November 14, 2017 | Author: Mohd Syafiq Akmal | Category: Manganese, Iron, Chloride, Magnesium, Ammonia
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TITLE Iron, Manganese, Chloride and Ammoniacal Nitrogen OBJECTIVES To determine the concentration of iron, manganese, chloride and ammoniacal nitrogen of a given sample INTRODUCTION Iron is mainly present in water in two forms; either the soluble ferrous iron or the insoluble ferric iron. Water containing ferrous iron is clear and colourless because the iron is competely dissolved. Phenanthorline method can be used for the determination of iron in water. The health benefit of iron include the eradication of different causes of fatigue. Iron also plays a key role in strengthening the immune system by making it strong enough to fight off infections. Iron builds concentration, treats insomnia, and regulates body temperature. Manganese is a pinkish- gray, chemically active element. It is a hard metal and is very brittle. It is hard to melt, but easily oxidized. Manganese is reactive when pure, and as a powder it will burn oxygen, it reacts with water (rusts like iron) and dissolves in dilute acids. Manganese effects occur mainly in the respiratory tract and in the brain. Symptoms of mangenese poisoning are hallucinations, forgetfulness and nerve damage. Manganese can also cause Parkinson, lung embolism and bronchitis. When men are exposed to manganese for a long period of time they may become impotent. Chloride (Cl-1) is one of the major anions found in water and are generally combined with calcium, magnesium, or sodium. Since almost all chloride salts are highly soluble in water, the chloride content ranges from 10 to 100 mg/I. Sea water contains over 30,000 mg/i as NaC1. The effect to human health is it can increase your blood pressure and cause a buildup of fluid in people with failure, cirrhosis, or kidney disease. Ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N), is a measure for the amount of ammonia, a toxic pollutant often found in landfill leachate and in waste products, such as O, liquid O rand other liquid organic waste products.It can also be used as a measure of the health of water in natural bodies such as rivers or lakes, or in man made water reservoirs. It is an irritant and the solution and gas can cause burns of the skin, eyes, mouth, and lungs. These burns might be serious enough to cause permanent blindness, lung disease, or death. Likewise, if you accidentally ate or drank concentrated ammonia, you might experience burns in your mouth, throat, and stomach.


LaMotte portable turbidity meter kit, ferrous iron and iron solution PROCEDURE Calibration: 1. A set of included sample of known turbidity from the kit is inserted into the turbidity meter. 2. The reading is observed and the value obtained from the turbidity meter is compared with the sample real turbidity. 3. The reading is noted to make sure that no zero error occurs. Experiment: 1. 10 ml of sample is poured into an empty tube of the turbidity meter. 2. 6 drops of iron solution is added into the tube. 3. Without touching the part of the tube that is to be read by the turbidity meter, the tube is turned upside down for 4 times. 4. The mixture is set for 5 minutes. 5. The turbidity meter is switched on and the required parameter (iron) is set from the menu. 6. After 5 minutes, the tube is then inserted into the turbidity meter. 7. The reading is then obtained and noted as the iron solution reading. 8. Using the same tube, a scoop of ferrous iron that is provided in the kit is inserted into the tube. 9. Step 3 is repeated; but the number of upside down turns is increased to 15 times. 10. Step 4 - 6 is repeated. 11. The reading is obtained and noted as the total iron reading. 12. Steps 1-11 is repeated three times to obtain the average value of iron in the sample.





Ferrous iron, Distilled water (ppm)




Total iron, Water sample(ppm)





Ferric iron, Concentration of iron,(ppm)





Formula used: Ferric iron = Total iron –ferrous iron

Example of calculation: Ferric iron = 0.54 - 0.34 = 0.30 ppm


DISCUSSION From the data obtained and calculated, the average value of concentration of ferric iron in the water is 0.31 ppm by using the phenanthroline method. . By referring the Drinking Water Quality Standard and World Health Organization (WHO) , it is found out that the value is in the range whereby the maximum acceptable value of iron in water and recommended raw water quality is 0.3 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l respectively. However, elevated concentration of iron in drinking water can cause problem due to straining of laundry, unpleasant appearance, and unpleasant taste. The common water contaminant iron is not a harmful to the public or consumer, although is only toxic at very high concentration and iron is one of the most found frequently in water supplies also it is fairly reactive with acids. Therefore, some precaution must be observed while performing the experiment, which is student should be careful when handling the chemical from touch or smell it because it may harmful for human. Besides, student should be careful adjusted the amount of chemicals used in the distilled water and water sample. Lastly, ensure to mix well all the element together to get the exact value of concentration of ferric iron.

CONCLUSION As the conclusion, the water sample can be classified based on the Drinking Water Quality Standard and World Health Organization (WHO) as the suitable for drinking water use with value of 0.31 ppm. Since, the value of concentration of ferric iron has been determined, it can be concluded that the experiment is success.








from on 9 September 2015 2. Chloride in Drinking Water- World Health Organization, Retrieved from on 9 September 2015 Effect of Ammonia, Retrieved from

3. Health on 9 September 2015.


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