Contract Law - Consideration

February 17, 2019 | Author: IZZAH ZAHIN | Category: Consideration, Common Law, Virtue, Government Information, Private Law
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

Credit to: Belteshazzar...

Description

[email protected]_NFT CNX CNX

[email protected][email protected]

[email protected][email protected]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]  Tlg igrg enft me nhrggig`t ncm`g dmgv `mt injg n fm`trnft. Omtl nrtagv tm tlg fm`trnft iwvt  rmuadg fm`vadgrntam` ae tlgq xavl tm vwg m` tlg fm`trnft. Tlav ign`v tlnt gnfl vadg iwvt rmiavg tm haug mr dm vmigtla`h emr tlg mtlgr. Gh; ae m`g nrtq# N ,tlg rmiavmr! rmiavgv tm imx tlg cnx` me n`mtlgr# O ,tlg rmiavgg!# N(v   rmi rmiav avgg xacc xacc m`cq m`cq og g`emr g`emrfgn fgnoc ocgg oq O nv n fm`trn fm`trnft ft ae O lnv rmua rmuadgd dgd fm`va fm`vadg dgrnt rntam am`. `. Tl Tlgg fm`vadgrntam` fm`vadgrntam` ermi O iahlt `mrinccq tnjg tlg emri me nqig`t me im`gq mr vgruafg a` tlg ewtwrg av  kwvt nv vweeafag`t n fm`vadgrntam` nv nqig`t atvgce mr tlg nftwnc rg`dgra`h me tlg vgruafg. Tlwv# tlg  rmiavgg  rmiavgg lnv tm haug vmigtla`h vmigtla`h a` rgtwr` emr tlg rmiavg a` a` mrdgr tm fm`ugrt n onrg rmiavg rmiavg indg a` lav enumwr a`tm n oa`da`h fm`trnft. Tlg cnx xacc `mt g`emrfg n hrntwatmwv rmiavg. Gh; ae Nca rmiavgv Oncn tm haug nxnq lav Rrmtm` Vnhn emr `mtla`h a` rgtwr`# tlg cnx xacc `mt g`emrfg tlnt rmiavg. N rmiavg fn` ncvm og n fm`vadgrntam`. Gh; ae \ rmiavgv tm vgcc lav fnr tm Q emr _I 42#222 n`d Q nhrggv tm nq tlg nimw`t# Q(v rmiavg tm  nq xacc fm`vtatwtg fm`vadgrntam` n`d xacc injg tlg nhrggig`t g`emrfgnocg.

[email protected]@]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]  Cwvl K. a` Fwrrag u Iavn ,>2 G|fl >76 rgegrrgd tm fm`vadgrntam` nv fm`vavta`h me n dgtraig`t tm tlg rmiavgg mr n og`geat tm tlg rmiavmr; ((...vmig rahlt# a`tgrgvt# rmeat mr og`geat nfrwa`h tm m`g nrtq# mr vmig emrgognrn`fg# dgtraig`t# cmvv mr rgvm`vaoacatq haug`# vweegrgd mr w`dgrtnjg` oq tlg mtlgr.((  Tlg dgea`atam` haug` oq Var Ergdgrafj Rmccmfj# nrmugd oq Cmrd Dw`gda` a` Dw`cm u Vgceradhg Ctd  Z>187Y NF . G\GFWT G\GFWTM_ M_Q Q [email protected] [email protected] ADG_N _NTAM [email protected] @

Fm`vadgrntam` av fnccgd ((g|gfwtmrq(( xlgrg tlgrg av n` g|fln`hg me rmiavgv tm gremri nftv a` tlg ewtwrg. Gh; N oacntgrnc fm`trnft emr tlg vwcq me tlg me tlg hmmdv xlgrgoq N rmiavgv tm dgcaugr hmmdv tm O nt n ewtwrg dntg n`d O rmiavgv tm nq m` dgcaugrq. Ae N dmgv `mt dgcaugr tlgi# tlav av n orgnfl me  fm`trnft n`d O fn` vwg. Ae N dgcaugrv tlg hmmdv# lav fm`vadgrntam` tlg` ogfmigv g|gfwtgd. A` mtlgr xmrdv# tlg fm`vadgrntam`# av m`cq haug`# mr gremrigd# mr rmuadgd# netgr tlg fm`trnft lnv  ogg` indg. ?. G\GF G\GFWT WTGD GD [email protected] [email protected]_ G_N [email protected] [email protected] Ae m`g nrtq injgv n rmiavg a` g|fln`hg emr n` nft oq tlg mtlgr nrtq# nrtq# xlg` tlnt nft av fmicgtgd# at av g|gfwtgd fm`vadgrntam`.

Gh; A` n w`acntgrnc fm`trnft fm`trnft xlgrg N meegrv ¦72 rgxnrd emr tlg rgtwr` me lgr cmvt ln`donh# ae O ea`dv tlg onh n`d rgtwr`v at# O(v fm`vadgrntam` av g|gfwtgd. A` mtlgr xmrdv# tlg fm`vadgrntam` av m`cq haug`# gremrigd mr rmuadgd ogemrg tlg fm`trnft av indg.

_WCGV ME [email protected][email protected]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]  [email protected][email protected]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]  >. [email protected] [email protected]_N G_NTAM [email protected] @ IWVT IWVT @MT @MT OG RNVT RNVT

Ae m`g nrtq umcw`tnracq gremriv n` nft# n`d tlg mtlgr nrtq tlg` injgv n rmiavg# tlg fm`vadgrntam` emr tlg rmiavg av vnad tm og a` tlg nvt. Tlg rwcg av tlnt nvt fm`vadgrntam` av `m fm`vadgrntam` vm at av `mt uncad n`d fn``mt og wvgd tm vwg m` n fm`trnft. Fm`vadgrntam` iwvt og haug` a` rgtwr` emr tlg rmiavg mr nft me tlg mtlgr nrtq: vmigtla`h dm`g# haug` mr rmiavgd emr n`mtlgr rgnvm` xacc `mt fmw`t nv fm`vadgrntam`. Gh; N haugv O n caet lmig a` lav fnr. M` nrraunc# O rmiavgv tm haug N ¦7 tmxnrdv tlg gtrmc. N fn``mt g`emrfg tlav rmiavg rmiavg ogfnwvg lg dad `mt haug O n radg a` n rgtwr` emr tlg ¦7 ‖ lg lnd ncrgndq haug` O n caet. Tlg g|nicgv ogcmx vlmx lmx n fnvg me (nvt fm`vadgrntam`( inq nravg. Gh>; \ umcw`tnracq xnvlgv Q(v fnr. Netg tlg fnr lnv ogg` xnvlgd# Q rmiavgv \ tlnt lg xacc nq _I >2 tm \. Q(v rmiavg av `mt oa`da`h mr a` mtlgr xmrdv# \ xacc `mt og nocg tm fcnai tlg _I >2. Nctlmwhl lg xnvlgd Q(v fnr# Q dad `mt rmiavg tm haug lai _I >2 xlg` lg xnvlgd at. Ign`a`h# \(v nft me xnvla`h tlg fnr xnv `mt dm`g a` g|fln`hg emr tlg _I >2. Tlg onvaf rwcg emr n uncad fm`vadgrntam` av tlnt# at iwvt og haug` a` g|fln`hg mr a` rgtwr` emr n`mtlgr  fm`vadgrntam`. Ae \ n`d Q nhrggd tlnt \ xacc xnvl tlg fnr a` rgtwr` emr tlg _I >2# tlg`# tlgrg av `m avvwg me    nvt nvt fm`vadg fm`vadgrnta rntam` m` ogfnwvg ogfnwvg tlgq g|fln`hgd g|fln`hgd fm`vadgrna fm`vadgrnam`v m`v ‖ tlg xnvla`h xnvla`h me tlg fnr nv fm`vadgrntam` emr _I >2 n`d uafg)ugrvn. ∟



[email protected]_NFT CNX CNX

Gh ?; \ n`d Q nhrggd tlnt \ xacc xnvl Q(v fnr emr _I >2. Netgr tlg fnr lnv ogg` xnvlgd# Q nqv \. Lg ncvm rmiavgv tm \ tlnt lg xacc nq n` nddatam`nc _I ?2. ∟



∟ ∟





tlg rmiavg me _I ?2 av `mt g`emrfgnocg. A` mtlgr xmrdv# \ xacc `mt og nocg tm fcnai tlg _I ?2 vwffgvvewccq. vwffgvvewccq. Tlav av ogfnwvg tlgar nhrggig`t av (xnvla`h me tlg fnr( a` g|fln`hg emr _I >2. \(v fm`vadgrntam` av xnvla`h me tlg fnr n`d Q(v fm`vadgrntam` av _I >2. \ fn``mt wvg (xnvla`h me tlg fnr( nv n fm`vadgrntam` emr tlg nddatam`nc _I ?2 , \ lnv ncrgndq (wvgd( tlnt fm`vadgrntam` a` g|fln`hg emr tlg _I >2 !. Tlg rmiavg me _I ?2 av n hrntwatmwv rmiavg. Ae \ rgnccq xn`tgd tlg _I ?2# lg lnv tm rmuadg n `gx fm`vadgrntam` emr at. Tlg daeegrg`fg ogtxgg` tlg txm av tlnt# a` tlg earvt g|nicg# tlgrg av `m ramr nhrggig`t. \ xnvlgd Q(v fnr xatlmwt nvja`h emr n`qtla`h a` rgtwr` owt lg av nttgita`h tm wvg tlg nft me  xnvla`h tlg fnr nv fm`vadgrntam` emr Q(v rmiavg tlnt fnig cntgr. A` tlg vgfm`d g|nicg# \ n`d Q lnug n` nhrggig`t. \ av nttgita`h tm wvg tlg nft me  xnvla`h tlg fnr nv fm`vadgrntam` emr Q(v Q(v rmiavg me n` nddatam`nc _I ?2.

 _mvfmrcn u Tlminv ,>17>Y > Ncc G_ 127 Tlg flacdrg`# w`dgr tlgar entlgr(v xacc# xgrg g`tatcgd tm n lmwvg netgr tlgar imtlgr(v dgntl. Dwra`h tlgar itlgr(v caegtaig# tlg xaeg me m`g me tlg flacdrg` indg unramwv airmugig`tv tm tlg lmwvg. Cntgr Cntgr## ncc tlg flacdrg flacdrg` ` vah`gd vah`gd n dmfwig` dmfwig`tt nddrgvvg nddrgvvgd d tm lgr vtnta`h. vtnta`h..(( .((   A` fm`vadgr fm`vadgrntam ntam` ` me qmwr  fnrrqa`h airmugig`tv tm tlg rmgrtq# xg lgrgoq nhrgg tlnt tlg g|gfwtmrv vlncc nq qmw tlg vwi ¦45>7! Lmo >27 Ornatlxnat lnd jaccgd n in` n`d nvjgd Cnicgahl tm iggt tlg Ja`h n`d motna` n nrdm` emr lai# xlafl Cnicgahl dad. Ornatlxnat vwovg~wg`tcq rmiavgd Cnicgahl ¦>22 emr lav vgruafgv# owt xlg` Ornatlxnat dad `mt lm`mwr tlav rmiavg# Cnicgahl vwgd lai. Tlg fmwrt lgcd tlnt Orntlxnat(v ramr  rg~wgvt tm Cnicgahl fm`tna`gd n` aicagd rmiavg tm nq lai n rgnvm`nocg vwi emr lav vgruafgv# n`d tlnt tlg vwovg~wg`t ig`tam` me tlg ¦>22 xnv igrgcq ea|a`h tlg vwi. Tlg fmwrt trgntgd tlg ramr  rg~wgvt n`d tlg vwovg~wg`t rmiavg nv nrt me tlg vnig trn`vnftam`.

[email protected]_NFT CNX CNX ,O! [email protected] [email protected]

Ae vmigtla`hav dm`g a` owva`gvv fm`tg|t n`d at av fcgnrcq w`dgrvtmmd oq omtl vadgv tlnt at xacc og nad emr# tlg` nvt fm`vadgrntam` xacc og uncad.  _g Fnvgq(v Rntg`tv Z> Fl >24 N n`d O mx`gd n ntg`t n`d F xnv tlg in`nhgr xlm lnd xmrjgd m` at emr txm qgnrv. N n`d O tlg`   rmiavgd F n m`g)tlard vlnrg a` tlg a`ug`tam` emr lav lgc a` dgugcma`h at. Tlg ntg`tv xgrg trn`vegrrgd tm F owt N n`d O tlg` fcnaigd tlgar rgtwr`. At xnv lgcd tlnt F fmwd rgcq m` tlg nhrggig`t. Gug` tlmwhl F(v fm`vadgrntam` xnv a` tlg nvt# at lnd ogg` dm`g a` n owva`gvv vatwntam` nt tlg rg~wgvt me N n`d O n`d at xnv w`dgrvttmd oq omtl vadgv tlnt F xmwcd og nad a` n owva`gvv vatwntam`# nt tlg rg~wgvt me N n`d O n`d at xnv w`dgrvtmmd oq omtl vadgv tlnt F xmwcd og nad n`d tlg vwovg~wg`t rmiavg tm nq igrgcq ea|gd tlg nimw`t.

Tlg ra`facgv a`  Cnicgahl u Ornatlxnat nv a`tgrrgtgd a`tgrrgtgd a` _g Fnvgq(v Rntg`tv xgrg ncagd oq tlg  Rrauq Fmw`fac a` Rnm M` u Cnw Qaw Cm`h  Z>14. Tlg Rrauq Fmw`fac vtntgd tlnt a` vwfl fnvgv# tlrgg fm`datam`v nrg `gfgvvnrq tm fm`vtatwtg hmmd fm`vadgrntam`; n! tlg nft iwvt og dm`g nt tlg rmiavmr(v rg~wgvt:  o! tlg nrtagv iwvt lnug w`dgrvtmmd w`dgrvtmmd tlnt tlg nft xnnv tm og rg`wigrntgd gatlgr oq n nqig`t mr tlg fm`egrig`t me vmig mtlgr og`geat: f! nqig`t mr tlg fm`egrig`t me n og`geatiwvt lnug ogg` cghnccq g`emrfgnocg lnd at ogg`  rmiavgd a` ndun`fg ?. Fm`vadg Fm`vadgntam` ntam` Iwvt Iwvt Og Vweeafa Vweeafag`t g`t Ow Owtt @ggd @mt @mt Og Ndg~wntg Ndg~wntg

Rrmuada` Rrmuada`h h fm`vadgr fm`vadgrntam ntam` ` lnv vmig vmig uncwg# uncwg# tlg fmwrtv fmwrtv xacc xacc `mt a`ugvta a`ugvtahntg hntg atv ndg~wnf ndg~wnfq q. Xlgrg Xlgrg fm`vadgrntam` av rgfmh`avgd oq tlg cnx nv lnua`h vmig uncwg# at av dgvfraogd nv (rgnc( mr (vweeafag`t( fm`vadgrntam`. Tlg fmwrtv xacc `mt a`ugvtahntg fm`trnftv tm vgg ae tlg nrtagv lnug hmt g~wnc uncwg. Ae tlg rmiav rmiavmr mr hgtv hgtv xlnt xlnt lg nvjv nvjv emr a` rgtwr` rgtwr` emr lav lav rmia rmiavg# vg# lg lnv rgfgaug rgfgaugd d vwee vweeafa afag`t g`t fm`vadgrntam` n`d av omw`d. At av aiintgranc tlnt lav rmiavg av enr imrg uncwnocg tln` tlg rafg lg nvjgd emr. Tlg cnx av m`cq fm`fgr`gd xlgtlgr lg lnv indg n onrhna`# `mt xatl xlgtlgr lg lnv indg n hmmd onrhna`. Ndg~wnfq me tlg fm`vadgrntam` av emr tlg nrtagv tm fm`vadgr nt tlg taig me inja`h tlg nhrggig`t# `mt emr tlg fmwrt xlg` at av vmwhlt tm og g`emrfgd. Tlwv# n fm`trnft tm vgcc n lmwvg xmrtl $>22#222 emr  $ >#222 av gregftcq uncad n`d g`emrfgnocg# dgvatg tlg aioncn`fg me tlg og`geat nffrwa`h tm gnfl  nrtq. 6. Fm`vadg Fm`vadgntam` ntam` Iwvt Og me me Gf Gfm`mi m`miaf af Uncwg Uncwg

Fm`va Fm`vadgr dgrnta ntam` m` iwvt iwvt lnug lnug vmig vmig ja`d ja`d me lq lqva vafnc fnc uncwg# uncwg# rntlg rntlgrr tln` tln` kwvt kwvt kwvt kwvt n` gimta gimtam`n m`ncc mr  vg`taig`tnc vg`taig`tnc m`g. A` Xlatg u Ocwgtt  ,>! > O % Nd 172 Tlg cna`taee xnv vwomg`ngd tm nttg`d fmwrt tm haug guadg`fg emr tlg dgeg`dn`t. Tlg dgeg`dn`t  rmiavgd  rmiavgd tm nq lai tm nttg`d fmwrt. Tlg cna`taee cna`taee nttg`dgd owt tlg dgeg`dn`t rgewvgd tm nq. At xnv lgcd tlnt tlg nca`taee fmwcd `mt rgfmugr tlg vwi ogfnwvg lg xnv w`dgr n cghnc n`d wocaf dwtq tm nttg`d fmwrt.

Lmxgugr# ae vmigm`g g|fggdv tlgar wocaf dwtq# tlg` tlav inq og n uncad fm`vadgrntam`. Hcnvvormmj Ornv u Hcnimrhn` Fmw`tq Fmw`fac  Z>1?7Y NF ?82 Tlg mcafg xgrg w`dgr n dwtq tm rmtgft n fmnc ia`g dwra`h n vtrajg n`d rmmvgd imoacg w`atv. Tlg Tlg ia`g mx`gr rmiavgd tm nq emr mcafg tm og vtntam`gd m` tlg rgiavgv. Tlg mcafg fmicagd xatl tlav rg~wgvt owt xlg` tlgq fcnaigd tlg im`gq# tlg ia`g mx`gr rgewvgd tm nq vnqa`h tlnt tlg mcafg lnd vaicq fnrragd mwt tlgar wocaf dwtq. At xnv lgcd nctlmwhl tlg mcafg xgrgomw`d tm rmuadg  rmtgftam`# tlgq lnd davfrgtam` nv tm tlg emri at vlmwcd tnjg. Nv tlgq ogcagugd imoacg mcafg xgrg vweeafag`t# vweeafag`t# tlgq lnd nftgd mugr tlgar `mrinc dwtagv. Tlg g|trn rmtgftam` xnv hmmd fm`vadgrntam` fm`vadgrntam` emr  tlg rmiavg oq tlg ia`g mx`gr tm nq emr at n`d vm tlg mcafg xgrg g`tatcgd tm nqig`t. o! Rgemin`fg me n` G|avta`h Fm`tnftwnc Dwtq Ae vmigm`g rmiavgv tm dm vmigtla`h xlafl tlgq nrg ncrgndq omw`d tm dm w`dgr n fm`trnft# tlnt av `mt n uncad fm`vadgrntam`. Fm`trnvt;)

Vtacj u Iqrafj  ,>8 Txm mwt me gcgug` vnacmrv dgvgrtgd n vla. Tlg fntna` rmiavgd tm nq tlg rgina`a`h frgx g|trn im`gq ae tlgq vnacgd tlg vla onfj# owt cntgr rgewvgd tm nq. At xnv lgcd tlnt nv tlg vnacmrv xgrg ncrgndq omw`d oq tlgar fm`trnft tm vnac onfj n`d tm iggt vwfl gigrhg`fagv me tlg umqnhg# rmiava`h tm vnac onfj xnv `mt n uncad fm`vadgrntam`. Tlwv# tlg fntna` dad `mt lnug tm nq tlg g|trn im`gq.  Lnrtcgq u Rm`vm`oq ,>4? G_ 5? Vlndxgcc(v w`fcg rmiavgd lai n` n``watq ,n vgragv me ea|gd nqig`tv! me ¦>72 w`tac vwfl taigv nv Vlndx Vlndxgc gcc( c(d d a`fmi a`fmigg vlmwc vlmwcd d rgnfl rgnfl 522 hw` hw`agn agnvv gr gr n``wi n``wi.. Tl Tlgg n``wat n``watq q xnv xnv rmia rmiavgd vgd xlg` xlg` Vlndxgcc(v w`fcg cgnr`t me Vlndxgcc(v aig`da`h inrranhg. Tlg n``watq netgr vmig taig xnv `mt  nad n`d xlg` lav w`fcg dagd# Vlndxgcc vwgd tlg g|gfwtmrv me tlg w`fcg(v gvtntg. Tlg `glgx ncrgndq lnd n` g|avta`h fm`trnftwnc mocahntam` mocahntam` tm inrrq lav ean`fgg xlm xnv n tlard nrtq ag# `mt m`g m`g me  tlg nrtagv tm tlg nrrn`hgig`t w`dgr g|nia`ntam`. g|nia`ntam`. Tlg avvwg xnv xlgtlgr Vlndxgcc Vlndxgcc lnd haug` hmmd fm`vadgrntam` tm lav w`fcg emr tlg cnttgr(v rmiavg tm nq lai n` n``wnc vwi xlg` ncc tlg `glgx dad xnv fnrrq mwt n` g|avta`h fm`trnftwnc mocahntam`tm inrrq lav ean`fg.. at xnv lgcd tlnt tlg w`fcg rgfgaugd og`geat ermi tlg inrrranhg tnja`h cnfg ,a` lav fnnfatq nv n fcmvg rgcntaug! n`d tlg `glgx xnv tlgrgemrg g`tatcgd tm tlg nrrrgnrv me tlg rmiavgd n``watq.

View more...

Comments

Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.
SUPPORT KUPDF