Collaborative Learning

July 14, 2017 | Author: Ibrahim Makinde | Category: Learning, Pedagogy, Teaching, Education Theory, Psychology & Cognitive Science
Share Embed Donate

Short Description

Collaborative Learning...


Collaborative Learning John Milliken School of Education Queens University Belfast

Learning outcomes  To

consider the role of collaborative learning  To examine some collaborative learning approaches  To consider some aspects of educational debate  To be aware of changing aspects of teaching and learning

Curriculum issues Prescriptive Curriculum

Experiential Curriculum



Linear & rational  

Coherent & relevant

Part to whole organisation   Whole to part organisation Teaching as transmitting 

Teaching as facilitating

Learning as receiving  constructing

Learning as

Structured environment  environment


Learning in context

Teaching vs learning John Amos Comenius, a 16th Century scholar; summarised the approach that teaching should follow, “The main object is to find a method by which teachers teach less but learners learn more”, proving that current problems have noble pedigrees.

Collaborative learning “Collaborative learning is an umbrella term for a variety of educational approaches involving joint intellectual effort by students, or students and teachers together. Usually students are working in groups of two or more, mutually searching for understanding, solutions or meanings, or creating a product. Collaborative learning activities vary widely, but most center on students’ exploration or application of the course material, not simply the teacher’s presentation or explication of it”. Smith and McGregor (1992)

Educational goals  

Involvement Co-operation and teamwork Community responsibility

Assumptions about learning  Learning

is an active constructive process  Learning depends on rich contexts  Learners are diverse  Learning is inherently social

Approaches Collaborative learning

Co-operative learning Writing groups Learning communities

Peer teaching Problem-based learning Discussion groups


Widespread use  Based

on theory and validated by research  Amount, generalisability, breadth and applicability  Variety of co-operative learning methods available

Why use cooperative learning?       

promote student learning and academic achievement enhance student satisfaction with their learning experience help students develop skills in oral communication develop students' social skills promote student self-esteem increase student retention develop a community of learners

5 Elements of cooperative learning 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Positive interdependence Face-to-face interaction Individual and group accountability Interpersonal and small group skills Group processing

Postive interdependence 

Each group member's efforts are required and indispensable for group success

Each group member has a unique contribution to make to the joint effort because of his or her resources and/or role and task responsibilities

Sink or swim together!

Face-to-face interaction    

Orally explaining how to solve problems Teaching one's knowledge to others Checking for understanding Discussing concepts being learned Connecting present with past learning

Promote each other's success

Individual and group accountability    

 

Keeping the size of the group small. Giving an individual test to each student. Randomly examining students orally. Observing each group and recording the frequency with which each member-contributes to the group's work. Assigning one student in each group the role of checker. Having students teach what they learned to someone else.

No hitchhiking! No social loafing No freeloading

Interpersonal and small group skills

Social skills must be taught:     

Leadership Decision-making Trust-building Communication Conflict-management skills

Mutual understanding

Group processing 

Group members discuss how well they are achieving their goals and maintaining effective working relationships Describe what member actions are helpful and not helpful Make decisions about what behaviours to continue or change


Jigsaw Approach

Jigsaw Approach

Jigsaw approach

Approaches Collaborative learning

Co-operative learning Writing groups Learning communities

Peer teaching Problem-based learning Discussion groups

Problem based learning (PBL) PBL is a learning-centred pedagogy based on current theories of learning including constructivism, social constructivism and situated learning.

Problem-based learning clearing house

PBL - an iterative process Mrs. You are Paula the a researcher Embledon owner of ain issmall aa cellular 78of antique year immunology old shop woman in Kingston. lab. You has A new bridge has constructed spanning awho river 1 Mr. John Smith is been the owner a national company come Mrs. have Jones, been to the given an emergency old blood room has samples complaining brought – one to which you of shortness which for appraisal of kilometer wide. Intwo afriend, recent storm, during winds manufacturing FMCG products. Recently his company breath a contains landscape and anti-coagulant. pain painting in herthe which chest. An aliquot appears She had ofobserved tothe been belatter about relatively sample 200 can gusted towith 120 km/hr, bridge was to be years merged an international company with aindifferent good old. be shown She health isto convinced until lyse three tumour weeks cells. is another previously, You conduct painting when further beneath she studies the oscillating from side tothere side ….. organisational culture……. sprained landscape….. to determine ..... the mechanism of the killing…

Brainstormhypothesize Identify learning issues

Read the problem Next page

EVALUATE Research-Learn

Return-RereadReport-Review Prof. H. Pross Queens School of Medicine

Problem statement EXEMPLAR TASK: Based on the information provided on the handout, work in groups of four and compile a problem statement.

Approaches Collaborative learning

Co-operative learning Writing groups Learning communities

Peer teaching Problem-based learning Discussion groups

Learning communities 

 1.


Sociocultural and constructivist views of learning (Lave & Wenger) Two important questions:What social engagements and processes provide the ‘proper’ context for learning? What forms of co-participation might be required when engaging learners in these forms of learning.

Community types  Learning

community: focus on learning together,

sharing, developing relationships  Communities

of practice: focus on developing

professional practice  Community

of enquiry: focus on enquiring about

and issue/area  Knowledge


community: focus on developing

Cyber communities Teaching/learnin g Face-to-face



“…the cornerstone of an online community lies in the presence of socially close, strong, intimate ties, the development of trust, shared values and social organisation. The quality of peoples’ relations is an important characteristic in an online community (This will be the modified role of the teacher as an e-moderator!)

E-Learning (teacher to moderator)

Salmon (2005)

References 

 

Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, R. T. (1990) Cooperation and Competition: Theory and Research, Edina, MN; Interaction Book Company Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991) Situated learning; legitimate peripheral participation, Cambridge University Press McConnell, D. (2006) E-learning groups and communities, SRHE/OU Press Salmon, G. (2005) E-moderating, Open University Press Smith, B. L. & McGregor, J. (1992) What is collaborative learning? – National Center on Postsecondary education

View more...


Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.