COMPARATIVE POLICE SYSTEM (LEA 6-B) Coverage/Scope of the Subject:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Concept of Globalization to Police Service Transnational Crime Selected Police Models Role of INTERPOL Bilateral International Cooperation of Transnational Crime Participation of PNP Personnel in UN Peacekeeping Missions
Definition of terms •
Globalization – Globalization – aa process by which regional economies, societies, cultures have become integrated through a global network of communication, transportation and trade. Global Policing – Policing – indicate indicate those forms of policing that are fully global in scope. International Policing – Policing – indicate indicate those types of policing that are formally directed by institutions usually responsible for international affairs. Transnational Policing – Policing – pertains pertains to all forms of policing that transgress national borders. Transnational Crime – Crime – refers refers to crime that takes place across national borders. Terrorism – Terrorism – the the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. (FBI, 1997)
Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. (US Dept. of State)
Drug Trafficking – Trafficking – is is the illegal production and distribution of controlled substances.
Money Laundering – Laundering – is is the method by which criminals disguise the illegal origins of their wealth and protect their assets bases, so as to avoid the suspicion of law enforcement agencies and prevent leaving a trail of incriminating evidence.
Human Trafficking – Trafficking – recruitment, recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.
Cybercrime – Cybercrime – refers refers to all the activities done with criminal intent in cyberspace.
INTERPOL – INTERPOL – International International Criminal Police Organization is an organization facilitating international police cooperation.
Globalization Negative Effects: 1. Sweatshop 2. Brain drain 3. Effect on Environmental Degradation 1
4. Food Security 5. Effect on Disease 6. Drug and Illicit Goods Trade TRANSNATIONAL CRIME
Define as the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives (FBI, 1997) The term terrorism comes from French terrorisme, from Latin: “terror ”, “great fear”, “dread”, related to the Latin verb “terrere”, “to frighten”. The use of the word first appeared in January 1795 in The Times.
Characteristics of terrorism • • • •
Premeditated or Planned Politically motivated Aimed at civilians Carried out by sub-national groups
Typology of terrorism 1. Nationalist Terrorism – seek to form a separate state of their own and frequently depict their activities as a fight for liberation. 2. Religious Terrorism – pursue their own vision of the divine will and use violence intended to bring about social and cultural changes 3. State-sponsored Terrorism – deliberately used by radical states as foreign policy tools 4. Left-wing Terrorism – seek to destroy economies based on free enterprise and to replace them with socialist or communist economic systems. 5. Right-wing Terrorism – motivated by fascist ideals and work toward the dissolution of democratic governments. 6. Anarchist Terrorism – are revolutionaries who seek to overthrow all established forms of government. 7. Domestic Terrorism – refers to the unlawful use of force or violence by a group or an individual who is based and operates within a state. 8. International Terrorism – is the unlawful use of force or violence by a group or an individual who has connection to a foreign power or whose activities transcend national boundaries against person or property to intimidate or coerce a government. 9. Cyber-terrorism – is a form of terrorism that makes use of high technology – especially computers, the Internet and the World Wide Web – in the planning and carrying out of terrorist attacks. TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS Al- Qaeda •
Founded by Osama bin Laden in 1988 in Saudi Arabia. An Islamic jihadist movement to replace Western-controlled or dominated Muslim countries with Islamic fundamentalist regimes.
Osama Bin- Laden •
Born in March 10, 1957 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia The only son of his father’s tenth wife. At the age of 17, Osama married his first wife. Osama married four women and fathered roughly 25 or 26 children.
THE SEPTEMBER 11, 2001 ATTACK •
Al-Qaeda’s well known attack 19 men hijacked 4 commercial passenger jet airliners Crashing 2 of them into the World Trade Center, 1 in Pentagon and the other 1 in Pennsylvania. 2, 973 died and the 19 hijackers.
Refers to the practices, tactics and strategies that governments, militaries and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism.
NATO and US Military definition •
Operations that include the offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, preempt and respond to terrorism.
TYPES OF COUNTERTERRORISM
1. Strategic Counterterrorism •
Deny resources, such as finances or base areas, to the terrorists. It will capture, kill, or convert terrorist leaders.
2. Tactical and Operational Counterterrorism •
Creation of elite units or forces, whose role is to directly engage terrorists and prevent terrorist attacks. They perform both in preventive actions, hostage rescue and responding to on-going attacks.
COUNTER-TERRORIST GROUPS AUSTRALIA •
Tactical Assault Group (TAG) Special Air Service Regiment (SASR)
Sayeret Mat’kal (General Staff Reconnaissance Unit 269
Bijzondere Bijstands Eenheid – BBE
Forsvarets Spesialkommando (FSK) – Special Commando of the Defense
Sultan’s Special Forces “Cobras”
UNITED KINGDOM (UK)
Special Air Service (SAS)
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Delta Force Seal Team Six
Special Action Force (PNP-SAF) Special Operations Group (PASCOM-SOG)
UNITED NATION’S COUNTER -TERRORISM COMMITTEE •
The CTC was established by Security Control resolution 1373 (2001), which was adopted unanimously on Sept. 28, 2001 in the wake of the 11 September terrorist attack in the United States. The Committee, comprising all 15 Security Council Members
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA’S NATIONAL COUNTERTERRORISM CENTER (NCTC) •
Established by Presidential Executive Order 13354 in August 2004 and codified by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004.
PHILIPPINE CENTER ON TRANSNATIONAL CRIME (PCTC) •
Created on January 15, 1999 by Executive Order No. 62 under the Office of the President to formulate and implement a concerted of action of all law enforcement, intelligence and other government agencies for the prevention and control of transnational crime.
REPUBLIC ACT NUMBER 9372 “HUMAN SECURITY ACT OF 2007” •
Signed into law by Pres. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and effective on July 2007, officially aimed at tackling militants in the Southern Philippines, including Abu Sayyaf Group, which has links to AlQaeda and has been blamed for bombings and kidnappings in the region.
TERRRORISM IN THE PHILIPPINES ISLAMIC TERRORIST GROUP
BANGSA MORO “the MORO people” is the generic name for the 13 ethno linguistic Muslim tribes in the Philippines which constitute a quarter of the population in Mindanao in the Southern Philippines. Three Major Groups: Maguindanaons Maranaos Tausogs ABU SAYYAF GROUP (ASG) •
Founding Philosophy: The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) was formed in 1991 during the peace process between the Philippine government and the nationalist/separatist terrorist group, the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)
ASG was lead by Abdurajak Janjalani, who was recruited for training in Afghanistan.
RAJAH SOLAIMAN MOVEMENT Aliases: “Balik Islam” or “Back to Islam” Founded by Hilarion del Rosario Santos III, a.k.a. Hannah Santos, Ahmed Santos, Hilarion del Rosario. Converted to Islam in 1993 and married into the top ranks of the leadership of the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) JEMAAH ISLAMIYA (JI) •
Aliases: Islamic Community, Islamic Group The Philippine cell is the smallest of the JI cells in Southeast Asia. Considered as the major logistics cell, responsible for acquiring explosives, guns and other equipment.
NEW PEOPLE’S ARMY (NPA) •
Formed in 1969 with support from China. Created as the armed wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines.
DRUG TRAFFICKING DRUG TRAFFICKING •
Drug Trafficking is the illegal cultivation, culture, delivery, administration, dispensation, manufacture, sale, trading, transportation, distribution, importation, exportation and possession of any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA •
The world’s largest market for illegal drugs. Marijuana, Cocaine and Heroin The most heavily abused drugs Methamphetamine
The cause of the fastest-growing drug problem in the United States.
DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION (DEA) •
The Federal Agency responsible for controlling the spread of illegal drugs in the United States and abroad.
PHILIPPINE DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENCY (PDEA) Created through Republic Act No. 9165 “Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002” under the Dangerous Drugs Board. PDEA is under the Office of the President SOUTHEAST ASIAN REGION •
Considered as a “hot spot” in relation to the drug trade. China – leading producer of opium poppy The “Golden Triangle” – manufactures opium and heroin.
REGIONAL INITIATIVES TO ADDRESS THE DRUG TRADE
ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS (ASEAN) •
Continuously pooling their resources to effectively address drug trafficking.
ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS CHIEFS OF NATIONAL POLICE (ASEANAPOL) •
Consolidate National Police Forces, enhance regional law enforcement cooperation and harmonize policing system in the region.
DRUG TRADE IN THE PHILIPPINES •
The Philippines is a producer, exporter and consumer of cannabis plant-based drugs (marijuana, hashish, et.al). 5
The Philippines is an importer and consumer of synthetic drugs, in particular methamphetamine hydrochloride (shabu). The Philippines is a transit point for the international trade in heroin and cocaine. The Philippines is being used as a recreation place, an investment and money laundering haven.
RP: FAVORABLE CONDITION TO DRUG TRADE •
Economic Policy Banking System
Geographical Location Political System
MONEY LAUNDERING •
Is the method by which criminals disguise the illegal origins of their wealth and protect their asset bases.
The term “money laundering” originated from Mafia ownership of Laundromats in the United States. The first use of the term “money laundering” was during the Watergate Scandal 1973 in United States. Stages of Money Laundering •
The first stage in the washing cycle. The money are placed into the financial system or retail economy or are smuggled out of the country. The aim is to remove the case from the location of acquisition
The first attempt at concealment or disguise of the source of the ownership of the funds by creating complex layers of financial transactions designed to disguise the audit trail and provide anonymity. Moving money in and out of the bank account of bearer through electronic funds transfer.
The final stage in the process The money is integrated into the legitimate economic and financial system and assimilated in all other assets in the system.
REPUBLIC ACT NUMBER 9160, as amended by REPUBLIC ACT NUMBER 9194 “ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING ACT OF 2001”
MONEY LAUNDERING •
Is a crime whereby the proceeds of an unlawful activity as herein defined are transacted, thereby making them appear to have originated from legitimate sources.
ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING COUNCIL •
Financial intelligence unit in the Philippines that conducts investigations on suspicious transactions.
HUMAN TRAFFICKING •
A crime against humanity. It involves an act of recruiting, transporting, transferring, harboring or receiving a person through the use of force, coercion or other means, for the purpose of exploiting them.
ELEMENTS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING 1. The Act (What is done)
recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons
2. The Means (How it is done)
Threat or use of force, coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or vulnerability, or giving payments or benefits to a person in control of the victim
3. The Purpose (Why it is done)
For the purpose of exploitation, which includes exploiting the prostitution of others, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery or similar practices and the removal of organs.
CYBER CRIMES •
Refers to all activities done with criminal intent in the cyberspace. Crimes committed with the use of Information Technology, where computer, network, internet is the target and where the internet is the place of activity.
TYPES OF CYBER CRIMES
The act of illegally accessing the computer system/network of an individual, group or business enterprise without the consent or approval of the owner of the system.
A higher form of hacking in which the unauthorized access culminates with the process of defeating the security system for the purpose of acquiring money or information and/or availing of free services.
MALICIOUS SENDING OF E-MAILS •
Sending of malicious and defamatory electronic mails as a medium of extorting money, or threatening prospective victims.
INTERNET PORNOGRAPHY •
Trafficking, distribution, posting and dissemination of obscene material including children’s nude pictures, indecent exposure and child sex slavery posted into the internet, live streaming videos aired through the internet under a certain fee.
LAUNCHING OF HARMFUL VIRUSES 7
DISTRIBUTED DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACKS (DDOS) WEBSITE DEFACEMENT
The unauthorized modification of a website.
ACQUIRING CREDIT CARD INFORMATION FROM A WEBSITE THAT OFFERS E-SERVICES INTERNET SHOPPING USING FRAUDULENTLY ACQUIRED CREDIT CARDS WIRE TRANSFER OF FUNDS FROM A FRAUDULENTLY ACQUIRED CREDIT CARD ONLINE AUCTION FRAUD SELECTED POLICE MODELS
JAPAN POLICE SYSTEM National Public Safety Commission •
An administrative commission operating on the basis of liaison and coordination with the Cabinet, the National Public Safety Commission is a government body responsible for the administrative supervision of the police. The National Public Safety Commission is composed of the Chairman and five members. A minister in the Cabinet is appointed as the chairman of the Commission. The chairman presides over Commission meetings and also supervises matters relating to the operation of the Commission.
National Police Agency •
The head of the NPA is the Commissioner General who is appointed and dismissed by the National Public Safety Commission with the consent of the Prime Minister. Under control of the National Public Safety Commission, the Commissioner-General administers the tasks of the NPA, appoints and dismisses Agency employees, and supervises and controls the prefectural police regarding the affairs under the jurisdiction of the Agency.
NINE POLICE RANKS • • • • • • • • •
Keishi-sokan (Superintendent General of the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department), Keishi-kan (Superintendent Supervisor), Keishi-cho (Chief Superintendent), Keishi-sei (Senior Superintendent), Keishi (Superintendent), Keibu (Police Inspector), Keibu-ho (Assistant Police Inspector), Junsa-bucho (Police Sergeant) Junsa (Policeman).
SINGAPORE POLICE SYSTEM •
The main agency tasked with maintaining law and order in the city-state. Formerly known as the Republic of Singapore Police
RANK STRUCTURE • • • • •
CP DC SAC DAC AC
- Commissioner of Police - Deputy Commissioner of Police - Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police - Deputy Assistant Commissioner of Police - Assistance Commissioner of Police 8
• • • • • • • • • • • •
Supt - Superintendent DSP - Deputy Superintendent of Police ASP - Assistant Superintendent of Police SSI2 - Senior Station Inspector 2 Insp. - Inspector SSI - Senior Station Inspector SI - Station Inspector SSS - Senior Staff Sergeant SS - Staff Sergeant Sgt - Sergeant Cpl - Corporal PC - Police Constable
MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS •
A ministry of the Government of Singapore responsible for public safety, civil defense and immigration.
It is also known as the Home Team.
It is headed by the Minister for Home Affairs.
POLICE SYSTEM OF OTHER ASEAN COUNTRIES
THAILAND ROYAL THAI POLICE The national police of Thailand. Primary responsibility for the maintenance of public order through enforcement of the kingdom's laws Charged with performing police functions throughout the entire country. INDONESIA INDONESIAN NATIONAL POLICE. The official police force for Indonesia. The police were formally separated from the military in April 1999, a process which was formally completed in July 2000 and placed under the Office of the President. Has a centralized command and divided into territorial forces. RANK STRUCTURE
In the early years, the Polri used European police style ranks like inspector and commissioner. When the police were included into the military structure during the 1960s, the ranks changed to a military style such as Captain, Major and Colonel. In the year 2000, when the Polri conducted the transition to a fully independent force out of the armed forces 2000, they use British style police ranks like Inspector and Superintendent. The Polri have returned to Dutch style ranks just like in the early years. •
Police General > highest rank
Second Police Brigadier > lowest rank
MALAYSIA Royal Malaysian Police •
A main branch of security forces in Malaysia. The force is a centralized organization that has a gamut of roles that ranges from traffic control to intelligence. 9
Our headquarters is located in Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur. The Royal Malaysian Police force is led by an Inspector-General of Police (IGP). Head of Police
Ministry of Home Affairs
Inspector General of Police
Vietnam People’s Police of Vietnam
The law enforcement in Vietnam is called the Vietnam People's Public Security\. It is under command of the Ministry of Public Security. Vietnam People's Public Security is a part of Vietnam People's Armed Forces, it includes two branches: •
Vietnam People's Police
Vietnam People's Security Force
Highest Rank (Army Forces)
Middle-ranking and Low-ranking Officers
Đại Tướ ng (General) Thượng Tướ ng (Senior Lieutenant General) Trung Tướ ng (Lieutenant General) Thiếu Tướ ng (Major General)
Đại Tá (Colonel) Thượ ng Tá (Senior Lieutenant Colonel) Trung Tá (Lieutenant Colonel) Thiếu Tá (Major) Đại Úy (Captain) Thượ ng Úy (Senior Lieutenant) Trung Úy (Lieutenant) Thiếu Úy (Junior Lieutenant)
Myanmar (Burma) Myanmar Police Force
Formally known as The People's Police Force, was established in 1964 as independent department under Ministry of Home Affairs. It was reorganized on 1 October 1995 and informally become part of Tatmadaw. Its command structure is based on established civil jurisdictions. Each of Myanmar's seven states and seven divisions has their own Police Forces with headquarters in the respective capital cities.
There are 7 State and 7 regional/divisional Police Forces and three additional State/Division Police Forces commanded by Police Colonels. Their jurisdictions are divided according to the Civil Administration. The States and Regional, Additional States have the same status. Each State and Regional/divisional Police Force consist of four components. 1. Office of the Commander of the State and Divisional Police Force 2. Office of the Commander of the District Police Force 3. Office of the Commander of the Township Police Force 4. Police Stations
Cambodia Cambodian Police Force
The police are organized into six departments: 1. security, 2. transport, 3. public order, 4. border, 5. administrative, and 5. judicial. While the judicial police are meant to function under the prosecutor-general's office.
Cambodian Police Force Ranks GENERAL (STARED)
Brigadier General Major General General Lieutenant
HIGH COMMISSIONER (STRIPED)
Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Second Lieutenant First Lieutenant
Staff Sergeant First Sergeant Command Sergeant Major Warrant Officer Chief Warrant Officer Officer Cadet
CAPTAIN LAO People’s Democratic Republic LAO Police Force
Brunei Darussalam Royal Brunei Police Force
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Australian Federal Police (AFP) Home Affairs Ministry Federal Agent – lowest rank Chief Police Officer – highest rank
US Federal Police Department of Justice Federal Police – lowest rank Police Chief – highest rank
EUROPEAN POLICE SYSTEM FRANCE
Police Nationale Ministry of the Interior Gardien de la Paix stagiaire – lowest rank Directeur des Services Actifs – highest rank
Belgian Police Belgian Government Auxillary Police Officer – lowest rank Chief Police Commissioner – highest rank
City of London Police Metropolitan Police Service Police Constable – lowest rank Police Commissioner – highest rank
Philippine National Police Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) Police Officer I – lowest rank Police Director General – highest rank
THE ROLE OF INTERPOL INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL POLICE ORGANIZATION (ICPO)
An organization facilitating international police cooperation. Established as International Criminal Police Commission in 1923. 188 member countries Headquarters: Lyon, France INTERPOL’S STRUCTURE
GENERAL ASSEMBLY •
INTERPOL’s supreme governing body, it meets annually and comprises delegates appointed by each member country. The 12
assembly takes all important decisions related to policy, resources, working methods, finances, activities and programs. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE •
this 13-member committee is elected by the General Assembly, and comprises the president, three vicepresidents and nine delegates covering the four regions.
GENERAL SECRETARIAT •
located in Lyon, France, the General Secretariat operates 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and is run by the Secretary General. Officials from more than 80 countries work side-by-side in any of the Organization’s four official languages: Arabic, English, French and Spanish. The Secretariat has seven regional offices across the world; in Argentina, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, El Salvador, Kenya, Thailand and Zimbabwe, along with Special Representatives at the United Nations in New York and at the European Union in Brussels.
NATIONAL CENTRAL BUREAUS (NCB) •
Each INTERPOL member country maintains a National Central Bureau staffed by national law enforcement officers. The NCB is the designated contact point for the General Secretariat, regional offices and other member countries requiring assistance with overseas investigations and the location and apprehension of fugitives.
these are experts in a purely advisory capacity, who may be appointed by the Executive Committee and confirmed by the General Assembly.
COMMISSION FOR THE CONTROL OF INTERPOL’S FILES (CCF) •
this is an independent body whose mandate is threefold: (1) to ensure that the processing of personal information by INTERPOL complies with the Organization's regulations, (2) to advise INTERPOL on any project, operation, set of rules or other matter involving the processing of personal information and (3) to process requests concerning the information contained in INTERPOL's files.
CORE FUNCTIONS 1. Secure global police communication services
INTERPOL’s global police communications system, known as I-24/7, enables police in all member countries to request, submit and access vital data instantly in a secure environment.
2. Operational data services and databases for police
Member countries have direct and immediate access to a wide range of databases including information on known criminals, fingerprints, DNA profiles and stolen or lost travel documents. INTERPOL also disseminates critical crime-related data through a system of international notices.
3. Operational police support services
INTERPOL provides law enforcement officials in the field with emergency support and operational activities, especially in its priority crime areas. A Command and Co-ordination Centre operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week and can deploy an Incident Response Team to the scene of a serious crime or disaster.
4. Police training and development
INTERPOL provides focused police training initiatives with the aim of enhancing the capacity of member countries to effectively combat transnational crime and terrorism. This includes sharing knowledge, skills and best practices in policing and establishing global standards.
CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME
United Nations-sponsored multilateral treaty against transnational organized crime, adopted in 2000. It is also called the PALERMO CONVETION. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children •
Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air.
ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS CHIEFS OF NATIONAL POLICE (ASEANAPOL)
PNP is a member of the ASEANAPOL.
The ASEANAPOL deals with the preventive enforcement and operational aspects of cooperation against transnational crime.
Actively involved in sharing knowledge and expertise on policing, enforcement, law, criminal justice, and transnational and international crimes.
PROF. MARJUNE I. MILLONES Dean, College of Criminology