Contemporary Urban Strategies and Urban Design in Developing Countries.pdf
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Rotterdam, 5 • 7 October 1994
Organized by Netherlands Architecture Institute Nai Delft University of Technology Faculty of Architecture DUT Ministry of Development Cooperation Sector Programme Urban Poverty Alleviation DGIS DST/UR
Delft, June 1994
Publsihed aod distributed by Executive Editor Printed Cip ISBN Copyright©
Publikatieburo Bouwkunde of Architecture Bu:rge:ss I Marisa Carmona I Theo Kolstee KOli1irudij~~e Bibli~i)th(!.ek.
90-5269-163-0 Marisa Carmona reservee!. No part of the material prc)tected notice may he or utilized in any any means, electronic or mecanical including tot1occmymg recorClmg or by any infonnation storage and retrieval system without written from the All this
Table of Content I Basic .............................. , II General Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV Themes ... , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . .
1 2 4 7
Tbeme I. Tbe Macro-Economie Context ....•.•. 7 Sub-theme A. Enhancement of Urban Productivity . . . . . . . . . . 9 Alleviation , , . . . . . . . . , . . .. 15 Sub-theme B. Urban Tbeme TI. Environmental and • • • . . • • .• 19 Sub-theme A. Environmental Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 19 Sub-theme B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 40 En:aDl~emc~nt, Participat:ion and tbe Role of Urban Professional ..•••.••••.•....• . .• Sub-theme A. Market Enablement and the Role of Urban Sub-theme B. Political Enablement and the of the State .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Sub-theme C. Community Enablement and the Role of Urban Professionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
53 54 58 64
V Bib:liograplw . , . . " . , , . . , . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . ., 73
Introduction The purpose of this position paper is to structure the activities associated with the International Exhibition and Seminar to be in Rotterdam in the Netherlands Architecture Institute from the Sth to the 7th of October this year around the theme Urban and Urban Design: The Hidden Assignment, At Home in the City. The paper will proceed in the way: HJ>JlVVViHtU,al oirgamz:atlclnal. relatu)nshlp between the activities that are proposed there will be a discussion of the Selection of the context of the of the Exhibition and Seminar.
Fifth, the main Themes will be identified around which the Exhibition and Seminar will be structured,
To discuss the way in which contemporary urban and cnang€~ the role and of architects and .-.1"'·....... "',."
To compare and contrast different policy and planning approaches to the urban and shelter problem the and discussion of a range of urban and programmes from Latin America, Africa and Asia. and evaluation of recent and corlternp()rrury urban To encourage an shelter in the context of macroeconomie str2ltegles. To contribute to an improved understanding of the "current state of play" of urban policy and architectural and planning in Third World cities. To inform the Dutch ment debate towards the urban dimension.
of the shift in the
ti ""'''' I 1"'\1"\_
H .. -
A for the events must be grounded in an on the continued increase in the significanee of the urbanization process for Third World and From a it is a somewhat to remember that at the start of the 13% of the world's population lived in and that to current UN estimates over 51 % of the world s population will be urbanized by the year 2010. I
of urban has been Over the last 40 years or so the occ:urrmg in Developing Countries. In Developed Countries stabilization at levels of urbanization and low rates of urban has been achieved. variations in different world regions (which will be brclugJtlt and the of urbanization in Countries has increased to the World Bank between 1950 and 1990 the urban of Countries increased fourfold from 300 millions to 1.3 billions. In the 1990s between 12 and 15 million households will be added to eities in developing Countries each year so that there will be over 2 billion urban dwellers by the year 2000. Vrnl1Pl'tc
The consequences of this dramatic and shift of and resources from and rural, to secondary and urban sectors not only constitute the essence of the contemporary urban planning but are also as a central issue in the process. In the late aid donors and global institutions in a series of conferences and policy initiatives the central of urban trends and OOJICH:!S for Thus the urban focus on the dev'eJclprnlent qUf~Stl(m was in the OECD (DAC) recommendations for the reconstruction of urban in the Global For Shelter in the Year 2000 of the UNCHS (1988); in the Urban paper of the UNDP and in the recent Urban Sector Sector (1993) of the World Bank. The activities assoeiated with the proposed International Seminar and Exhibition are intrinsically related tó these developments and reflect current trends in developing 'UllU:\.J.JU.;:;'.
Wbilst the "urban foeus ll of has now become the dominant trend in academie and eircles it is also probably true to say that in Countries has tended to lag behind this trend and that a rural and perspeetive of de'vel~[)nment has remained dominant. A of the activities est:,eeJïalJIY those associated with the Exhibition will be to Morm oni.mOln of the shift in the debate towards the urban dimension. 2
A more specific justification for an International Seminar and Exhibition around the proposed theme at the current moment Can also be forward. The years have seen dramatic in the nature and scale of urban and in the urban and shelter-related T'\n!ll"ll"'l;! that have been implemented to deal with them. Current pOJlICll:!S and pralctIvememts to urban nrr.ti11,,,tnT1hl scale trunk services and to coverage and tackle maintenance pf()bl,em,s. As only market pricing mechanism can ........1".'111'1,:> the incentives the should withdraw from direct provision, eliminate market bottlenecks, and market-oriented that encoura9
of a wide range of urban water supply,
and reform of re2;uialtor'y services and overall levels of urban
AJç" .... E....... CCt ..... "'•.u
and services telecommu-
in markets are seen as essential for and enjcj~em:y
The decentralization of urban powers from the central to local level and the of popular and groups in and financial recovery are seen as vital for and ensuring fuH co st recovery, replicability and affordability. programmes rather than run by decentralized and local with CBOs and the sector are Pinancial and institutional constraints on urban productivity and efficiency are to be tackled by city wide and sectoral financial, policy and institutional reforms. brnlpl1élsls to and the of urban skills
Shelter policies reflect these trends and currently stress the removal of demand and supply side constraints by developing property rights; the rationalization of SUblsld:les; the of finance """Irp.m,,· ..... -I-,..,.,,,t·..... ,,.,,t,, ..,::,.. the and of the nrr'~'1. ...''-' ... ~." investments and to cut balance of deficits have been achieved. The World Bank has claimed that are getting higher rates than non-adjusters, but the IMF has argued the opposite and a et al has that recent independent study Aid and has had a smal1 effect Structural 11" the two world most affected growth Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America had negative GDP per rates in the Eighties. Average rea! income per head in Latin America in 1993 was still 5% below its 1980 level whilst average GDP per in SubNineties. Although Saharan Africa shrunk by 1.2 % per annum in the in the balance of payment situation this was there has been an largely been achieved reducing net investment and utilization, and most studies show a marked decline in investment as a proportion of GDP which augurs for future There been substantial growth rates, combined with an even stronger compression increases in of import growth. Given small and declining rates of per capita private and per domestic investment govemment consumption, and high that the extra revenues rather than rates, it seems to increase local economic went rather to service the debt. The ratio of extemal debt payments to tota! export of Developing Countries increased dramatically in the Eighties. I
' 0 ..1"'>1 ...
Of course it is difficuit to isolate effects from other causes when eXl)laJlllulg the and of urban These other causes include structuralfactors such as the inability of existing technologies to create to meet the in labour a sufficient number of in the distribution of wea!th and and the of reces sion. Nonetheless it is to reiterate that urban alleviation POJICH3S must remain just that that aim to lessen the numbers of the poor or to the burden of poverty no matter what the underlying trends are. are not to be confused with of eradication. Current nnl" ... ii':>1:: also empb:ClSb~e lies in measures to irn'.......... on therefore arises: are the ble wUh the of aUeviation? '1I1O
Market-oriented and deregulatory policies tend to reinforce existing income and 17
wea1th Whilst labour market for can of income and employment, it can also increase for the it is leave the poor the worst forms of of infrastructudoubtful that for the re and services which operate on profit-making criteria under conditions of technical monopoly can deliver services at that are affordable the poor in the absence of substantial subsidies. to enhance aetivities in those area where it How could be do not arrive spontaneously and how to foealize those baekwards areas and social groups (i.e ethnica1, women, older) whieh are outside the benefit of growth. Given the about the mass of the poor in the cities it is clearly important to defend and the coverage of safety net provisions. It is therefore important to know specially in the presence of budlgetarv eonstraints derived from . . rl,,,,,+,..... "",,,+ p()UCles:
What of GNP can or is on and where do or should the funds for alleviation come from? In many countries it is already known where are the poors and how many are the is how to sodal mvesiments and on able to favour small nrllu1l1l'tivIP acl:ivities: nrllullll'tivlP reconversion of backwards secondary roads and infrastrudure that to the modernity process. "".... ", ... +",)
Some makers and academies are of the of macroecclnolmc determination of the life chanees of the urban poor and have suggeof bottom-up as an alternative. These avenues need to be and the qUt~sbon:
To what extent can be used to alleviate poverty? needs to be discussed. What are the most important constraints on small enterplfls~es to increase their level and be able to articulate with formal to in in the market? Important debates also exist about the appropriate form of implementation of alleviation These relate to the discussion of the relative merits and programs and of the most alloeation of powers and funetions between the various levels of the and NGOs. Important questions also exist about the political dimensions of poverty alleviation programs and projects. These will be discussed in the third Organizing Theme. 1"\.('''.1'''1"'1,,,
.., ... v " v v ....
Theme ll. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SPATIAL STRATEGIES
Sub-theme A. ENvIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES
As the rates and levels of urbanization in Ue~vejlODmg Countries have accelerated so too have urban environmental Dr()lJH~ms. Ke(:ently the sig)1Ïn4~an4~e of urban environmentai issues bas been recogare now seen as vital for any nized effective urban ae'VeI4[)pl1neIlt ",1~ .....,.i-Ll"'" Attention has focused on the spe~Clt:LC characteristics and effects of Third World urbanization on the deterioration of local environments and its contribution to environmental change; on the socio-economic of urban environmental on the significanee of environmental issues for the efficient of urban infrastructure and on the and effective of different architectural and and environmental po.L1C1.es; and on the significance of environmental issues for the sm;ta1nalbll1.tj of eities and modeis. It has been that cities are the areas of environmental all the effects of modification derived transformation ,. where ae'"elj~prnerlt come together. In Third W orld cities these transformations dramatic given the rapid rates of physical and delnoJ~ra1Pand the number and continuing of megacities. 18 out of the 21 with more than 10 million P01)Ul,aUC)fl the Nineties will be in Countries. Environmental ........"'.... 1"'...... '" been exacerbated lack of resources and insufficient investment in infrastructure and services and the generally uncontrolled and p04Juy-regllUaLean:SlOltl. ltrrloslphe~nc chamg€;s associated with Third World urbanization inelude chc:mgl~s in radiation and rainfall levels; increased eloud cover; and' the creation of 'urban heat islands' that dust domes and convectional wind that eirculate pollutants over the city. However by far the most significant Five out of the transformation is the generation of high levels of air are to be found in six eities in the world with maximum levels of air Deve10ping Countries.
The sources of air are the domestic of firewood and power station combusticoal for healing and cooking; motor vehiele ons; industrial emissions and emissions from toxic and hazardous materials and of urban air are oxides of su1phur and nitrogen, wastes. The
carbon oxidants aldehydes and ammonias and a range of particulates inc1uding lead, cadmium, asbestos, arsenic, benzene and chloride. In addition cities also of ~re:entlouse , ... ".,Inrl, ....... carbon methane and CFCs that contribute to or ozone In absolute terms energy consumption in Developing The Countries is rapidly and energy use per unit of output is because of continued increased situation in cities is worsening increased power wider car and street the close of workers to the sources of pollution and the lack of and enforcement of environmental standards. also occur with urbanization. modifications to the hvc!ro],ogllcal Urban initially involves the removal of veJ:?:etaticm and soH and volume of sediments that fills channels. The the release of a lmlDerviousn"ess of urban surfaces increases with further construction, leading to model of increased increased run-off and incidence of flooding. A storm inter-storm low flows has been a which is accentuated in areas. has become a serious in many Third World cities. In many countries the failure to of water and the collection and treatment of solid waste and waste water has the water Water is often than the repllac:emlent '"":I1"'JI,""'h,, of sources. The total volume of water bya on population the climate and the demand from industries. The demand for high in Third World eities straining existing water is sources lakes, and groundwater) and requiring massive investments in treatment and distribution networks. Excessive withdrawals from exj.stiIl~ sources can cause further environmenta1 Subsidence derived from Iowered water tables is a serious problem in many cities, exacerbating urban flooding and causing damage to buildings and infrastructure that is costly to rectify. Subsidence rates of up to 14 cms p.a. have been measured in S.E. In some coasta1 cities Manila and the water table has been lowered to the where has occurred because of seawater seepage. The critical significance of safe water for the of health and led to intensified efforts in the to 'n'>,....r"'J:> Sl:lp!)lIes. at the end of the International Water and it was estimated by WHO that 25 % of all urban dwellers in Developing Countries lacked access to safe water supplies and over 50 % lacked access to an .......""", '-" ...."" sanitation It has been estimated that by 2000 more than 600 million urban residents will lack sanita.tion and 450 millions safe water. The lack of maintenance of water and distribution ~"C!t""T1C1 co resu1t in the 10ss of vast of water before its arrives for consumption. U.1.1.Un.JlUj:::,
coverage combined with the longer term effects of short term soil infiltration from pit and and malaeqm:tte.Ly maintained water and sewerage environmental problems, particularly water contamination. Shallow groundwater sourees in urban areas with sanitation and levels of infiltration are often pOJllUtOO. eities in Developing Countries also have other serious and growing problems of water pollution, particularly where there has been a of industrial activities. A wide of pollutants is into lakes and coastal waters from untreated hu man sewage and animal wastes and from industrial, mining and chemical sources. of infections diseases; plant These include oxygen-demanding cornp()Un.ds, morgamc chemicals and oil and sediments. Third World eities are often built in naturally hazardous areas: in areas of high or the of major in active zones or in the ........ th"""".., of These cities are prone to floods and infrastructure and Often the of the destruction of Third World urban development leads to an exacerbation of these hazards. The the destruction of through air deforestation of catch ment and the and uncontrolled of settlement by environments wetlands and to disasters sometimes on a very scale. coastal Swamp infills for settlement in Lagos and Manila have blocked river outflows and led to flooding. In serious hea1th risks are also derived from the release of toxic and hazardous materials into the urban environment as aresuit of of solid waste disposal and manaJ;enaenlt. \JV.L.L,..WlVU.
the of environmental on socio-economic de1veI4lplne][}t has been in recent years, it is still far from understood. In urban contexts atlention has focused on environmental imlJac'ts on the health of urban on urban nr,nI11IU"_ and and malmtaining cient and effective services. Some observers of cities and believe that current
A consensus has emerged in recent years that environmentally-related hea1th risks and the incidence of infectious diseases have increased rapidly in Third World eities. Within the eities it is the poor in slums and who are most at rates amongst risk, and who se hea1th is suffering the most. Infantile the urban poor are often two to three times higher than those for middle and 21
upper income groups in the same and often than the rates for the roral poor. These settlements not only have the lowest environmental but health are also inadequate hygiene and health care and a low economie capacity to spend on health. of chronic and social The urban poor suffer from the fuU diseases. The high incidence of infectious diseases amongst the urban poor is related to environmental factors such as; poor shelter conditions that involve overcrowinsects and poor exposure to to water and the contamination of tion of human wastes and the presence of waters which act as vector bn;~:ine: grounds. These conditions expose the poor to cholera, gastro hepatitis, u'V,........"",....... cluster diseases and intestinal worms. In Mexico was listed as an airborne disease after dried excreta became and contaminated the air. One of the most serious in poor neighbourhoods is indoor air pollution derived from the use of wood or coal-burning cooking fires infections under conditions of poor ventilation. This can result in in the chronie and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Those form cardio-vascular and chronic respiratory diseases (chronic bronchitis and asthma) are particularly at risk. In in the the human settIements caused 60 % of air area and induced grave res'pinatoJry disorders slum dweIlers. U.UUA.LllE.
.ex!>oséXl to the health risks associated with the occupaFatalities and from mud and land tend to be concentrated floods and amongst the poor because they live in areas and built environments that are most at risk. For economie reasons 10w income settlements are generally and located in close to the sources of air and water many residents are these installations. Solid waste collectors levels of and other deaseases. levels of birth defects and respiratory have been recorded around steelmills, chemical and fertilizer plants and oil refineries. and deaths associated with exposure the metal and toxie chemicals are set to increase as industrialization and as the chemieal of increases. Lead derived from industrial and traJtlsport common and produces neurologieal, blood and reproduction in and lowered levels and behaviourial disorders in children. The poor are also to have worse in small fi.rms which are conditions lower environmental and controls than firms. Journalistic reports (El Pais, May on dumping' have hightighted the environmental conditions of confections fi.rms in Phillippines and lndonesia based on children labour and similar . There is also a heavy concentration of social diseases amlongst the poor derived 22
from instability, poverty and to whieh environmental conditions and make a contribution. These inc1ude venereal disease.
It is also
that environmental degradation has a significant negative effect on urban productivity and research in this area is much remains unknown about the nature and disease and poor health scale of these effects. has a of individuals, households and though the scale of the costs involved is unknown.
Female labour nr4...,"hIt>tiivH-v is parncuJlarJly constrained by in the water Deficiencies in the use and elimination of water women to the time on domestic and on work. The waste
time involved in traffic for water and collecting firewood must be prodigious. Some economist believe that pollution a of scarce resources (energy, raw free goods water, soH) and labour time. Environmental (such as soH landslides, +I,.,.,.,.rl-'T'\t·, ce and acid clearly has a significant effect on urban e!tl.cleJOcy productivity of existing investments in the built environment. '-'.L\J&f"""'-' aré:lllnéLge cné:lmnl~lS, ruptured sewerage corroded OUllGI10gS structural to and infrastructure have an effect on productive activities. Preventative measures are cheaper than rehabilitation in the long term, and the extra costs involved in account of or environare- immense. It has been estimated that the total amount mental needed to clean up Mexico air is $ 2.5 - $ 3.0 bills. Environmental d.ej:;mdatlOn can also undermine important economie activities such as horticulture, fishing and tourism. The environmental sustainability of Third in relation to energy, food and water under World eities
The formulation environmental policies for urban is ....... 1... +... ,"'11·., recent and the of these poJ,icit:!s remains a future task - albeit an one.
The Fifties and Sixties the modemization decades of the Fifties and Sixties economie was and little was done to the of land, ve~~eté:lltioo, water or air. As in the modemization of and it was believed that environmental problems would automatically be resolved with 23
growth. Once growth was achieved the protection and reinstatement of the environment could be realized. In the meantime no were This saw nature as a 'bottomless pit', environmental components to growth as free goods, and predicted no major difficulties in the of the model. environmental and economie Tbe Seventies In the Seventies under the impact of rapid urban development it became that the urban form and its had to be rationalized in relation to its environmental to do this land use, zoning and development controls. Investments in various infrastructure systems were deeided and realized at central government level to priorities established local master There was also a rec:ogmtlon of the character ' of infrastructure and services that these in the investments had to respond to welfare and need as weU. as to demand, and subsidies were widely to extend infrastructure and services to poor It fen to local to coordinate and harmonize the and to cover and maintenance rationalities of the different costs. An at this time was the is Curitiba urban and urban management strategy. The ~lll~hUes As the a marked and deterioration of urban was placed on spatial environments occurred. . In manY countries decentralization polieies which attempted to address the economie and environmental of and by urban to centres in the urban Within the eities some isolated environmental measures and tariff and reforms were introduced but explicit environmental policies were still absent fi.,.r'Ul1,nn alarm about the environmental sustainability of Third World eities. The Nineties By the early Nineties concern for the urban environment led to a recognition that urban environmental policies were and that fundamental reform of was essential. The for these reforms constraints was based on neo-liberal theories that market, and to largely related to the excessive intervention of the state in finaneial and obstac1es, In this the of environmental urban enhancement and poverty alleviation were related. The marked deterioration of the urban environment led to a general increase in health and safety hazards, constraints on the efficiency of productive activities and reg:re~;sr"re ,~ in the and costs of basic services to the poor, causes of environmental to neo-liberal " ...... 1""." could be traeed to massive n~lhT~';"
framework was elaborated the failure to achieve the ..... ~." .... ".jöo," it was .. _' .... bu.....J""-' that some progress had been in it for drastic new measures to achieve the cost recovery and replicability of urban goods and
services. Fundamental was attached to. policy, institutio.nal and mamagel:1al reforms rather than "bricks and mo.rtar" and technical apl;>rOlaCJtles for these measures reflected the goals o.f neoliberal analysis: eliminatio.n of supply and demand side constraints; withdrawal of the state and of eliminatio.n and of der'eglliation and institutio.nal ..."...."1"'11'" D'UWlln:g; increased participatio.n and po.litical/administrative decentralization.
Neoliberals turned to the of 'enablement' to n:..r,,,,,1A the theoretical underpinning o.f the new policy framewo.rk. As the supply and demand side co.nstraints o.n 'free markets' were derived from state mt,enrenhon. the state sho.uld withdraw fro.m the direct of and and measures that 'distorted' demand. Instead it should facilitate o.r 'enable' sector, formal and informal and groups and to and and restrict itself to. ""6'......... '. . ...,,, and coo.rdinatio.n of the sector. Enablement of efficient markets was as the mechanism to the levels of thus commensurate with demand (if not need) and to resolve the replicability pro.blem. A range of 'enabling '- po.licy and lending instrurnents were pro.posed that would to. create a wen housing secto.r and which would 'serve the interests of all in the sector' . included measures to stimulate demand such as the of (expanded regularization and registration of privatizatio.n of public housing stock); the develo.pment of finanee and the targetting/rationalizatio.n o.f subsidies. Measures to facilitate included the pro.visio.n o.f residential lnt"..-:.c-t-/"l1ll"'tJ'l'A' reform of urban and standards, and the stimulation of competitio.n in the building industry. The privatization o.f appropriate services, co.ntracting out o.f wo.rk to. small scale enterprises, informal workers, private NGOs and the were all In the were no.t concerned framework of enablement state stock, but co.nfined to. the o.f trunk with the creation of new infrastructure for marketized land and the upgrading o.f settlements.
eXJllailn tbe fanure to realize the atl'ordit)ilitv-cm;t recoveryfOf'mulla, neo-liberal amlLlySiS also
oriented sector and policy level planning.
and recommended a shift to programme,
to fail fro.m macro.-eco.no.mic policy rather than in a bad eco.no.my was likely to be a ; that the rationale imposed , getting prices right'- and the adequate co.nstraints on innovation and rates of return in project co.ntexts was project were 43
generally too smal1 to make an and were and Or~~aI1l1Z tax collection and improved On the left for these measures was based on a redefinition of the of enablement to accomodate the of democratization and settlements would be and NGOs and CBOs would be the of urban manaj~enr1enlt.
ClnTICAL ANALYSlS OF SPATIAL STRATEGIES
These up a number of issues and consideration in the International Seminar.
The first concerns the relationship between current urban overall urban In the Seventies and the the was to reinforce the dynamic of the residential mobility model. the end of the decade as a result of the impact of these doubt was expressed about the policies and macro-economic trends and wisdom of further pursuing this and the relevance of the model llnt'lprnlnn;T1IO' it. In the Eighties the thrust was for peI1.p!lenil development, squatter settlement upgrading and an increase in the of informal housing through eXl:eniomg owner-occupation, tenure and the availability of services. The concentration of investments and improvements on the periphery was of the inner city residential accompanied by a and urban was unleashed areas. On the periphery a process of low to a of the urbanized area. For between 196985 Lima s grew by two and a half times, but its built area almost three and a half times. In and informal settlements the search for affordability, "autonomous residential and immediate survival often led to the use of low Clerlslt:les, ma.DD:ronnate locations and excessive public service nonhierarchized roads, network etc. The deleterious effects of these on urban and the urban environment have investments on been discussed. It is also c1ear that the concentration of the maximized linea! meterage of infrastructure and services and involved massive "hidden urbanization costs that increasingly exc1uded the and which made it more difficult for the poor from access to in the to state to service distant locations at rational co st. increase densities and rationalize in order to increase cost recovery through the of could do little to offset the costs of extending trunk infrastructure in this way. f
neglect of the inner the absence of any consistent alternative forms of tenure the failure to use and mcmomg cornmunau., Ci()-Olnelratlve. and leasing arrangements, and the relaxati-
downgrading of the built environment and infrastructure has ocurred 45
to underutilization of technical infrastructure and inner city space, increased maintenance costs and an increase in and environmental hazards. to commercial and de1""'.,'" ..... , TvnTrnt:>nt" dlslcOllra~~ed work. Given the of state intervention in gerlenit1I1lg neoliberal theory proposed a of the between central ownersand local and the market. The state IS roie in .au.ou.",,,,, IIlarJK:etmg and should be "roUed back", and its activities restricted to those of "market enablement". Govemment was to be a cOCiJrd.imLtiulg and facilitating rather than an interventionist force. Enablement meant facilitating and the formal and informal business sectors and en1trelDre:ne'urs to market solutions for the production, distribution and exc:nrulge of urban and services. Where possible the state should withdraw from their direct provision and in all cases expo se them to market GlSI:::1DIInes. By removing market resources, entreand innovation it was that market enablement would of and it would produce sustainable of urban term and gains and it would reduce the goods and services to more affordable levels. A number of instrurnents were available for the market enableMacroeconomic and sector - level policy reforms were seen as -~ l~"_L.:~ - market forces, and for the institutional and financial framework for enablement. measures aimed at the elimination of distortions in factor, and financial markets and inc1uded the liberacontrols over prices, rates, interest rate ceiling lization of and credit and the opening up of the market to foreign 54