Complete Module Housekeeping

December 13, 2018 | Author: Pi Pog | Category: Hotel And Accommodation, Nature, Clothing, Business
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a module for Housekeeping NC II by TESDA....




Hospitality Industry

Hospitality is the cordial and generous reception and entertainment of guests or strangers, either socially or commercially. The Hospitality Industry is comprised of those  businesses, which practice the act of being hospitable; those businesses which are characterized by generosity and friendliness to guests. A. !ara"t#risti"s o$ Hospitality Industry

a.  b. c. d. e.

Ins Insepar eparab abil ilit ity y Perishability Labo Laborr-in inte tens nsi iee !epetitie Int Intangi angibi bili lity ty

%. o&pon#nts o$ Hospitality Industry

a. Lodg Lodgin ing g "pe "pera rati tion onss -such as hotels, resorts, motels etc.  b. Transportation# Trael $erices -such as ta%i, train, and cruise ships, etc. c. &ood &ood and and 'ee 'eera rage ge "pe "pera rati tion onss -such as restaurants, bars, etc. d. !et !etail ail $t $tores ores -such as souenir shops, etc. e. (ctiities -such as recreations, festials, etc. . %ri#$ History on t!# D#'#lop&#nt o$ Lod(in( Industry •

)an be traced bac* to the ciilizations of $umeria, (ncient +gypt, (ncient reece, !ome and 'iblical Times. Two possible e%planations why people in ancient times felt reuired to be hospitable they felt that hospitality to strangers were necessary to their religious well-being and haing superstitious belief. The The more more logi logical cal in our moder modern n thin thin*i *ing ng e%pl e%plai ains ns that that pro proid idin ing g hospitality was a result of a /gie and ta*e0 philosophy. The need for a place to stay away from home is as old as the first nomadic traeler. Trading between two cultures created the need for groups of  people to trael often-great distances.


(long these trade routes, certain stopping points became faored out of necessity. These stopping points became *nown as 2unction points that grew into trading centers and eentually eoled into cities. 3ourney segment is the ma%imum reasonable distance traeled in one day along along trade trade and caraan caraan routes routes.. (t these these 2ourney 2ourney segments segments,, lodgin lodging g facilities became a need. They were called relay houses in )hina, *hans in Persia, and tabernas in !ome. Innoations began to emerge as the history of lodging unfolds. (t some  point, inn*eepers began to incorporate food and beerage serice in their operations. (nother deelopment was the !oman networ* of roads that crisscrossed +urope and parts of (sia and (frica. These roads proided fast and safe routes for traelers. The concept of hospitality was changed in 1454 in &lorence, Italy. The inn*eepers created a guild or associations that formed hospitality into  business. The The indus industr tria iall reol reolut utio ion n of the the mid-1 mid-1677 677ss crea create ted d new new modes modes of transportation that further changed the way people traeled. The emergence of railroads and later the automobile played large roles in lodgin lodging8s g8s histor history y becaus becausee both both dramat dramatica ically lly increa increased sed the length lengthss of  2ourney segments for a traeler. (s the eolution of lodging continued, new facilities began to emerge as an option for traelers.  The wealthy and landed aristocracy of the world began to iew the many spare rooms in their castles and estates as sources of reenue. The best e%ample e%ample of this can be traced bac* to the +nglish +nglish and colonial colonial inns of the 1677s. The significant significant difference difference between between the two was that colonial colonial inns offered rooms to anyone who could afford to pay, whereas +nglish inns were most often resered for the aristocracy. (nother difference between the two was that +nglish inns rented out indiidual sleeping rooms, whereas colonial inns regularly offered large rooms with seeral beds inside. This meant that +nglish inns could offer


(long these trade routes, certain stopping points became faored out of necessity. These stopping points became *nown as 2unction points that grew into trading centers and eentually eoled into cities. 3ourney segment is the ma%imum reasonable distance traeled in one day along along trade trade and caraan caraan routes routes.. (t these these 2ourney 2ourney segments segments,, lodgin lodging g facilities became a need. They were called relay houses in )hina, *hans in Persia, and tabernas in !ome. Innoations began to emerge as the history of lodging unfolds. (t some  point, inn*eepers began to incorporate food and beerage serice in their operations. (nother deelopment was the !oman networ* of roads that crisscrossed +urope and parts of (sia and (frica. These roads proided fast and safe routes for traelers. The concept of hospitality was changed in 1454 in &lorence, Italy. The inn*eepers created a guild or associations that formed hospitality into  business. The The indus industr tria iall reol reolut utio ion n of the the mid-1 mid-1677 677ss crea create ted d new new modes modes of transportation that further changed the way people traeled. The emergence of railroads and later the automobile played large roles in lodgin lodging8s g8s histor history y becaus becausee both both dramat dramatica ically lly increa increased sed the length lengthss of  2ourney segments for a traeler. (s the eolution of lodging continued, new facilities began to emerge as an option for traelers.  The wealthy and landed aristocracy of the world began to iew the many spare rooms in their castles and estates as sources of reenue. The best e%ample e%ample of this can be traced bac* to the +nglish +nglish and colonial colonial inns of the 1677s. The significant significant difference difference between between the two was that colonial colonial inns offered rooms to anyone who could afford to pay, whereas +nglish inns were most often resered for the aristocracy. (nother difference between the two was that +nglish inns rented out indiidual sleeping rooms, whereas colonial inns regularly offered large rooms with seeral beds inside. This meant that +nglish inns could offer


 priate guest rooms, whereas colonial inns were better suited for communal accommodations. •

The word hotel  is   is the (nglicized ersion of the &rench hotel garni, which translates into /large, furnished mansion0. The first lodging facility that can be directly considered a precursor of the modern hotel was the 69 rooms )ity Hotel built in :ew or* in 16front office, restaurants, and lounges@.  b. 'ac*-of-the-house - areas where interaction between guests and empl employ oyee eess is less less comm common on >hou >house se*e *eep epin ing, g, engi engine neer erin ing g and and maintenance, accounting, and human resources@. +. Hot#l Di'isions* • • • • • • •

&ood and 'eerage Eiision $ales and Aar*eting Eiision (ccounting Eiision +ngineering and Aaintenance $ecurity Eiision Human !esource Eiision !ooms Eiision &ront "ffice House*eeping "ther Eiisions !etail "utlets !ecreation )asino • •

• • •




Hous###pin( / refers to the up*eep and maintenance of cleanliness and order in a house or a lodging establishment. +fficient managed house*eeping department ensure ensure the cleanl cleanline iness, ss, mainte maintenan nance, ce, and aesthe aesthetic tic appeal appeal of lodgin lodging g  properties. The house*eeping department not only prepares, on a timely  basis, clean guestrooms for arriing guests, it also cleans and maintains eerything in the hotel so that the property is as fresh and attractie as the day it opened for business. Hous###p#r  F one who is responsible for administering house*eeping maintenance, insuring that eerything is on order and that all occupants are made comfortable, safe and protected from disease-causing bacteria. A. Typ#s Typ#s o$ Hous## Hous###pin #pin(* (*

1. Eomestic Eomestic House*eepi House*eeping ng F refers refers to house*eepi house*eeping ng maintenance maintenance in a house. house. (reas (reas coered by domestic house*eeping bedroom, liing liing room, entertainme entertainment nt room, *itchen, *itchen, comfort comfort room and others others that consist consist of a conenient conenient house. 4. Institut Institutional ional House*eepi House*eeping ng F applies applies to house*eepi house*eeping ng maintenance maintenance in commerci commercial al lodging establishments li*e hotels, resorts, inns, and apartels. Institutional House*eeping usually coers the following areas 1. uest rooms 4. Hall Hallwa ways ys and corr corrid idor orss 9. Lobby =. Public Public rooms rooms and restau restauran rants ts ?. "ffices C. $tairways ays 6. Bindows 5. $tores $tores and concess concession ionair airee shops shops repeated trips to the main or satellite linen room for two e%tra sheets or three more glasses is distracting and will decrease wor* efficiency.@ $ince the cart is large and may be heaily loaded, it must be maneuerable and capable of  being pushed by some one weighing less than 177 pounds. Duality house*eeper8s carts are maneuerable with fi%ed wheels at one end and castered wheels at the opposite end. The solution lies in uality caster and ball-bearing wheels. )arts should hae three deep sheles, facilities to handle soiled linen sac*s and rubbish sac*s that are detachable, storage for a maid8s acuum, and a top that is  partitioned for small items. There should be a bumper guard that surrounds the cart that will protect the corridor walls and door casings. These bumpers should not leae unsightly mar*s if they come in contact with walls.


sed to eliminate loose dirt and dust particles from carpet surface, upholstered furniture and een hard surfaces.

$ingle-Eis* &loor Aachine

This machine can scrub floors, strip floor finishes, spray buff floors, sand wood floors, polish floors, and shampoo carpets. Aachines are aailable in 16, 15,


'urnishers or ltra-High-$peed 'uffers

Trash-Handling +uipment


1in bo%es@ are maintained and replaced as needed.

VII. SAFETY AND SEURITY $afety and security are two responsibilities of hotel managers. uests e%pect to sleep, meet, dine, and entertain in a facility that is safe and secure F and are entitled to reasonable care under law. House*eeping personnel can help meet this guest e%pectation and, in some cases, ma*e the difference in the property8s safety and security system. Sa$#ty


( term term that that pertai pertains ns to discus discussin sing g disast disaster er prepar preparedne edness, ss, fire fire preen preentio tion n and  protection, protection deices, and conditions that proide for freedom from in2ury and damage to property. The two hotel departments most li*ely to hae the largest number of accidents and in2uries are maintenance and house*eeping. "ne basis for this freuency is the sheer labor-intensity of these two dep artments. In many operations, operations, house*eeping house*eeping and maintenance maintenance employ more people than any other department. (nother reason lies in the fact that wor*ing in house*eeping or maintenance inoles physical actiities and euipment use F both of which increase the ris*s of accident and in2ury. To reduce safety ris*s, the e%ecutie house*eeper must be aware of potential safety hazards and deelop procedures to preent accidents. $afety should be a top priority. "ngoing safety training programs help ensures that safe conditions are maintained in all wor* areas. To deelop programs, management must be aware of the laws that regulate the wor* wor* enir eniron onme ment nt F and more more spec specif ific ical ally ly,, how thos thosee laws laws affe affect ct hous house* e*ee eepi ping ng  personnel.  Em!lo$ee  Em!lo$ee Morale an# an# Management Management Concerns Concerns

nsa nsafe fe wor* wor*in ing g condi conditi tion onss hae hae a nega negati tie e effe effect ct on empl employ oyee ee mora morale le.. If employees are preoccupied with hazardous conditions in the wor* place, they will not be able to perform the best of their ability. ab ility. &or most part, it is difficult to motiate employees until unsafe conditions are corrected. "ne of management8s top concerns should be for the health and welfare of employees. +mployees are one of the most important assets a hotel has. If managers want employees to proide uality serice, they must treat employees fairly and with respect. !espect for an employee8s right to wor* in a safe and hazard free enironment is a good  place to begin.  %otentiall$  %otentiall$ Hazar#ous Hazar#ous Con#itions Con#itions

(ccidents and in2uries do not hae to occur. 'y following three simple rules, employees can contribute to a safe, accident-free wor* enironment


  

Ta*e adeuate time )orrect unsafe conditions immediately Eo it safely the first time


House*eeping tas*s often inole lifting heay ob2ects. +mployees may also be reuired to moe furniture in order to complete a thorough cleaning tas*. Incorrectly lifting heay ob2ects such as bags, bo%es, and containers may result in strained or pulled muscles and bac* in2ury. In turn, these in2uries can result in loss of wor* and long-term pain and suffering. +mployees can also incur cuts and scratches when lifting items such as trash or dirty linens which contain pointy ob2ects or bro*en glasses. In all instances, employees should *now what conditions to loo* for and the special precautions to ta*e.  Some gui#elines gui#elines for safe moving moving an# lifting: lifting: 

   

  

Inspect the ob2ect before lifting. Eo not lift any item that you cannot get your arms around or that you cannot see oer when carrying. et help if it is too heay. Loo* for any protrusions, especially when lifting trash or bundles of linen. Duite Duite often, often, these these items items contain contain pointy pointy ob2ect ob2ectss or bro*en bro*en glass. glass. +%erci +%ercise se special care to aoid in2ury. Bhen lifting, place one foot near the ob2ect and the other slightly bac* and apart. Geep well balanced. Geep the bac* and head of your body straight. 'ecause the bac* muscles are generally wea*er than the leg muscles, do not use the bac* muscle to lift the ob2ect. 'end slightly at the *nees and hips but do not stoop. se both hands and grasp the ob2ects using the entire hand. Lift with the leg muscles. Geep the ob2ect close to the body. (oid twisting your body. Bhen setting an ob2ect down, do not use your bac* muscles. se the leg muscles and follow the procedures used to lift ob2ects. Bhen tuc*ing in sheets, pic*ing up a laundry or cleaning a tub, bend with the *nee and not on the bac*, nor on the waist to preent bac* in2ury. se your body weight in pushing pushing and pulling pulling the acuum, acuum, not 2ust your arms and shoulder. To aoid slipping and tripping, hold the cord and coil as you go. Bear the right shoes. Bor*ing shoes should be slip resistant, with a closed toe and fit to gie you the best comfort. Batch where you are going to preent slips and fall. se door stopper and not linens or ob2ects that could cause a slip or fall. Turn on lights and loo* all sides before entering any room. There may be spills or bro*en glasses on the floor that need to be cleared.


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 

If a bro*en glass is found, sweep the floor and place the glass in a container separate from the trash. To push the room attendant8s cart easily, chec* if it has stic*ing wheels. Bithout it, it will be harder to push and could in2ure the user. !emoe stic*ing thread on the wheels. 'e careful with loose screw or sharp edges as they could catch on one8s clothing and cause cuts. Bhen pushing the cart, lean forward into the cart, rely on one8s legs and feel not unto one8s bac* or across the body. Geep the cart close, use feet and legs and not arms and shoulders. In case a cart falls down, do not try to stop or stand it up by alone. It is heaier than you thin* and can cause accidents. (s* for help. Eo not oerload laundry cart to ma*e it easier to pull. Bhen reaching for something, especially in the tub, neer stand on the edge of a toilet bowl. ou might loose your balance and fall.


Ladders can be used when cleaning areas on or near the ceiling or for such tas*s as changi changing ng light light bulbs. bulbs. Bhen select selecting ing a ladder ladder for a partic particula ularr cleani cleaning ng 2ob, its condition, height and footing should be inspected. )hec* the ladder for stability and e%amine crosspieces for sturdiness. If the ladder is bro*en or defectie, do not use it. !ather, tag the ladder, place it out of serice, and report it to the appropriate house*eeping superisor or the maintenance department (n aluminum or metal ladder should neer be used when wor*ing near or on electrical euipment. Ladders with rubber footings should be used on tile floors or in *itchen areas to preent slipping. In all instances, the floor should be dry and clean. ( ladder must be high enough so that an attendant can stand on it and do the 2ob without oerreaching. :eer stand on the top step of a ladder. If the area cannot be reached while standing on the step below the top step, the ladder is too short for he 2ob. Ladders should be placed so footing is at least one fourth of the ladder length away from the wall. :eer place a ladder against window or an uneen surface. 'efore climbing, test the ladder for stability; it should be well balanced and secure against the wall and floor. (lways be sure to face a ladder when climbing and hae a clean and dry hands and feet. Eo not hold any items or tools that may preent preent the use of one or both hands. Aar* the area underneath the ladder with caution signs so that guests or employees do not wal* under the ladder.  Machiner$:  Machiner$:

+mplo +mploye yees es shou should ld be autho authori rize zed d and and trai trained ned in the the use use of machi machine nery ry and and euipment before operating such deices. Aost euipment, machineries, and power tools come with instructions.


$ome employees may need additional training and superised practice before operating euipment and machinery on the 2ob by themseles. Aany power tools and other machineries are euipped with protectie guards or shields. These safety guards should neer be remoed. +mployees may also be reuired to wear protectie eye goggles or gloes. (ll  protectie gear should be worn per instructions. +uipment and machineries should ne er  be left unattended while in use. Bhen not in use, all tools and euipment should be turned off and stored in the proper place. :eer use a piece of euipment or machinery that is not operating correctly. )ontact the appropriate superisor or the maintenance department to hae it repaired as soon as possible.  Electrical E&ui!ment:

+%tra care must be ta*en when operating electrical euipment. +en one of the most common house*eeping appliances li*e a acuum cleaner can be harmful or deadly if operated improperly or in unsafe conditions. (n employee should neer operate electrical euipment when standing in water or when hands or clothing are wet. It is also unsafe to operate electrical euipment near flammable liuids, chemicals, or apors. $par*s from electrical euipment could start a fire. +uipment that spar*s, smo*es, or flames should be turned off immediately. If it is possible and safe to do so, the euipment should be unplugged. In no instance should an attendant attempt to restart the euipment. The malfunction should be reported to the appropriate house*eeping superisor or the maintenance department. +uipment wires and connections should be chec*ed periodically. +uipment with loose connections or e%posed wires should not be used. (n appliance should neer  be unplugged by pulling or yan*ing the cord. This will loosen the connection between the cord and the plug and cause spar*s and shorts. +uipments should be unplugged by grasping the plug and pulling it gently away from the outlet. Bhen using electrical euipment, the cord should be *ept out of traffic areas such as the center of hallways or cross doorways. This is not always possible, particularly with such tas*s as acuuming corridors. In such situations, *eep the cord close to the wall and  post caution signs in the wor* area. If the appliance will be stationary and in use for a lengthy period, tape the cord to the floor and place caution signs oer the taped cord. +%tension cords are sometimes reuired F particularly when an electric outlet is not located near the wor* areas. +%tension cords should be inspected for e%posed wire before use 2ust li*e any other electrical cord. There are many types of e%tension cords; not all are acceptable for use in a hospitality operation. The local fire department can pinpoint which types of cords meet the local fire codes and regulations.


Bhen cleaning guestrooms, room attendants should chec* electric lamps, appliances, and other fi%tures for frayed wires, loose connections and loose plugs. +%posed electrical wire may result in shoc*, in2ury, or een death when touched. "utlet and switch coers should be chec*ed to ensure that they are coered properly and not crac*ed or bro*en. If any of these conditions are found, the room attendant should not attempt to fi% them, rather, potential problems should be reported to the appropriate house*eeping superisor or to the maintenance. Chemicals:

Aany house*eeping employees are e%posed to dangerous chemicals in their daily wor* routines. These chemicals are powerful cleaners, and, when used properly with  proper protectie gear, are relatiely harmless. Howeer, when used improperly, these same helpful chemicals can cause nausea, omiting, s*in rashes, cancer, blindness, and een death. )hemicals are used to clean all areas of a lodging property including bathrooms, *itchens and floors. Potentially hazardous chemicals are also used to *ill insects and rodents. $ome house*eeping situations reuire employees to handle to%ic substances to unstop clogs in toilets and other plumbing fi%tures. "ften the use of such hazardous and to%ic chemicals cannot be aoided. )ontinual training in chemical safety is necessary for two reasons &irst, misused chemicals can cause serious in2ury in a short period. $econd, new employees F especially in properties with high employee turnoer F need to be trained immediately.  Han#ling Chemicals Safel$:  

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!ead the labels and the material safety data sheet. Bear personal protectie euipment li*e goggles and hand gloes for  protection from spills and splashes. To use the chemical correctly, follow the direction of the label. se only one chemical for its intended purpose. 'e sure the correct chemical goes in a properly labeled container when refilling spray bottles. )ap of bottles# containers should be tight and the bro*en nozzles must be replaced to preent drips.  :eer mi% chemicals the result can be potentially deadly li*e fumes created  by mi%ing bleach with ammonia. se the right amount of chemicals. +%cessie a mount may damage surfaces. If a chemical spills, bloc* the surface. ( minor spill can be cleaned up. If not sure of how to clean up a spill, as* the superisor.


   

If a chemical spill bloc*s your s*in, rinse as directed in the material safety data sheet If your eyes are e%posed and contaminated by a spill, rinse it with a clean water and get immediate medical assistance. Handle potentially contaminated items as little as possible. se proper container for disposal of items. )lean contaminated areas. Thoroughly wash hands after using chemicals.


$ecurity refers to the freedom from fear, an%iety, and doubt inoling ourseles, as well as to the protection and defense against the loss or theft of guest, employee, and company property and preention of other emergencies.  Securit$ Committees:

$ecurity committee should consist of *ey management personnel F including departmental heads. $uperisors and selected hourly employees can also contribute important security information and add to the c ommittee8s effectieness. Committee "es!onsibilities: 

  

Eeelopment of security handboo* and the design of training and awareness  programs. Aonitoring, analyzing, and suggesting solutions for returning security  problems. Aaintaining records on such incidents as theft, andalism, and on-site iolence. )onducting spot security audits and property inspections. Inestigating security incidents. Aaintain open lines of communication with the local police department.

'heft:   Guest theft :  most hotels assume that guests will ta*e items such as matches,  pens, shampoo, ashtrays, and sewing *it. &or most part, these items are proided for the guest8s conenience and are actually a form of adertising used by the hotel. Howeer, towels, bathrobes, trash bins, and pictures are not part of the mar*eting strategy and are not meant to be ta*en by guests. Bhen these items turn up missing, it can add up to a large e%pense for a hospitality operation. 

To reduce the theft of these items, some properties *eep count of the number of amenities inside the room. Bhen the guest reuest for additional item, it is noted at the


front des*. The room attendant, too, notes how many items are in the room, when cleaning the ne%t day. The room attendant8s ability to spot missing item may allow the hotel time to charge the guest for items that hae been ta*en. (nother strategy, some hotels place items such as towels, bathrobes, and leather stationery folders and the li*e are on sale in their gift shops. This may reduce the li*elihood of theft since guests hae the option of purchasing these items. (lso, haing these items on sale helps set a standard price that can be leied against guests for a missing item. Other hel!ful i#eas to re#uce guest theft:    

se as few monogrammed items as possible. Geep storage rooms closed and loc*ed (ffi% or bolt guestroom items and fi%tures to appropriate surfaces. $ecure windows.

  Em!lo$ee theft : it is up to the management to set the standards for reducing employee theft F and to act as a good e%ample. ( manager who ta*es hotel stea*s home to barbeue will not be effectie when as*ing employees not to steal food, linen, and other hotel property. Aanagement should also detail e%plicit rules and regulations concerning employee theft. The employee handboo* should spell out the conseuences of stealing hotel property. 

Aanagers should screen applicants before ma*ing a 2ob offer. ( through  bac*ground chec* should be conducted, including a chec* for any criminal conictions. 'efore as*ing any uestions or ma*ing inuiries, chec* local laws to ensure that the selected screening techniues are not illegal or prohibited. ood inentory control procedures can also help control theft. Eetailed records that note any unusual or une%plained fluctuations should be *ept of all items in stoc*. It is a good practice to conduct a monthly inentory of all house*eeping supplies including toilet paper, amenities, and linens. If the items in storage do not match the usage rate, or if too little stoc* is on the sheles, it may be an indication of employee theft. +mployees should be aware of the results of monthly inentories F especially when shortages are discoered. In addition to *eeping records of items in stoc*, records should be *ept of stolen or missing items- including those from guestrooms. The record should include the name of the room attendant and any other hotel employees who had access to the room. Geep all storeroom doors loc*ed. $torerooms should be euipped with automatic closing and loc*ing deices. Loc*s on storerooms should be changed periodically to reduce the opportunity of theft. Aanagement should designate employee entrances and e%its. These entrances should be well-lighted, adeuately secured, and proided with round-the-cloc* security.


+mployee entrance may include a security staff office which monitors arriing and departing employees. +mployees should *now what items they may bring onto or remoe from the  property. Aanagement may establish a claim-chec*ing system for bringing items onto the  premises and a parcel-pass system for ta*ing items off the premises. If an employee has  permission to remoe hotel property, he#she should be issued a signed permit from the superisor or an appropriate manager before doing so. !estricting employee par*ing to a carefully selected area can also help control losses. Geeping the area well-lighted reduces the temptation to steal and also ma*es the lot safer for employees who leae wor* after dar*. The employee par*ing area should not  be so close to the building that it allows employees to easily and uic*ly transfer stolen  property to their cars. If the hotel is large or has a ery high turnoer rate, employee are less li*ely to *now their fellow wor*ers. In such cases, identification badges may be reuired to  preent strangers who pose as employees to gain admittance to the property.  (omb 'reats:

House*eeping procedures for handling bomb treats should be part of the  property8s security manual. House*eeping8s role usually consists of helping in the search for any suspicious ob2ects that could be bombs. Bhere and how the search is conducted will depend on the way the property receied the bomb threat. Information from the caller or letter may gie clues on where  personnel should search and on what type of bomb or ob2ect to loo* for. $earches often include stairways, closets, ashtrays, trash containers, eleators, e%it areas, and window sills. It may be helpful to ta*e a flashlight to inspect areas with little light. $earch team employees loo* for ob2ects that are normally not found in an area. House*eeping personnel hae an adantage since their daily routines promote familiarity with many hotel areas. If a suspicious loo*ing ob2ect is found, it should not be touched or moed; notify the person in charge of the search team or an appropriate superisor immediately.  :otification is best done face-to-face or oer the telephone. (oid using radios, wal*ie- tal*ies, or beepers. $ome bomb deices are sensitie to these sound waes and may go off. If nothing is found after completing the search, all teams should regroup in a designated area. (n all-clear sign should be gien after all search procedures hae been


 performed and management is satisfied that the guests, employees, and property are not under by real threat. Duite often, guests are not notified when bomb threats are receied. This is  because many bomb threats are 2ust that F threats. Howeer, bomb threat emergency  procedures should still be followed 2ust in case it is a real emergency. enerally, these  procedures do not include notifying guests until a search is completed. If a guest does as* an employee what he#she is doing during a search, the employee should respond in a way that does not arouse unnecessary suspicion or fear. The safety and security manual should include eacuation plans in case a bomb should actually be found or e%plode on the premises. It should also include proisions for emergency medical serices. In these instances, house*eeping employees should follow  procedures to assist in rescue efforts. The local police should be notified of all bomb threats. If police respond to such calls, the hotel should follow the directions laid out by  police personnel. Fires:

&ires are grouped into four classifications based on the different products of combustion. Aany hotel fires are fueled by a combination of combustibles. It is ery li*ely that a fire started by )lass ( combustibles could grow to include )lass ' and ) materials. &ires start for many reasons. $ome fires may be caused by an accident or mechanical malfunction. "thers may be the result of arson.  Mission:

/To sae lies and property0

Fire (ehavior: 

'urning, also called combustion, is a simple chemical reaction. It is described as a rapid, persistent chemical change that releases heat and light and is accompanied  by flame, especially the e%othermic o%idation of a combustible substance.

 )cci#ent %revention:

(n accident can be defined as the result of a series of eents and conditions that lead to an unsafe situation resulting in in2ury and #or property damage.  (ccident chain, a series of eents and conditions that can lead to an accident. 


Classifications:     

+nironment Human factors +uipment +ent In2ur y

 Environment: 

Included here are physical surroundings such as weather, surface conditions, access, lighting, and physical barriers.

 Human Factors: 

This includes human and social behaiors, training >lac* of training@, fatigue, fitness, and attitudes.

 E&ui!ment: 

Included here are apparatus, maintenance, and sericeability, proper application, and euipment limitations.

 Event: 

The eent is the intersection of the foregoing components. $omething or someone had to bring those components together in such a way to create the unsafe situation.

 *njur$: 

Eeals with the actual in2ury >or property damage@ associated with the accident. ( /near miss0 or /close call0 is an accident without in2ury or physical damage.

Fire Safet$ "ules an# %rinci!les: 

Bhen you discoer a fire, call out your discoery, sound the fire alarm and summon help.  :eer pass the fire to get an e%tinguisher. ( dead-end passageway could trap you. If you must enter a room to combat the fire, *eep an escape path open. :eer let the fire to get between you and the door. If you enter a room and your attac* with a portable e%tinguisher fails, get out immediately. )lose the door to confine the fire. our *nowledge of the situation will aid those responding. &ight the fire with the wind or the wind coming from your bac*.


 

 :eer use and direct a solid stream of water on liuid fire as it will cause splashes and ma*e the fire more difficult to handle.  :eer use foam and water on electrical fire, as this will cause electrocution. Bhen entering an enclosed space, see to it that the space is gas-free and with sufficient o%ygen. !egular training and drills are ery necessary so that each member learns his duties and the order in which they must perform. To be successful in firefighting, adeuate preparation is ery much reuired. Bell-planned actions for eery emergency will surely achiee firefighting operations safely, efficiently and effectiely. "ne of the priorities that should be gien due attention is the escape route. 'e curious enough to *now all the shortest possible ways to escape from a fire zone to a safe place in order not to be trapped. $mo*e is a isible product of fire that aids to the problem of breathing. !ooms filled with thic* smo*e, there will be great possibility of suffocation because o%ygen content of the room will be reduced to a minimum.

 Safe %ractices:    

$mo*e only at the designated area. !aise the fire alarm promptly upon discoery of a fire. Gnow how to e%tinguish fire correctly with the use of portable e%tinguishers and other methods. Gnow how to recognize fire hazards and to ta*e the necessary steps to preent fire.

Fire 'riangle an# 'etrahe#ron: 

The combustion process was once depicted as a triangle with three sides. +ach side represented as essential ingredient for fire   

Heat &uel "%ygen

(s researched, it became eident that a fourth ingredient was necessary. That fourth element was the actual chemical combustion. Thus the name fire tetrahedron

'he (urning %rocess: 

The process of burning occurs in clearly defined stages    

Ignition rowth &ully deeloped Eecay


Gro+th Stage: 

&rom the point of ignition, fire begins to grow.

$tarting out as a spar* or a small flame, other combustibles heat up, liberate flammable gases, and ignite, spreading the chain reaction to other flammables and resulting in an increase in size.

 Several factors in the gro+th of fire: 

 

O,$gen su!!l$ F the amount of o%ygen will hae a direct effect on the speed of growth and the size of the fire. Fuel  F size of the fire will naturally depend on the amount of fuel aailable to burn. Container size F in a structure, the container would be the surrounding walls and obstructions. ( large container would permit dissipation of heat and slow the growth of fire.  *nsulation F heat that is radiated bac* into unburned areas will accelerate growth.

Full$ Develo!e# Stage: 

This stage is recognized as the point in which all contents within the perimeter of the fire8s boundaries are burning.

 Deca$ Stage: 

Bhen the point at which all fuel has been consumed is reached, the fire will begin to diminish in size.

ltimately, the fire will e%tinguish itself when the fuel supply is e%hausted.

 Mo#es of Heat 'ransfer: 

Heat is a by-product of combustion that is of significant importance to the fire fighter.

The three modes by which heat transfers its energy from one substance to another are through  )onduction  )onection !adiation 

Con#uction:  

Bhen a hot ob2ect transfer its heat, conduction has ta*en place. The transfer could be to another ob2ect or to another portion of the same ob2ect.


Convection: 

(ir that is hotter than its surroundings rises, air that is cooler than its surroundings sin*s.

 "a#iation:   

Bhen combustion occurs, light is produced. Light traels by way of light waes. These light waes range from ultraiolet to infrared. &ire produces infrared light waes, and with enough concentration, can permit fire to 2ump from the source to a distant ob2ect, heat it up again, and if intense enough, cause it to ignite.

Classes of Fire: 

Class ) t$!e F made up of ordinary combustibles such as cellulose, rubber, or  plastic. )ombustibles such as paper, wood, cloth, rubber and other organic solids including petro-chemical solids >plastics@ ma*e up this class.

Class ( t$!e  F are fueled by liuids, gases, or grease-type fuels. "il, gasoline, alcohol, and other liuids are more common types found in this class of fuel.

Class C t$!e  F are basically fueled by electricity. In this case, the electricity is actually the heat source that propagates the fire and often communicates to other fuels of the class ( or ' type to sustain the burning process.

Class D t$!e F a less common fire type, is fueled by metals. ( particular class of heay metals, which can be identified on the periodic table of the elements and found mostly in the al*ali metal group, will burn. Aost metals in the group are magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, and potassium, thorium, plutonium, hafnium, lithium, zinc, uranium, and calcium.

Fire E,tinguishment: 

Class ) fire, is e%tinguished by cooling   the fire. The application of water cools the fire by absorbing as water is conerted to steam. Bhen enough of the heat is remoed, the temperature of the fire is lowered below the ignition temperature of the substance and thereby collapses the fire pyramid.

Class ( fires , the application of smothering   agent is used to preent o%ygen from getting to the fuel and propagating the chain reaction of fire by remoing the o%ygen leg of the fire pyramid. In this case, the fire collapses due to a lac* of o%ygen.


Class C fires , fueled by electricity, is oercome by remoal of the flow of electric current. In this case, the remoal of fuel, electricity, is the action ta*en to brea* down the fire pyramid and put the fire out.

Class D fire s, combustible heay metals differ somewhat in their reactions under fire. In some cases, the mere presence of water will cause a iolent reaction, releasing heat and brilliant light. In other cases, the mere presence of air will cause the reaction. +ach metal8s characteristics should be ealuated on its own merits.

Fire e,tinguisher classification s$mbols: 

)lasses of fire should be identified primarily to determine the type of fire e%tinguisher that would be used.

&ire e%tinguisher classification symbols are displayed by shape, color and letter for fle%ibility of the user for better recognition, identification and utilization.

)lass ( fire e%tinguishers will put out fires in ordinary combustibles such as wood and paper. The numerical rating for this class of fire e%tinguishers refer to the amount of water the fire e%tinguisher holds and the amount of fire it will e%tinguish.

)lass ' fire e%tinguishers should be used on fires inoling flammable liuids such as grease, gasoline, oil, etc. The numerical rating for this class of fire e%tinguisher states the appro%imate number of suare feet of a flammable liuid fire that a none%pert person can e%pect to e%tinguish.

)lass ) fire e%tinguishers are suitable for use on electrically energized fires. This class of fire e%tinguishers does not hae a numerical rating. The presence of the letter /)0 indicates that the e%tinguishing agent is non-conductie.

)lass E fire e%tinguishers are designed for use on flammable metals and are often specific for the type of metal in uestion. There is no picture designator for )lass E fire e%tinguishers. These e%tinguishers generally hae no rating nor are they gien a multi-purpose rating for use on other types of fires.

 Ho+ to use fire e,tinguishersP / ull t!# pin This unloc*s the operating leer and allows you to discharge the e%tinguisher. A / i& t!# 1as# o$ t!# $la&# Point the e%tinguisher nozzle of hose at the base of the flame S / :u##)# t!# l#'#r This discharge the e%tinguishing agent. !eleasing the leer will stop the discharge


S / 8##p $ro& sid# to sid# Aoing carefully toward the fire *eep the e%tinguisher aimed at the base of the flame and sweep bac* and forth until the flames appear to be out.  %ersonal %rotective E&ui!ment:           

Helmet oggles $)'( >$elf-)ontained 'reathing (pparatus@ )oat and pants 'oots Hood loes !adio &lashlight P($$ Eeice >Personal (lert $afety $ystem@ Poc*et tools

Four Main '$!es of )utomatic Fire Detectors: 

 Smoe #etectors F all fire emits smo*e and gases, often long before open flames are isible. The smo*e detector can therefore be actiated before the actual outbrea* of a fire.

Flame #etectors  F the flame detector is actiated when it is hit by the arying infrared or ultraiolet rays from the flames.

 Heat #etectors .thermal contact/  F is, as the name implies, affected by heat. The alarm is usually actiated when the room temperature rises to about 67o).

 Differential #etectors F is actiated by an abnormally rapid rise in room temperature, e.g. 9o) in 47 seconds.

,#y ontrol

Proper *ey control procedures are important for guest security and priacy. Gey control also protects the property by reducing the possibility of guest and property theft.  Houseee!ing is !rimaril$ concerne# +ith four categories of e$s:    

+mergency *ey Aaster *ey $toreroom *ey uestroom *ey


 Emergenc$ e$s F open all doors in the property F een those that guests hae double loc*ed. These *eys should be *ept in a secure place. $ome properties also *eep an emergency *ey off the premises. Eistribution and use should occur only in emergency situations such as a fire or when a guest or employee is loc*ed in a room and needs immediate assistance. Aost house*eeping personnel do not use emergency *eys on a dayto-day basis. 

 Master e$ F also open more than one guestroom. Aaster *eys are separated into three leels of access. The highest leel is the  gran# master . This *ey opens eery hotel room and, many times, all house*eeping storage rooms. If the guest has turned the dead  bolt, master *eys will not open the door. Aaster *eys can be used in emergency situations when it is ital for an employee to enter some or all areas of a hotel. Aaster *eys are *ept at the front des* for such emergency purposes. 

The ne%t leel of master *ey is the section master . This type of master *ey opens rooms in one area of a hotel. (n inspector may be issued more that one *ey of this type  because he#she may be reuired to inspect the wor* of more than one room attendant. The lowest leel of master *ey is the floor e$. enerally, a room attendant is gien this *ey to open the rooms he#she is assigned to clean. If the employee has rooms to clean on more than one floor or area, he#she may need more than one floor *ey. &loor *eys typically open the storeroom for that floor F unless the room is specially *eyed or is accessed by another master *ey. Guestroom e$ F are those *eys distributed to guests. This type of *ey opens a single guestroom and, in some cases, other loc*ed areas such as the pool. uestroom *eys are stored at the front des* when not in use. 

 0e$ Control %roce#ures:

( log can be used to monitor the distribution of master *eys. This log should include the date, time and the name of the person who signed for a particular *ey. +ery time an employee receies or returns a master *ey, he#she should be reuired to initial or sign the log. The person issuing the *ey should also initial or sign the log for each master *ey transaction. In large properties, the linen room attendant distributes and secures the *eys for the room attendants. (t smaller properties, the e%ecutie house*eeper or the front des* may assume this function. +mployees issued *eys should *eep the *eys on their person at all times. Gey  belts, wrist bands, or nec* chains are recommended deices for *eeping trac* of master *eys. Aaster *eys should neer be left on top of a house*eeping cart, in a guestroom or in an unsecured area. (n employee should neer loan the *ey to a guest or to another employee. The room attendant who signed for the master *ey is the employee who is responsible for it and should neer leae the property.


&inally, a room attendant should neer use a master *ey to open a room for a guest. If a guest as*s an employee to unloc* a room, the employee should politely e%plain the hotel8s policy and direct the guest to the front des*. !oom attendants are also responsible for retrieing guestroom *eys if the guest leaes the *ey in the room. Aany hotels proide *ey loc* bo%es on the room attendant8s cart to store guestroom *eys. If no loc* bo% is aailable, room *eys should be *ept in a secured area F not on top of the cart F until returned to the front des*. If a room attendant finds a room *ey in the hallway or public area, the front des* should be notified immediately. The *ey should be returned to the front des* or placed in the loc* bo%.  Lost an# Foun#:

Aany times, the house*eeping department handles the lost and found function. Lost and found items should be stored in an area that is secure and has limited access. "ne employee per shift should be assigned to handle the lost and found as part of his#her  2ob. In large hotels, the linen room cler* may handle the lost and found procedures. In smaller properties, the tas* may be delegated to the e%ecutie house*eeper or front des*  personnel. Bhen an employee finds an item left behind by a guest, he# she should immediately turn it oer to the lost and found. In no instance should lost and found items  be left in an unsecured spot such as on top of a room attendant8s cart. Items should be tagged, logged, and secured after they hae been turned oer to the lost and found. Tags may be numbered or used to identify the item. ( log should be used to record the date, time, where the item was found, and by whom. The log should also hae space to record if and when the item was recoered by it owner. (ll lost ad found property should be *ept for at least B<

Preparing and submitting productiity report is part of the routine tas*s of room attendants. It shall be done at the end of their shift before timing out. Through this report, the superisor can monitor room attendant8s productiity and at the same time able to chec* rooms that hae not been made up, deficiency in room amenities, laundry cost, actual consumption as compared to budget, etc. so the proper action can be underta*en. Loss#s and Da&a(# R#port ;>C<

sed to report losses and damages to room amenities in guestrooms. The cost of said losses are billed to the account of guest. This report should reach the &ront des*


cler*#)ashier upon chec* out of guest. If possible no guest will be allowed to go out of the hotel until he is cleared of possible losses in the room. 0aint#nan"# Ord#r or S#r'i"# R#:u#st ;>CG<

This is accomplished for the purpose of reuesting the +ngineering or 'uilding Aaintenance nit to do repair or trouble shooting of defectie facilities or amenities li*e TJ, aircon, lea*ing faucet, etc. The shift engineer shall assign a technician to chec* and alidate the report and then submit status report to House*eeping. This form shall be accomplished by the superisor once he receies complaints or reports of defectie in guestrooms and in other parts of his assigned area. The report should be ac*nowledged-receied and signed by the secretary or whoeer receies it at the +ngineering "ffice. If the +ngineering section cannot immediately attend to the serice reuest, the !euesting superisor should be informed immediately so that he should ta*e appropriate action. If the defect is somewhat serious, the best action is to transfer the guest to another room. If the defect is minor, the guest is adised to wait. ,#y Endors#&#nt For& ;>CG<

&or control purposes, this form is used to record the turnoer and return of *eys from one shift to another. ontrol For& $or %orro8#d It#&s ;>C< 0ini5%ar R#:uisition ;>G< 0ini5%ar Sal#s Vou"!#r ;>G< Daily Sal#s Su&&ary R#port ;>>?< 0ini5%ar Spoila(# R#port ;>>@< 0ini5%ar Loss#s and Da&a(#s R#port ;>>@< In'#ntory ount S!##t ;>G< Stor#roo& %in ard ;>G< Sto" In'#ntory Varian"# R#port ;>G>< Laundry Vou"!#r ;>?C< Insp#"tion !#"list ;>B< Hous###pin( Audit For& ;>G< Sto" R#:uisition and Issuan"# For& ;>< Laundry D#part&#nt Da&a(# Ad'i"# For& ;>?<




A. A""ordin( to Nu&1#r o$ %#ds*

1. 4. 9. =.

$ingle room F a room with a single bed, and is sold to only one person. Twin room F a room with two single beds, good for two persons. Eouble room F a room occupied by two persons with one double bed. Eouble-double >also twin double@ F a room with two double beds or two ueen beds, occupied by two or more persons. ?. Triple room F a room that can accommodate three people either in one double bed and one roll away bed or two single beds and one roll away  bed.


C. Duadruple room F a room that can be occupied by four people. It may hae two twin beds or two double beds. 6. &amily room F a room with at least one double bed, and one or more single beds, designed to accommodate one small family. 5. Ging room F a room with a *ing-sized bed, maybe occupied by one or two  people or one small family. %. A""ordin( to pri"#6 layout and $a"iliti#s*

1. +conomy F a room for an economical rate, usually short of standard facilities li*e air con, teleision and other amenities. 4. $tandard F a room sold at moderate rate, euipped with standard facilities and amenities li*e air con, toiletries, TJ, bed, night table etc. 9. Eelu%e F a more lu%urious and spacious with amenities of superior uality, sold a much higher price than standard rooms. =. $tudio F a room with a studio bed, which can be conerted into a bed. It may also be called an e%ecutie room. ?. )onnecting room F two or more rooms with entrance doors from the outside door between them through which guests can get through each  bedroom without going out of their rooms. C. (d2acent or ad2oining rooms F rooms located side by side that do not necessarily hae a connecting door. 6. $uite F a room with a parlor or liing room connected to one or more full sized bedrooms, euipped with lu%ury amenities. Typ#s o$ Suit#s*

a. 3unior suite F a room with a bed and a sitting area >usually a small lounge@. There maybe a small, separate bed connected to the liing room or parlor. It is also called a mini suite.  b. Penthouse suite F a suite usually located on top floor of the  property. c. +%ecutie suite F a suite designed for a top e%ecutie, with facilities and amenities of superior uality. d. Hospitality suite F a suite used for entertaining isitors; sering as function room or a parlor. Intended to be more than a sleeping room. Hospitality suites >for /hospos0 as they are often called@ are intended to entertain groups of people. They may include a *itchen and#or bar area. Large tables ma*e them conducie for small group meals or meetings. The rooms themseles may ta*e up the suare footage of three or more standard rooms. e. )orner suite F a suite that is located in the corner of the hotel  building itself. This suite often ta*es up the same area that two standard rooms would.


f. 'i-leel suite F also ta*es up more suare footage than standard rooms. Instead of ta*ing the horizontal suare footage of the corner suite, they ta*e up the ertical area of two rooms. These suites span two floors or more to create ery high ceilings. g. Presidential suite F sometimes called the /)hairman suite0 or the /!oyal suite.0 This suite is understood to be the best room in the hotel. It must be the largest room and typically has all the best amenities and serices the hotel can offer. It will always carry the highest room rate in the hotel as well, but this suite is a ery effectie upgrade. Typ# o$ 1#ds*

a. $ingle bed F a bed appro%imately 9C inches by 6? inches.  b. Eouble bed F a bed that can accommodate a couple or two indiiduals. It is appro%imately ?= inches by 6? inches in size. c. Dueen bed F an e%tra long, e%tra wide bed, about C7 inches by 57 inches in size. d. Ging bed F an e%tra long, e%tra wide bed, about 65 inches by 57 inches in size. e. !oll-away bed F a portable bed with or without wheels also called e%tra bed. Various Typ#s o$ +u#sts*


Jery Important Person >JIP@ F a well renowned gust li*e highran*ing officials, e%ecuties, etc., who warrants a special treatment.  b. Jery, Jery Important Person >JJIP@ F a highly renowned  person who deseres special treatment li*e dignitaries, ambassadors, etc. c. &ree Independent Traelers or &oreign Indiidual Tourist >&IT@@ F tourists or traelers traeling alone not 2oining any tour group. d. 3oiner F person 2oining another guest in the same room.

List o$ Roo& A&#niti#s* A. %#droo& A&#niti#s*    

E:E $ign Aa*e p $ign )loset with at least C hangers 'eds 9C0 % 6?0  $ingle bed ?=0 % 6?0  Eouble bed


 

    

          

Dueen bed Ging bed

C70 % 570 650 % 570

'ed linen  'ed s*irting or flounch  'ed pad  'ed sheet $ize allocate an allowance of 47-4? inches oer bed size >on all  sides@. This depends on the mattress.  'ed coer   Pillow with a pillow slip and a pillow case one per occupant two for double and matrimonial beds $hoehorn and shoe cloth Luggage rac*  Eresser table with anity mirror and dresser lamp TJ set  :ight table with night table lamp. "n top of the table is a telephone, in-house telephone directory, room serice menu, under the table is a safety and security boo*let and bible uest folder or compendium. )ontains enelope, stationery, ball pen, post card, directory of hotel serices, guest comment surey, and small note pad. Eresser chair  )offee table and two easy chairs, ashtray and match on top of the table &loor lamp $erice tray with thermo 2ug filled with cold water; two coered glasses $ide table !oom serice menu House rules Telephone with in-house telephone directory $afety handboo* containing safety tips during emergencies &ire e%it directional signs

%. %at!roo& A&#niti#s* 

  

'athroom linen >two towels per room for one set, one towel per occupant@ 'ath towel 4?0 % ?=0 ?77 gm  Hand towel 150 % 990 1?7 gm  &ace towel 190 % 190 C7 gm  'ath mat 470 % 970 =?7 gm  Hair shampoo and conditioner  $hower cap $oap >must be sealed@ one soap per occupant


       

Toilet tissue &acial tissue arbage can, underlined with plastic liner  Laundry bag Pressing# Laundry List Aorning *it >small pac*age of toothbrush and toothpaste@ $haing *it >contains shaer and shaing cream@ $anitary bag

). Lu4ury A&#niti#s ;$or d#lu4# roo&s* $trip the bed St#p ?* )hec* the mattress pad for stains and damage. St#p @* )hange the mattress pad if necessary   Lay a fresh pad on the bed   nfold pad right-side up and spread it eenly oer the center of the bed   $mooth out any wrin*les

St#p * :otify your superisor if you note stains or damage to the mattress. St#p B* )enter the bottom sheet right side-up on the mattress; there should be eual amounts of sheet hangoer each side of the bed. St#p C* Aiter the bottom sheet at the upper corner of the bed. St#p * Aiter the bottom sheet at the lower corner of the bed. St#p * (t the head of the bed, place the second sheet on the bed, wrong side up. St#p G* Place the blan*et on top of the second sheet about C to 5 inches. St#p >* Place the top sheet, two inches oer the blan*et, and then fold the two inches inside the blan*et to hae a neat loo* appearance. St#p >>* Turn the second sheet oer the top sheet and blan*et. Tuc* the sheets on the sides. St#p >?* Aiter the top sheet, second sheet and blan*et at the lower corners of the bed. St#p >@* Tuc* in top sheet, second sheet and blan*et along the sides of the bed. St#p >* Aa*e sure the second sheet; blan*et and top sheet are tuc*ed in neatly along the sides and foot of the bed. St#p >B* )enter the bedspread. Aa*e sure the seams and patterns of the spread are straight. St#p >C* &old the bedspread down from the head, leaing enough room to coer the  pillows. St#p >* $lip the cases oer the pillows.


St#p >* Place the pillows at the head of the bed and bring the bedspread oer them. Tuc* in the bedspread beneath the pillows. St#p >G* Ta*e a moment to chec* the bed for smoothness both up close and from a distance. $mooth out any wrin*les.

 Dusting  St#p >* sing a cloth sprayed with dusting solution, dust items located on walls or high off the floor. Bor* cloc*wise around the room. St#p ?* Eust and polish mirrors. $pray glass cleaner on a clean cloth and wipe down the mirror. St#p @* )hec* the windows carefully. )lean with glass cleaner if necessary. St#p * Eust the windowsill. St#p B* Eust and polish the dresser. "pen the drawers and dust the inside surfaces. St#p C* Eust the nightstand. $tart with the top surface and wor* your way down the sides to the legs or base. St#p * )lean and dust the telephone. )hec* proper operation by pic*ing up the receier and listening for the dial tone. se spray disinfectant on the mouthpiece and earphone >optional@. St#p * Eust the top and sides of the teleision set and the stand it rests on. St#p G* )lean the front of the teleision set with glass cleaner. Turn on the set to ma*e sure it wor*s properly, and then turn it off. St#p >* Eust any tables, beginning with top surface and wor*ing your way down to the  base and legs. St#p >>* Eust wood or chrome surfaces on chairs, beginning at the top and wor*ing your way down the legs. St#p >?* )lean both sides of the connecting door to an ad2oining guestroom, if applicable.  Bipe from top down.  Polish the *nobs and remoe any smudges around the *nob area.  Bhen finished, ma*e sure the door is closed and loc*ed.


St#p >@* )lean the closet  Eust both the top and underside of the closet shelf. !emoe any smudges on

the surfaces.  Bipe down the closet rod.  Eust hangers and hoo*s.  )lean and dust both sides of the closet door. St#p >* Bipe down light switches and clean any smudges on surrounding wall area. St#p >B* )lean both sides of the guestroom door. St#p >C* !estoc* the room with guest supplies.

Cleaning the Bathroom: St#p >* Turn on lights and fan. !eplace any burned out light bulbs. )hec* fan for proper operation. St#p ?* !emoe used towels, washcloths, and bath mat. St#p @* +mpty trash and wipe container. St#p * &lush the toilet. (pply all-purpose cleaner around and under the lip of the bowl. Let it stand while you attend to other cleaning tas*s. St#p B* )lean the shower area  )hec* the shower head to ma*e sure it is positioned correctly.  Bash the tub or shower walls and soap dishes using a damp cloth and all-

 purpose cleaner. )hec* condition of walls as you clean.  !inse the tub or shower walls and soap dishes with sponge.  )lean both sides of the shower curtain or shower door. Pay special attention to the bottom where mildew may accumulate. Bipe dry.  )lean shower curtain rod or clean the trac*s and frame of the shower door.  $crub the bathtub with all-purpose cleaner. !emoe and clean the drain trap.  )lean bathtub fi%tures. Polish dry to remoe wa ter spots.  Hang clean bath mat oer edge of the tub.  !eposition shower curtain or shower door to the center of the tub. St#p C* )lean the anity and sin* area


 !un some warm water into the sin*. (dd the correct amount of all-purpose     

cleaner. )lean the countertop area of the anity. )lean the sin*. !emoe drain trap and clean. )lean sin* fi%tures. Polish dry to remoe water spots. Bipe dry the countertop area of the anity. )lean mirror with glass cleaner.

St#p * )lean the toilet  $crub the insides of the toilet and under the lip with the bowl brush. &lush.  sing cleaning solution and a cloth, clean the top of the seat, the lid, the tan*,

and the outside of the bowl.  Bipe dry all the outside surfaces.  )lose the lid. St#p * )lean bathroom walls and fi%tures      

Eust light fi%tures. sing a clean damp cloth, spot-clean fingerprints and smudges. Bipe down all electrical outlets and light switches, paying close attention to the surrounding wall area. Bipe and polish towel bars. Eust all e%posed piping. )lean both sides of the bathroom door.

St#p G* !estoc* bathroom supplies  !eplenish the towels.  !eplenish guest amenities.  !eplenish toilet and facial tissue supplies.

St#p >* )lean the floor  $pray bathroom floor and baseboards with all-purpose cleaning solution.  $tarting with the farthest corner and wor*ing your way toward the door, scrub

the floor and wipe baseboards. St#p >>* Aa*e the final chec*. Jisually scan all the areas of the bathroom for areas you may hae oerloo*ed. Turn off the lights and the fan.

Vacuuming and Cleaning Baseboards:


St#p >* )lean the baseboards. 'egin in the closet area and wor* your way around the room. Bipe all e%posed area of the baseboard to remoe surface dust and dirt. St#p ?* Ta*e a acuum sweeper or broom to sweep large dirt. $weep also sides of the room and under furnitures to where acuum cannot reach. This way the dirt that cannot  be reached by the acuum will be pic*ed up immediately and#or center the dirt so to  possibly reach by the acuum. St#p @ Ta*e the acuum to the farthest corner in the guestroom. 'egin acuuming. Ta*e care not to bump furnitures or een dragging the acuum oer its cord. Jacuum side to side. St#p * Jacuum your way bac* to the door; coer all e%posed areas of the carpet you can reach including under tables and chairs, behind the door, and in the closet. St#p B* )lose windows and turn off lights along the way.

 Final Check: The final chec* is a critical step in guestroom cleaning. It ma*es the difference  between 2ust cleaning the room and doing a professional 2ob. (fter reloading your acuum and cleaning supplies on your cart, ta*e a few moments to gie the room a careful loo* from the guest8s perspectie, $tart at one p oint from one point in the room and trail your eyes in a circular fashion from one corner to the ne%t until you hae isually inspected each item. 'y doing so, you may discoer something you oerloo*ed or that was difficult to spot on the first cleaning. Aa*e sure that all the furnishings are bac* in their proper places. Loo* for little things li*e ma*ing sure the lampshades are straight and their seams are turned toward the  bac*. $mell the air for any unusual odors. If you detect any unpleasant smells, report them to your superisor. $pray air freshener if needed. !emember that your last loo* is the guest8s first impression. Bhen you are satisfied that the guestroom is neat and thoroughly cleaned, turn off the lights, close the door, and chec* to see that it is loc*ed.  :ote the condition and status of the room on your assignment sheet, and proceed to the ne%t room on your schedule.

Turndown Serice: St#p >* $ee procedure for entering the guestroom. Bhen announcing your presence, substitute /Turndown $erice0 for /House*eeping.0 St#p ?* !emoe any guest items from the bed. $et neatly aside on the dresser or a chair.


St#p @* Pull bac* the bedspread so 1? to 15 inches hangs oer the foot of the bed. 'ring this slac* part of the spread bac* oer the fold so the fabric faces right side-up. St#p * Pull bac* the sheets.  &or a bed sleeping one guest, turn down the sheets on one side only, usually the

side near the night stand or phone.  &or a bed sleeping two, turn down the sheets on both sides.

St#p B* Place the amenity on the pillow. &or beds sleeping two, be sure to leae amenity on both pillows. St#p C* !emoe and replace dirty ashtrays. !eplenish matches. St#p * !emoe and replace dirty glasses. St#p * )ollect any food serice trays and dishes.  $et items neatly outside the door.  )all room serice for pic*up.

St#p G* +mpty the trash and replace wastebas*et liners. St#p >* $traighten newspapers and magazines. St#p >>* !emoe dirty linen in bathroom. !estoc* with fresh linen. St#p >?* $traighten and wipe down anity area. Ery and polish fi%tures. St#p >@* $traighten and wipe down tub area if necessary. Ery and polish fi%tures. St#p >* )hec* toilet and facial tissue supply. !eplenish if necessary. St#p >B* )lose the drapes. St#p >C* Turn on bedside lamp. St#p >* Turn radio to recommended easy listening station. (d2ust to a low olume. St#p >* Jisually scan the guestroom, beginning at one point in the room and wor*ing your way bac* to the beginning point. (ttend to any turndown tas* you may hae oerloo*ed. St#p >G* Leae the room and close the door. )hec* to be sure it is loc*ed.




The linen and laundry section is responsible for the processing of all reuests for laundry serice, including guest8s laundry and employee uniforms.


The laundry section is usually managed by a Laundry Aanager or superisor and is manned with the following personnel        

Jalet !unner $orter# mar*er Linen attendant Basher &lat Ironer $team Presser Ery )leaner-spotter $eamstress

- pic*s ups and deliers guest laundry. - sorts, classifies and labels laundry items. - does the recording, storage and issuance of linen. - responsible for washing and drying laundry items. - does the ironing. - performs steam pressing. - assigned to do dry cleaning and spot remoal. - does mending of guest laundry or employees uniforms.

 Distribution of Laun#r$ "es!onsibilities: Lin#n and Laundry Sup#r'isor

 Basic Function: Eirects, leads, monitors and controls all actiities coering linen and laundry serice.  Duties and !es"onsibilities: 

)hec*s uality of laundry serice; ensures that laundry standards are complied with and that garments are protected from damages.

+nsures the proper use, storage, and maintenance of linen and laundry euipment, tools and supplies.

)hec*s euipment regularly for their condition. Loo*s after their preentie maintenance through periodic cleaning and repair when necessary.

)hec*s and maintains par stoc* reuirements. Aa*es reuisition wheneer needed.

Initiates and superises wee*ly inentory of laundry supplies and other items allocated to his unit. !eports losses and damages and ta*es correctie action against rec*less use of euipment.

$ees to it that laundered items are deliered on time.

Trains, coaches and superises his staff.

)onducts performance ealuation of his subordinates; conducts app raisal interiew.

(ttends to complaints regarding linen and laundry serice.

Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior.

Lin#n Att#ndant7 ustodian


 Basic Function: $toc*s, stores and issues employees8 uniforms, linens, cleaning supplies, guestroom, and public area amenities.  Duties and !es"onsibilities: 

!esponsible for the issuance of uniforms as well as guestroom, restaurant and  banuet linens, cleaning materials, supplies as well as guestroom amenities; ensures that all issued items are properly recorded and accounted for.

!eports to the $uperisor missing articles, losses, brea*ages and damaged items in the linen room.

(ssists the superisor in conducting inentories of linen, general supplies and uniforms.

!esponsible for the proper arrangement and storage o f linen, uniforms and general supplies in the linen room.

 Performs side duties li*e mending, repair of uniforms and baby-sitting.  !eceies all surrendered linen items; chec*s if they are complete and in good condition; endorses soiled linens to laundry section for laundry.

 Performs other related duties as may be assigned by superior. Val#t Runn#r

 Basic Function: !esponsible for pic* up and deliery of laundry items of guests and those for house use.  Duties and !es"onsibilities: 

Pic*s up guests8 items for laundry and endorses them to sorter#mar*er for proper classification.

)hec*s laundry items for possible damages and immediately informs guests about it. (lso indicates noted damages in the endorsement record.

Informs the sorter#mar*er about the special instructions of guests regarding the latter8s laundry items.

Helps in sorting finished laundry items that are ready for deliery.

Eeliers processed guests8 laundry ma*ing reference to tag number and room number and ma*es sure these items are deliered on time.

)oordinates with the rooms *eeping superisor for the deliery o f all processed items when guests are not in their rooms.


Informs the laundry office of his whereabouts in case there is any call for pic* up and immediate deliery.

)oordinates with front office#house*eeping regarding information on room changes to aoid wrong deliery.

Helps in *eeping the laundry area clean.

Performs other related duties as may be assigned by his#her superior.

Flat8or Iron#r 7 Wran(l#r

 Basic Function: Performs ironing of linen items in the flatwor* machine following the standard  procedures.  Duties and !es"onsibilities: 

$orts all items by classification before running them through the machine.

Performs pressing and ironing, straightens edges and smoothly presses wrin*les; starts and stops machine according to prescribed procedures.

Inspects and sorts out stains and damaged linens. !efers them to superisor for  proper action.

&olds duly accomplished items; counts and classifies them.

 Prepares and *eeps records of accomplishments.  )leans wor* areas and machine.  !eports malfunction of machine to superior.  Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superisor from time to time. Was!#r ;+u#st It#&s<

 Basic Function: (ttends the washing and e%tracting, drying of a ll guests laundry and &") >free of charge@ items.  Duties and !es"onsibilities: 

!eceies laundry items of guests from the sorter-mar*er.

$orts and classifies items according to *ind, color, and degree of dirt.

Inspects items for damages and stains and reports any damage to the laundry superisor.


Aanually cleans with detergent the badly soiled portion of the guests items prior to machine washing; informs sorter or superisor regarding irremoable stains for the latter to bring it to attention of the guest.

Loads guests items into the washing machine and performs washing according to standard washing procedures. nloads washed items and transfer them to the laundry cart.

Loads the e%tracted items to the drying machine for completion.

Inspects and sorts dried items and forwards them to the pressing section for  pressing or ironing.

)onstantly chec*s the cleanliness and maintenance of the euipments and reports the defects to his superisor.

Performs other duties as may be assigned by his# her superior.

Was!#r ;Lin#ns<

 Basic Function: (ttends to the washing, e%tracting and drying of all house*eeping linens such as towels, bed sheets, pillow slips and pillow cases, etc., and also linen used for dining and  banuet functions.  Duties and !es"onsibilities: 

$orts all dirty linens and towels brought into the laundry section.

$orts all dirty linens li*e tablecloths, nap*ins and coc*tail nap*ins receied from different food outlets.

Loads items into the washing machine and performs washing in accordance with standard washing procedures.

nloads e%tracted items and forwards them either mangling or pressing section.

Performs daily cleaning of his area and the machine he is operating.

Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by his#her superior.


 Basic Function: Performs sewing or mending of guest room linens as well as those used for  banuet and food serice operations.  Duties and !es"onsibilities: 

!esponse for mending and repair of guest garments as well as uniforms and linens for house use.


     

Aends and repairs torn or damaged curtains, bed coer, s*irting of guest rooms. Aaintains the cleanliness and condition of the sewing machine. !eports to the superisor any malfunctioning of the sewing euipment. Aaintains a stoc* of sewing *it and loo*s after their safe*eeping. (ssisting linen attendant in the issuance of guest room linens and banuet linen during pea* season. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by his# her superior.

 Se&uence of Guest Laun#r$ Service: 

uest shall fill up the laundry list and may reuest for pic*-up either through the House*eeping or Laundry office guest phone, through the &ront des* or any room superisor or room attendant.

If the pic*-up reuest is coursed through the laundry cler*, the latter logs down the guest8s instructions for the processing of items and calls the linen attendant, alet runner or room boy for eh pic*-up of the linen.

 The laundry list and laundry items are pic*ed up by concerned staff.  pon pic*-up of the laundry items, the attending staff chec*s items on the list in front of the guest if he is around. If the guest is not around, he chec*s it in the presence of a floor guard or room boy# superisor who will be sering as witness for damages or aluables. If stains or damage are found in the item, the alet runner or room attendant who  pic*s up the laundry will fill up the guest notification form to notify the guest of noted damage or any discrepancy. This notification is brought to the guest by the room boy or  bellboy. The guest shall ac*nowledge receipt of said notification by signing his name. If the item is not suited for the reuested processing method >dry cleaning, washing, etc.@, the guest is also notified thru the same notification form, indicating therein the recommended method in processing the item. 

 –  –

Items for washing are endorsed to washer for processing. pon receipt of the items, the washer shall count and double chec* items against the laundry list; sort and classify them, then place the appropriate tag. If the item is for dry cleaning >color code it with blue tag@ If the item is for machine-washing, >color code it with pin* tag@

Hotel has the option to ma*e their own coding system. If the item is to be hand washed, washer should hand wash with care. 57

(fter washing the laundry items, the washer endorses the finished items to the other laundry staff >i.e. ironer or presser@ for further processing.

 If the items is for other forms of processing, it is endorsed to other laundry staff, namely     –

Presser F for blouse, dresses, trousers and related items. Hand ironer F for normal shirts. tility presser F for trousers, s*irt and long dresses. The attending staff shall double chec* each items upon receiing them, and ta*es note of discrepancies in uantity and damaged parts.

 If the item needs no further processing, it is placed inside the pigeon bo% >if any@ according to tag.

 If the item is ready for deliery, the linen attendant or alet runner sorts them against the laundry list, collects altogether laundry items of each guest in a garment bag, attaches the laundry list to the bag and endorses it to the presser or linen attendant.

 If the guest is on cash basis, laundry cler*, prepares a oucher to be attached to the item for billing. Payment must be made upon deliery of the items.

 The processed items will now be deliered to the guest. If the guest is around, he is as*ed to sign in the deliery logboo* for ac*nowledgement. Then the bill is presented to him for settlement. If the guest is not around, the house*eeping superisor ac*nowledges by signing in the logboo*. If the room is on /Eo :ot Eisturb0 sign and said item is on special serice, a notification is placed in the guest8s room through the door, >another copy to the front office@ notifying him that an attempt to delier his laundry was made while he is on E:E. ndeliered linens brought bac* to the laundry area to be redeliered upon the arrial of guest.  Summar$ of the basic +ash ste!s:


 &lush F the linen is wet to dissole water-soluble soil and to reduce soil load in the following suds steps. (lways flush at high-water leel and medium-temperature water. Time 1 to 9 minutes


 $uds F inoles actual washing step, where detergent is added to the wheel, lowwater leel and hot water is used. Time ?to 5 minutes


 'leach F elimination of stains that could be remoed by the detergent. This is done using chlorinated bleach added to the wheel. sually low-water leel and hot water is used. Time ? to 5 minutes


 !inse F rids the linen of detergent and soil. sually 9 to ? steps are utilized at highwater leel temperature usually dripping with subseuent rinses. Time 1 to 9 minutes


  –

$our and soft step F is the final conditioning of the linen using fabric softener and sour >wild acid@. This id performed at low-water leel, medium temperature water. Time 9 to ? minutes +%tract F processing of reducing the moisture content of linen by ?7M >177 lbs. dry weight@; linen will retail ?7 lbs water after e%traction. Time 1 to 14 minutes


'rea* F performed before the suds step. Low-water leel; medium to hot water, with a highly-al*aline-brea* product is added to brea* loose soils. Time 9 to 6 minutes.


Interdictor e%tract F this process spins soil-laden detergent solution out of linen. ( high-speed is used, usually after the first rinse step. This process reduces the reuired number of deep-water rinses. Time 97 seconds to 4 minutes



9II. FLOOR TYPES AND THEIR ARE A. Hard Floors ;Non5r#sili#nt $loors<

&looring materials that do not /gie0 to any degree underfoot. Their hardness ensures their durability. Eents are not a problem with these types of floors. Howeer, the hardness of these types of floors is also a ma2or drawbac*. They are e%tremely tiring to those who must stand on them for any length of time. '$!es of Har# Floors .1on2resilient Floors/:

a.  b. c. d. e. a.

'ric*   )eramic and Terra )otta Tiles )oncrete $tone &loors Terrazzo %ri"


'ric* is not commonly used as a flooring material for interiors, e%cept to coney a rustic theme. 'ric* floors are normally left in their natural unglazed state and color, but they can be sealed and finished for some interior applications. nglazed bric*s are highly porous material, and they proide a highly durable, fairly slip-resistant floor, but the mortar between the bric*s can deteriorate rapidly if it is not properly maintained. Eeteriorating mortar and loose bric*s can uic*ly become a serious hazard for slip-fall accidents. (nother caution is not to use bric*s where there may be grease spills. $ince an unglazed bric* is ery porous, spilled grease and oil will be absorbed into the bric* and will be ery hard to remoe. If the floor then becomes wet, the surface of the bric* will hae this oil and water mi%ture, ma*ing for a ery slippery surface.


Cleaning %roce#ures:

'ric* floors create special problems in cleaning. If the bric*s are the speciallymade type of slip-resistant bric*, they will cause cotton mop heads to fray. (lso, unglazed bric*s tend to become ery dusty. The best approach to cleaning a bric* floor is to acuum it with a brush and, when mopping, use a bristle brush in combination with a wet#dry acuum.


#ra&i" and T#rra otta Til#s

Li*e bric*, ceramic and terra cotta tiles are made from clay that s fired in a *iln. Howeer, ceramic tile differs from bric* in that a coating is applied to one side of the tile and the tile is then fired in a *iln, creating a surface that is almost totally imperious to soil and liuids. )eramic tile comes in a multitude of colors and can hae either a matte or glossy surface. )are must be ta*en when selecting ceramic tile because certain solid colors will show dirt uite easily. )eramic tile also appears on walls and countertops, as well as on interior and e%terior floors. Terra cotta tiles, typically si% inches suare, resemble bric*s because they are left in their natural color, and they do not hae the glaze coat that is commonly applied to ceramic tile. The color of terra cotta is traditionally a reddish-brown. "ne ariety of terra cotta is often used in *itchen floor application because it is mar*ed with a rough surface that ma*es it slip resistant in greasy conditions. Cleaning %roce#ures:

The tiles must be cleaned freuently to remoe dust and grit that could damage the glaze on the tile. )leaning procedures might include dust mopping, damp mopping, and light scrubbing when needed. )otton mop heads should not be used on tiles that contain slip-resistant surfaces, because these surfaces will uic*ly shred a traditional mop head. $crubbing should be done with brushes and the water should be pic*ed up with a wet# dry acuum. ".


The concrete floor is employed for its utility, not for its attractieness or its resiliency. ( concrete floor is composed of cement, roc*s, and sand, to which is water is added to initiate a chemical reaction that changes the ingredients into a stone li*e material. Cleaning %roce#ures:


The cleaning procedures that may be used on a concrete floor range from a daily dust mopping, to a damp mopping, to heay scrubbing to remoe grease and soils. $ince concrete, and especially unsealed concrete, is so porous, an immediate effort must be made to clean up spilled liuids before they are absorbed into the concrete and cause unsightly stains. d.

Ston# Floors

)ommon types of natural stone flooring includes marbles, traertine, serpentine, granite, slate, and sandstone. (ll natural stone products share certain properties that must be ta*en into consideration by the professional house*eeper to ensure the proper care of this type of flooring.  :atural stone flooring may loo* imperious to the elements, but it is decidedly not as resistant to damage as it loo*s. (cids and moisture can hae disastrous effects on natural stone. $ome acids are present naturally in the stone, but een the acid from spilled orange 2uice can hae a deleterious effect on stone floors, causing pitting, crac*ing, and spalling. These floors need to hae moisture-permeable sealers applied so moisture and acids do not build up under the sealer and destroy the floor8s surface. "ils and grease can  permanently stain untreated stone floors because these floors are e%tremely porous. Cleaning %roce#ures:

To preent the staining of stone floors, the dust mops should be free of all oil based dusting compounds. Eusting should be carried out on a daily basis because grit, sand, and other abrasies that are trac*ed onto a stone floor will uic*ly mar the floor8s finish. ( pH neutral detergent is recommended to clean all natural stone floors. Highly al*aline cleaners as well as acidic compounds will damage stone floors. Bhen mopping stone floors do not let water or chemicals remain on the floor. ( final rinse of clean water should be applied and then immediately pic*ed up with a mop or a wet# dry acuum. #.


( terrazzo floor is a mosaic flooring composed of Portland cement that has been embedded with marble and#or granite chips. The chips used in terrazzo floor can differ both in sizes and color, creating a ariety of colorful and attractie floors. Bith proper care, a terrazzo floor will hold its original luster and will last indefinitely. Bhat destroys most terrazzo is not use, but improper maintenance. Cleaning %roce#ures:


Terrazzo should be dusted daily to remoe harmful grit and sand that can wear down the surface, but dust mops should not be treated with oil dressings because oil is the archenemy of a terrazzo floor. "nce oil or grease penetrates a terrazzo floor, it is irtually impossible to remoe. $teel wool should not be used on the surface of a terrazzo because the steel wool may put rust stains on the marble chips. Bhen selecting detergents and cleaners for terrazzo floors, stay away from acid cleaners, abrasies and scrubbing powders, and preparations that hae an al*alinity aboe  pH 17. (lways rinse a freshly scrubbed floor and do not allow water or cleaners to remain on the floor surface. %. R#sili#nt Floors

!esilient floors hae arious degrees of /gie0 to their surfaces. Bhen dented, a resilient floor will eentually rebound wholly or partially to its origin form. They are called resilient because they are elastic and buoyant underfoot. They are also non porous. T#"es o$ !esilient Floors: a.  b. c. d. e. f. g.

(sphalt Tile )or* Linoleum !ubber   Jinyl Bood )arpet


Asp!alt Til#

(sphalt tile is one of the lowest-cost resilient floor coerings aailable, and it is uite durable under most normal conditions. It will, howeer, become brittle when e%posed to prolonged periods of low temperature and will also dent when heay ob2ects are present on its surface, particularly when the ambient temperature is aboe 577 &ahrenheit. (sphalt tile is also fire resistant, in fact, it is one of the most mar resistant of all floorings in regard to cigarette burns. Cleaning %roce#ures:

Eust mopping, damp mopping, and scrubbing will maintain and presere the asphalt floor. "ne important item to remember, wet mopping is to neer let water stand


for any length of time on an asphalt tile floor. $tanding water will attac* the adhesie cement and will cause tiles to curl and loosen. 1.

or Til#

)or* tile is made from the outer bar* of cor* oa* trees grown in $pain and Portugal. The cor* is ground into large granules, mi%ed with synthetic resins, and pressed into sheets, which are then cut into tiles. )ontemporary cor* tiles for floors usually hae a top layer of clear inyl applied to them. This inyl layer protects the cor* from staining and wear. )or* tiles traditionally hae had limited application in industrial or institutional settings. "ne reason is that cor* is susceptible to staining because it is one of the most  porous of all floor coerings. (nother limitation is that it is not durable; it is highly susceptible to abrasion. )inders, sand, and grael trac*ed on to a cor* floor will seerely shorten its life span. &inally, it is e%pensie. )or* rials ceramic tiles in cost and does not hae nearly the useful life of ceramic tile. ".


In modern buildings, the use of inyl has replaced linoleum, but on occasion, linoleum floors can still be found in older facilities. Linoleum was once so perasie that many still use the term linoleum to indicate any continuous flooring material, such as solid inyl flooring. Linoleum was composed of o%idized linseed oil, resins, embedded cor*, and wood flour with pigments pressed on a bac*ing. Its properties included in a remar*able degree of resiliency. :e%t to cor* and rubber, and of course, padded carpeting, linoleum is considered to hae the greatest degree of resiliency. Linoleum was uite durable, was resistant to oil and grease, and do not shrin*. The negatie aspects of linoleum was that it is highly susceptible to water. The linoleum would absorb water and would then soften, causing it to lose its abrasion resistance and become more susceptible to indentation. +en high humidity would hae a negatie effect upon this material. Cleaning %roce#ures:

&reuent dusting is essential to the preseration of linoleum. The flooring can also  be dry mopped using a pH neutral cleaner. Harsh abrasies and scouring powders should  be aoided and water or detergent solutions should not be left in contact with the floor for any length of time. Bhen the floor is mopped, it should be allowed to dry completely before foot traffic is allowed upon it.



Ru11#r Floors

(ll modern rubber floors are made from synthetic rubber, such as styrene  butadiene rubber >$'!@. !ubber tiles are cured or ulcanized by the application of heat. !ubber floors are nonporous, waterproof surfaces. "ne ma2or adantage is that they are uite resilient and will remain resilient oer a considerable temperature range. !ubber flooring is susceptible to al*alines, oils, grease, solents, ultraiolet light, and ozone in the air. Bhen attac*ed by these components, a rubber floor will often  become tac*y and soft. It will then become brittle and begin to crac* and powder. !ubber tiles often hae *nobs n the surface or will hae a tread pattern to improe traction, especially if liuids are freuently spilled on the surface. Cleaning %roce#ures:

Highly al*aline cleaning solution should be aoided; it is best to use pH neutral detergents wheneer possible. )leaning solents such as naphtha and turpentine should neer be used on a rubber floor. !ubber floors are fairly easy to maintain. Eaily dust mopping and an occasional damp mopping are all that is needed to maintain the floor. #.

Vinyl Floors

There are seeral types of inyl floorings and tiles. The ma2or arieties include inyl asbestos tiles, inyl composition tiles, homogeneous or fle%ible inyl tiles, and laminated inyl flooring. Jinyl asbestos tiles are no longer made and hae been remoed from numerous commercial and residential settings because the asbestos in the tile is a *nown carcinogen. Improper cleaning of inyl asbestos tile can release deadly asbestos fibers into the air and present a ery real health hazard. Laminated inyl flooring is less e%pensie to manufacture than inyl composition or homogeneous inyl floors. The low initial cost may be deceiing, howeer, for once the top wear layer is worn through, the floor will hae to be replaced. $ome laminated floorings are only guaranteed for three years with moderate use. The cost of laminated inyl flooring will ary in proportion to the thic*ness o f the top inyl wear layer. In addition to the inyl resins, inyl composition tiles contain mineral fillers such as asphalt and pigments. Homogeneous inyl tiles may either be fle%ible or solid, and it has become the preferred standard for resilient tile flooring. It is practically unaffected by moisture, oils, and chemical solents.


Cleaning %roce#ures:

Aodern homogeneous inyl needs only to be dusted and damp mopped to restore its luster. Eaily dusting to remoe sand and grit is e%tremely important to the care of inyl because most types will scratch under heay foot traffic. $ome tiles are specially treated with a scratch resistant seat that is applied at the factory. Aodern inyl is unaffected by al*aline detergents, but pH neutral detergents are recommended oer heay al*aline products. $.

Wood Floors

There is nothing uite as attractie as the warmth and richness of wood floors. Aost hardwood floors are made from oa*, but other popular woods include ash, beech,  birch, hic*ory, maple, tea*, and walnut. In addition to its attractieness, hardwood floors are e%tremely durable if they are properly finished and maintained. nfinished wood floors will uic*ly deteriorate under een light use, as wood is an e%tremely porous material. nfinished woods are susceptible to dirt lodging in the grains, splintering of the wood fibers, abrasions caused by normal foot traffic, and of course, moisture, the bane of wood floors. Too much moisture will cause a wood floor to warp, while too little humidity will cause wood floors to shrin* and crac*. To help forestall damage, most wood floors made today receie factory applied finish. In some instances the wood is heated to open the pores of the wood. Tung oil and carnuba wa% are then applied to seal the wood. $ince there is a degree of resiliency in een the hardest of hardwood floors,  precautions should be ta*en to protect the floor from furniture legs that may dent the flooring. Bood floors are particularly susceptible to metal or hard plastic rollers and to those small metal domes that are often found on the legs of office furnitures Cleaning %roce#ures:

Preentie maintenance is the *ey to attractie and durable wood floors. "ne of the best preention techniues is to use wal*-off mats at e%terior entrances and use rugs and carpet runners in high-traffic areas. Bood floors should be dusted, but do not use an oily dust mop on wood floor. The oil from the mop head may dar*en or stain the floor. Bater is one of the most deleterious substances to a wood floor, conseuently, it should not be used to clean most wood floors. Eusting, acuuming, buffing, and, on limited occasion, a light damp mopping is all that is necessary to maintain a wood floor on a daily basis. (.

arp#t Floors


)arpet is typically installed wall-to-wall to eliminate the maintenance of hard flooring surfaces around the edge of a carpet. !ugs, on the other hand, are often used to accentuate a tile or wood floor. In areas where there is heay foot traffic, rugs can be used to eualize wear and help preent trac*ing onto other floor coerings. )arpet offers a number of benefits oer hard and resilient flooring materials. )arpet preents slipping; it proides an additional source of insulation, it has acoustical  properties that can effectiely lower noise leels; and it is the most resilient of all floor coerings, which is a ma2or benefit to indiiduals who must remain on their feet for e%tended periods. )arpet )omponents a.  b. c. d.

Pile Primary 'ac*ing $econdary 'ac*ing Padding

a. Pil#

Pile is the yarn that we see and can readily touch. The fibers can either be synthetic or natural in composition. 'est of %ile 3ualit$:

a. Pile density; the greater the density of pile, the better the carpet. )arpet with greater pile density hold their shape longer and are more resistant to dirt and stains. "ne common test of density is to bend a piece of carpet, and if the bac*ing can readily be seen, the carpet is of an inferior uality.  b. &ace weight; is the weight of the carpet8s surface fibers in ounces or grams  per suare yard. The greater the face weight, the higher the uality. c. Height of the pile; longer fibers are better than shorter fibers. d. (mount of twist the pile fibers hae receies; the tighter the twist, the  better the carpet. 1. %a"in(

The bac*ing is on the underside of the carpet; it secures the tufts of pile and gies additional strength and stability to the carpet. Aost carpets hae a double bac*ing, a  primary bac*ing to which the yarn is attached and an outer bac*ing called the secondary  bac*ing. ( layer of late% adhesie is sandwiched between the two layers to seal the pile tufts to the primary bac*ing.

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