Classification Notes

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Classification Notes...


CLASSIFICATION REVIEW NOTES Definition of terms 1. Classification – act of organizing the universe of knowledge into some systematic order. It is also defined as the systematic grouping of things with the same characteristics. 2. Library classification – the systematic arrangement by subject of books and material on shelves or of catalogue and indexes entries in the manner which is most useful to those who read or who seek a definite piece of information. 3. Classification system – a library classification scheme, e.g. DDC or LCC system. Purpose of Library Classification 1. To arrange items in a logical order on library shelves. 2. To provide a systematic display of bibliographic entries in printed catalogs, bibliographies, and indexes. 3. As a shelving device, library classification helps the user identify and locate a work through a call number, and it groups all works of a kind together. Basic Concepts of Classification 1. The traditional ideas of library classification were borrowed from the logical or philosophical principles of classification. 2. Classification begins with the universe of knowledge as a whole and divides it into successive stages of classes and subclasses. 3. The progression of classification is from the general to the specific, forming a hierarchical structure. 4. Traditional library classification schemes tend to list all subjects and their subdivisions and provide ready-made symbols for them. This scheme is referred to as enumerative classification. Example is LCC system. 5. Modern classification theory places emphasis on facet analysis and synthesis-the analysis (or breaking up) of a subject into its component parts and the synthesis is (or resembling) of those parts as required by the document to be represented. A system based on these principles is called a faceted or analytico-synthetic classification. Example is Colon Classification. 6. Some classification systems provide minute details under each class or subject, while others provide broad subject divisions only. The former is referred to as close classification and the latter as broad classification. Notation – is a system of symbols used to represent the classes and divisions of a classification scheme. 1. Types of notation a. Pure notation – one in which only one type of symbol is used. Example: DDC notation b. Mixed notation – a system that employs more than one type of symbol. Example: LCC notation c. Hierarchical notation – one that reflects the structural order, or hierarchical of the classification. Example: DDC notation d. Expressive notation – one that expresses relationships among coordinate subjects. Example: UDC notation. 2. Other Features a. Mnemonics – aids to memory. The term means that when a given topic is repeated in the scheme, it is represented consistently by the same symbol. DDC system makes use of many mnemonic devices.


How to classify Classifying and assigning subject headings both begin by determining the subject content and identifying the principal concepts in the work under consideration. Following are the general principles and guidelines that apply to the classification of library materials in general. 1. Consider usefulness. 2. Make subject the primary consideration. Class by subject then by form, except in literature where form is very important. 3. Use the most specific number available. 4. Do not classify from the index alone. In choosing a number for a multi-topical of multi-element work the following guidelines are generally applicable: 1. Classify under the dominant subject, if one can be determined. Consider the amount of space devoted to the subjects and the author’s purpose in writing the work. 2. Classify a work in which the different subjects are viewed in relationship to each other by analyzing the relationship to determine the emphasis of the work. Consider the following types of phase relations in the analysis of the relationships: a. Influence phase – classify a work about the influence of one thing or author on another under the subject or author being influenced b. Bias phase – classify a work on a particular subject written with a bias toward or aiming at a specific group of readers under the subject, not the element toward it is biased. c. Tool or Application phase – classify a work under the subject instead of the tool that is applied to the subject. d. Comparison phase – class under the subject emphasized or under the first subject. 3. Class under the first subject, if the dominant subject cannot be ascertained. 4. Class under a broader subject a work dealing with three or more subjects that are subdivisions of a broader subject. The Library Classification Systems 1. Dewey Decimal Classification (devised by Melvil Dewey) 2. Library of Congress Classification (devised by the US Library of Congress) 3. Universal Classification Classification (an adaptation of the DDC and developed by Paul Otlet and Henry La Fontaine) 4. Colon Classification (devised by S. R. Ranganathan) 5. Bibliographic classification (devised by Henry Evelyn Bliss) 6. Subject classification (designed by James Duff Brown) 7. Expansive Classification (designed by Charles Armi Cutter) 8. National Library of Medicine Classification (devised by the US National Library of Medicine) The Dewey Decimal Classification A. Characteristic Features 1. DDC is a classification by academic disciplines or fields of study. 2. It divides knowledge into ten main classes. 3. It has three summary divisions. The first summary includes the ten main classes; the second summary covers the 100 subclasses; and the third summary includes the 1,000 subdivisions of knowledge. 4. The system uses a pure notation for its class number. 5. It provides mnemonic devices which helps readers memorize or recognize class numbers more easily. 6. It is popularly used in school libraries and small public libraries.


7. It includes seven auxiliary tables. 8. it has a relative index that brings together different aspects of the same subject scattered in different disciplines. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C.

000 100 200 300 400

Main Classes of the DDC System Generalities Philosophy and Psychology Religion Social Sciences Language

DDC Auxiliary Tables 1. Table 1 – Standard subdivisions 2. Table 2 – Geographic areas, historical periods, persons 3. Table 3 – Subdivisions for literature

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

500 600 700 800 900

Natural Sciences Technology (Applied Sciences) The Arts Literature and rhetoric Geography and History

4. Table 4 – Subdivisions of individual languages 5. Table 5 – Racial, ethnic, national groups 6. Table 6 – Languages 7. Table 7 – Group of persons

The Library of Congress Classification System A. Characteristic Features: 1. The LCC system is a practical classification system 2. It is based on the literary warrant of the materials in the Library of Congress collection. 3. It is largely an enumerative system that requires minimal notational synthesis. 4. Each schedule was developed by subject specialists. 5. Its mixed notation is compact and hospitable. 6. There are frequent additions and changes to the system. 7. The system is designed for libraries with big collection. B.

Main classes, Subclasses and Divisions 1. There are 21 main classes represented by 21 letters of the alphabet, I, O, W, X, Y are the letters not used but are reserved for future expansion of the system. 2. Subclasses are represented by double capital letters of the alphabet. Exception are the subclasses in class E-F and Z which use only single capital letters of the alphabet. 3. Divisions are represented by Arabic numbers starting from 1 to 9999. Second Summary The Hundred Divisions

000 Generalities 010 Bibliographies 020 Library and Information Sciences 030 General encyclopedic works 050 General serials and their indexes 100 Philosophy and Psychology 110 Metaphysics 120 Epistemology, causation, humankind 130 Paranormal phenomena 140 Specific philosophical schools 150 Psychology

060 General organization and museology 070 News media, journalism, publishing 080 General collections 090 Manuscripts and rare books 160 Logic 170 Ethics (Moral philosophy) 180 Ancient, medieval, oriental philosophy 190 Modern Western philosophy


200 Religion 210 Natural theology 220 Bible 230 Christian theology 240 Christian moral and devotional theology 250 Christian orders and local church 300 Social Sciences 310 General statistics 320 Political science 330 Economics 340 Law 350 Public Administration 400 Language 410 Linguistics 420 English and Old English 430 Germanic languages (German) 440 Romance languages (French) 450 Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 500 Natural Sciences and Mathematics 510 Mathematics 520 Astronomy and allied sciences 530 Physics 540 Chemistry and allied science 550 Earth Sciences 600 Technology (Applied Science) 610 Medical Science (Medicine) 620 Engineering and allied operations 630 Agriculture 640 Home economics and family living 650 Management and auxiliary services 700 The Arts 710 Civic and landscape art 720 Architecture 730 Plastic arts Sculpture 740 Drawing and decorative arts 750 Painting and paintings 800 Literature And Rhetoric 810 American Literature in English 820 English and Old English literatures 830 Literatures of Germanic languages 840 Literatures of Romance languages 850 Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 900 Geography and History 910 Geography and travel 920 Biography, genealogy, insignia 930 History of ancient world 940 General history of Europe 950 General history of Asia Far East * Consult schedules for complete and exact headings

260 Christian social theology 270 Christian church history 280 Christian denominations and sections 290 Other and comparative religions 360 Social services; association 370 Education 380 Commerce, communications, transport 390 Customs, etiquette, folklore 460 Spanish and Portuguese Languages 470 Italic languages (Latin) 480 Hellenic Languages (Classical Greek) 490 Other languages 560 Paleontology (Paleozoology) 570 Life Sciences 580 Botanical sciences 590 Zoological sciences 660 Chemical engineering 670 Manufacturing 680 Manufacture for specific uses 690 Buildings 760 Graphic arts and printmaking and prints 770 Photography and photographs 780 Music 790 Recreational and performing arts 860 Spanish and Portuguese literatures 870 Italic literatures Latin 880 Hellenic literatures Classical Greek 890 Literatures of other languages 960 General history of Africa 970 General history of North America 980 General history of South America 990 General history of other areas


LIBRARY CLASSIFICATION THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SYSTEM A – General Works AC – Collections, series, collected works AE – Encyclopedias (General) AG – Dictionaries and other General Reference works AI – Indexes (General) AM – Museums, collectors and collecting B – Philosophy, Psychology, Religion B – Philosophy BC – Logic BD – Speculative philosophy BF – Psychology, parapsychology, occult sciences BH – Aesthetics BJ – Ethics, Social usages, etiquette BL – Religion C – Auxiliary Sciences of History C – Auxiliary sciences of history (General) CB – History of civilization CC – Archaeology CD – Diplomatic, archives, seals CE – Calendar, technical chronology D – History: General and outside the Americas D – General world history DA – Great Britain DAW – Central Europe DB – Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia DC – France DD – Germany DE – The Mediterranean Region DF – Greece DG – Italy DH – Belgium, Luxemburg E – History: America and United States The revolution – 1776 Civil War F – History: United States Local and America Eastern U. S. Southern U. S. Midwestern U. S. Western U S.

AN – Newspapers AP – Periodicals AS – Academies and Learned Societies (General) AY – Yearbooks, Almanacs, Directories AZ – History of Scholarship and Learning. The Humanities BM – Judaism BP – Islam, Bahaism, Theosophy BQ – Buddhism BR – Christianity BS – The Bible BT – Doctrinal theology BV – Practical theology BX – Christian denominations CJ – Numismatics, coins, medals CN – Inscriptions, epigraphy CR – Heraldry CS – Genealogy CT – General Biography DJ – Netherlands (Holland) DK – Russia and former Soviet Republics DL – Northern Europe, Scandinavia DP – Spain, Portugal DQ – Switzerland DR – Balkan Peninsula DS – Asia DT – Africa DU – Oceania, Australia, New Zealand DX – Roma (Gypsies) Twentieth century Canada Mexico Latin and South America


G – Geography and Anthropology G – General Geography, atlases, maps GA – Cartography, mathematical geography GB – Physical geography GC – Oceanography GE – Environmental sciences H – Social Science H – General Social Sciences HA – Statistics HB – Economic theory, demography, business cycles HC-HD – Economic History HE – Transportation and communications HF – Commerce HG – Finance HJ – Public Finance J – Political Science J – General legislative and executive papers JA – Political science (General) JC – Political theory, theory of the State JF – Political institutions and public administration JK – Political institutions and public administration: United States JL – Political institutions and public administration: America outside the US K – Law K – Law (General) KD – United Kingdom and Ireland KE – Canada KF – United States KG – Central America, Caribbean L – Education L – Education LA – History of education LB – Theory and practice of education LC – Social aspects of education LD – Individual institutions: United States LE – Individual institutions: America except United States M – Music M – Instrumental and Vocal music ML – Literature of music

GF – Human Geography GN – Anthropology GR – Folklore GT – Manners and Customs GV – Recreation, Leisure HM – General Sociology HN – Social history, problems, and reform HQ – Family, marriage, women HS – Societies and clubs HT – Cities, communities, races HV – Social service, welfare, criminology HX – Socialism, communism, Utopias, anarchism JN – Political institutions and public administration: Europe JQ - Political institutions and public administration: Asia, Africa, Australia, Oceania JS – Local government JV – Colonies and colonization emigration and immigration JX – International relations and law. KH – South America KJ – Europe KM-KPZ – Asia X (non-LC) – used for all Non Common Law jurisdictions LF – Individual institutions: Europe LG – Individual institutions: Asia, Africa, Oceania LH – College and School Magazines and papers LJ – Student Fraternities and societies in the United States LT – Multi-subject textbooks MT – Musical instruction and study


N – Fine arts N – Visual arts (General) NA – Architecture NB – Sculpture NC – Illustration, design, drawing P – Language and Literature P – General linguistics PA – Classical languages and literature PB – Modern European Languages, Celtic languages and literature PC – Romance languages PD – Old Germanic, Scandinavian PE – English PF – Dutch, Germanic PG – Slavic PH – Finnish PJ – Oriental Semitic PK – Indo-Iranian Q – Science Q – General Science QA – Mathematics, computer science QB – Astronomy QC – Physics QD – Chemistry QE – Geology R – Medicine R – General medicine RA – Public aspects of medicine RB – Pathology RC – Internal Medicine RD – Surgery RE – Ophthalmology RF – Ear, nose and throat RG – Gynecology, obstetrics RJ – Pediatrics S – Agriculture S – Agriculture (General) SB – Plant culture SD – Forestry T – Technology T – General technology TA – General Engineering, General Civil Engineering TC – Hydraulic and Ocean Engineering TD – Environmental technology, sanitary engineering TE – Highway engineering TF – Railroads TG – Bridge engineering TH – Buildings TJ – Mechanical Engineering

ND – Painting NE – Painting NK – Decorative arts, applied arts NX – Arts in general PL – East Asian, African, Oceania PM – Indigenous American, Artificial Languages PN – Literary History and Collections PQ – Romance literature PR – English Literature PS – American Literature PS 8000 – Canadian Literature (English) PS 9000 – Canadian Literature (French) PT – Germanic literature PZ – Children’s literature QH – Natural history, biology QK – Botany QL – Zoology QM – Human anatomy QP – Physiology QR – Microbiology RK – Dentistry RL – Dermatology RM – Therapeutics, Pharmacology RS – Pharmacy RT – Nursing RV – Botanic, Eclectic Medicine RX – Homeopathy RZ – Chiropractic, Osteopathy, Mental Healing SF – Animal Culture SH – Aquaculture SK – Hunting TK – Electrical engineering, nuclear engineering TL – Motor vehicles, aeronautics, astronautics TN – Mining, Metallurgy TP – Chemical technology TR – Photography TS – Manufactures TT – Arts and Crafts, handicrafts TX – Home economics


U – Military Science U – Military science (General) UA – Armies: Organization, description, facilities, etc. UB – Military administration UC – Maintenance and transportation UD – Infantry V – Naval Science V – Naval Science (General) VA – Navies: Organization, description, facilities, etc. VB – Naval administration VC – Naval maintenance VD – Naval seamen Z – Library Science 4-11.5 – Books in general 116-659 – Book industries and trade 662-1000.5 – Libraries

UE – Cavalry, armored and mechanized cavalry UF – Artillery UG – Military engineering, air forces, air welfare UH – Other military services VE – Marines VF – Naval Ordnance VG – Minor services of navies VK – Navigation, merchant marine VM – Naval engineering, shipbuilding 1001-8999 – Bibliography ZA – Information resources

CATALOG ENTRIES IN MARC FORMAT MARC – Machine Readable Cataloging Record MARC formats – initiated and devised primarily by the US Library of Congress (Feb. 1966) - A series of rules for coding bibliographic data, authority data, classification data, and holding data into a form that can be understood and used in computers. - Also called communication formats, meaning that once in this form, one computer can transmit the data to another computer What MARC formats are not? 1. They are not a set of cataloging rules or a cataloging code. Instead, they are designed for use with data created by applying the standard cataloging rules, subject descriptors, and classification schemes. 2. They are not computer systems. They are intended to be used in computer systems as templates for database structures. Additional programming is required to use the MARC – protocols to create functioning information storage and retrieval systems. UNIMARC – generalized or universal version - Created in an attempt to define one international version of the MARC format Cataloging Record – a bibliographic record, or the information traditionally shown on a catalog card. The record includes: 1.) a description of the item, 2.) main entry and added entries, 3.) subject headings, and 4.) the classification or call number. What are the elements of a MARC record? 1. The record structure – derived from an international standard for the exchange of information on magnetic tape 2. The content designation – comprises the codes and conventions defined by the MARC format. They identify the data elements within a record and enable the computer to manipulate the data. 3. The data content of the record – created using bibliographic standards like AACR2 and LCSH. The content of some other data elements – e.g. the date of the creation of the record – is defined in the MARC format.


Parts of Computer Data 1. Fields – contains either coded information (e.g. the date of entry onto the system) or bibliographic information (e.g. the physical description or a subject headings) a. Fixed field – the number of characters assigned is fixed because the information in this field does not vary. They always appear in the same form or sequence. (ISBN, year of publication) b. Variable field – the opposite of fixed fields - The number of characters or the length and form of sequence can vary (personal name field, title field, etc.) 2. Sub fields – particular elements within a field. For example, in the personal name field, the subfields are surname, first name, middle name, date of birth and, death. The title field can contain subfields. For example in the publication data field, it can contain subfields such as place of publication “a”, the publisher in subfield “b”, and the date of publication in subfield “c”, “a”, “b”, “c” are called data element identifiers. Subfield Codes – letter or number that precedes each of the subfield Delimeter – symbol that precedes the subfield codes - The purpose is to identify the next character of the subsequent subfield (double dagger sign $, A-G Canada system)

OCLC; dollar

Indicator – two numerical characters between the tag number and the start of the data in the field. These are values that instruct the computer how to treat the data within the field to which they are assigned, such as: 1.) how to index the character string; 2.) whether to print or not to print the data in the field on a card or a screen, and 3.) whether or not to create an access point for the data in the field. Tag – the three-character labels used to identify the field. Example: 100 1 $aBuenrostro, $bJuan, $cDLC ~ 100 is the tag number, 1 is the indicator, and $aBuenrostro, $bJuan, $cDLC are the subfields. $ sign is the delimeter, while letters a, b, c are the subfield codes. Tagging – the process of applying the appropriate tag number to the bibliographic data Coding – the process of applying the appropriate subfield codes to a bibliographic data Summary of MARC Bibliographic Tags 0xx Includes fixed fields and control numbers 1xx Main entries, including personal author, corporate author, conference names and uniform title 2xx Transcribed titles, editions, material designation, and publication, distribution information 3xx Physical descriptions 4xx Transcribed series statements 5xx Descriptive notes 6xx Subject descriptors 7xx Added entries for names o contributors and titles other than main entry titles and title proper (the latter are coded by different means, described below) 8xx Series added entries traced differently than described 9xx Intended for local use The Tags used most frequently are: 010 Library of Congress Control Number (LCN) 020 International Standard Book Number (ISBN)


100 245 250 260 300 440 520 650 700

Personal name main entry Title information (which includes the title, other title information and the statement of responsibility) Edition Publication information Physical description (often referred to as the “collation” when describing books) Series statement / added entry Annotation or summary note Topical subject heading Personal name added entry (joint author, editor, or illustrator)

Uses of the MARC format The MARC format enables computers to sort and file catalogue data for purposes such as: 1. Printing catalogue data in a variety of formats such as subject bibliographies 2. Producing other products such as accession lists, shelflists, book and spine labels 3. Producing different types of catalogues such as microfiche and online public access catalog 4. Standardizing a machine-readable format for bibliographic records for exchange of cataloguing data amongst libraries all over the world Uses made by MARC records (Project MARC) 1. As a tool for book selection 2. To print book order forms, lists of books in “process” 3. In the cataloging process 4. To produce 3 x 5 catalog cards automatically 5. To produce book catalogs using MARC records in conjunction with local catalog records 6. To produce printed library products, such a book cards for circulation control, book pockets, spine labels, etc.


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