 of 9
SOALAN / QUESTIONS: 1.
What is team? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________
State five (5) types of team? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________
What are the criteria to Delegate Job? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________
Differentiate positive and negative reinforcement. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________
RUJUKAN / REFERENCE(S): 1. Stephen P Robbins & David A Decenzo; 3rd. Edition (2001), Fundamentals of Managements: Essential Concepts and Applications, Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0- 13-065133-8 2. J. David Hunger & Thomas L. Wheelen; 3rd Edition (2003), Essentials of Strategic Managements; Prentice Hall. 3. Lecture Notes BB2120 Organisational Behaviour 4. Don Hellriegel, Susan E. Jackson, John W Slocum, Jr. 8th Edition, (1999), Management, South-Western College Publishing, ISBN 0-538-87672-7 5. Richard L Daft, 017989-0
4th Edition, (1997), Management, The Dryden Press, ISBN 0-03-
6. “Leadership: Do Traits Really Matter?” by S. A. Kirkpatrick and E. A. Locke by permission of Academy of Management Executive, May 1991, pp. 48—60. © 1991 by Academy of Management Executive. 7. "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operant_conditioning" 14:28, 24 April 2007