Communication Models and Elements of Communication

January 17, 2019 | Author: Jennifer Abrogar | Category: Code, Communication, Information, Cybernetics, Truth
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Process of Communication  The

linear Concept ² earliest form  Involves 5 basic questions ²  Who?  Says What?  On which Channel?  To whom?  With What effect? Communication was considered a one ± way process marked by the flow of information from a sender to a receiver 

The Sender

linear Concept Message

 Receiver





passively receives the message o Acts as directed and desired by sender o Communication intended intended to control / manipulate the receiver o Assumed that message while passing through medium chosen by sender, reaches the receiver without any distortion or change

Shannon-Weaver model  

C E Shannon & W Weaver ² first pointed out that in actual practice, messages can be changed or blocked Basic problem is ² message received

  

message sent

He attributed loss to noise Though feed back was introduced as a corrective to noise Feedback was not considered to be an integral component because the model conceived the communication process process as a linear act and feedback another new act of communication

Shannon-Weaver model

Noise Information


Encoding process



Decoding process


Shannon-Weaver Shannon-Weaver model (How Communication Takes Place) 1. Source

creates messages


2. Selects channel

3. Sends message


6. Interprets Messages

5. FiltersExperience Knowledge Feelings

4. Receiver gets message

Information Information source ² source of message o Sender has raw information. information. o His intention intention changes that information into a message to be communicated 

Shannon-Weaver model  

 

Encoding ² message thought ² put into words ( verbal symbols or any other symbolic form of expression «) Channel (transmission)² oral, written, electronic, coded, signaling system -appropriate medium / channel chosen Decoding ² receiver gets message by -receiving, understanding understanding and interpreting interpreting the message Acting ² communication process ends with receiver putting the interpreted message into into action ² as intended by the sender and gives feedback to sender

Shannon-Weaver model  Thus

Communication completes full circle.  Both sender and receiver become 2 aspects of a single purpose

Noise   

Process open to ´noiseµ Prevents / distorts communication Noise ² distortion or hindrance, preventing transmission of message from (mind of) sender to (mind of) receiver For some noise stands only for external disturbances ² physical environment, machine ² telephone, poor printout or bad handwriting

Filters -Communication distortions caused by subjective factors such as mind sets of sender and receiver

in nature - Caused by mindset of sender and receiver  Include attitudes, beliefs, experiences, consciousness of personal status, ability to think clearly etc  Misunderstanding & other problems may arise as sender·s message passes through the filters of the receiver, which comprise ²the sender·s filters + low interest / involvement + distraction / fatigue causing loss of concentration

 Mental 

2-way communication process 

More contemporary in nature

also acts as the sender of feedback to sender Both sender and receiver play reciprocal and reversible roles 2 way concept considers communication to be a reciprocal process and a mutual exchange of messages No distinction between roles of sender and receiver because same person plays both roles

 


2-way communication process 

The two way concept involves receiver as an active agent a gent in the construction of meaning of the message. 2 way communication also known as ´transactional communicationµ communicationµ

Example2-way communication process Ideation


An organization¶s policy to be circulated among all employees through news bulletin


/ person who writes the policy


The content (policy details) & the words/pictures used to convey the policy to the employees


The medium ± the news bulletin

Decoder / Receiver


The audience of the message ± for whom the policy is intended & who read the bulletin Employee¶s mployee¶s

reaction to the policy communicated

Elements of Communication 

Elements of Communication 1. Message 

Information  - written or spoken

To be sent from one ´personµ to another ´Personµ - represents the 2 ends of a system ² could be an individual / a group / electronic machines Most impor  ta tan  t elemen  t ² it is organized, structured, shaped and selective ² product of pre-wr  or  pre-speak  iti iting  ing  Exists in the m  of the sender ind 

2. Sender  

Transmits / spreads / communicates ² message or operates the electronic device Conceives and initiates the message with purpose of informing/ persuading / influencing / changing the attitude / opinion or behaviour of the receiver Decides the symbols, channel, time of sending the message after carefully considering the total situation in which communication takes place



message from mental form to symbols ² putting ideas, facts, feelings, opinions into words, actions, signs, pictures & audio-visuals

 Changing

 Communication

symbols selected keeping in mind the receiver·s ability to understand & interpret correctly



or medium which facilitates the sender to convey the message to the receiver Medium ² written, oral, audio-visual Written medium ² letters, memos, reports, manuals, notices, circulars, questionnaires, minutes etc. Oral medium ² dialogue, face-to-face interview, telephone conversation, conference recording etc. Visuals - Hoardings, posters, slides, documentary films, TV programs & advertisements


5. Receiver  Targeted  Receives,


understands, interprets and tries to perceives total meaning of the message as transmitted by sender



 Act

of translating symbols into their ordinary meanings

 Total

meaning ² meaning of words (symbols) with tone, attitude of sender reflected by the structure of message & choice of words used by sender

7. Acting  Message

manipulates receiver to act in a desired manner

 Response

action shows that he has understood the message

 Receiver

completes chain of communication by responding to the message



 Loop

that connects the receiver in the communication process with the sender

 Sender

acts as the feedback receiver and gets to know that communication has been accomplished  Feedback plays an important role

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