Collection Development Notes
Collection Development Notes...
SELECTION AND ACQUISITIONS OF MULTI-MEDIA SOURCES OF INFORMATION REVIEW NOTES COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT – library tasks that entails planning, selecting, acquiring, budgeting, materials processing, circulating for use of customers/clienteles and evaluation. These core functions build the library’s collection for a particular user community. - The process of planning a stock acquisition program not simply to cater for the immediate needs, but to build a coherent and reliable collection over of number of years, to meet the objectives of the service (Harrod’s, 1995) - The process of making certain the information needs of the people using the collection are met in a timely and economic manner, using information resources produced both inside and outside of the organization (Evans, 2005) - The process of identifying the strengths and weaknesses of a library’s materials collection in terms of patron needs and community resources and attempting to correct existing weaknesses (Evans, 2005) Three (3) Facts About Collection Development (Evans, 2005) 1. As the size of the service community increases, the degree of divergence in individual information needs increases. 2. As the degree of divergence in individual information needs increases, the needs for cooperative programs of informational materials sharing increases 3. It will never be possible to completely satisfy all of the information needs of any individual or class of clientele in the service community Factors Affecting Collection Development General Principles of Collection Development 1. Collection development should be geared primarily to identified need rather than abstract standards of quality. 2. Collection development to be effective must be responsive to the total community’s needs, not just those of current or most active users. 3. Collection development should be carried out with complete knowledge of and participation on cooperative programs at the local, regional, and national and international levels. 4. Collection development should consider all information formats for inclusion in the collection 5. Collection development was, is, and always will be a subjective, biased work. The intervention of the selector’s personal values into the process can never be completely avoided. 6. Collection development is not something that one learns entirely in the classroom or from reading. Only through practice and making mistakes will a person become proficient in the process of developing a collection. (Evans, 2000) Collection Development Staff Tasks 1
1. Evaluate materials before making decision to adding them to the collection 2. Review gift and exchange materials 3. Review acquisitions programs, i.e. approval plans, and standing orders 4. Take part in fund allocation discussions
5. Conduct various users and circulation studies 6. Be involved in de-selection decisions 7. Plan and implement collection evaluation studies 8. Identify retrospective materials needed by the library
The Role of Collections Librarian in an Electronic Environment Detailed Responsibilities: 1. Developing and maintaining policies and procedure for ordering, implementing, and evaluating electronic resources 2. Setting up and overseeing trials of electronic resources 3. Identifying and deliberating critical licensing issues 4. Making recommendations regarding purchase and renewal of multi-disciplinary resources (under contract) 5. Working with the technical service unit to assure effective acquisition of the intellectual; access to electronic resources 6. Ensuring adequate technology infrastructure to support resources under consideration 7. Organizing staff and user training and user promotion 8. Seeking out and pursuing opportunities for institutional cooperation and seeking potential funding opportunities related to electronic resources Community Analysis / Needs Assessment 1. Knowing/Identifying your community 2. Gathering data on what kind/type of information they need 3. Consideration of wants, needs, use and demand 4. Basically seeks the following information: a. Why the patron community does or does not use a particular product or service b. How the patron community uses the product or services c. Where the patron community acquires and uses the product d. What is good and bad about the product or service e. What new products or services would be of interest f. How much the patron community would be willing to expend, in terms of time, money, or effort, for a product or service 5. Elements of a information needs assessment project: should provide answers to the following questions: a. Why or the importance of b. Who will do the study the study to be conducted c. What will be studied 2
d. How and where is data collected
e. How is data interpreted
Collection Development Policies – Also termed interchangeably as selection policies or acquisitions policies - A written statement of the plan to develop collection in the library - Provides a detailed guidelines intended mainly for the library staff - Represents a plan of action to guide the staff’s thinking and decision making - A mechanism for communication with the library’s patrons, as well as for those who provide for funding Uses of Collection Development Policy 1. It informs everyone about the nature and scope of the collection 2. It informs everyone of collecting priorities 3. It forces thinking about organizational priorities for the collection 4. It generates some degree of commitment to meeting organizations goals 5. It sets standards for inclusion and exclusion 6. It reduces the influence of a single selector and personal biases 7. It provides a training and orientation tool for the new staff 8. It helps ensure a degree of consistency overtime and regardless of staff turnover 9. It guides staff in handling complaints 10. It aids in weeding and evaluating the collection 11. It aids in rationalizing budget allocations 12. It provides a public relations document 13. It provides a means of assessing overall performance of the collection development program 14. It provides outsiders with information about the purpose of collection development (an accountability tool) Formulation of Collection Development Policies 1. Policy committee staff 2. Determining preliminary concerns 3. Formulation of the draft policy
4. Review, revision and approval of the draft policy 5. Policy implementation and dissemination 6. On-going evaluation process
Eighteen (18) Common Features of Collection Development Policies 1. Objectives of the Library 7. Responsibility for 2. Community and its need implementation identified 8. Priorities (types of use and 3. Purpose of the selection process categories of materials) 4. Functions of the library 9. Controversial issues 5. Context of selection 10. Statement on censorship 6. Authority for selection 11. Categories of inclusion 3
12. Statement on Freedom to Read 13. Selection criteria 14. Collection standards: quantity 15. Collection development targets
16. Selection methods: organization 17. Acquisitions categories and coverage 18. Ordering methods
SELECTION – the heart of the collection development process The process of deciding which materials to acquire for a library collection; may involve deciding between items that provide information about the same subject, systematically determining quality and value (Evans, 2005) The Process of Selection 1. Selectors must identify collection needs in terms of subjects and specific types of materials 2. Determining how much money is available 3. Developing a plan for identifying useful materials to acquire 4. Conducting search for the desired materials Variations in Selection 1. Academic Libraries – focus on academic programs; main objective is to support the curriculum; growing trend towards the inclusion of all formats; tend to depend heavily on standing and blanket ordering 2. Public Libraries – diversity is the primary characteristic; prevailing community need is the dominant factor; growth is minimal; emphasis on children’s literature; selection of the genre fiction 3. School Library Media Center – for curriculum support; there is an acute need for a Collection Development Policy; always being closely monitored 4. Special Library – diverse environmental settings; characterized by the observed lack of space; need for a very current collection; needs assessment activities are regular part of the program Bases of Selection Statements Regarding Intellectual Freedom such as Library Bill of Rights, Freedom to Read Statements, First Amendment to the United States Constitution and other similar documents; they are important considerations in determining what types of materials will be included in the collections
Standards of Collection Development - Collection and resources standards developed by professional associations, accrediting agencies, funding agencies and library boards that may be used to evaluate and measure collection and library performance, i.e. PAARL Standards, IFLA Guidelines, PAASCU, PACUCOA, etc.
These standards are considered authority and their credibility often are effective means for getting library support They provide a framework for comparison of same type of libraries They provide the minimums for volumes, expenditures, or collection levels which become the minimum target goals for libraries
The Librarian as Selector Characteristics of a Competent Librarian selector – ideally, he/she should be someone: - With presupposed interest in books and other materials as sources of information - With desire to have a sincere understanding of the needs of identified clienteles - With informed and unbiased opinion to be able to evaluate and provide sound decisions on what materials to acquire and add to the collection - Can recognize and appreciate the fact that the library is a service to a pluralistic society - Who is a learner and open to changes and innovations - With broad educational background and can understand the workings of a library as an information center - Who is able to understand personal biases and weaknesses and balance them with strict adherence to existing policies and regulations Responsibility for Selection Ordinarily, the Head Librarian is in charge of selection. 1. School Media Centers - locally elected or appointed school board; responsibility for coordinating the selection and purchase of textbooks and other classroom materials may rest with appropriate department chairpersons or with textbook or media evaluation committees. 2. Academic Library – the members of the faculty and the librarian in-charge have the primary responsibility of selecting materials for inclusion in the library collection. They are also guided by recommendations coming from students and researchers. 3. Special Library – basically, selection in special libraries is not the responsibility exclusive to the librarian but is a task dictated by the prevailing need of the most active users of the collection. 4. Public Library – as expected, the members of the community will have a significant role in materials selection and decisions to purchase and acquire. Sometimes the librarian will just have to ensure that s/he is able to understand and interpret the unexpressed needs of her community to be able to determine the kinds or materials these users would like to find in the library collection. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF LIBRARY MATERIALS General criteria to consider when you are involved in making selection decisions include: 1. Subject matter a. What subjects do you need to collect in to build up your collection?
b. How suitable is the subject, style, and reading level of an item for your user community? c. How accurate is the information? Construction quality a. Is the item well made and durable? b. For books and periodicals, does the item have good print quality? Is the paper of appropriate quality? c. For audiovisuals, will the item stand up to multiple uses? Potential use a. What will the demand for the material be? b. What level of use justifies its acquisition? c. How relevant is the item to the community? Relation to the collection a. How will the item strengthen the library’s collection? (Will it fill a gap, complement something that’s already there, or provide an alternative opinion to what is already covered?) b. Are the materials available elsewhere in the community? c. Is there fair coverage of opposing viewpoints? Bibliographic considerations a. What is the reputation of the publisher? b. Is the type of publication and the format appropriate for your library? c. What are the reputation and/or significance of the author? d. What do the book reviews say about the item? Cost a. All libraries have limited budgets and have to make very careful decisions about how to allocate these funds during the selection process b. One approach to the selection process is to rank the materials desired for selection. More expensive items that are ranked highly might still be purchased, but then the library would probably be unable to purchase as many items. c. These decisions can be difficult to make, but prioritizing patron needs is always a good way to start.
Selection Criteria for the Various Types of Library Resources A. Fiction Some questions to ask to help in the evaluation of works of fiction: 1. Is it true to life? Sensational? Exaggerated? Distorted? 2. Has it vitality and consistency in character depiction? Valid psychology? Insight into human nature? 3. Is the plot original? Hackneyed? Probable? Simple? Involved? 4. Is dramatic interest sustained? 5. Does it stimulate? Provoke thought? Satisfy? Inspire? Amuse?
B. Non-Fiction – evaluation of non-fiction, particularly reference materials, is typically based on the following criteria: 1. Authority. Who is the author, who is publisher, and what expertise does the author have in the subject matter? 2. Currency. How current is the material? Are there other sources that are more current? Would this book duplicate information in another, already owned source? 3. Scope. What subject area does the source cover? Is it a broad or specific treatment of the subject? 4. Interest. How interesting is the source? Does the source have the potential for being heavily used in the library? 5. Organization. How is the book laid out? Can you easily find information in the source? Does it have appropriate access points, indexes, and cross-references? 6. Format. What is the quality of the binding and the paper (acid-free is preferred)? How readable is the print? 7. Special Features. Does the book have important illustrations or other features that would make it valuable? 8. Cost. How much does it cost? Are there other comparable sources that are less expensive? 9. Accuracy. Is the information in the source accurate? Would experts in the subject agree that it is a good source? 10. Impartiality. Is the source a balanced treatment of the subject matter? If the book does not have a balanced treatment, does your book collection address differing viewpoints? C. Continuing resources – a publication in any medium, defined in AACR2 2002 as issued over time with no predetermined conclusion, including bibliographic resources issued successively in discrete parts and integrating resources into which updates are incorporated without remaining discrete. Examples include serials (periodicals, newspapers, etc.), monographic series, and updating loose-leaf services, databases, and Web sites. (Reitz, Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science) 1. Serials – “a publication issued in successive parts, usually in regular intervals, and as rule, intended to be continued indefinitely, include periodicals, annuals (reports, yearbooks, etc.) and memoirs, proceedings, and transactions of societies.” (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science) 2. Periodicals – “a publication with a distinctive title intended to appear in successive (usually unbound) numbers as parts at stated or regular intervals, and, as a rule, for an indefinite time. Each part generally contains articles by several contributors. Newspapers, whose chief function it is to disseminate news, and the memoirs, proceedings, journals, etc. of societies are not considered periodicals.” (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science) 3. Journal – “a periodical publication especially dealing with matters of current interest often used for official or semi-official publications of special groups.” 7
4. Magazine – “ a periodical that usually contains a miscellaneous collection of articles, stories, poems, and pictures and is directed at the general reading public.” *Serial is used because it represents the broadest spectrum of materials Selection Criteria for Serials Serial titles should be selected to meet the reading interests and information needs of the libraries use community and should also complement the other library collections. 1. Purpose, Scope and Audience. What is the purpose of the periodical, what does the periodical actually include, and who is the intended audience? This can be determined by examining the table of contents, the range of writers, author, and editors, and the vocabulary used in the articles. 2. Accuracy. How accurate is the material in the periodical? It should be factually correct and relatively objective. This can be determined by evaluating the writers, the publisher, and the subject matter. For more technical periodicals, an expert opinion is a good idea. 3. Local interest. Does the title have some interest to the local community? 4. Format issues. What is the quality of the printing and the paper? Are illustrations of good quality? Do there seem to be more ads than text? 5. Indexing. Is the title indexed in a service to which the library subscribes? 6. Cost. How much does the subscription cost? Will back issues be needed? If so, how much will it cost to bind them or obtain them on microform? 7. Demand. Will a title be used enough to justify subscription? 8. Availability. Is the title readily available through interlibrary loan or from a library with which you have a resource sharing agreement? D. Pamphlets – are supplementary materials that can provide up-to-date information. Is evaluated much as other printed materials are and most of the selection criteria for books are equally applicable. E. Microforms – a generic term that includes microfilms and microfiche. This is a format not liked much by so many people because of the perception that it is very difficult to use. But this is the format that libraries resort to so that they can save storage space. It is also a good format for materials that are seldom used. It is also good alternative format for rare and archival materials. Points for consideration: 1. Image magnification (there are currently five different sizes available ranging from 15x to over 200x) 2. Format (microfilm, reel form, or fiche are the most well known) 3. “Finish” (silver halide, diazo or vesicular) which affects price and durability 4. Polarity (negative versus positive exposure) 5. Enlarged image must be readable, free of foreign objects, and should reproduce well for it to be useful 8
F. Multi-media Main Points for Consideration in the Selection of AV Materials 1. The amount of your budget that is allocated for audiovisual materials (usually the cost per audiovisual item is greater than for print materials) 2. The durability of the item (how well it is manufactured) 3. The visual and audio quality of the item 4. The ease of repairing the item if it is damaged and the procedures for handling damage caused by patrons. 5. The type of equipment required for hearing or viewing the audiovisual material. 6. The likelihood that the technology is long-lasting. Factors to Consider in the Evaluation of AV Materials Programming factors; Content factors; Technical factors; Format factors Still Pictures Filmstrips – usually 16mm or 35mm; a series of single-frame still photographs on a strip of film - A somewhat dated format more commonly still in existence in some children’s section of public libraries - Come in either sound or silent format Slides – photographic slides typical of the family collection of 35mm slides - Mountings can be of paper, plastic, metal or glass - Most commonly found in special libraries with scientific, medical and art museum work collections Transparencies – overhead transparencies: text or diagrams on cellophane sheets that are projected with a magnified light - Designed to aid in the presentation of graphic materials to small and mediumsized groups - Publishers often include these based on or using illustrations from their books Flat pictures – include paintings, posters, postcards, photographs and other pictorial materials - School libraries often include pictures from magazines and other sources - Museums and college libraries often have extensive collection of posters usually housed in special collections - Little bibliographic control - Scanning technologies provides control and order Moving Pictures Films – comes in variety of sizes: the 7, Super 8, 16mm and 35mm - The 70mm is the format used in theatrical releases and is also the format collected by film archives Video Recordings – videos are extremely popular with library patrons. Not only do they provide entertainment to library users, but videos also can serve as educational, cultural, 9
and informational aids. They are, however, expensive to acquire and require VCRs and monitors for viewing. In addition, videos have a relatively short lifespan, are easily damaged, and are often popular with patrons for short periods of time. It is important that librarians are aware of copyright and censorship issues related to video materials Points to consider: 1. How well are the sound and picture synchronized? 2. How accurately does the video depict real-life events? What message the video intend to convey? 3. Are you buying movies that flopped at the box office? 4. How does your library’s video collection complement the selection of commercial video store present within the area? Graphic Materials – include maps, photographs and globes (although there are other items such as sheet music and prints that your library may collect.) Graphic materials, because of their diversity of form, present special difficulties. First, there is little bibliographic control, so you will have to acquaint yourself with the various producers. Second, you need top decide whether you will circulate graphic materials or require that they be used in the library. Points to consider: 1. Scale 2. Type of projection 3. The information represented 4. The amount of detail and its accuracy
5. The use of color and symbols 6. Use and placement of nomenclature
Audio-recordings Points to consider: 1. How will your audio collection support your library’s goals? 2. Will your audio collection focus on all or only certain genres? 3. Will you collect complete works or abridged versions? Does abridging the work affect the story? 4. How well does the reader project his/her voice? 5. How durable is the product? 6. What is the overall quality of the recording? Other Media Printed Music – music sheets and scores (full size or miniature) - Problem of sourcing and bibliographic control Models, Realia and Dioramas – cost and storage are some of the limiting factors in including these formats in the collection - Some questions to consider: a. Are objects less than life-size reproduced in an appropriate scale? 10
b. Is the scale sufficient to illustrate the necessary details? c. When horizontal and vertical scales must be different, is the distortion so great as to create a false impression? d. Are the colors accurate? e. Are the objects durable enough to withstand the type of handling they will receive? Games – some public libraries would include games and toys to attract new users, children especially - Games used for simulated teaching G. Electronic Resources – an all encompassing term to include sources in digital format: electronic serials, e-serials, electronic journals, online journals, digital journals Benefits of having e-resources 1. Ease of searching and powerful search and retrieval capabilities 2. Remote access to resources from outside a single physical library 3. Consolidation of many volumes and years into one searchable file 4. Inclusion of video and sound 5. Reduction in theft and mutilation 6. Content, including formulae and graphics, that can be extracted and manipulated 7. Use by several people simultaneously 8. Easy export of information to a personal database 9. Reduced costs for binding, storage and stack maintenance 10. Hyperlinks, which move beyond the linearity of print within documents and ink citations with full texts documents 11. Access outside normal hours of services Electronic serials – may be defined very broadly as any journal, magazine, e’zine, Webzine, newsletter or type of electronic serial publication which is available over the Internet. These are either supplied directly by the publishers themselves or via aggregator services. Aggregator services or e-journal management services where suppliers like OCLC or EBSCO provide access to and manage a large selection of e-serials on the library’s behalf. This kind of service can be more convenient for a library because it removes the need to negotiate a set of individual licenses and prices with a number of different journal publishers. It also means these journals can be accessed from one site instead of multiple sites. However, because an aggregator service provider must get copyright permission from each publisher, breadth of coverage and pricing may make it an unattractive, if not expensive option. Issues to consider in availing services of aggregators: 1. Which serials are available in full-text? 2. What back issues are available? 3. How are additions and deletions notified to the customer? 11
4. What is the payment model – an annual subscription to the database, or is access contingent upon a subscription to the print or electronic journal? 5. Should the titles in the database be added to the library OPAC? 6. Where the service and OPAC are Web-based, should links be established? Evaluation and Selection Criteria for Electronic Resources Many of the criteria applied to print resources (such as authority, currency, intended audience, ease of use, and accuracy) are also appropriate for electronic resources. However, there are unique selection issues to consider for electronic resources. Content considerations 1. Inclusion of retrospective data 2. Completeness of the electronic database compared to print format Access Considerations 1. Implications of access to other library services 2. Number of users that can be accommodated at one time Technical Support Considerations 1. Training requirements 2. Reliability of the producer 3. Assistance when there are technical problems
Cost Considerations 1. Acquisition cost and update costs 2. Availability of the product in one or more terminals 3. Licensing requirements and arrangement 4. Other charges after the installation and initial connection
3. Special features which are not available in the print version 4. Information updates
3. Availability of resources in a single terminal and multiple use in a network 4. Search options and strategies, interface 4. Detailed instructions and online help 5. Compatibility of the product with the current infrastructure of the library
5. Expected downloading and printing costs
Legal Considerations 1. Review licensing terms 2. Take note of payment provisions, copyright restrictions, access, warranties and limits Important considerations when negotiating a contract: content, parties involved, definitions, authentication, grant of rights and restrictions, contractual obligations, penalties, warranties, payment and cost, contract term and termination, indemnity and limitation of liability, force majeure, governing law, amendments, archives and perpetual access. Internet Resources – Internet and World Wide Web resources have been the subjects of debates in the library world today. The basic issue is how to incorporate a vast, constantly changing, largely unstructured and unregulated conglomeration of information into our understanding of library services? Evaluation and Selection Criteria for Internet Resources There are three basic criteria in evaluating Internet resources. These are content, access and design. 1. Content a. Authority – Is the page signed? Are the credentials of the author given, and if so, are they sufficient to convince you that he or she is a reliable source of information on this subject? b. Publishing body – Is the author of the page affiliated with the organization that published the page? Is the organization a recognized source of reliable information? c. Verifiability/Accuracy – Are there many obvious factual inaccuracies and/or grammar or spelling errors? Is it possible to verify non-published information by contacting the source? Can the information be verified in other published, reliable sources? d. Currency – Is there a publication date, and if so, is the information too old to be useful? Can you determine when or how often the page is revised? e. Bias – Is bias hidden by not identifying the author, organization or publishing body? Does the page present an authoritative position, whether conventionally accepted, controversial, or politically influenced? f. Appropriateness of Format – Would the material be better presented in a different format? g. Audience – What s the intended audience for the Web site? h. Purpose – Is the Web site intended to be educational, informational or entertaining? Does it succeed? How does it compare to other Internet and print sources covering the same information? 2. Access a. Searching – If appropriate, does the site provide a mechanism for searching the content of the site? How well does it work? b. Organization – How clear or confusing is the site? Is it well organized? Can you reach the information you need easily, with a minimum of movement between different “levels”? c. Download Time – How long does it take to load the site? Is it worth the wait? d. Stability – Does the URL change frequently? If changes are made, is the new address made easily available? e. Links – Are appropriate, working links provided? Are the links annotated? 3. Design a. Construction – Is the page easily navigated, or are you forced to scroll through pages of text? Are there sections “under construction” or otherwise not working? b. Instructions – Are essential instructions available and easily understood? c. Graphics – Do graphic elements add to the page or distract from its content? Are the graphics relevant and/or useful? Selection Tools – there are many sources that provide assistance to the librarian in selecting materials for acquisitions. Some of these selection tools provide evaluative information and are selective in nature, while other tools are more comprehensive lists of titles available for purchase. Fiction – Fiction Catalog. New York: Wilson, 1908-. A guide to adult fiction found most useful in public libraries, published periodically with annual supplements. Non-Fiction
Selective Resources – only list a fraction of the available titles based on some criteria or provides critical evaluations of the book. - Especially helpful in making title selection decisions. - Included in this category are book reviews, “best of”, and subject lists. Book Reviews – provide descriptive and evaluative information that can be used in place of physically examining the actual book - Makes comparisons to similar works to help the librarian determine whether the book being reviewed should be added to the library collection - Examples of some of the print resources for book reviews include: School Library Journal, Booklist, Choice, American Reference Books Annual, Library Journal - There are also websites available containing reviews, these include: Booklist; http://www.ala.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Products and Publications/ Periodicals/Booklist/Booklist.html; Bookwire at http://www.bookwire.com/bookwire; New York Times Book Reviews at http://www.nytimes.com/pages/books/index.html; AcqWeb’s Directory of Book Reviews on the Web at http://acqweb.library.vanderbilt.edu/acqweb/bookrev.html “Best of” and Recommended Lists - For non-current reviews - Can be used as checklist to make sure that did not miss a particularly good book - If the selectors know that the library community’s reading choices are influenced by recommendations, they may want to consider recommended lists in the book selection process - There are also websites containing these lists, included are: Literary Lists at http://wwwstat.wharton.upenn.edu/~siler/litlists.html; Oprah’s Recommended Books at http://www.2think.org/oprah/oprah.shtml Comprehensive Resources – include such listing as all of the books published in the United States, in a bookstore inventory, by a particular publisher, etc. - Can be useful for verifying the bibliographic and purchasing information for a book, for identifying new book publications, for facilitating the purchasing and ordering process, and for keeping up with publishing trends. - Included in the category are publisher sources, online bookstores, online bookstores, directories of in print and out of print books, and national bibliographies. (e.g. Philippine National Bibliography) Publisher Sources – include catalogs, flyers, and announcements to libraries to publicize books and other publications. - Publisher web sites that have the most current information about their publications. Examples are of sites providing links to these publisher: AcqWeb’s Directory of Publishers and Vendors at http://acqweb.library.vanderbilt.edu/acqweb/pubr.html; Publishers’ Catalogues Home Page at http://www.lights.com/publisher; Bookwire at http://www.bookwire.com Online Bookstores – allows the selector to search and purchase print books over the Internet - Can provide a quick and easy way to find publication information for a wide range of books. - A convenient method for purchasing books that is needed very quickly The “earth’s biggest bookstore” is Amazon.com at www.amazon.com, which is a full-service online bookstore providing lists of best sellers, award-winners, and excerpts from review sources. Barnes and Noble at www.barnesandnoble.com offer over one million books that can be searched for and purchased over the Internet. Another large online bookstore is alt.bookstore at , which claims two million, books in its inventory and allows you to search for books by subject. Directories for In Print Books and Out Of Print Books – sources for finding bibliographic and purchasing information for books that are available for purchase, are about to be published, or are no longer being printed - Example of titles included in this category are: Forthcoming Books, Weekly Record, Books in Print National Bibliographies – can be useful for checking which library owns a particular work in a particular country. - Usually published by the national or state libraries - Examples of titles in this category include: British National Bibliography, National Union Catalog, Bibliographie Natioanale Francaise, Deutsche Nationalbibliographie Audiovisual Selection Videos – examples of print sources that include reviews of videos are Choice, Library Journal, Video Librarian, Video Review, Video Source Book and Film and Video Finder.
Audio-recordings – to help selectors make decisions about which audio materials should be included in the library collection, they can consult reviews of audio materials appearing in print resources, such as Publisher’s Weekly, Audiofile, Wilson Library Bulletin, Library Journal, Audiobook Review and Parent’s Choice Graphic Materials (Maps, Globes, Games) – reviews can be found in professional sources such as the Cartography and Geographical Information Systems (formerly American Cartographer) - Reviews can also be found on the sites: Cartographic Journal at http://info.abdn.ac.uk/~geo181/journal.htm, U. S. Geological Association at http://www.usgs.gov, Maps and References at http://www.nlc.state.ne.us/nsf/maps.html Microforms (Microfiche, Microfilm) – a guide to microform selection is Guide to Microforms in Print and the National Register of Microform Masters. Microform Review is a good source fro reviews of microforms. - Several companies offer their products in microform format, for example: UMI at http://www.umi.com, ChadwyckHealey at http://www.chadwyck.co.uk, Norman Ross at http://www.nross.com/welcome.html Continuing Resources Selective Guides to Serials – for information to help the librarian make selection decisions for periodicals, there are some library magazines and journals that provide reviews of periodical titles (for example, Library Journal and New Magazine Review.) - If the main concern is the addition of an established magazine (rather than a new magazine) to the serials collection, Magazines for Libraries by William Katz selectively lists and annotates approximately 7,000 “best” magazines for libraries and can be used to build periodicals subscriptions in a particular subject area. It is published every few years and so is not useful for new periodicals or for everyday collection development. Directories of Periodicals and Newspapers – for finding subscription information and brief descriptions of periodicals and newspapers, there are several standard reference sources. These sources aim at being comprehensive rather than selective and are published on an annual basis. - Ulrich’s International Periodicals Directory (R. R. Bowker), Serials Directory (EBSCO), The International Directory of Little Magazines and Small Presses, Gale Directory of Publications and Broadcast Media Serial Lists 1. Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature (RGPL) published by H. W. Wilson – not meant to be a selection tool but many libraries rely on it for selection on the basis of whether a periodical is indexed in this source. Because it indexes general periodicals, it is used in many public libraries. 2. New Serials Titles – indicates which libraries subscribe to the many periodical titles listed. This information can be used if the selector is comparing library’s periodical collection to a library considered to be similar in size and scope so that possible gaps in collection can be identified. PUBLISHING AND LIBRARIES Book Publishing – the production of printed materials Functions of Publishers: 1. Taps sources of materials (Manuscript) 2. Raise and supply the capital to make the books 3. Aid in the development of the manuscript 4. Contract for the manufacturing (printing and binding of books) 5. Distribute books, including promotion and advertising 6. Maintain records of sales, contracts, and correspondence relating to the production and sale of books Types of Publishing Firms: 1. Trade Publishers – produce a wide variety of titles, both fiction and non-fiction, that have wide sales potentials, many have divisions that produce specialty titles. They have three major markets: bookstores, libraries, and wholesalers (ex HarperCollins, Alfred A. Knopf, Doubleday, Macmillan) [Big Producers] 2. Specialty Publishers – with outputs restricted to a few areas or subjects; audiences are smaller and more critical than trade publisher’s audiences, categories include: reference, paperback, children’s, music (ex. Gale Research) [Type of Publication] 3. Textbooks Publishers – targets the primary and secondary schools (el-hi), they develop a line of textbooks for several grades, one of the highest-risk areas of publishing, (ex. Ginn or Scott, Foresman and Company) 4. Subject Specialty Publishers – focus their marketing efforts on a limited number of buyers, require expensive graphic preparation or presswork (Harry N. Abrams, E. C. Schirmer, Academic Press) 5. Vanity Press – receive most of its operating funds from the authors whose works they publish, they offer editing assistance for free and can arrange to print as many copies of the book as the author can afford (ex. Exposition Press)
6. Private Presses – basically are not fro profit ventures, it is more of an avocation rather than a vocation for the owners, in many instances. The owners do not sell their products, but give them away. Most of these presses are owned by individuals who enjoy fine printing and experimenting with type of fonts and design. (Ex. Henry Morris, Bird, and Poull Press) [Information they want to publish] 7. Scholarly Publishers – most are non-for-profit organizations and receive subsidies, usually part of an academic institution, research institution or learned society. These presses are established by scholars to produce scholarly books that would not be acceptable to most for-profit publishers. Most scholarly books have limited sales appeal. (Ex. University of California Press, American Philosophical Society, etc.) 8. Government Presses – are the world’s largest publishers. Their publishing activity now usually goes beyond the printing of legislative hearings and executive materials. They also publish essential and inexpensive materials on nutrition, farming, building trades, travel, etc. 9. Paperback Publishers – produce two-types of work: quality trade paperbacks and mass-market paperbacks. Usually a division of a trade publisher issuing a paperbound version of a book that has been previously issued in a hardbound edition. Distribution price is usually lower and is based on the concept of mass sales. 10. Newspaper and Periodical Publishers – retain reporters or writers as members of their staffs. Supplying current information is their primary objective. 11. Reprint Publishers – focus their efforts on reprinting titles no longer in print, sales target are libraries and scholars. Many of the titles that these publishers reprint are in the public domain that is, no longer covered by copyrights. [Less expensive] 12. Small Presses – print a limited quantity of titles; thought of as literary presses by some. These presses are usually operated by one person doing sidelines in publishing. ISBN – International Standard Book Number - A unique ten (10) or thirteen (13) digit number divided into parts, which must be printed on the verso of the title page or any other prominent position. - Group number – identifies a country, area, or language group participating in the system; these are allocated by the International ISBN agency. - Publisher Prefix – identifies a particular publisher within a group; it usually indicates the exact identification of the publisher and his address by national or regional ISBN agencies around the world - Title number – identifies a specific publication of a given publisher - Check digit – consists of one character and maybe any number from 1 to 10, though 10 is represented by the capital letter X ISSN – International Standard Serial Number - A system of assigning a unique eight-digit number to each serial title published. ACQUISITION – the process of securing materials for the library collection, whether by purchase, as gifts, or through exchange programs (Evans, 2000) - Primarily concerned with the ordering, claiming and receipt of materials for the library (Gorman, 1998) Four goals of the acquisitions department 1. To acquire material as quickly as possible 2. To maintain a high level of accuracy in all work procedures 3. To keep work processes simple, to achieve the lowest possible unit cost 4. To develop close, friendly working relationships with other library units and with vendors Acquisition Process 1. Request Processing – organize the incoming requests a. Preorder work / Bibliographic Verification – establishing the existence of an item, which includes determining the exact name of the author, title, publisher, date of publication, price, and where it may be acquired. - Determining whether the library wants or needs a copy (i.e. replacement for lost or damaged item, additional copy or duplicate copy) b. Some problems in Bibliographic Searching - Incomplete and/or incorrect information - Variations in spelling of author’s name - Choice of main entry - Data supplied in the request 2. Ordering a. Methods of Ordering:
1.) Firm Order – usual method for acquiring materials that the library knows it wants - Used when ordering items requested on a title basis - Ordering from dealers specializing in handling difficult to obtain materials 2.) Standing Order – order sent by supplier for materials to the library for purchase as it is published unless otherwise notified - Typical for materials published in series 3.) Approval Plan – a formal arrangement in which a publisher or wholesaler agrees to select and supply, subject to return privileges specified in advance, publications exactly as issued which fit a library’s preestablished collection development profile. - Involves the creation of approval profiles usually specifying subject areas, levels of specification or reading difficulty, series, formats, price ranges, languages, etc. - Dealers sometimes plans provide advance notification slips instead of sending the actual physical item. 4.) Blanket Order – an agreement in which a publisher or dealer supplies to a library or library system one copy of each title as issued, on the basis of a profile established in advance by the purchaser. - Used mainly by large academic and public libraries to reduce the amount of time required for selection and acquisition, add to speed the process of getting new titles into circulation. Unlike approval plans, most blanket order plans do not allow returns. One of the best-known examples in the United States is the Greenaway Plan. Ordering workflow Procedures: 1. Before placing an order; the staff must decide on: which acquisition method to use, what vendor to use and where to get the money 2. Order placement and receiving
a. Vendor selection h. Checking deliveries against b. Preparation of Purchase Purchase Order and packing Order (PO) slip. List c. Assigning order numbers for i. Checking physical condition control and tracking of delivered materials d. Submission of orders through j. Property marking by mail, fax or e-mail stamping or embossing e. Order receipt and verification k. Approving invoices for f. Claims and follow-ups payment g. Receipt of ordered items Some common problems in the receipt of materials ordered: 1. Wrong entries/data in the 4. Items not ordered but shipped invoice 5. Too many or not enough copies 2. Wrong edition sent 6. Imperfect copies received 3. Items ordered but not received Forms, Records and Files 1. Outstanding Order File 2. Desiderata or Want File 3. Requisitions, Vouchers File 4. Letter Order/Purchase Orders 5. Accession Record 6. Financial Reports 7. Statement of Account 8. Gifts/Exchanges Partners File 9. Standing Order File 10. Claims File 11. Invoices File 12. Serials Check-in-File 13. Dealer’s Payment Card 14. Short Reports 15. Credit Memos 16. Delivery Receipt for On Approval titles
METHODS OF ACQUISITION Purchase and Subscription These two are the most common method of adding materials to the library collection. Funds are allocated for the purchase of print, non-print and electronic resources with considerations of the existing library policies and procedures. Subscription – providing for the rights to receive publications for a designated period upon payment of subscription fee. Also refers to the right of a library to provide access to a bibliographic database or other online resource, its users under licensing agreements with a vendor upon payment of a subscription fee. Gifts and Exchanges 1. Materials given to the library from various local and foreign sources – individuals, institutions, foundations, friends of the library, alumni 2. The library as the recipient of unsolicited gifts of books, serials and other materials 3. These are possible methods of sourcing out-of-print materials for replacement, extra copies and the filling of gaps in the collection. 4. Selection and acceptance criteria should be the same as those criteria for purchased materials 5. Dispose unwanted and duplicate materials 6. Exchange of own publications or materials between libraries/institutions Cooperative collection development and resource sharing 1. A mechanism which provides for two or more libraries enter an agreement that each one will have certain areas of “primary collecting responsibility” and the exchange of such materials with one another with no charges 2. Coordinated acquisitions whereby two or more libraries agree to buy certain materials, and/or share the associated costs and one or more members houses the material 3. Joint acquisitions whereby the members place a joint order for a product or service and each member receives the product service Benefits of Cooperative Collection Development 1. Means to ensure improved access to the collection 2. Greater possibility of stretching limited resources 3. Sharing that can result to greater staff specialization with one person being able to concentrate on one or two activities rather than five or six with specialization resulting to better performance 4. Promoting and advertising the cooperative’s presence in the library program may reduce the number if places a client will need to go for service 5. Though not thoroughly obvious, cooperative efforts create improvements in the working relationships among cooperative libraries Budgeting and Finance 1. A plan for the use of fiscal resources available during a specified period of time; a plan reflects allocations, expected revenues and expenditures 2. Types of budget: zero-based, line-item, program based Pricing Schemes for e-resources - Annual flat rate for the e-resources allowing unlimited use - Free with print subscription - Reduce price for electronic only, if print subscription is cancelled - Augmented prices, in which a library subscribes to a title’s print version and pays a subcharge for the electronic format [pro-long subscription less payable] - Extra cost for print, in which the library subscribes to the electronic version and pays extra for the print - Pay per use, usually managed via a set number of simultaneous users or ports. The cost may drop per user when the library increase the number of simultaneous users - Price based on number of physical sites or Internet Protocol (IP) addresses to which access is granted, passwords issued, size of acquisitions budget, or dollars spent with the publisher - Price based on the number of potential users (i.e. based on the size of community served.) This is most often used in academic and school libraries because counting students is straightforward. Sometimes, a weighted full-time equivalent (FTE) total, in which each part time student us counted as a fraction, is used. Some count total number
of students, faculty, researchers and staff – or employees in a company. A variation is to count the number of students in a specific program if they are the primary or only users of specific e-resource Pay per connect time Pay per article accessed or retrieved, sometimes called “acquisitions on demand” or “pay by the drink” Bundling or packaging a group of titles, in which a group of e-journals are priced together at a discount price Consortia pricing, for a group of libraries, with discount based on the number of participating institutions Discounts on multiyear contracts
DE-SELECTION/WEEDING – the process of selecting items in the library collection for withdrawal or relocation to a storage (Johnson, 2004) - Withdrawal is the process of removing materials from the active collection; others use the terms weeding, pruning, thinning, de-selection, de-accession, relegation, de-acquisition, retirement, reverse selection, negative selection Reasons for de-selection 1. To keep the library in best possible condition 2. Alleviate space problems, especially for small libraries 3. Improve accessibility of the collections – remove old or seldom used materials Criteria for de-selection / weeding Three (3) broad categorizations of de-selection criteria
1. Physical condition 2. Qualitative worth H.F. McGraw’s criteria for de-selection 1. Duplicates 2. Unsolicited and unwanted gifts 3. Books that are infested, dirty, shabby, worn out, juvenile, etc. 4. Obsolete books, especially in the sciences
3. Quantitative worth
5. Superseded editions 6. Books with small print, brittle paper, and missing pages 7. Unused, unneeded volumes of sets 8. Periodicals with no indexes
Problems in de-selection 1. Lack of time / takes time from the regular routine 2. Lack of staff to do evaluation of materials for de-selection 3. Cost involved and property accountability 4. Actual practice is seldom done – “the bigger the collection, the better” EVALUATION OF COLLECTIONS Collection Assessment – systematic quantitative and qualitative measurement of the degree to which a library’s collection meets the library’s goals and objectives and the needs of its users Collection Evaluation – systematic consideration of a collection to determine its intrinsic merit or its “goodness” it seeks to examine or describe collections either in their own terms or in relation to other collections and checking mechanisms (lists, standards, etc.) Aims to Evaluation 1. To search for more accurate understanding of the scope, depth and utility of the collection 2. To prepare a guide to and a basis for collection development 3. To measure the preparation of a collection development policy 4. To measure the effectiveness of a collection development policy 5. To determine the adequacy or quality of the collection 6. To held rectify inadequacies in library holdings and to suggest ways to improve them 7. To focus human and financial resources on areas needing attention 8. To aid justification for budget increases 9. To demonstrate to administrators that something is being done about the demands for “more funding” 10. To establish the existence of special strengths and weaknesses in the collection 11. To check the need for weeding/de-selection and collection control, and to establish areas of priority need Methods of Evaluation
1. Collection centered methods – list checking, expert opinion, comparative use statistics, collection standards 2. User centered methods – circulation studies, customer perceptions, Inter-Library Loans (ILL) statistics, citation studies EVALUATION AND CONSERVATION OF COLLECTIONS 1. Preservation – a broad range of activities intended to prevent, retard or stop deterioration of materials or to retain the intellectual content of materials no longer physically intact (Johnson, 2004) 2. Conservation – non-invasive physical or chemical methods employed to ensure the survival of manuscripts, books and other documents (Johnson, 2004) 3. Restoration – returning a book, document, or other material as nearly as possible to its original condition, it can include methods such as mending, repairing, rebinding and de-acidification. ISSUES AND TRENDS IN COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES Automation of the acquisition function There is now the issue of several acquisition staff and their specific functions being replaced by the PC and other technology such as computerized and/or online processes of ordering and making claims. What used to be purely manual tasks of selection and order preparations and ordering for most libraries have become machine-aided procedures, which resulted in staff unrest and a prevailing feeling of insecurity and job threat. There is also the issue of providing paper documentation for every transaction made as provided in the laws concerning accounting and auditing. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is still to be understood in many libraries and their benefits be fully acknowledged. Access vs. Ownership This describes the choice between deciding what to own locally and what to access remotely (Johnson, 2004). Access, simply defined is the “temporary availability of materials without permanent ownership,” this covers leases and licenses to access electronically transmitted materials, commercial delivery services, and interlibrary loans. Ownership, on the other hand, is the “permanent addition of materials to the library’s collections.” Copyright / Fair Use Copyright is the set of exclusive rights to permit or forbid particular uses of a work for a specified period of time. This gives the author or to whom the author transfer his authority the legal ability to control who may copy, adapt, distribute, publicly perform, or publicly display his or her work, subject to certain legal exceptions. Fair use is the legal privilege, which permits the unauthorized use of copyrighted work for education, scholarship, research, news reporting, commentary and research purposes. Ethical issues in collection development
Ethics are the principles of conduct or standards of behavior governing an individual or a profession. These standards can be legal or moral, personal or institutional. Professional ethics dictates what is right and what is wrong in the practice of a certain profession, i.e. ALA Code of Ethics, PRC Code of Ethics for Professional Librarians Personal biases and interests often interfere in the acceptable and ethical conduct of the day-to-day performance of the information professional. Other ethical issues facing collection development officers and librarians are issues concerning relationships with vendors and suppliers in terms of negotiating and making transactions for any library acquisitions and purchases. There are also issues concerning acceptance of gifts and donations. Censorship Johnson defines censorship as “suppression or prohibition of the production, distribution, circulation, or display of a work on grounds that it contains objectionable or dangerous materials” Censorship comes in three categories: mandated by the law, demanded by individuals or groups, and exercised by the librarian. A banned book is a title that has been prohibited or suppressed by a governing or religious authority because its content is considered objectionable or dangerous, usually for moral, political or cultural reasons. Resource sharing There are acknowledged legal, political and administrative barriers in cooperative collection development and resource sharing that are unique and complex to many libraries. The very concept of cooperation is subject to different interpretations.