CLASSIFICATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS 2
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CLASSIFICATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS SIGNIFICANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST IN GUIDANCE & COUNSELING Reporter: Ms. Hilda Gueco MA Ed. maj. Guidance & Counseling February 5, 2011 All tests can be classified on a number of continuums : Individual or Group test : Indicates how the test is administered. Some intelligence tests can be administered as a group while a few personality tests have to be given in a one to one situation. Speed or Power Test : Refers to whether any time constraints are built into the test. A classic speed test would contain many simple items and a strict deadline, while a classic power test contains no time deadline but very difficult items. Cognitive or Affective Test : Cognitive tests such as Achievement and Aptitude tests attempt to measure mental activity while affective tests are designed to assess interests, attitudes, and personal values of an individual. Aptitude Tests attempt to gauge whether a person is capable of learning a specific knowledge base. Achievement tests measure the amount of knowledge already learned. Standardized vs. Nonstandardized: Refers to all aspects of creating, testing, and administering a psychological test. Standardized tests have established norms to which you can compare an individuals performance. Norms : The normal distribution of scores on a standardized tests Most of scholastic exams in school constructed by the teachers are all nonstandardized tests. Standardized tests are seen as theoretically superior measuring devices. GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS INTELLIGENCE TESTS Intelligence – one’s ability to learn. It is associated with what the individual “can do” in a new
situation of ever-increasing difficulty within a minimum amount of time. EXAMPLES OF INTELLIGENCE TESTS 1. STANFORD-BINET (by Lewis M. Terman) – is an individually administered measure of one’s intellectual status. It is composed of test designed for subjects ranging two years of age to eighteen and older. Within one instrument, it gives valid and reliable measurements for the retarded, the normal and the gifted. PURPOSE: to measure the level of intelligence and/or retardation of the client. It is widely used to diagnose problems and to identify the gifted. It has been a preferred measurement device in mental health clinics, agencies and hospitals. ADMINISTRATION AND SCORING: this test can be administered to only one person at a time. Many of the tests in these scales require oral responses from the subject or necessitate manipulation of materials.The Stanford-Binet requires a highly trained examiner. Both administration and scoring are fairly complicated for many of the tests. Considerable familiarity and experience with the scale is required for smooth performance. During the administration, the examiner may observe the subject’s work methods, his approach to the problem and other qualitative aspects of performance (such as activity level, self-confidence, persistence and ability to concentrate.) SUBTESTS: General Comprehension Visual Motor Ability Arithmetic Reasoning
Memory and Concentration Vocabulary and Verbal Fluency Judgment and reasoning
2. OTIS-LENNON SCHOOL ABILITY TEST (OLSAT) by Arthur S. Otis & Roger T. Lennon This is a test of scholastic ability designed to estimate the capacity of students to undertake the next higher level of schooling. The test contains multiple choice items arranged in order of difficulty. The items involve analogy, classification, cause-effect, logical selection, vocabulary and arithmetic. 3. CULTURE-FAIR INTELLIGENCE TEST (CFIT) by RB Cattell and AKS Cattell This test is designed to measure mental ability. It is “culture-fair” and consists entirely of geometric forms that is effectively used for persons having different cultural or educational backgrounds. OTHER INTELLIGENCE TESTS
Wecshler Adult Intelligence Scale-R (David Wecshler, PhD) SRA Verbal (L.L. Thurstone) Purdue Non-Language Test (J. Tiffin, Alin Grubner, Kay Inaba)
PERSONALITY TESTS Personality – the totality of the individual’s identity which makes him a unique person. It includes one’s overt and inner feelings. It is the combination of physical and mental qualities, ideals,aspirations,values and interests that characterize a person.. EXAMPLES OF PERSONALITY TESTS 1.
Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) – this test provides a quick measure of a relatively convenient normal personality variables. These variables have their origin in a list of manifest needs presented by H.Q. Murray. This personality inventory consist of a set of statements that are answered by a Yes or No response. The EPPS provides measures of 15 personality variables as follows: Achievement (ach) Deference (def) Order (ord) Exhibition (ex) Autonomy (aut) Affiliation (aff) Intraception (int) Succorance (suc)
Dominance (dom) Abasement (aba) Nurturance (nur) Change (chg) Endurance (end) Heterosexuality (het) Aggression (agg)
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (by S.C. Hathaway and Mckinley) It is a psychometric instrument designed to assess personality characteristics indicative of psychological abnormalities. The client answer the items by choosing among the three options: True,False and Cannot say. The items involve attitudes, feelings, motor disturbances, psychosomatic experiences and behaviors indicative of psychiatric problems.
Sixteeen Personality Factors (by Raymond Cattell) This test measures personality according to 16 dimensions that are based on universally accepted compilation of personality traits.
Panukat ng Pagkataong Pilipino (PPP) by Annadaisy Carlota PhD It is a rating scale for 13 years old and above. It contains 200 items which assess 19 personality dimensions. Some of these dimensions are listed below: Pagkamaalalahanin (thoughtfulness) Pagkamaayos (Neatness) Pagkamadaldal (Social curiosity) Pagkamagalang (respectfulness) Pagkamahinahon (emotional stability) Pagkamapagkumbaba (humility) Pagkamapagsapalaran (risk-taking) Pagkamadamdamin (sensitiveness)
INTEREST TESTS Interest – an object of curiosity, something that pulls you in a particular direction or something that captures your fancy. Interest tests are utilized to gather relevant information that can be used for occupational and educational plans. EXAMPLE OF INTEREST TESTS 1. BRAINARD OCCUPATIONAL INVENTORY (BOPI) Raul Brainard & Ralph Brainard An instrument that provides a systematic study of a person’s interest. The inventory provides scores in 6 general occupational fields: 1. Commercial 4. Aesthetic 2. Mechanical 5. Scientific 3. Professional 6. Agriculture/Personal Service OTHER INTEREST TESTS: Occupational Interest Inventory (Edwin Lee & Louis Thorpe) Kuder Preference Record PROJECTIVE TESTS • Projection – a psychological dynamics by which one attributes one’s own qualities, feelings, attitudes, and strivings to objects of the environment. The content of the projection may or may not be known to the person as part of himself. • Projective Test is a personality test in which the individual projects or shows his personality through his responses in more or less unstructured test situations. • Unlike personality inventories that identifies a specific trait, projective tests undertakes to get the personality as a whole.The aim of projective tests is to see the individual all at once, to see the traits and their interrelation and to get both a surface indication and deeper dynamics. • EXAMPLES OF PROJECTIVE TESTS 1. Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test – consists of 9 designs which are presented to the clients in sequence. The person is asked to reproduce each of these on a blank sheet of paper. The designs made are rated for degree of accuracy and overall integration. 2. Rorschach Test – consist of 10 inkblots. The client is asked to look at each inkblot and tell what he sees. The examiner counts the responses and rates the clients in comparison with other clients on common traits. Then, the examiner builds up a general impression of the client’s personality and writes a report about it . 3. Thematic Apperception Test – consists of a series of pictures which are shown to the clients one at a time.the client is asked to tell a story about each picture. The examiner makes inference about the client’s personality. SIGNIFICANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS IN GUIDANCE & COUNSELING •
Psychological tests are used as bases for a student’s admission to school. Intelligence tests are administered in checking students’ performance in previous schools attended. Tests serve as a “measuring rod on which students are investigated and ironed out” (Williamson)
Psychological tests provide supplements, records and other relevant information about the students.Test results are interpreted and utilized in counseling.
Psychological tests yield information that is essential in helping the counselor and the student in planning and identifying suitable career choices.
Psychological tests serve as aids in identifying students who need special attention. The test may recognize students with superior ability or those who are needing remedial help.
Psychological tests can gauge the study growth of the pupil. Cases of ineffective study habits may be identified by means of survey tests. In addition, repeated testings with comparable tests are necessary for a thorough check on the student’s academic progress.