Coming Home to Mother Earth

July 12, 2016 | Author: Paul Carpio Fabutt | Category: Topics, Art & Design
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This publication is based on the impact assessment report on the Paranas Community-Based Forest Management Project (PCBFMP) submitted in June 2011 by Independent Consultant Errol A. Gatumbato to the Foundation for the Philippine Environment (FPE). Published as the fifth volume ofFPE's Kaalamang Likas Yaman (KALIKASAN) educational publication series on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development, it also includes outputs from the Sikal Community Writing Workshop conducted on 17-20 November 2010 by Mr. Herrninigildo A. Sanchez for members of the two communities involved in PCBFMP. The assessment covered the physical, biological and socio-economic/cultural and geopolitical aspects of the project site, a large portion of which is located within the Samar Island Natural Park (SINP), a nationally declared protected area and an acknowledged environmentally critical area in the Philippines. The writing workshop focused on drawing out community perspective on the value of natural resources and the need to protect them. Errol A. Gatumbato (Impact Assessment Consultant). Herrninigildo A. Sanchez (Community Writing Consultant) Abridged version edited by Asuncion Sia (March 2012) Cover photo shows a view of olot River, Paranas, Samar (Photo by: Raymunda V. Debuayan)

Kaalarnang Likas Varnan (KALIKASAN) The BCSD Knowledge Series of FPE

Kaalamang Likas Yaman or simply, KALIKASAN, is the publication series of the Foundation for the Philippine Environment (FPE) on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development (BCSD). Kaalaman is the Filipino term for knowledge while Likas Yaman is the term for nature or natural resources. Kaalamang Likas Yaman literally means knowledge of nature. As FPE s main thrust is BCSD in key biodiversity areas of the Philippines, this series is essential in presenting and promoting valuable theories, case studies, site assessments and best practices and other learning materials.

As Atty. Danny N. Valenzuela, FPE Chair and CEO (2010-2012), explains, That the work of the Foundation for the Philippine environment on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development has gone a long way in the past twenty years cannot be overemphasized. In fact, it has become imperative for FPE to embark into an appropriate, meaningful and innovative knowledge management system in order to preserve and properly utilize the significant learnings out of its various collaborations with partners in key biodiversity areas all over the country.f As a major repository of the knowledge base of FPE and its partners, KALIKASAN will serve as a series of dynamic and enriching resource materials that will educate the readers, in particular those involved in the environmental protection of key biodiversity areas, and equip them with both theoretical and practical knowledge. Kaalamang Likas Yaman may also refer to the richness (yaman) of natural or intuitive knowledge (kaalamang likas). This is in recognition of the a priori knowledge of the people of local communities in FPE areas of operation and concern, especially among the grassroots communities and indigenous peoples, in environmental protection and conservation.

KALIKASAN seeks to serve as a comprehensive BCSD reference and research source while tapping and augmenting the existing knowledge base of its partners, beneficiaries and communities. This is the legacy of the current FPE leadership to the next generation of Filipino environmentalists who will continue and further develop the current advocacies and endeavors of FPE and its partners.

Coming Home to Mother Earth •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Paranas Community-Based Forest Management Proiect (PCBFMP)



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Strict PrGIedlon Zone

Sustalnable/Muhlple Use ZOIIt ==:::;,.~=~=: Buffer Zone . . a.storatIon Zone ProwIncIal Bou_" ....lcIpal Boundary Samar Island Natural Park (Adapted from Samar Island Biodiversity Project, 2005)

Site Profile

SITE PROFILE Biophysical and Socio-economic Features The project site s terrain is generally characterized as moderate to rugged, with steep and rocky ridges and an elevation ranging from 200 to 300 meters above sea level (asl). Almost 55% of the total area is forested, consisting of both secondary and primary growth forests that largely exemplify the forest types of SINP. There are no site-specific data currently available, but the forests in the protected area and its buffer zone are generally categorized into lowland evergreen, forest over limestone, and forest over ultrabasic rock, the same forest types that might be expected to occur in the KAPPAS CBFMA area. Ulot River, Paranas, Samar (Photo: SINP)

About 37% of the site is planted to coconuts, the rest consists of cropland mixed in bare soil and rock (roughly 2%), built-up area and road (1 %), brushland and grassland (2%), and water bodies (0.4%), which form part of a major network of rivers and creeks, notably Vlot River. Communities within the site include mostly displaced workers of the San Jose Timber Corporation (SJTC), which ceased operations when a logging moratorium was declared in Samar in 1989. This logging company was awarded a timber license agreement (TLA) covering an area of 93,595 hectares, all of which is now included in SINP. Most residents in the project site are forest-dependent and are permanently settled in the area.

Conservation Importance SINP is listed among 128 Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) in the Philippines, World Wildlife Fund s (WWF) 200 Eco-Regions of the World, and the 117 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) and Key Conservation Sites identified in the country by Birdlife International and Haribon Foundation. The island is also included in the Threatened Plants at Kew s list of 18 centers of plant diversity in the Philippines. For all these reasons, FPE included it as a priority area for its site-focused community-based resource management (CBRM) program.



IN THEIR OWN VOICES Kay-ano nga Ulot? Han gutiay pa ako nahipausa ako kay kun ana nga

Utot River na an ngaran han salug. Akon ini gin-inuino. Akon ini gintagan hin pag-aram Samtang nagtitika-dako ako, waray ko ini kapiho. Han pag-attender ko hin seminar-traning, bagan nagkaymayda ako ideya kun kay ana ginngaranan nga Utot. Dida han akon pagpasyada hito nga salug, nakit-an ko an tawo dida han baloto nga naglulukso-Iukso labi na kun mayda mga bangin ug kun tilikay ha mga bate nga aagian. Waray pa hadto 'torpedoe' ug bugsay pa la an gamit pati tokon. Damo an mga manggad nga makikita ha Utot River. An kagurangan ha ligid han salog; an mga bukal ug bangin; katamsihan nga nanmamarayaw ha kahanginan; mga kasili ngan tilapia ha salog. Pero danay ako mabido kun nakakakita ako hin mga pinulod nga kahoy ug mga tablon. Sanglit nakayakan gud ako nga angay inin nga lugar protektahan. Nagsering ako nga maupay na la kay naging miyembro ako han KAPPAS, ngan nagtatalinguha kami pagbantay hini nga aton mga manggad. Tungod kay kaparte ini han 6,500-has. nga CBFM, nga gin-ayudahan han FPE, nakasering ako ha akon ka-iriba nga kinahanglan atonon ta ini nga pagbantay, kay inin aton kagurangan, kinabuhi. - Nestor Obidos an

Why Ulot? Growing up, I always wondered why our river is called "Ulot," the Waray-Waray term for "monkey:' Now I think I know why:The river must have been named after the boatmen there, who jump like monkeys in their boats as they navigate the rocks in fast-moving currents. I shall forever marvel at their agility and skill, but that is not the only thing about Ulot River that has amazed me. Ulot River is filled with and surrounded by so many wonders. When I visited there, I saw a lush forest embracing its banks; rare plants and vibrant flowers showing off their colors amid blues, greens and browns; fascinating birds flying above, and below, in the river waters, bright fishes flitting about. What grandeur! It gave me such sense of peace and belonging that I didn't want to leave. But every so often I also saw decaying tree stumps and floating logs, and I realized why we must protect the place. I told myself how fortunate I was to have been a member of KAPPAS, and to have contributed, with help from FPE, toward preserving this great treasure through my involvement in managing our 6,500-hectare CBFMA area.And I told myself that now I must take responsibility for making sure that our forest continues to be protected, because this forest is our life.

Tagbaya ... May usa ka tamsi, nga naglilinupadlupad, namimiling hin kahoy, bunga nga iya kakaunon, kay waray na sulod an iya balun an. -

Lilia P. Obin, BOSIS

Ungara Han Katamsihan ... Aton kagurangan, ayaw ta hibanga, kamakaluluoy tamsi magasa na, kay kulang na an ira urukyan. Sanglit mga kabugtuan pag-urusa kita, an at kalibungan bantayan ta, pinulod nga kahoy saliwani ta, basi may haponan 'kalaw' nga maluya. -

Little Bird ... Little bird flies alone, searches for a tree, fruits to feed on. Feeling hungry, growing weary, little bird flies on and on.

Liezel B. Obingayan, BOSIS

The Birds' Dream ... What mournful song the birds are singing! "Please harm not the trees, the forest where we're living, we have nowhere to flee, our home is dwindling away to nothing." And so brothers and sisters, let us pull together, our environment let us always watch over, the felled trees let us replace, give back to the birds their roosting place. (Sikal Community Writing Workshop, November 20 I 0)


Site Profile




Ang Bukid. Bukid nga may kagugub-an, ukyanan han kahayupan, maupay pagpuyan. presko an ngatanan. An mga puna nga kahoy, oway ngan iba pa, nahatag hin presko nga hangin, ngan presko nga tubig para han ngatanan, sanglit na kasangkayan. -



. ...

Karikohan ... An iroy nga tuna maupay pa, labi na gud damo nga kakahuyan. Kay amo ini an aton karikuhan, nga surundon hinin kabataan.Aton igpananglit hin usa nga kahoy, Ginpulod an puna an sanga nagroydoy. Ini nga sarinsing kay naghihingandoy, adlaw ug gab-i hiya nagnguyngoy. -

Cheryl B. Socarra, TAP

Romulo B. Cabacaba, TAP

The Mountain. Oh forested mountain, cradle of all life, a beautiful place, so pure, so wild. The motley trees, palms and myriad plants, wellspring of sweet air and water for all, our friends forevermore.

Wealth ... Mother Earth is good and giving, bestowed upon us the forest, all lush and teeming. T'was great wealth we were told to nurture, for our sake and for our children's future. But look at that tree felled to the ground, once lofty branches, now slumped and hanging down. A tiny leaf struggling to break out, weeps and whimpers all day, and in the night it cries out.

Kahoy. May ada ko nakita, kapatagan nga haluag, marampag nga dahon, damo nga kakahuyan. -

Ulia P. Obin, BOS/S

Trees. Here I saw, this vast valley, a verdant meadow, and tall lush trees.

(Siko/ Community Writing Workshop, November 20/0


An Kagugub-an. Una nga panahon han gutiay pa ako,damo an mga tawo nga naukoy ha Brgy. San Isidro. Hirani pa an mga kahoy ngan damo an magkadurudilain nga katamsihan. Mababati-an mo an iba-iba nga huni han tamsi. An kagugub-an in hirani pa kay diri pa ginagamit an chainsaw. Waray problema an pagbalay kay harani la an surok han kakahuyan. An salog ha San Isidro in kamakaruruyag. Kadamo an mga isda, tilapia, sawag ug karpa. An mga tuminungnong in diri nagkukuri kay damo pa an madadakop ug makukuha ha salog. Ha yana nga panahon, dara nga damo na an tawo, damo na an nawawara. Tungod han panginahanglan, an mga tawo in ginamit na hin dinamita, ug panhilo, sanglit pati gudti nga mga isda nagkakamatay. An dalan han barangay in danay di na naagian kay gin-anas na an tuna. Naruba an kalsada ug naglubog an tubig. Dako gud ini nga problema nga oman gin-atubang. Maupay na la nga nagkamayda organisasyon an barangay. An mga tawo naaghat pag-api, tungod nga kinahanglan nira proteheran an kagugub-an ug an salog para han tisurunod nga henerasyon. Tungod han ira pagkaurusa nakigpartner hira han FPE ug gintagan hira hin suporta ha pagdumara ha CBFM. Dako an nabulig han FPE ha ira dida han CBFM area. - Merlita B. Lauron

The Forest.1 cannot forget how productive and healthy life was when I lived in myoid village of San Isidro. The trees were a just stone's throwaway from where I lived. Fresh air constantly breathed a rhythmic sound that made the branches hum and the leaves dance. Birds of different species entertained with their sweet and inspiring songs. Living was easy. as the land gave of itself generously. The forest and river supplied us with bountiful food. Life was simple. but it was full of joy. As time passed, things changed. There was an upsurge in the population that resulted in increased demand for food. which in turn magnified the pressure on forest and fishery resources. Then people started to use dynamite and poison to catch fish. while illegal trade in forest resources grew. When our forest and fishery resources began to dwindle. we took it as a sign for us to organize ourselves as a PO. and to forge a covenant with concerned government agencies. NGOs and other POs to protect our forest and river. It was a necessary step, not only for our own survival but also for our children and all the generations that will come after us. With support from FPE. we qualified for a CBFMA, which opened opportunities for us to work with other concerned groups for the protection of the forest, and allowed us to look to the future with renewed hope and strength.

An Kahoy Nga Marampag . .. An

usa nga kahoy bungahan ngan marampag damo nga katamsihan an nagtatalabkad.Katamsihan tigda nagkalpag, kay bangin an bunga tigda makarag. An adlaw nasirang ha este nga portahan, suporta han kapawa hinin kalibutan, tawo, hayop, ug mga kakahuyan, kun waray na ad/aw patay kita ngatanan. /nin mga kahoy ayaw ta pagpud/a, kay sirak han ad/aw kita an biktima. - Leonoro C. Montallana, BOSIS; Benedicto Cabubas, TAP

The Vibrant Tree ... There was a tree, lush and teeming, so the birds, they all came swarming. tasting. Then all of a sudden away they flew, because the fruits were quickly wasting. The mighty Sun warms the Earth, supports and nurtures life. but without the trees the Sun shines blazingly hot, it can harm. and it can hurt.

(Sikol Community Writing Workshop, November 20 I0)


Context. Goals & Objectives

CONTEXT, GOALS & OLiECTIVES Context Up until the 1950s, Samar Island remained thickly forested , with about 86% of its land area covered with primary lowland forests. Over the next four decades, however, extensive logging, as well as miningl, drastically reduced the island s forest cover, opening up its vast timberland to human settlement and agricultural development. Logged over areas were subjected to slash-and-burn farming and converted to coconut plantation and other uses. By 1987, Samar s forest cover had shrunk to about 33% of its previous size, while permanent settlements expanded across large areas officially classified as timberland. The massive floods in 1989 that destroyed crops and left tens of thousands homeless across 36 towns on Samar Island provided the impetus for conservation. Responding to clamor from local communities and NGOs, DENR imposed that year a total ban on logging on the entire island. Thus began the civil society s involvement in the conservation cause, which increased over the years as new threats to the environment emerged. In 1993, a proposed road network threatened the forested areas in Samar and Eastern Samar, prompting NGOs to launch a campaign opposing the project and advocating permanent protection of the island s remaining forests. This eventually led to the declaration in 1996 of the 366,000hectare Samar Island Forest Reserve (SIFR) through PP 744. The SIFR was not placed under NIPAS, although it was established some four years after the NIPAS Act (Republic Act [RAJ 7586) went into effect. In 200 I, DENR launched the Samar Island Biodiversity Project (SIBP) with funding support from the United Nations Development Programme-Global Environment Facility (UNDP-GEF). This facilitated the establishment in 2003 of the protected area now known as SINP. FPE supported SINP through PCBFMP, one of its longest running site-focused projects. PCBFMP started in 1994 as the Community Forestry Project (CFP), a primarily NGO-led initiative implemented by the Samar-based Tandaya Foundation Inc. and jointly supported by FPE and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. CFP was introduced mainly to address the economic displacement that happened in San Isidro and Tenani as a result of the shutdown of SJTC following the logging ban declaration in 1989. It was based on the national government s Community Forestry Program


About 209.000 hectares of the island is a Bauxite Mineral Reservation by virtue of PP 1651 issued in February 1977.



Turista.Huwebes nga adlaw bulan han Nov. 20 I 0, naging usa ako nga turista.

Sumakay komi hin balota nga demotor tipakadto ha 'Denio' Pag-uti ko gin-istorya ko in ha akon anak. "A no man nanay, maupay ba didto?" "Super anak, kamaupay gud hin duro! Inus-og komi hin damo nga mga bangon, sugad han 'degay, kamadbaran, ginkakasiko ug damo po nga ipa: Nakakita tiwat komi hin mga tamsi, sugad han Takray,Atalabong. ug Kalaw!" "Tinuod ba nanay?" "Syempre anak, magsusumat ba ako ha imo kun diri ungod?' "Kunta pagdako ko 'nay, aadto po ito nga mag-upay nga kiritaon." "Ayaw kabaraka inday, aada man an KAPPAS para magprotekta hini nga aton karikuhan, Maaram ka naman nga aktibo nga myembro hini im' nanay. Maupay tiwat nga may kapartner namon ng FPE nga pirme nga nabutig ha amon. 8is' ngani ini nga at' pakabuhian tikang ini ha ira. "Mayda po ba mga isda didto nay?" "00 anak, aguy pagkadto nom on may ngani nakadakop hin 'kasi/i', ug mayda po didto mga karpa, ug butibol: Naghihinunahuna po hi Inday han iya igyayakan, hin tigda nagsangpit hi Mode Lina. "To hala anak, signga no 10 im Itay nga makadi no komi ha PASu, magtitikang no kosi on amon Community Writing Workshop." - Rosita Lim-it (Photo: R. Debuayan) The Tourist. On a Thursday morning in November 20 I0 I played tourist in my own town and joined a torpedo boot ride to Deni Point in U/ot River. It was on experience that I just hod to shore with my six-year-old daughter Inday as soon as I

got home. "Was it fun. Mother?" "Yes.lnday, it was so much fun. We rode the rapids. moved through cascading waterfalls and a lush rainforest, and saw colorful birds - kingfishers. egrets, and hornbills!" "Really, Mothed" "Yes, Inday, really." "Wow! When I grow up,l will visit Ulot River, too. Do you think those wonderful things would still be there?" "Yes, my dear. I certainly hope so. We have KAPPAS to protect and preserve this great treasure, and I am an active member. And we also have FPE as a partner. FPE has always been there to help us in resource management. They even helped us find livelihood!" "Did you also see fishes, Mother?" "Oh yes! We saw carps and tilapia in the river, and the boatmen caught some eels when we were there." I could tell that Inday was awestruck and still bursting to speak, but just then, my friend come to pick me up. "I have to go,lnday. Please tell your father that we are going to the Office of the Protected Area Superintendent (PASu) for a community writing workshop."

Sukad••• Mahamot nga bukad, bukad pinalangga, tatamnon ko ikaw, bawbaw hinin tuna, bison dUn kadto, hitutultulan ko, kahamot hamuton, diri gud mapapara. Kasirom siruman hine nga kagab-ihon, matutunod no dow on bolan ug bituon, kahamot hamuton hini nga bukad, ha dughan mapabilin pirme narampag. -

Nida C. Obidos

Flower ••• Fragrant flower, I'll sow your seed upon this land. Wherever I go, your sweet perfume, I'm sure I'll find. Darkness comes, drowns the moon and stars, but your bright bouquet, with me will forever stay. (Siko/ Community Writing Workshop, November 20/0

Context, Goals & Objectives

Hoin No ... Sangkay kon ginupay tala, mga oportunidad aton nakita, kabutangan naton diri sugad la, kon kita ngatanan nagbuhat han tama. Hain na sangkay an at mga ungara, para ha tisurunod baga'n napapara.May panahon pa para di mawara, makainadmanon nga plano an at igdumara. - Danilo 0 Miralles

Lost Dreams ... Friends if only we made good of the many chances we've had,we would have a life better than the life we now have, if only we did what was wise and what was right. Where are they now, our friends and dreams, the future we long for, the future we hope to claim. We do have time still, our dreams we will redeem,with the right plan, we will manage well the land we hold so dear. (Sikof Community Writing Workshop, November 20 f 0)

that was created under DENR Administrative Order (DAO) 123, Series of (s.) 1989 and later supported by DAO 22 s. 1993. The program authorized the organization of forest communities and awarded qualified organizations Community Forestry Management Agreements (CFMA) which granted them rights to manage, develop, and utilize forest resources in clearly defined forestlands. Tandaya Foundation implemented CFP for three years (1994-98), during which time it facilitated the formation of two POs, namely, the Basarahan nga Organisasyon han Barangay San Isidro (BOSIS) and the Tenani Action for Progress (TAP). In 1998, these two POs formed their own federation to become what is now known as KAPPAS. KAPPAS s registration with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) was approved in 1999, and shortly thereafter, the federation (with FPE approval) took over the management of CFP. This marked a new phase in project implementation characterized as essentially PO-led. Also in 1999, KAPPAS signed with the DENR the CBFMA that granted the federation rights to manage the forest resources within the project site, with a greater focus on conservation. Consequently, echoing this new focus, the project s name was changed from CFP to PCBFMP. PCBFMP continued until 2008, after which KAPPAS assumed full control of the CBFMA area s management.

Goals & Objectives The project s evolution mirrored its goals and objectives as they changed in response to the communities emerging needs, as well as to public policy developments relevant to resource management in the project site. When CFP started in 1994, its most immediate objective was to address the economic displacement of the communities of San Isidro and Tenani affected by the logging ban in Samar. CFP s overall goal was contained in a single broad statement and focused on establishing a community-based forestry project.f



Yono No ... Kagugub-an naton nauubos na, kagurangan naton nawawara na, boyodaybersidad naton tikapara, kinahanglan kita magburublig. yana na. Diri niyan 0 buwas pa, angay kita gumios na, diri niyan a buwas pa, bangin an tanan maurhi na. - Danilo O. Miralles

Now is the Time ... Trees nearly all gone. forest fading away. diverse life no more. here and now is the time to make right this grievous wrong. for soon may be too late to ponder a later or the next morn. so please do your part right here. right now. not later. not tomorrow. (Sikal Community Writing Workshop, November 20 I 0)

It was consistent with DENR s Community Forestry Program framework at that time, which, while encouraging conservation, emphasized sustainable utilization of forest resources to promote social equity and prevent further degradation of natural resources} To achieve its goals, CFP identified five objectives broadly presented under the following themes: (I) land tenure security; (2) food security and subsistence; (3) improved socio-economic well-being through income-generating activities; (4) improved capacity to manage resources; and (5) multi-sectoral participation in forestry management. As it evolved from CFP in 1999, PCBFMP had five goals, defined in broad terms as follows: (I) community empowerment; (2) land tenure acquisition and management; (3) improved economic wellbeing through sustainable use of resources; (4) assertion of community rights over forest resources through information , education and communication (IEC); and (5) partnership building. Perhaps reflecting a better understanding of community needs, PCBFMP s objectives were more clearly defined than CFP s, and in a few instances, were quite specific, although not always easily measurable. Moreover, following prevailing trends in the development sector, PCBFMP was more heavily oriented toward resource conservation than CFP was, and specifically cited gender sensitivity as a desired feature of its biodiversity conservation goal. As earlier noted, PCBFMP was PO-led, in contrast to CFP which was NGO-Ied. Being a follow-up to the CFP initiative, the PCBFMP design recognized the PO members improved capacity to manage their forest resources and their own internal organizational affairs, while simultaneously addressing the continuing need to empower and strengthen them. PCBFMP had a clear emphasis on community empowerment, organizational development and capacity building, themes that not only defined one of its goals but also underpinned its other goals. Goal!, which dealt specifically with community empowerment, involved three aspects of organizational development, namely, (I) individual capacity and institutional building; (2) membership expansion; and (3) installation of organizational and financial management systems. This goal and its associated objectives were designed to enable KAPPAS and its two member POs to strengthen their membership, leadership and institutional capacities, which are all important components of a community-based project

Context, Goals & Objectives

Goal 2, which focused on land tenure acquisition and management, called for the following management measures: (1) Community Resource Management Framework (CRMF) enhancement and policy development; (2) development of agroforestry and other sustainable resource uses; (3) data banking, monitoring and evaluation; (4) 75% threat reduction through forest protection and rehabilitation; and (5) family-based stewardship. Aided by a survey and mapping of the individual PO members farm lots, the family-based approach to forest management was introduced midway through project implementation primarily to promote personal responsibility and sense of ownership for resource management among members. Goal 3, improved economic well-being through sustainable use of resources, carried mUltiple objectives that included: (1) formulation of a benchmark plan for all income-generating projects (IGPs); (2) development and implementation of sustainable IGPs; (3) promotion of food security; (4) livelihoodrelated capacity building, including technology transfer; (5) enhancement of rattan production; and (6) development of income-generating activities to promote the institutional sustainability of KAPPAS and its two member POs. Goal 4, assertion of community rights over forest resources through IEC, specified the use of conservation awareness-raising, constituency building, and multi-level advocacy to support the community s exercise of their tenurial rights, as well as their effort to conserve their forest resources. Lastly, GoalS, partnership building, was similar to and supported Goal 4 in that it involved the use of IEC approaches, primarily constituency building and awareness-raising. In addition to these objectives, the project design implied FPE support for the objectives of KAPPAS under the terms and conditions of its CBFMA. These objectives were specified in KAPPAS s CRMF, which is a requirement under DENR s CBFM program. The KAPPAS CRMF s overall goal was the improvement of the economic well-being of the local community through participatory management and conservation of forest resources.f It identified the following five thematic objectives, which are remarkably more conservation-oriented than economic-oriented: (1) environmental awareness; (2) conservation-compatible livelihood; (3) delivery of basic social services; (4) capacity building; and (5) biodiversity conservation and ecological balance.



IN THEIR OWN VOICES Dekada han Pagbabag-o./986. Umabot aka ha 8arangay Tenani tikang ha Manila. Upod an akon asawa ngan tulo nga an ok nga mga babayi. Nakita ko an katahom hini nga lugar. Naboyo aka pag-api han mga aktibidades parte han illegal nga pamulod han kahoy. Lagadi po 10 hadto an gamit Umabot an panahon, nga chainsaw no an gamit paglagadi, ug kumusog an mga panmulod ug panlagadi hin kahoy. Tungod han kadako han kutsitsa, nahimugso aka maging 8aranggay Chairman han 8rgy. Tenani han tuig 1988. ' Dinhi nagtikang an akon kalbaryo. Ngatanan nga akosasyon in gin 10 bay ha . akon. Kumo kapitan ako an ginpatawag ha mga imbestigasyon. Gin-angkon ko an iba nga mga akosasyon ha rason nga waray man namon sadang nga pakabuhian nga pwede mahiliwan hini. Nasaydan aka nga seryoso an gobyerno pagbulig ha amon. Damo an mga ahensya nga mabulig sering han mga sundalo ug toga DENR nga nagpatawag ha amon. Damo nga mga alternatibo nga pakabuhian an pwede mahimo. Dinhi hini pinangunahaan ko an paghimo hin resolusyon, nga ginsumiter ngadto ha CENRO, gobernador, sugad man an DENR ha rehiyon. Tungod hini waray magdugay an pag-abot hini nga mga ahensya pagpasilidar ha komunidad hin mga buruhaton kaparte ha pankabuhian. Sumunod an pagsulod ug pagbulig han mga NGO, sugad han Tandaya Foundation. Pinaagi han Foundation for the Philippine Environment, nga amo an naghatag hin programa parte han pagdumara han kagurangan 0 C8FM. Nakagorganisa komi nga mga parag-uma, nga amon gintawag nga KAPPAS Federation. Damo an mga aktibidades nga ginpalusad han FPE pinaagi hini nga organisasyon. Aada an Livelihood, Community Organizing, Resource Management ug iba po. Yana nga mga panahon kaagapay liwat komi ha pagproteher han Utot Watershed 0 an SINP. - Romulo Cabacaba (Photo: R. Debuayan)

Decode of Chonge. I came to Tenani from Manila with my family in 1986 and immediately saw the great potential of the place. I was dazzled by the vast forest and its promise of economic gain. Soon I was engaged in illegal logging and the illegal selling of forest products. I acquired a small fortune and. in 1988, I got elected Barangay Chairman of Tenani. Ironically, that turned out to be my time for reckoning. when as a forest violator I finally faced the prospect of retribution. Accused of illegal logging and other illegal activities. I was summoned by DENR and AFP (Armed Forces of the Philippines) to a dialogue. I told them that all ofTenani relied on the forest for food. and that when I said that logging was the only way we could feed our families, I spoke for the entire village. They were unmoved. but they offered ideas for alternative livelihood and promised to help us out. Eventually we were compelled to sign a resolution to stop illegal forest activities and protect our forest. The government made good on its promise and facilitated assistance for forest stakeholders through orientations. workshops. impact assessments. community development projects and livelihood training. Later, the NGOs also came to help, and we formed a partnership with FPE. We formed a federation of farmers. which we called KAPPAS. With FPE's help. KAPPAS took the lead in community organizing, advocacy work. resource management and alternative livelihood training. Today. our federation is working in partnership with SINP in the management of the Ulot Watershed.

Kobubuwoson ... Murayaw nga kaagahon, mga huni kaupay pamation, kaupay imo pamahungpahong, pakusga im tuhod, igdungan an pagtapod, an FPE asay ig-upod.Ayaw kawangi inin higayon, bangin maurhi an panahon, kagugub-an bantayi naton, para kabubuwason han at mga baton-on.



Mo. Isabel D. Miralles


A· 6#N/I'

The Future ... A restful morning. birds sweetly chirping, a happy feeling - strength, faith, drive, FPE by our side. Waste not this chance, later may be too late, protect the forests now for our children's future and the future's children, the future cannot wait. (Siko/ Community Writing Workshop, November 20/0)

Outputs, Outcomes & Impacts


The project s outputs and outcomes are discussed below under four headings corresponding to the main project components, namely, (1) community organizing and institutional building, (2) resource management, (3) enterprise development; and (4) IEC and advocacy. Community organizing and institutional building - The key outcomes under this component were the formation of two POs in the beneficiary communities, namely, BOSIS in San Isidro and TAP in Tenani, and their eventual federation as KAPPAS. KAPPAS, the main project proponent from 1999, was the focus of organizational development and strengthening, which consisted of numerous capacity building exercises involving organizational, technical and financial management.The federation was registered with SEC, Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR), Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), and Social Security System (SSS), and was accredited by the barangay of San Isidro and the municipal government of Paranas. Its vision, mission and goals were clearly articulated and translated into an institutional development plan. It also had an organizational manual, and project funding allowed the hiring of a project coordinator and finance officer to ensure the smooth running of day-to-day business operations. Consequently, KAPPAS attained a certain degree of organizational personality during the life-of-project. Besides implementing PCBFMP to its full term, it also received additional funding from the European Community (EC)-VNDP Small Grants Programme, became an important partner for SIBP, and was represented in the SINP Protected Area Management Board (PAMB) and the Vlot Model Watershed Alliance. By the time PCBFMP ended in 2008, KAPPAS had 280 active members out of a total of 364 members (177 from BOSIS and 187 from TAP). There was a downside to such heavy focus on a single organization. Throughout the life-of-project, KAPPAS operated much like an individual membership PO, disbursing project funds directly to the individual members of its two member POs. Because of this, there was no transfer of capacity or skills targeted at either BOSIS or TAP at the organizational level, although all members of these POs automatically became members of KAPPAS, and some of their officers also held positions in the federation. Going into the project phase-out, KAPPAS had a well-crafted sustainability plan that included internal resource generation, enhancement of family-based resource management, mobilization of funds from livelihood activities, and provisions for the development of and access to other project resources. But it was not able to successfully implement the plan, and when PCBFMP ended in 2008, the federation went into hiatus, apparently because of lack of funding to hire staff.



IN THEIR OWN VOICES In; Ngo Kogurongon ... Dinhi ha sulod han aton ginsakupan, an CBFM area aton bantayan, mga kahoy ug mga katamsihan, aton ta hira protektahan.lni nga kagurangan, ginhatag ha aton, kaupay, karibhong aton angkunon, ha dayuday nga panahon hikakaplagan naton, mga tisurunod mayda pa gihapon. - Rosita B. Um-it, KAPPAS

These Woodlands ... We are this land's caretakers, our CBFMA says the woodlands, the trees, the birds, they're ours to look after. This forest was entrusted to us, so with grateful hearts, accept it we must; because time passes and so will we, but for our children this land should forever remain the place to be. (Sikal Community Writing Workshop, November 20 I 0)

It should be noted that the capacities built during PCBFMP s time were not altogether left unused. After the project ended, BOSIS officers who were also KAPPAS officers registered their PO with SEC and applied the knowledge and skills they learned from the project to solidify their membership through reorganization and restructuring, develop internal resource generation mechanisms, and prepare proposals for funding. On the other hand, like KAPPAS, TAP became inactive, although it was already a SEC-registered PO during the implementation of PCBFMP. Resource management - The awarding of CBFMA to KAPPAS was the most important outcome of the project, because it secured land tenure for the communities, laying down a concrete foundation for implementing CBRM. The CBFMA compelled KAPPAS to adopt a resource management framework (the CRMF) and paved the way for various management interventions to be introduced in the area. These interventions included the following: (1) mapping of the CBFMA area facilitated by SIBP for the purpose of implementing a zoning scheme based on the general management plan of SINP; (2) survey and mapping of individual PO members farm lots that led to the introduction of the familybased approach to forest management; (3) additional funding from EC-UNDP for the rehabilitation of two mined-out sites within the CBFMA area; and (4) agroforestry development (assisted natural regeneration [ANR] and timber stand improvement [TSI]). PO members also participated in forest protection initiatives in the protected area, with 76 of them serving as Deputized Environment and Natural Resources Officers (DENROs) of DENR. Through a food-for-work scheme, the project provided logistical support and operational resources for the volunteers to conduct foot patrol operations, which reportedly helped reduce the incidence of timber poaching, wildlife hunting and slash-and-burn farming in the area. However, this activity had no clear operational framework and was not properly integrated with the PASu Office (composed mostly of SIBP personnel) so when PCBFMP support stopped, the operations of the DENROs also stopped. Some PO members claimed there has been a resurgence of illegal activities in SINP, particularly the harvesting of wood for charcoal. Other activities that KAPPAS members participated in were rapid site assessment (RSA), an inventory of rattan and other non-timber forest products (for the purpose of acquiring a resource use permit


Outputs, Outcomes & Impacts

[RUP]), biodiversity monitoring and evaluation (BlOME) and threat reduction analysis (TRA), which was reportedly used to evaluate biodiversity in the area. There appeared to be no accurate recording of the biodiversity data, however, as there were no documents available that showed the biodiversity profile of the area based on either the TRA or BlOME.

Enterprise Development - From the very outset, livelihood development was a critical objective for PCBFMP and was in fact the primary motivation for the conceptualization and implementation of its precursor CFP. This component was therefore frequently highlighted in project documentation, which described numerous capacity building and material support for livelihood and enterprise projects (notably agroforestry development and rattan production) with potential to provide income opportunities for beneficiary communities while promoting environmental rehabilitation and management. Rattan production, in particular, was seen as a promising prospect that merited a major investment from the project. Besides facilitating resource protection, the CBFMA also enabled KAPPAS to access and use the natural resources found in the protected area, a privilege not granted to many pas. The federation was given an RUP for rattan and Manila copal (Almaciga resin), which opened up the opportunity for PCBFMP to help KAPPAS start up a rattan-based enterprise. Working with trainers from OTI and the University of the Philippines at Los Banos, FPE facilitated the training of 48 individual KAPPAS members in rattan harvesting, planting, processing and enhancement. Four of these trainees eventually became rattan production trainers themselves. With capitalization from FPE, the project set up a rattan furniture-making plant on site and a showroom in Catbalogan, Samar. The business was not sustained, however. Poor sales and high overhead costs forced KAPPAS to close its showroom, and weak and ineffective regulatory monitoring led to a depletion of natural stocks that eventually shut down the plant s operations. Nevertheless, a KAPPAS officer has pursued the rattan production business, though the business operates as a private enterprise and not as a KAPPAS project. By the same token, agroforestry continues to provide income opportunities for individual members (mainly from the production and sale of fruits and vegetables), albeit no longer as an activity under the KAPPAS mantle.

lEe and advocacy - PCBFMP s IEC and advocacy work, consisting of the production of informational materials and events targeted at schools and communities and reinforced by similar work done by SIBP, clearly made a mark on the community psyche. There was a remarkably high level of awareness among PO members about the importance of biodiversity, even if some of them admitted to occasional poaching of timber when forced by necessity (usually before the opening of classes in June or whenever school tuition and fees were due). About two years after PCBFMPended, a community writing workshop was conducted to draw out community perspective on the project through stories, poems, songs, chants, and visual art. The outputs of this workshop are included in this volume ("In Their Own Voices"; Annex A) to provide insight into how the community members appreciated the critical need for resource conservation, and how they perceived their personal role in it.

In addition to awareness building, the project s advocacy work also contributed to building up KAPPAS s reputation as a professional organization and forged linkages between the federation and other groups working for conservation in SINP. These groups included a regional federation of pas and, as already noted, two local government units, the Ulot Model Watershed Alliance, EC-UNOP, SIBP, and SINPPAMB .



IN THEIR OWN VOICES Mga Sangkay. Tikang ako maging myembro han TAp, nahibaruan ko an kaupay han kagugub-an ug kay kun ana nga kinahanglan namon ini mangnuan ug proteheran. Usa ini han amon adbokasiya nga ginpalusad ha amon pinaagi han pakigsumpay namon ha FP£. Dinhe hini nga programa, nah'iapi ako han mga proyekto sugad han panhimo hin Rattan Furniture . Nahibaro ako paglara hin uway nga amo an amon ginhimo nga lingkuran. An 'Nito' nga nahihimo nga kalo, an Bariw nahihimo hin banig. Dara han paniguro han opisyales han KAPPAS, na-accredit kami ha TESDA ug sumulod an DTI nga amo an naghatag kadugangan nga training parte han paghimo rattan furniture. Nali/ipay gud ako hin duro kay waray kami bayai han FPE nga padayon naghatag hin magkadurudilain nga aktibidades pagtimangno han mga rekurso han guba. Ug dida liwat hini nahimugso an handicraft making nga amo an nakapadukwag han am on pangabuhian. - Cheryl B. Bacarra

Friends.When I joined TAp, I learned to love the beauty of the forest, and began to understand why we should try to preserve and protect it. Forest conservation was one of the advocacies that we did as an organization in partnership with FPE. As a member of TAp, I also learned to clean and strip rattan, and make handicraft using materials sourced from native plants. These skills helped me get into furniture-making. KAPPAS has been accredited with TESDA (Technical Education and Skills Development Authority) and DTI, which also gave us additional training. I am happy that FPE has not left us, and that it continues to undertake activities to help us take care of our forest and support our livelihood project and source of living.

Puno hin Kohoy ••• Kit-on ta an usa nga puno, maupay, marabong, nahatag landing, angay naton ini paurahon, basi diri maruba an kagugub-an naton. Yana nga panahon damo an iligalista, sanglit sangkay mag-ikmat kita, hatag han FPE nga mga programa, aton palangbuon kay nakakabulig manta. Kagugub-an aton bantayan, agud pa mahiabtan, tisurunod nga henerasyon, ira pa hikaplagan. - Mer/ita B. Lauron; Fedelina I Ba/anay, TAP

The Tree ... Look at that tree, lush and luxuriantly shady, foster it, let it grow tall and mighty, maybe then our forest will stay safe, bountiful and healthy. These are uncertain times, violations are aplenty, so friends be on guard, always be ready, this program that FPE started we must pursue, because it keeps us alert and our forest protected. Always guard our forest so it will endure, so the next generations will be secure. (Sika/ Community Writing Workshop, November 2010)

Outputs, Outcomes & Impacts


An assessment conducted in 2010 examined the project according to the following four criteria: relevance, efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability. In addition, the project was assessed in relation to the three core roles of FPE as a grant provider, catalyst for cooperation, and funding facilitator. In the absence of baseline information and indicators, the assessment was for the most part based on a (generally subjective) review of the project results and an analysis of community perception (generated through focus group discussions [FGDs] and key informant interviews [KIIs]) on the performance of PCBFMP and how it affected the communities. The results of this assessment are summarized below. Relevance - In determining relevance, the assessment looked at project implementation relative to the critical issues it was intended to address. The project, first as CFP and later as PCBFMP, was conceived based on the premise that the problem of forest denudation cannot be solved unless the economic needs of forest-dependent communities are met. From the outset therefore, one of its primary goals was the economic well-being of the people of the logging communities of San Isidro and Tenani, who were displaced by the suspension of logging in the area. Working within a sustainable forestry framework as prescribed by, first, the Community Forestry Program and, later, the CBFM Program ofDENR, PCBFMP successfully assisted KAPPAS in acquiring a CBFMA and an RUP, which turned them from informal forest settlers to forest managers and from illegal forest users to legitimate forest users, respectively. The project had some initial success in making these instruments economically rewarding to KAPPAS members, but such success was short-lived, as the federation was unable to sustain the enterprise. In addition, KAPPAS failed to deliver on the implementation of a zoning scheme that would have allowed its members to manage the CBFMA area in individual, family-based! farm lots. One KAPPAS officer did pursue the rattan production business as a private venture, and a number of community members continue to benefit from their involvement in the agroforestry project initiated by PCBFMP, although it appears to have only provided them with supplemental income at best, rather than a real alternative source of livelihood. The lack of baseline information made it difficult to determine if the project had indeed contributed significantly to any improvement in the communities economic conditions. Nevertheless, the CBFMA perhaps translated into a Protected Area Community-Based Resource Management Agreement (PACBRMA) ~ remains a valid and relevant tenurial instrument that the communities should continue to use and benefit from. o

Efficiency - Efficiency was assessed based on how well project implementation was carried out, particularly in capacity building, livelihood creation, and conservation of critical habitats and endemic flora and fauna. In terms of overall efficiency, the project was deemed to have performed satisfactorily, but implementation was uneven. Firstly, as already noted, project investment in capacity building was heavily skewed toward KAPPAS. The project was successful in developing the right skills, operational systems and procedures at the federation level but not at the PO level, largely because KAPPAS implemented activities directly and thereby generally interacted directly with individual PO members rather than organizationally with its member POs.



Secondly, while the project scored some notable successes in creating livelihood and enterprise opportunities for KAPPAS and moreover assisted the federation with livelihood-related capacity building, business development was constrained by the absence of a clear livelihood framework and efficient monitoring and evaluation schemes. Finally, the project installed measures to protect species and habitats through forest protection and rehabilitation activities, but implementation PCBFMP impact assessment, 2011 (Photo: M. Tabao) was sporadic and not integrated with authorities involved in the management of SINP. There was a clear effort to undertake forest rehabilitation, but no site suitability assessment was done to determine, for example, what plant species were most appropriate in the area. Also, BlOME and TRA were considered during project implementation, but they were not clearly explained and thus not appreciated by the communities, and the monitoring results were not documented properly. Effectiveness - Project effectiveness related to how well the project s goals and objectives were met. Five thematic goals with corresponding objectives were identified, namely, (1) community empowerment, (2) land tenure acquisition and management, (3) improved economic well-being through sustainable use of resources, (4) assertion of community rights over forest resources through IEC, and (5) partnership building.

The assessment identified the following weaknesses in implementation that might have limited project effectiveness: (1) the final delineation of management zones, awarding of individual farm lots tenure, and forest protection and rehabilitation were not adequately implemented; (2) capacity and institutional building was focused only on KAPPAS, and did not extend to its two member pas; (3) the correlation between forest rehabilitation and livelihood development was not properly established through agroforestry and forest management, making it difficult to ascertain that there was in fact any lasting improvement in the community s economic well-being that could be linked to sustainable use of resources; and (4) the good standing achieved by KAPPAS in the development sector was not fully utilized to generate and mobilize resources. Overall, however, the project was found to have satisfactorily delivered on its goals and objectives, and was particularly successful in the following areas: (1) land tenure acquisition through CBFMA and rights to use forest resources through RUP; (2) raising the communities awareness (through IEC and advocacy) about the importance of conservation and their role in it; and (3) building a reputation for KAPPAS as a professionally run organization through capacity and institutional development and partnership building. SustainabilityV Like many capacity building initiatives, PCBFMP faced its biggest challenge in responding to the question of sustainability. Prior to project closure, well-crafted strategies were developed at the federation level, but more than one year after the project ended, these strategies had yet to be implemented as KAPPAS went into hiatus, unable to capitalize on its CBFMA, RUP, welltrained officers, and good standing as an organization. Its rattan production enterprise did not fare


Outputs, Outcomes & Impacts

much better. Having no clear mechanisms for monitoring rattan gathering and production and in the absence of an effective business plan, the venture did not prosper. The assessment identified the following gaps in project implementation that might have affected sustainability:

(1) Lack of "capacity transfer" to member POs. By opting to directly implement project activities, KAPPAS missed the opportunity to develop the capacities of its two member POs and furthermore spent much time and energy in project implementation instead of concentrating on its broader agenda for sustainability. (2) Missed opportunity to focus on land tenure development and management as the focal point of project activities. Having secured the CBFMA, the project should have invoked KAPPAS s responsibility, accountability and authority to develop and implement land tenure policies not only for its members but also for the other occupants of the area. The CBFMA should have been used as a leverage to engage in appropriate and economically productive joint venture activities with interested entities.

Role of FPE - FPE played three main roles in relation to the project: grant provider, catalyst for cooperation, and funding facilitator. With its years of experience in administering its grants program and its well-developed criteria, procedures and guidelines for project proposal evaluation, the Foundation delivered its role as grant provider as effectively as might be expected. It also performed well in its role as catalyst for cooperation, successfully demonstrating to its community partners the importance of building multi-sectoral partnerships, and facilitating linkages between KAPPAS and the other groups working in SINP. As funding facilitator, FPE also helped link KAPPAS to various technical assistance providers that directly contributed to the implementation of PCBFMP, at least for the duration of its life-of-project. However, it could have done more to promote KAPPAS s organizational sustainability by helping the federation leverage its strengths in order to access more resources for its operations and activities. KAPPAS certainly could have benefited from FPE assistance in the preparation of their annual proposals, which should have been structured more logically for project monitoring and evaluation purposes. Some proposal writing training would have also proved valuable in terms of helping KAPPAS and its member POs with resource generation.



Chainsaw Ngadto Ha Crutches. Chainsaw operator ako hadto nga mga panahon han diri pa utod an akon too nga tiil. Dako an akon sweldo kay P500.00 an akon nakakarawat kada adlaw. Han Enero 29,2000, mga alas dyes han aga, ginkuha ako ha Bagacay hin tolo kaadlaw pagchainsaw hin Banoyo. Dida han akon pagtikang pag-utod hin usa nga banoyo, sumaday ini hq hirani nga puno. Nagchainsaw ngahaw ako hin puna harani han nasaday nga Banoyo. Tigda nalugas an nasaday nga puna ug naipit an akon botas. Dinhi bumirik an kahoy ug naligis an akon mukobuko ha bitiis. Mitingpiting na la an nasalin nga nadat-ol han bato nga igang. Paglugas han sanga, pagtumba, bumudlong ha ako an puno. Kun waray ako makakilikid kay dara ko pa an naandar nga chainsaw, utod an akon hawak. Pagkita han akon kabulig nga nadat-ugan ako, tigda ini nga nadismayo, kahimugutawI dayon ini nga nag-apura pag-uli.Waray lugod ako buligi. Magpapahibaro kuno hiya. An am on usa nga upod nga lagas amo an binulig ha akon. Iya ginbinundol an bato para ako matalwas ha pagkaipit Gindara ako ha ospital. Tungod kay utod ug rumok man an tul-an ug diri na kaya dugtungon, gin-utod na la ini nga akon tiil. Kasirum han akon kinabuhi pagkatapos hito nga panhinabo. Pero apesar hini waray aka kawarayi hin paglaum. Dinhi umapi aka ug naging aktibo nga myembro han KAPPAS. Ginpatraining aka ha TESDA ug iba po nga mga training, hiunong hin panhimo hin furniture nga rattan. Yana may-ada ko no gutiay nga furniture shop. Tungod kay guti po man an puhunan, gingagamit ko an akon panahon ha pagiging aktibo nga miyembro han KAPPAS.Aada ako ha komitiba han Bantay Kalikasan ug usa nga Board of Directors. Nakit-an ko dinhe an kaimportante han pagpreserbar og pagproteher han aton manggad, an kagugub-an han Samar nga amo an naghahatag ha aton han aton kinabuhi. Diri ko liwat ginhahalut an akon hibabruan. Akon ini ginpapaangbit, pinaagi hin pagtutdo ha mga kababayen-an, ug han mga interesado ha komunidad nga mahibaro hin sugad hini nga pakabuhi. - Roberto O. Morales (Photo: R. Debuayan)

From Choinsow to Crutches. I used to work as a chainsaw operator for logging operations in Samar. In those days, our forests were still relatively abundant and extensive, and many logging companies came to set up operations here. The expansion of logging operations on the island opened up income opportunities for me. As a chainsaw operator. I was earning as much as PhpSOO a day, a big fortune in those days. Life was good. Everything changed all of a sudden one fateful day in January 2000. I was commissioned to cut several Banoyo trees in the hinterlands of Bagacay, where I stayed for three days, wantonly cutting the prized trees. Things were going well, but on the third day, an old tree I was cutting fell onto another tree. I did not pay too much attention to it, and simply went on working. But suddenly, the tree crashed, pinning my left foot between two logs. I was in terrible pain for many hours, but remained conscious. I watched as the tree kept falling and falling. Eventually, it landed heavily on me, completely crushing my right foot. By some miracle, I got out of the forest alive, but the doctors could not save my right leg, which had to be amputated at the knee. For weeks, I suffered physical pain, and even longer, I wallowed in anguish, regret and fear. At some point I surrendered to hopeless acceptance and began to believe that my accident was just payback for all the insults I heaped on our Mother Earth with my marauding chainsaw. Then, one day, a helping hand reached out to me. I was invited to join a farmers group, and before them I humbled myself by confeSSing to my past mistakes. In return, they offered support, which gave me a resurgence of hope. Soon, I found myself learning to make rattan furniture and then running a rattan furniture shop. I started to rebuild my life. I was elected to the Board of Directors (BOD) of our Bantay Kalikasan, rising from despair to grow into becoming a protector of our forest, and living in the essence of being one with our Mother Earth. And now I also get to enjoy giving free training in handicraft and rattan furniture making to my fellow villagers.


Lessons & Recommendations

LESSONS & RECOMMENDATIONS Broad Lessons for Project Development

Valuable lessons were generated from the project experience that can be applied to future project development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Listed below are some broad lessons that can be applied to CBRM projects. 1.






Projects like PCBFMP (and before it CFP) that are designed within an appropriate policy framework and local development context are often the most relevant because they generally employ strategies and approaches that are applicable and realistic, and respond in a timely manner to the specific needs of the project site. Setting baselines and quantifiable indicators at the start of project implementation is critical to tracking project progress, evaluating impacts, and improving management. The lack of baseline information and indicators proved to be a major weakness of the project in that it limited the project managers ability to properly monitor, evaluate and respond to changes in the project environment and the challenges of implementation. PCBFMP underscored the importance of having in the project framework the core components of a CBRM project, namely, (l) community organizing, (2) land tenure security, (3) access to resource use rights and livelihood, and (4) capacity development and partnership building. These core components are closely interconnected and must be implemented as mutually supportive activities in one implementation cycle. Capacity building is the foundation of institutional development and strengthening, community empowerment, natural resource conservation, enterprise and livelihood development, and constituency and partnership building. To really matter, however, it must respond to the capacity needs of its target beneficiaries, and must build capacities at all organizational levels. A capacity needs assessment is therefore a prerequisite to any capacity building initiative. Land tenure security and access to resource use rights are important elements of empowerment. The transformation of communities from informal forest settlers to forest managers and from illegal forest users to legitimate forest users was the single most important outcome of PCBFMP, which the communities and the groups assisting them can and must continue to build on. Land tenure and resource use rights must be properly managed within a sustainable development context. Safeguard and monitoring mechanisms must be installed to keep yield and harvesting at sustainable levels, address potential impacts on biodiversity, and ensure that the pursuit of economic objectives is properly balanced with the goal of environmental sustainability. To this



Bantay Kalikasan.Usa ako nga kaapi han sobra 40 nga miyembro han Bantay Kagugub-an 0 Bantay Kalikasan. Usa ini nga grupo nga gin-organisa han KAPPAS agud magbantay ug maglibot han 6.500 has. nga protektado nga kagugub-an. Apesar han kamakuri han pangabuhian. waray ginpipili an grupo han matag-ad/aw nga paglibotlibot han kagugub-an. Bisan pa man daw mauran. masagka kami ha higtaas nga kabukiran. Dinhi nakon naangkon nga maupay ngay-an an pagbantay hin sugad hini nga rekurso. Waray namon kabut/aw. Kun ada ka ha su/od han kagugub-an. mababati mo an konsyerto han mga katamsihan. ug an dagko nga mga kakahuyan nga nasayaw ha musika tikang han hangin. Sanglit nagkamay-ada ako hin pag-angkon. nga ini nga karikuhan diri angay pasibay-an ug pag/amadyaan. Diri angay abusuhon agud ini nga manggad in makit-an pa han aton mga kabataan. - Leonora C. Montallana Forest Watch. I am one of 40 members of Bantay Kalikasan (Forest Watch), a group organized by KAPPAS to guard the 6.500-hectare forest under the federation's care. Despite these tough economic times, I and the other forest guards never shirk our duties in protecting the forest. We patrol the forest every day. in the rain. under the hot sun. whatever the weather may be. We see the forest as a precious heritage that we must pass on to our children and all future generations. and we have made it our personal mission to protect and preserve it. The forest has become a part of my life. and I find fulfillment and happiness in guarding and protecting it. When I am in the forest, I am able to bask in peace and serenity. serenaded by singing birds and whistling winds. and cheered by the swinging. swaying trees. Being in the forest always makes me feel like I'm coming home to Mother Earth.

Pagbantay••. Maupay nga oras ha aton ngatanan. inin akon siday iyo unta pamatian. magin giya unta han kaupayan. agud ma/ikyan an karatan. han aton kagugub-an. Sanglit kasangkayan aton ipadayon. pagbantay han aton kagugub-an. agud magmalipayon. inin aton tisurunod nga henerasyon. kita nga bantay kalikasan pirme magmasugong. -

Eugene T. Igdalino. TAP/KAPPAS

CSFM... Kagugub-an angay paghirutan. ahensya han gobyerno ginbuligan.

bisita respetuhan. basi an inop matuman. CBFM nga matahom. komunidad aton paurahon. serbisyo ighadang naton. agud ha urhi magmainuswagon. Huyuhoy han hangin. dahon malipayon. ayaw naton pabay-i aton angkunon. aton sawayon an mga waray ka/ooy. agud mga katamsihan magmalipayon. - Jimmy Bueno. BOSIS

Steadfast ... I bid you good day. please hear my poem. words I have to say; May it point us to what is good. that danger and grief we might avoid. So please friends stay strong. let's protect our forest, keep going on;And when it's the next generation's turn to do their part. they'd be glad we stayed the course. that we were true and we held fast.

CBFM ••• The plunder of our forests needs to end. with government here and a little help from our friends. for then and only then maybe we can claim. our dreams are not just dreams because they are meant to happen. CBFM is for our own good and the community we love. a way to serve and a way to give back. that in the end we can all revel in the progress that's been so long coming. Listen to the wind singing through the swaying leaves. "Hey people do your job. stop the pillage. all callous. careless acts. then life can go on. so life can last ... Forever." (Sikol Community Writing Workshop, November 20 I0

Lessons & Recommendations

end, CBFM programs typically offer target communities the opportunity to participate in foodfor-work and similar schemes that provide immediate economic benefits, while emphasizing the long-term benefits of forest restoration and rehabilitation.

Site-specific Recommendations There are specific measures that future projects and assisting organizations should undertake to build on the gains achieved by PCBFMP. Lingering questions about sustainability make it particularly imperative that something is done about the organizational and other issues discussed in the previous section (see Outputs, Outcomes & Impacts), as these issues could potentially cancel out the significant progress that the San Isidro and Tenani communities have already made toward implementing CBRM. Below are some recommendations that can immediately be put in action: I) Revisit the project site and assess the potential of BOSIS to implement on a pilot scale the family-based forest gardening strategy espoused by PCBFMP. Should pilot implementation be pursued, it should be done to test the viability and replicability of the forest gardening scheme under a well-defined conceptual and implementation framework that includes guidelines for the selection of family co-operators. As a requisite for participation, each co-operator must sign an agreement with BOSIS based on a family-based land tenure system and according to CBFMA guidelines. 2) Encourage TAP members to restructure and revitalize their organization. Once properly revitalized, the PO could participate in SIBP s ecotourism development initiative in Ulot River. 3) As a way to catalyze the reactivation of KAPPAS, consider awarding individual land tenure to its members in coordination with DENR and the PASu through SIBP. For this to happen, the federation must adopt appropriate guidelines for farm lot development and a fee structure for the family-based land tenure system as part of its internal resource mobilization strategy. The program can be expanded later to include other (non-KAPPAS) occupants of the CBFMA area. 4) Restructure KAPPAS to serve primarily coordinating functions in relation to its two member POs. This will require a review of the federation s bylaws and a reorientation of its main focus and strategy, and possibly the election of new officers and a revision of their functions. 5) Enable KAPPAS to capitalize on its solid reputation as an organization and develop in-house skills and capacity in resource generation, project coordination, monitoring and evaluation, and resource mobilization and financial management. KAPPAS may be encouraged to participate in DENR s National Greening Program. By allowing the two member POs to assume the responsibility for project implementation, this may provide some opportunities for the federation to source new project funds and develop coordinating and oversight skills. 6) Integrate KAPPAS and its two member POs with the overall management of SINP by forging a working relationship between these community organizations and the PASu and other SINP personnel responsible for providing technical assistance to and monitoring the operations of various organizations within the protected area.




Surok Han Katubigan ... Surok han katubigan aton pagmangnuan, kahoy nga nawara aton pagbalyuan, bangin ha kaurhian tubig nga bulawan, ha at panginahanglan kita makurian. Kakahuyan padamuon, tubig kinahanglan naton, san-o nga panahon, waray na kita iinumon. Tubig aton hirutan, kay nakakabulig han kakahuyan, kun tubig an mawaray, kita manluluya upod an kakahuyan. -

Danifo O. Mirafles, BaSIS; Fedelina T. Balanay, TAP; Nestor Obidos, TAP! KAPPAS

Pag-urusa ... Kita pag-urusa,

pagproteher hinin kalibungan, pagburublig kita. Basi sunod nga henerasyon makatagamtam pa, hinin bukid nga bulawan, angay bantayan ta. -


Romulo B. Cabacan, TAP

Watershed ... Let's take care of the watershed, every tree cut must be replanted, that in the end, this precious water, will abound forever. Let's plant more trees and no one will go thirsty, we wouldn't dread a time, when water we cannot find. Let's conserve water that everyone needs, for if all water should disappear, none of us will ever live.

United ... Hand in hand let's stand as one, protect Creation, this Golden Land, for all people right here right now, for all children for all days to come. (5ikol Community Writing Workshop, November 2010)


ANNEXES Annex A: Additional Community Writing Workshop Outputs Chants and songs by participants of the Sikal (Echo) Siday, Istorya, Kanta ug Ladawan Community Writing Workshop, 17-20 November 2010, Campo Uno, Brgy. Tenani, Paranas, Samar Chants

Barayong May ada ako kahoy Nga akon gintanom Ini gin-ngaran Kahoy nga barayong. Diri matutumba Bisan pa bagyuhon Kay ini nga tanom Kahoy nga marig-on.

Barayong Tree

Tubig Tubig! Tubig! T Tubig ha sapa U Ungara namon B Bulig kita I Importante G Guba maruruba. TUB I GGGGGGGGG!


MAL MAL M· Mamamayan


A • Ayaw

L· Lagi sa M Mina A And L ·Logging!

I planted a tree It's called Barayong It will not fall Even in a storm Because this tree Is strong and sturdy.

Water! Water! W Water in the stream, A Advise us, HELP US! T Trees in our great forest E Endangered, extirpated R Ravaged, razed to the ground. WATERRRRRRRRRR!

M -Movement A -Against L - Licentious M - Mining A-And L -Logging


Vlot River ALL: V-L-O-T R-I-V-E-R, Vlot River BOYS: Vlot River ayaw Iabogi hin basura, kay madi-discourage an mga turista GIRLS: Mga taga-KAPPAS, pagproteher, mga paragbadil in dakpon ta, para mga isda in dumamo pa. (REPEAT BOYS AND GIRLS)

Ulot River ALL:

U-L-O-T R-I-V-E-R, Ulot River BOYS: Don't throw trash in the river, we say. Trash is filthy and drives visitors away. GIRLS: KAPPAS members, protect our river, go after all blast fishers, let the fishes fructify, let the fishes multiply! (REPEAT BOYS AND GIRLS)

Songs Ha Amon Barangay 1Dinhi hini nga amon barangay Kakahuyan nawawara Bisan Ia kon nauubos na Hi kami in nagialaum pa. 2Kita n mga tawo pagmata na Kakahuyan in ubos na Diri na gud maibabalik pa Kay an tawo in hubsak na KoroSanglit yana pag-urusa Kakahuyan bantayan ta 3Ayaw naton pag-abusuha Mga anak dumduma ta Diri na gud man hira Makita Kay an guba ginkaibo na.

In Our Village

Pagkaurusa 1Inin aton yana pagkaurusa V g pagkatitirok nga gin-uungara Dinhi hini nga aton pederasyon. Aton pa pakusgon agud magmarig-on Ini aton talinguhaon Agud di mawara mga Hingyap naton An pagbantay han aton kagugub-an V sa ta nga dako nga karikuhan Koro - Diri gud diri gud sadang pagiabtan Mga gindidiri ha kagurangan Aadi kita nga mga PO


I -

In our little village the forests are rapidly shrinking. But we keep hoping, even if the trees keep disappearing. 2Folks listen! Our trees are vanishing. We cannot bring them back, if people do not change, if we do not act. Chorus- Let us all join forces! Always protect our forest! 3We can stop this tragedy; write for our children a better destiny Else they will never see trees in a land stripped of nature's beauty.

I -

We are one United in our vision Here in our federation Let us keep it alive Let us make it strong So our work will endure And we can keep protecting Our forest Our great treasure. Chorus- Never ever harm Our protected Land We the pas are here And we will always be around FPE has helped us well


Sadang nga magbantay Han kagurangan An FPE nabulig ha aton Hingyap han at dughan Diri mawawara. (Otro Koro) Inin Aton Kalibutan 1Inin aton kalibutanlkalibungan Aton na gad protektahan Agud di maubos mga karikuhan Aton timangnuon kagugub-an Yana nga takna ug ha kadayunan Pagkaurusa an panawagan 2Kamatam-is pagdumdumon, kaupay pagkit-on kun may KAPPAS nga nagdudumara n kalibungan. Kamatam-is pagdumdumon, kaupay pagkit-on, ada an FPE, nabulig ha aton

And we have hope That in our hearts Will always dwell. (Repeat Chorus)

Our Environment 1The forest that's nurtured us for so long, shouts out for care, and urgently needs protection. So this is our plea and call to unity: Defend our forest and keep it safe today and for always. 2How sweet it is to remember, and how wonderful to see, if KAPPAS is always here, wisely managing our land. And how sweet to remember, and how wonderful to see, that FPE is also here to lend a helping hand.



Annex B: Impact Assessment & Writing Workshop Participants B.t. Project Impact Assessment, 20-21 and 24 July 2010, SINP Headquarters, Tenani, Paranas, Samar

Orientation on Impact Evaluation, 20 July 2010 Facilitators: Errol A. Gatumbato & Salve D. Narvadez

Participants: Abalos, Abraham L., Chairman, KAPPAS Bueno, Jimmy B., BOD, BOSIS Bulfa, Ricardo P., Chairman, TAP Igdalino, Elmer T., BOD, KAPPAS Igdalino, Eugene T., BOD, KAPPAS Igdalino, Jenna T., Procurement Asst., SIBP Lim-it, Rosita B., BOD, KAPPAS Miralles, Danilo 0., Chairman, BOSIS; BOD KAPPAS & Brgy. LGU Oblino, Roberto P., BOD, KAPPAS Royandoyan, Jesus B., LGU, Paranas Tan, Yolanda T., Vice Mayor, Paranas

Project Impact Evaluation, 21 July 2010 Brgy. Tenani (TAP) Facilitator: Salve D. Narvadez Participants: Abola, Nora S. Bacarra, Cheryl B. Bulfa, Beatriz J. Bulfa, Richard I.

Cabasaris, Rosalia M. Cabocabo, Manuel B. Cabubas, Benedicto Cinco, Victoria N. Gabane, Gulio C. Gabi, Teresita A. Igdalino, Anita M. Igdalino, Eugene T. Obidos, Joel Obidos, Nestor Obidos, Nida C. Oblino, Roberto P. Oborsa, Virginia N. Orape, Eutiquio P. Pabriga, Eulita M. Pomarejos, Florencia J. Romanos, JeneUa I. Rondina, Edita A. Samonte, Erlinda A.

Brgy. San Isidro (BOSIS) Facilitator: Errol A. Gatumbato Participants: Abargar, Elias 1. Agate, Pablo C. Amable, Delia L. Amable, Gina O. Bantilan, Fedirico C. Bantilan, Myra R.


Baronda, Elena A. Barsana, Roberto A. Bueno, Francis B. Bueno, Jimmy R. Calc ita, Conrado M. Cinco, Lourdes N. Cinco, Teodorico V. Lauron, Merlita B. Lim-it, Rosita B. Miralles, Oanilo O. Miralles, Filagia O. Miralles, Roberto C. Miralles, Yolanda C. Molina, Yolanda B. Montallana, Leonora C. Obingayan, Liezel B. Oblino, Juan B. Santos, Lina O.

Exit Meeting, 24 July 2010 Abalos, Abraham L., KAPPAS President Amable, Gina 0., BOD, TAP Bulfa, Ricardo P., TAP President Cabocabo, Manuel B., BOD, TAP Cinco, Ma. Clara A., Secretary, TAP Cinco, Teodorico v., BOD, BOSIS Igdalino, Eugene, BOD, KAPPAS Igdalino, Jenna T., SIBP Lauron, Merlita B., BOD President Lim-it, Rosita B., BOD, KAPPAS Miralles, Oanilo, BOSIS President Obidos, Nestor, PIO Oblino, Roberto P., BOD, TAP

B.2. Sikal (Echo) Siday, Istorya, Kanta ug Ladawan Community Writing, 17-20 November 2010, Campo Uno, Brgy. Tenani, Paranas, Samar

Facilitator: Herminigildo A. Sanchez Participants: Abalos, Abraham ~ President, TAP Amable, Gina O. ~ Member, BOSIS Bacarra, Cheryl B. ~ Member, TAP Balanay, Fedelina T. ~ Member, TAP Bueno, Jimmy B. ~ Member, BOSIS Cabacaba, Romulo ~ Member, TAP Cabubas, Benedicto ~ Auditor, TAP Oebuayan, Ramie V. ~ Project Officer, FPE Gabin, Teresita ~ Member, TAP Igdalino, Eugene T. ~ Secretary, TAP/KAPPAS

Lauron, Merlita B. ~ Member, BOD, BOSIS Lim-it, Rosita B. ~ Member, BOD, BOSIS Miralles, Ma. Isabel O. ~ Member, BOSIS Miralles, Roberto o. ~ Member, BOSIS Montallana, Leonora C. ~ Vice President, BOSIS Morales, Oanilo O. ~ Chair, BOSIS Obidos, Nestor ~ PIO, TAP Obidos, Nida C. ~ Treasurer, TAP Obin, Lilia P. ~ Member, BOSIS Obingayan, Liezel B. ~ Member, BOSIS Rota, Susan M. ~ Member, TAP





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