COMPARATIVE POLICE SYSTEM
What is comparative police system?
Comparing our police system with selected police models from other parts of the world. How can this be done? By Comparative research which is usually carried by the so called “safari” method (a researcher visits another country) or “collaborative method “(the researcher communicates with a foreign researcher).
Published works tend to fall into one of there categories: single-culture studies(the crime problem of a single foreign country is discussed), two-culture studies(the most common type),and; comprehensive studies(which cover three or more countries).Examinations of crime and its control in the comparative context often require an historical perspective.
Since the phenomena under study have frequently developed under unique social, economic, and political structures. Hence, the method most often employed by researchers is the historical-comparative method. To summarize the historical-comparative method in a few words, it is basically an alternative to both quantitative and qualitative researcher method that is sometimes called historiography or holism.
In Historiography : Eight ways to do History
The Great Man approach, The Historical Forces approach, The Crisis of Civilization approach, The Dialectic approach, The Evolutionary approach, The Geographic factor approach The Conflict or "who won” approach and The Serendipity or Accidental discovery approach.
There are four kinds of societies in the world
(1) Folk-Communal, which are also called
primitive societies; (2) Urban-Commercial, which rely on the trade as the essence or their market system; (3) Urban-Industries, which produce most of the goods and services they need without government interference; and (4) Bureauacratic,or modern post-industrial societies where the emphasis upon is technique or the:technologizing”of everything, with the government taking the lead 6
Some people also talk about a fifth type, the post-modern society, where the emphasis is upon the meaning of words, coded narratives, and the deconstruction of institutions. 7
Four Legal Traditions It is the consensus of experts is that there are four types of legal traditions in the world. Common law system-are distinctive in the significance they attach to precedent(the importance of previously decided cases) Civil law system-also known as Continental justice, Romano-Germanic justice, or Roman law. It the largest and most prevalent system of justice in the world.
system-it is distinguished by procedures designed to forcibly rehabilitate or retrain people into fulfilling their responsibilities to the state. Islamic System- also known as Muslim or Arabic justice. It derives all of its procedures and practices from interpretation of the Koran.
COURT SYSTEMS Court systems of the world are of two types: Adversarial – where the innocent until proven guilty.
Inquisitorial – where the accused is guilty until proven innocent or mitigated.
Coverage/Scope of the Subject: 1.Concept of Globalization to Police Service 2.Transnational Crime 3.Selected Police Models 4.Role of INTERPOL 5.Bilateral International Cooperation of Transnational Crime 6.Participation of PNP Personnel in UN Peacekeeping Missions
Definition of terms Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology.
Globalization – a process by which regional economies, societies, cultures have become integrated through a global network of communication, transportation and trade.
The worldwide movement toward economic, financial, trade, and communications integration. Globalization implies the opening of local and nationalistic perspectives to a broader outlook of an interconnected and interdependent world with free transfer of capital, goods, and services across national frontiers. However, it does not include unhindered movement of labor and, as suggested by some economists, may hurt smaller or fragile economies if applied indiscriminately. 14
Globalization Negative Effects: 1.Sweatshop 2.Brain drain 3.Effect on Environmental Degradation 4.Food Security 5.Effect on Disease 6.Drug and Illicit Goods Trade
United States - the prime mover of Globalization Transnational Crime – refers to crime that takes
place across national borders. In short, borderless crimes In the world of organized crimes, profit is the ultimate motive. Organized Crime Groups –
the United Nations defined it as a structured group of three or more persons existing for a period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more serious crimes or offenses in order to obtain, directly, or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit.
as the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives (FBI, 1997)
Assassination – the deliberate killing of top-
ranking government prominent personalities .
The term terrorism comes from
French terrorisme, from Latin: “terror”, “great fear”, “dread”, related to the Latin verb “terrere”, “to frighten”. The
use of the word first appeared in January 1795 in The Times.
Characteristics of terrorism Premeditated or Planned Politically motivated Aimed at civilians Carried out by sub-national
Typology of terrorism Nationalist
Terrorism – seek to form a separate state of their own and frequently depict their activities as a fight for liberation. Religious Terrorism – pursue their own vision of the divine will and use violence intended to bring about social and cultural changes State-sponsored Terrorism – deliberately used by radical states as foreign policy tools
• Left-wing Terrorism – seek to destroy
economies based on free enterprise and to replace them with socialist or communist economic systems.
• Right-wing Terrorism – motivated by
fascist ideals and work toward the dissolution of democratic governments.
Terrorism – are revolutionaries who seek to overthrow all established forms of government.
Terrorism – refers to the unlawful use of force or violence by a group or an individual who is based and operates within a state.
Terrorism – is the unlawful use of force or violence by a group or an individual who has connection to a foreign power or whose activities transcend national boundaries against person or property to intimidate or coerce a government.
– is a form of terrorism that makes use of high technology – especially computers, the Internet and the World Wide Web – in the planning and carrying out of terrorist attacks.
TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS AlQaeda Founded by Osama bin Laden in 1988 in Saudi Arabia. An
Islamic jihadist movement to replace Western-controlled or dominated Muslim countries with Islamic fundamentalist regimes.
Osama Bin- Laden Born in March 10, 1957 in Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia The only son of his father’s tenth wife. At the age of 17, Osama married his
first wife. Osama married four women and
fathered roughly 25 or 26 children.
THE SEPTEMBER 11, 2001 ATTACK
Al-Qaeda’s well known attack 19 men hijacked 4 commercial
passenger jet airliners Crashing 2 of them into the World Trade Center, 1 in Pentagon and the other 1 in Pennsylvania. 2, 973 died and the 19 hijackers. Al Qaeda in Arabic is known as “ The Base”. It is the terrorist group responsible for the September 11, 2001 attacks of the Pentagon in Washington DC and the World Trade Center in New York.
COUNTERTERRORISM Refers to the practices, tactics
and strategies that governments, militaries and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism.
NATO and US Military Definition Operations that include the
offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, preempt and respond to terrorism.
Types of Counterterrorism
Strategic Counterterrorism Deny resources, such as finances or
base areas, to the terrorists. It will capture, kill, or convert terrorist leaders.
Tactical and Operational Counterterrorism Creation of elite units or forces,
whose role is to directly engage terrorists and prevent terrorist attacks. They perform both in preventive actions, hostage rescue and responding to ongoing attacks.
Counter-Terrorist Groups AUSTRALIA Tactical Assault Group (TAG) Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) GERMANY Grenzschutzgruppe-9 (GSG-9) ISRAEL Sayeret Mat’kal (General Staff Reconnaissance Unit 269
NETHERLANDS Bijzondere Bijstands Eenheid – BBE NORWAY Forsvarets Spesialkommando (FSK) – Special Commando of the Defense OMAN Sultan’s Special Forces “Cobras”
UNITED KINGDOM (UK) Special Air Service (SAS) UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Delta Force Seal Team Six PHILIPPINES Special Action Force (PNP-SAF) Special Operations Group (PASCOMSOG)
UNITED NATION’S COUNTER-TERRORISM COMMITTEE
The CTC was established by Security Control resolution 1373 (2001), which was adopted unanimously on Sept. 28, 2001 in the wake of the 11 September terrorist attack in the United States. The
Committee, comprising Security Council Members
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA’S NATIONAL COUNTERTERRORISM CENTER (NCTC)
Established by Presidential Executive Order 13354 in August 2004 and codified by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004.
PHILIPPINE CENTER ON TRANSNATIONAL CRIME (PCTC)
Created on January 15, 1999 by Executive Order No. 62 under the Office of the President to formulate and implement a concerted of action of all law enforcement, intelligence and other government agencies for the prevention and control of transnational crime.
REPUBLIC ACT NUMBER 9372 “HUMAN SECURITY ACT OF 2007” Signed into law by Pres. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and effective on July 2007, officially aimed at tackling militants in the Southern Philippines, including Abu Sayyaf Group, which has links to Al-Qaeda and has been blamed for bombings and kidnappings in the region.
TERRRORISM IN THE PHILIPPINES
ISLAMIC TERRORIST GROUP “the MORO people” is the generic BANGSA MORO
name for the 13 ethno linguistic Muslim tribes in the Philippines which constitute a quarter of the population in Mindanao in the Southern Philippines. Three Major Groups: Maguindanaons Maranaos Tausogs
ABU SAYYAF GROUP (ASG) Aliases: Al-Harakat Al-Islamiyah
Bearer of the Sword Father of the Swordsman
Founding Philosophy: The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) was formed in 1991 during the peace process between the Philippine government and the nationalist/separatist terrorist group, the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) ASG was lead by Abdurajak Janjalani, who
was recruited for training in Afghanistan.
This Philippine-based terrorist group is listed by the United States of America as one of the major terrorist organizations in the World today. This renegade faction of a bigger organization working to have an independent state in the Southern Philippines is involved in atrocities like kidnapping for ransom, ambuscades, raids and the like.
RAJAH SOLAIMAN MOVEMENT Aliases: “Balik Islam” or “Back to
Islam” Founded by Hilarion del Rosario
Santos III, a.k.a. Hannah Santos, Ahmed Santos, Hilarion del Rosario. Converted to Islam in 1993 and
married into the top ranks of the leadership of the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)
JEMAAH ISLAMIYA (JI) Aliases: Islamic Community, Islamic Group An extremist Islamic group that is believed
to be linked to Al Qaeda and responsible for the bombing of the nightclub in Bali in 2002 that killed 192 people. It is a terrorist group that is reportedly training the MILF elements in Mindanao.
JEMAAH ISLAMIYA (JI) The Philippine cell is the smallest of the JI
cells in Southeast Asia. Considered
as the major logistics cell, responsible for acquiring explosives, guns and other equipment.
NEW PEOPLE’S ARMY (NPA) Formed in 1969 with support from
China. Created as the armed wing of the
Communist Party of the Philippines.
DRUG TRAFFICKING 52
DRUG TRAFFICKING Drug Trafficking is the illegal cultivation, culture, delivery, administration, dispensation, manufacture, sale, trading, transportation, distribution, importation, exportation and possession of any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA • The world’s largest market for illegal
• Marijuana, Cocaine and Heroin The most heavily abused drugs
Methamphetamine The cause of the fastest-growing drug problem in the United States.
DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION (DEA) The
Federal Agency responsible for controlling the spread of illegal drugs in the United States and abroad.
PHILIPPINE DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENCY (PDEA)
through Republic Act No. 9165 “Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002” under the Dangerous Drugs Board. Dangerous Drugs Board – the Philippine government agency mandated to formulate policies, strategies and programs on drug prevention and control. Republic Act 9165 – it is known as the Philippine Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002 PDEA is under the Office of the President and is headed by a Director General. The basic age qualification to become a PDEA drug enforcement officer is 21 to 35 years old.
SOUTHEAST ASIAN REGION Considered as a “hot spot” in relation
to the drug trade. China – leading producer of opium
poppy The “Golden Triangle” – manufactures
opium and heroin.
REGIONAL INITIATIVES TO ADDRESS THE DRUG TRADE
ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS (ASEAN) Continuously
pooling their resources to effectively address drug trafficking.
DRUG TRADE IN THE PHILIPPINES
The Philippines is a producer, exporter and
consumer of cannabis plant-based drugs (marijuana, hashish, et.al). The Philippines is an importer and consumer of synthetic drugs, in particular methamphetamine hydrochloride (shabu). The Philippines is a transit point for the international trade in heroin and cocaine. The Philippines is being used as a recreation place, an investment and money laundering haven.
RP: FAVORABLE CONDITION TO DRUG TRADE Economic Policy Banking System Geographical Location Political System
MONEY LAUNDERING Is
the method by which criminals disguise the illegal origins of their wealth and protect their asset bases.
BRIEF HISTORY The
term “money laundering” originated from Mafia ownership of Laundromats in the United States. The first use of the term “money laundering” was during the Watergate Scandal 1973 in United States.
Stages of Money Laundering Placement The first stage in the washing cycle.
The money are placed into the financial system or retail economy or are smuggled out of the country. The aim is to remove the case from the location of acquisition
Layering The first attempt at concealment or
disguise of the source of the ownership of the funds by creating complex layers of financial transactions designed to disguise the audit trail and provide anonymity. Moving money in and out of the bank account of bearer through electronic funds transfer.
Integration The final stage in the process The money is integrated into the
legitimate economic and financial system and assimilated in all other assets in the system.
REPUBLIC ACT NUMBER 9160, as amended by REPUBLIC ACT NUMBER 9194 “ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING ACT OF 2001”
MONEY LAUNDERING Is a crime whereby the proceeds of
an unlawful activity as herein defined are transacted, thereby making them appear to have originated from legitimate sources.
ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING COUNCIL Financial intelligence unit in
the Philippines that conducts investigations on suspicious transactions.
Questions, Answers and Facts about Money Laundering Q: What is money laundering and why do people do it?
Today, enterprise criminals of every sort,
from drug traffickers to stock fraudsters to corporate embezzlers and commodity smugglers, must launder money for two reasons. The first is that the money trail itself can become evidence; the second is that the money can be the target of investigation and seizure.
operational principles of money laundering are as follows: first, moving the funds from direct association with the crime; second, disguising the trail to foil pursuit; and, third, making the money available to the criminal once again with its origins hidden from view.
Q: How much money is laundered every year and how much is recovered by law enforcement?
A: Estimates have ranged as high as $300 billion to $500 billion a year. Law enforcement authorities recover about $500 million in a good year, roughly a quarter of 1 per cent.
Q: What are the consequences of money laundering activities for national economies?
A: Money laundering undermines international efforts towards free and competitive markets, and the development of national economies:
It distorts the functioning of markets: money
laundering transactions can increase the demand for cash, create exchange rate volatility and generate unfair competition. It damages credibility and therefore the stability of financial markets: bank collapses related to organized crime activities can have a domino effect on the financial system of individual countries or regions.
Small States are particularly vulnerable to
money laundering. The economic power generated by outlaw activities provides criminal organizations with leverage on small economies. The absence of appropriate controls, or of the capacity to enforce them, provides de facto impunity to criminals.
Q: How effective are the international instruments governing money laundering?
A: The international community is not using all the tools at its disposal. The 1988 UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances obliges States to make money laundering illegal and assist investigations. Of the 148 signatories to the Convention, fewer than 30 are fully implementing its measures.
Q: Is there an acceptable right to banking privacy?
A: Yes, but acceptable levels of confidentiality must be clearly defined. There are legitimate commercial, legal or even human rights reasons for confidentiality. However, the abuse of bank secrecy must be countered.
Q: What role does the Internet have in money laundering?
A: Internet banking is a growing source of worry. It has already been proven that fraudulent banking business can be conducted via the Internet. For example, in one case an Internet bank was domiciled in an offshore centre, the server was in another country and the operational management was located in a third.
When the owners of the bank stole the depositors' funds, it was impossible to pursue them through the three jurisdictions. Their actions were not even considered illegal in the jurisdiction where the bank was physically located.
Q: What should community
members of the international community have agreed to comply with the existing international instruments currently governing money laundering by the year 2003. Of particular importance is adherence to the provisions of the 1988 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.
But the international community needs to
continue to question the way banks are defined. Should they be chartered by Governments in order to tighten controls? How should they be regulated? Should we allow companies to be formed in places where they have no apparent purpose connected with normal commercial activities, or whose owners may conceal their identity?
An emphasis must be placed on systemic reforms, rather than specific tinkering with the odd regulation. The harmonization of regulatory regimes covering financial havens, trusts, shell companies and banks should be a main goal.
Q: What can the UN Global Programme against Money Laundering (GPML) do to help?
A: Developing countries, and those with economies in transition, are in particular need of technical assistance and training. Local law enforcement cannot crack down on complex financial crimes unless they know the tricks of the money launderer.
The UN Global Programme against Money Laundering is ready to provide expert training, assistance, public awareness and research tools on the art of financial investigations, prosecutions, best banking practices and financial regulations for government, business, law enforcement and judicial professionals.
HUMAN TRAFFICKING A crime against humanity. RA 9208 – it is the Philippine law
that defines and penalizes human trafficking It involves an act of recruiting, transporting, transferring, harboring or receiving a person through the use of force, coercion or other means, for the purpose of exploiting them.
ELEMENTS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING 1. The Act (What is done) recruitment,
transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons
2. The Means (How it is done) Threat
use of force, coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or vulnerability, or giving payments or benefits to a person in control of the victim
3. The Purpose (Why it is done) For the purpose of exploitation,
which includes exploiting the prostitution of others, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery or similar practices and the removal of organs.
CYBER CRIMES Refers
to all activities done with criminal intent in the cyberspace.
Crimes committed with the use of
Information Technology, where computer, network, internet is the target and where the internet is the place of activity.
TYPES OF CYBER CRIMES
HACKING The act of illegally accessing the
computer system/network of an individual, group or business enterprise without the consent or approval of the owner of the system.
CRACKING A higher form of hacking in which
the unauthorized access culminates with the process of defeating the security system for the purpose of acquiring money or information and/or availing of free services.
MALICIOUS SENDING OF EMAILS Sending
of malicious and defamatory electronic mails as a medium of extorting money, or threatening prospective victims.
INTERNET PORNOGRAPHY Trafficking, distribution, posting and
dissemination of obscene material including children’s nude pictures, indecent exposure and child sex slavery posted into the internet, live streaming videos aired through the internet under a certain fee.
LAUNCHING OF HARMFUL VIRUSES
DISTRIBUTED DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACKS (DDOS) WEBSITE DEFACEMENT The unauthorized modification of a website. ACQUIRING CREDIT CARD INFORMATION FROM A WEBSITE THAT OFFERS ESERVICES
INTERNET SHOPPING USING FRAUDULENTLY ACQUIRED CREDIT CARDS WIRE TRANSFER OF FUNDS FROM A FRAUDULENTLY ACQUIRED CREDIT CARD ONLINE AUCTION FRAUD
SELECTED POLICE MODELS
JAPAN POLICE SYSTEM
Japan National Police Agency A civilian law enforcement agency formed in 1954 and is known as Keisatsu-chō.
An administrative commission
operating on the basis of liaison and coordination with the Cabinet, the National Public Safety Commission is a government body responsible for the administrative supervision of the police.
The National Public Safety Commission is composed of the Chairman and five members. A minister in the Cabinet is appointed as the chairman of the Commission. The chairman presides over Commission meetings and also supervises matters relating to the operation of the Commission.
National Police Agency
The head of the NPA is the Commissioner
General who is appointed and dismissed by the National Public Safety Commission with the consent of the Prime Minister. Koban – the famous patrol system in Japan. The Japanese police follow the British rank
Imperial Guard – a sub-organization or unit of the National Police agency of Japan which provides personal security of the Emperor, Crown Prince and other members of the Imperial Family as well as the physical security of imperial properties including the Imperial Palaces, Villas, Repository 117
Under control of the National Public Safety
Commission, the Commissioner-General administers the tasks of the NPA, appoints and dismisses Agency employees, and supervises and controls the prefectural police regarding the affairs under the jurisdiction of the Agency. Prefecture in Japan is equivalent to province in the Philippines. Chuzaisho - the residential police boxes in Japan’s Police System.
NINE POLICE RANKS
Keishi-sokan (Superintendent General of the
Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department), Keishi-kan (Superintendent Supervisor), Keishi-cho (Chief Superintendent), Keishi-sei (Senior Superintendent),
Keishi (Superintendent), Keibu (Police Inspector), Keibu-ho (Assistant Police Inspector), Junsa-bucho (Police Sergeant) Junsa (Policeman).
SINGAPORE POLICE SYSTEM
SINGAPORE POLICE FORCE
SINGAPORE POLICE FORCE
The main agency tasked with maintaining
law and order in the city-state. Formerly known as the Republic of Singapore Police Deputy Director General – the equivalent rank in the PNP of the Chief of Staff of the Singapore Police Force which holds the rank of Senior Assistant Commissioner. Commissioner of Police - heads Singapore Police Force.
The staff functions is equivalent to administration in the PNP while the line unit function is equivalent to operation in the PNP. Neighborhood Police Center – the community policing program in Singapore which is the counterpart of Japan’s residential boxes.
Rank Structure CP - Commissioner of Police DC - Deputy Commissioner of
Police SAC - Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police DAC - Deputy Assistant Commissioner of Police AC - Assistance Commissioner of Police
Supt - Superintendent DSP - Deputy Superintendent
of Police ASP - Assistant Superintendent of Police SSI2 - Senior Station Inspector 2 Insp. - Inspector SSI - Senior Station Inspector
SI - Station Inspector SSS - Senior Staff
Sergeant SS - Staff Sergeant Sgt - Sergeant Cpl - Corporal PC - Police Constable
MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS
A ministry of the Government of
Singapore responsible for safety, civil defense immigration.
It is also known as the Home Team. It is headed by the Minister for
AUSTRALIA Australian Federal Police (AFP) Home Affairs Ministry-DILG of the
Philippines Federal Agent – lowest rank Chief Police Officer – highest rank Federal Police – is the primary responsible for the general policing in Australian Capital Territory.
New South Wales Police – the first and largest police force in Australia. Its personnel are the highest paid police force in the country. Crime Stoppers – the crime reduction program that runs in each state of Australia which involved the citizens to collect information about crime and passes it on to the police. Federal Structure in Australia is given general policing functions. The ranks of superintendent and inspector are patterned from the British Model.
POLICE SYSTEM OF OTHER ASEAN COUNTRIES
Head of Police Chief of Police
DEPARTME HIGHEST LOWEST NT RANK RANK Ministry of Police Private Home Major Affairs General There are 7 State and 7 regional/divisional Police Forces and three additional State/Division Police Forces commanded by Police Colonels. Their jurisdictions are divided according to the Civil Administration. The States and Regional, Additional States have the same status. Each State and Regional/divisional Police Force consist of four components. 1. Office of the Commander of the State and Divisional Police Force 2. Office of the Commander of the District Police Force 3. Office of the Commander of the Township Police 05/09/16 13 5 Force
ROYAL THAI POLICE A
Southeast Asian Country police force that is headed by a Director General holding the rank of Police General. Its rank structure is patterned to the military model and its headquarters is based in the city of Bangkok.
The national police of Thailand. Primary responsibility for the maintenance
of public order through enforcement of the kingdom's laws Charged with performing police functions
throughout the entire country
INDONESIAN NATIONAL POLICE
The official police force for Indonesia The police were formally separated
from the military in April 1999, a process which was formally completed in July 2000 and placed under the Office of the President. Has a centralized command and divided into territorial forces Central Bureau of Investigation – India’s premier investigative agency and the counterpart of the FBI of US.
the early years, the Polri used European police style ranks like inspector and commissioner. When the police were included into the military structure during the 1960s, the ranks changed to a military style such as Captain, Major and Colonel. In the year 2000, when the Polri conducted the transition to a fully independent force out of the armed forces 2000, they use British style police ranks like Inspector and Superintendent. The Polri have returned to Dutch style ranks just like in the early years.
> highest rank
Second Police Brigadier
> lowest rank
The Ministry of Public Security is the principal authority of China. Triad – underground criminal societies based in Hongkong which are often involved in money-laundering and drug trafficking. 144
Royal Malaysian Police A main branch of security forces in Malaysia. The force is a centralized organization that has
a gamut of roles that ranges from traffic control to intelligence. Our headquarters is located in Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur. The Royal Malaysian Police force is led by an Inspector-General of Police (IGP).
Head of DEPARTME HIGHEST Police NT RANK Police Chief Ministry of Inspector Home General of Affairs Police
Royal Malays ian Police Ranks
LOWEST RANK Constable
Vietnam People’s Police of Vietnam The law enforcement in Vietnam is called the Vietnam People's Public Security\. It is under command of the Ministry of Public Security. Vietnam People's Public Security is a part of Vietnam People's Armed Forces, it includes two branches: •Vietnam People's Police •Vietnam People's Security Force 14 8
Head of DEPARTME HIGHEST Police NT RANK Police Chief Ministry of Police Public General Security Highest Rank (Army Forces) Đại Tướng (General) Thượng Tướng (Senior Lieutenant General) Trung Tướng (Lieutenant General) Thiếu Tướng (Major General)
Middle-ranking and Low-ranking Officers Đại Tá (Colonel) Thượng Tá (Senior Lieutenant Colonel) Trung Tá (Lieutenant Colonel) Thiếu Tá (Major) Đại Úy (Captain) Thượng Úy (Senior Lieutenant) Trung Úy (Lieutenant) Thiếu Úy (Junior Lieutenant)
LOWEST RANK Police Sub Lieutenant
Myanmar (Burma) A country in Southeast Asia where the police force is under the military establishment
Myanmar Police Force Formally known as The People's Police Force, was established in 1964 as independent department under Ministry of Home Affairs. It was reorganized on 1 October 1995 and informally become part of Tatmadaw. Its command structure is based on established civil jurisdictions. Each of Myanmar's seven states and seven divisions has their own Police with headquarters in the respective 05/09/16 15Forces 0
Private-is the lowest rank in Myanmar
Cambodia Cambodian Police Force The police are organized into six departments: 1. security, 2. transport, 3. public order, 4. border, 5. administrative, and 5. judicial. While the judicial police are meant to function under the prosecutorgeneral's office. Head of DEPARTME HIGHEST LOWEST Police NT RANK RANK Police Chief Ministry of Brigadier Officer Interior General Cadet 15 2
Cambodian Police Force Ranks GENERAL (STARED) Brigadier General Major General General Lieutenant HIGH COMMISSIONER (STRIPED)
Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Second Lieutenant First Lieutenant CAPTAIN
(NON-STRIPED) Staff Sergeant First Sergeant Command Sergeant Major Warrant Officer Chief Warrant Officer Officer Cadet 05/09/16
LAO People’s Democratic Republic
LAO Police Force
Head of Police Chief LAO Police Force
DEPARTME HIGHEST NT RANK Ministry of General Public Security
LOWEST RANK Constable
Royal Brunei Police Force Head of Police Commission er
DEPARTME HIGHEST LOWEST NT RANK RANK Ministry of Inspector Constable Home General of Police takes charge of AffairsforcePolice
Brunei prison and fire services aside from keeping law and order. Inspector General is the highest rank in the Brunei Police Force. In the Philippines, Internal Affairs 05/09/16 15 is headed by Inspector 5 Service
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA US Federal Police Department of Justice Federal Police – lowest rank Police Chief – highest rank Local Police – is generally responsible for
policing in the United States. The American Police system is fragmented.
Secret Service – is the US federal agency
which is the counterpart of the Philippine Presidential Security Group, in-charge of protecting the US President and his family (including past president). It works under the structure of the Department of the Treasury and is also in-charge of the detection and prevention of counterfeiting.
EUROPEAN POLICE SYSTEM
FRANCE Police Nationale Ministry of the Interior Gardien de la Paix stagiaire – lowest rank Directeur des Services Actifs – highest
rank Polizia di Stato – the civilian national police of Italy with patrol, investigative and law enforcement duties. It patrols the express highway network and oversees the security of railways, bridges and waterways.
Italy is a country that is part of Europe which law enforcement is provided by eight (8) separate police forces, six (6) of which are national groups. State Police – is responsible for the general policing in West Germany. The Volkspolizei is the centralized paramilitary police force of East Germany. 160
BELGIUM Belgian Police Belgian Government Auxillary Police Officer – lowest rank Chief Police Commissioner – highest
rank The Royal Marechausee (KMar) – this component of the Netherland Armed Forces is given police duties and considered a law enforcement agency
City of London Police Metropolitan Police Service Police Constable – lowest rank Police Commissioner – highest rank Policia Nacional – this police force in Spain is
headed by an officer with the rank of Chief Superintendent. It is a civilian agency operating purely in urban areas.
PHILIPPINES Philippine National Police Department of the Interior
Government (DILG) Police Officer I – lowest rank Police Director General – highest rank Police Regional Offices – the primary subdivision of the Philippine National Police. The Myanmar Police known as the People’s Police Force is headed by a Director General with the rank of Brigadier General. In the Philippines, the PNP is headed by a Police Director General.
NAPOLCOM (National Police Commission) - is the government agency tasked to administer and control the Philippine National Police (PNP). Prefecture in Japan is equivalent to province in the Philippines. 164
THE ROLE OF INTERPOL The INTERPOL is focused in investigating cross border crimes.
INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL POLICE ORGANIZATION (ICPO) An
as International Commission in 1923.
188 member countries Headquarters: Lyon, France Jolly Bugarin - the only Filipino who became
president of this organization.
GENERAL ASSEMBLY INTERPOL’s supreme governing body,
it meets annually and comprises delegates appointed by each member country. The assembly takes all important decisions related to policy, resources, working methods, finances, activities and programs.
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE This
13-member committee is elected by the General Assembly, and comprises the president, three vice-presidents and nine delegates covering the four regions.
GENERAL SECRETARIAT Located
in Lyon, France, the General Secretariat operates 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and is run by the Secretary General. Officials from more than 80 countries work side-by-side in any of the Organization’s four official languages: Arabic, English, French and Spanish. The Secretariat has seven regional offices across the world; in Argentina, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, El Salvador, Kenya, Thailand and Zimbabwe, along with Special Representatives at the United Nations in New York and at the European Union in Brussels.
NATIONAL CENTRAL BUREAUS (NCB) Each
INTERPOL member country maintains a National Central Bureau staffed by national law enforcement officers. The NCB is the designated contact point for the General Secretariat, regional offices and other member countries requiring assistance with overseas investigations and the location and apprehension of fugitives.
ADVISERS These are experts in a purely
advisory capacity, who may be appointed by the Executive Committee and confirmed by the General Assembly.
COMMISSION FOR THE CONTROL OF INTERPOL’S FILES (CCF) this
is an independent body whose mandate is threefold: (1) to ensure that the processing of personal information by INTERPOL complies with the Organization's regulations, (2) to advise INTERPOL on any project, operation, set of rules or other matter involving the processing of personal information and (3) to process requests concerning the information contained in INTERPOL's files.
CORE FUNCTIONS 1. Secure global police communication services INTERPOL’s global police communications system, known as I24/7, enables police in all member countries to request, submit and access vital data instantly in a secure environment.
2. Operational data services and databases for police Member countries have direct and immediate access to a wide range of databases including information on known criminals, fingerprints, DNA profiles and stolen or lost travel documents. INTERPOL also disseminates critical crime-related data through a system of international notices.
3. Operational police support services INTERPOL provides law enforcement officials
in the field with emergency support and operational activities, especially in its priority crime areas. A Command and Co-ordination Centre operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week and can deploy an Incident Response Team to the scene of a serious crime or disaster.
4. Police training and development INTERPOL provides focused police training initiatives with the aim of enhancing the capacity of member countries to effectively combat transnational crime and terrorism. This includes sharing knowledge, skills and best practices in policing and establishing global standards.
CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME
United Nations – this world organization was
founded in 1945 and was formerly known as the League of Nations. Its primary task is to stop wars between countries and to provide a platform for dialogue. United Nations-sponsored multilateral treaty against transnational organized crime, adopted in 2000. It is also called the PALERMO CONVETION. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air.
ASEANAPOL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS CHIEFS OF NATIONAL POLICE
ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS CHIEFS OF NATIONAL POLICE (ASEANAPOL) Consolidate
National Police Forces, enhance regional law enforcement cooperation and harmonize policing system in the region.
PNP is a member of the ASEANAPOL. The
ASEANAPOL deals with the preventive enforcement and operational aspects of cooperation against transnational crime.
involved in sharing knowledge and expertise on policing, enforcement, law, criminal justice, and transnational and international crimes.
PARTICIPATION OF PNP PERSONNEL IN UN PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS 183
Q: Why do the PNP personnel participate in UN Peacekeeping Missions?
The Republic of the Philippines is committed to global peace and as a founding member of the United Nations, abides by its Charter and recognizes that while the maintenance of international peace and security is the primordial responsibility of the United Nations, individual states, regional organizations and civil society share in this responsibility.
The Philippines reaffirms its commitment to
the mandate of the United Nations Security Council under Chapters VI and VII of the Charter and the role of regional organizations under Chapter VIII in the maintenance of international peace and security. In honoring its obligations under the Charter, the Philippines within its capabilities, shall participate in initiatives under the aegis of the United Nations.
The Philippines recognizes that the peacemaking, peacekeeping, peaceenforcement and peace-building, through the concept of multi-dimensional peace operations, remain as key and indispensable instruments for the maintenance of international peace and security.
It recognizes that the United Nations plays a fundamental and crucial role in peace operations and imposes upon itself the responsibility to take measures on humanitarian concerns without resorting to the use of arms.
Subject to national goals and interests, the Philippines may commit its resources to international developmental and humanitarian assistance in furtherance of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
Selection and Qualifications Applicants for UN peacekeeping
mission should satisfy the following standards and qualifications at the time of filing the application thereof: a. UNSAS eligible;
b. A Police Commissioned Officer (PCO) applicant must have a rank of at least Police Senior Inspector while a Police NonCommissioned Officer (PNCO) applicant must have a rank of at least Police Officer 3; c. Have attained at least five (5) years of active police service (excluding cadetship for PMA, PNPA, PMMA, and equivalent Officer’s Training/Field Training Program (FTP) for Lateral Entry Officers and Recruitment Training for Police Non-Commissioned Officers); 191
d. Appointed in permanent status in his/her present rank; e. Have at least one (1) year experience in vehicle driving reckoned from the date of issuance of his/her valid driver’s license; f. Recommend by his/her Unit Commander (Command Group, D-Staff Directors, RDs of PROs, NSUs Directors and District Directors);
g. Have a Performance Evaluation Rating (PER) of at least Very Satisfactory (VS) for two (2) consecutive semestral rating periods immediately preceding his/her application; h. With no pending administrative or criminal case in any body/tribunal or court nor a witness to any such case nor a summary hearing officer with unresolved cases; i. Have not been repatriated from previous UN Mission for disciplinary reason/s; 193
With knowledge on basic computer operations (e.g. Word, Excel, PowerPoint, email and internet);
k. Passed the latest Physical Fitness Test (PFT) conducted by DHRDD as well as Medical, Dental and Neuro-Psychiatric Examination; and l. Without firearm accountability as certified by DL. 194
Terms of Deployments Priority for deployment to mission area is as follows: a. 1st Priority - PNP personnel who passed the UNSAT Examination but without previous UN Mission deployment.
b. 2nd Priority - PNP personnel who passed the UNSAT Examination but with previous UN mission deployment. Personnel who obtained the highest UNSAT exam rating, or those superior in rank, length of service, educational attainment, or with fewer missions, in such order, shall have priority for deployment.
DEFAULT: Personnel after having been nominated for deployment shall be considered in default and will be removed from the priority list under the following circumstances: a. Non-submission of documentary requirements to the Secretariat on specified date;
b. Failure to report deployment; and
c. Non-Attendance to the scheduled Departure Orientation Seminars (PDOS).
DEFERMENT: a. Deferment shall be allowed only once and only due to health reasons duly certified by the Director, Health Service;
b. Personnel deferred due to justifiable reasons cited above can be renominated for deployment to the same mission area as last priority; and c. Requests for deferment shall be in writing.