Citrix-xen-Desktop Interview Questions and Answers
Citrix-xen-desktop interview questions and answers What is the use of desktop virtualization?
Desktop virtualization provides optimizations techniques to deliver the applications, data and desktop environment to the users. It further provides the security by managing all the applications and desktop systems at one place. It manages and updates different static desktop images from one place and allows the customization of applications to provide high performance, security and portability to each user. How citrix xen fullfill the requirements produced by desktop virtualization?
Citrix Xen virtualization provides a single solution for desktop virtualization that gives on demand services for desktop and other applications. It allows the user to securely deliver the resources through the web to PCs and to the client area with high end user experience. How Xen desktop helps in popularizing the businesses?
Citrix Xen desktop provides high level of virtualization to help businesses build their tool and increase their output or productivity day by day. The features that are provided are as follows: • It enables the virtual space and workflow to increase the productivity. • It provides latest features and help businesses with tools to incorporate those easily. • It gives an easy to use virtualization platform to deliver fast, efficient and flexible applications. • It manages, create and secure the desktop applications from one location. What is the use and purpose of producing a desktop virtualization platform by Citrix?
Citrix has provided a platform that gives desktop virtualization and it delivers the desktop services and applications from anywhere to the users. It reduces the complexity and improves the security of the data. It provides a centralized place to manage the datacenter. It delivers high end experience for the user and provides high latency in the network. It offers reduced time for execution of the application and flexibility in the delivering customized desktops to both virtual and physical devices. 1
What is the three phase approach to desktop virtualization?
The three phases provided by Citrix Xen is as follows: • Assess: This is a phase where the user groups gets profiled and prioritized according to the applications they are using. The decision of ordering and user segments virtualization takes place. • Design: in this stage a process to create a detailed design will be included using the networking concept. It will include active directory, storage and image manipulation. This will be the phase where all the requirements will be finalized before install. • Deploy: In this stage the xen desktop virtualization will be installed, tested and deployed according to the design. How desktop virtualization different from application virtualization?
Desktop virtualization provides the desktop operating system its environment and applications from the datacenter, whereas application virtualization only brings application from the datacenter. Desktop virtualization brings only the desktop features not the application related to it, whereas application keep the desktop separate and bring only those applications that are required at a particular time. This way optimization and efficiency can be maintained. What are the different flavors available in Citrix Xen desktop addition?
Citrix Xen desktop virtualization comes in different flavors and they are as follows: 1. Express edition- this is the edition which is a trial version and user can use it for 10 days. It has limitation as well on the usage. 2. VDI (virtual desktop interface) provides scalability and also virtual desktops using the client-server model. 3. Enterprise edition- it has all the tools available for customization and it is a cost-effective platform that provides flexibility, scalability and delivery of applications without any hassles. 4. Platinum edition- it is a complete package to deliver full performance monitor, Qos capabilities and services for end-to-end delivery. It has support for virtual desktop support.
What is the difference between desktop virtualization and virtual desktop interface?
Virtual desktop interface is a form of desktop virtualization, whereas desktop virtualization is itself a different entity that is separated with others. VDI create a virtual machine and execute the user's desktop inside it, whereas desktop virtualization allows running the customized desktop without any virtual machines. VDI works only for few users that have different demands but it is unsuitable to meet all the demands for all users, whereas desktop virtualization meet and provide all the required features to the user. What are the features of citrix xen desktop virtualization?
Citrix xen provides high end functionalities to the user for desktop virtualization. It also provide the following features such as: • High definition user experience: it provides high end multimedia graphics, real time collaborations and connectivity through peripherals. It provides breadth and depth for easy viewing of high end 3D graphics. • FlexCast: provides fast delivery of the new technology that enables the delivery of hosted models to meet the requirement of the users. • On demand apps: citrix provide the provision for on demand application to the users. It also provides the provision to manage the functionalities of applications on virtual desktops. What is the difference between Citrix xen desktop virtualization and Xen server?
• Citrix xen server provides server virtualization that enables one platform to host multiple operating systems, whereas citrix xen desktop provides desktop virtualization that enables many operating systems to be shared in the datacenter. • Citrix xen server allow the utilization of the server to be maximum, whereas citrix desktop virtualization allows better performance and efficiency as it is controlled and managed from one place. How does Citrix Xen Desktop help in enterprises?
Citrix Xen Desktop is a Desktop virtualization solution for business that need smart management of Desktops. Administrators need not manage applications individually on machines rather it can be done on the go with Citrix Xen Server, 3
remotely. Citrix Xen Desktop enables the client machines to stream a live Desktop to the their machines through centralized Xen Server. What all elements could be packaged as images and then can be deployed on datacenter in Citrix Xen Desktop?
In order to get a new business startup quick and running, the elements like OS, Applications & User profiles can be packaged as single images and then deployed on datacenters. This process dynamically assembles desktops for each user. These images are maintained by administrators and according to the user tasks these images are deployed. What is Single Instance Management?
A Single Instance Management is referred as a task to apply updates and packages just once that is on the images that are maintained by the administrators at Xen Server. This means less storage is required to handle desktop in datacenter. This provides easy to manage features to the maintainers or administrators of the IT departments. Does Citrix Xen Desktop support global or public access?
Citrix Xen Desktop can be accessed globally from anywhere at any time and any device. This is actually an advantage of having a centralized server at location that serves to all the devices that can actually communicate to it and through minimal Citrix platform tools can actually stream a personally configured Desktop on the go. What is FlexCast delivery technology in Citrix Xen Desktop?
FlexCast is a delivery model that ensures a flexible and wide range of modifications in virtualized images of every major OS virtualization such as RedHat Linux, Windows, Ubuntu Linux or Windows Server 2008. This provides a standard lock-down for user without personalized experience that does not save personalized options and preferences in usage. Describe VDI facility in FlexCast Technology?
The term VDI was coined by Intel and stands for Virtualized Desktop Interface. It is a technology that enables the hosted OS virtualization that meets high graphics and performance requirements to use the local machine resources that can actually leverage desktop streaming through Virtual server. The more powerful is client, the better becomes quality of service. 4
Does Citrix Xen Desktop work if its offline?
Citrix Xen Desktop works very well online as well as offline. Suppose the Xen Desktop streamed a desktop application on a client machine and suddenly the network is disconnected that does not allow further access to network. In this case the application streamed as a virtual desktop will run very well as if it has never been disconnected. Does Citrix Xen Desktops application need to run on Local Desktop?
Citrix Xen Desktop need not run on a desktop but a client applet for desktop is required to be installed at client-side. The whole functionality is orchestrated through a centralized Server. The technology is simple and follows modern and virtualized client-server architecture. Thus it is a model of cloud computing architecture. What is HDX technology given by Citrix Xen Desktop solution?
The HDX technology is coined for term High Definition User Experience. This technology provides flexible compatibilities to multimedia devices and software as Flash, Audio, Video, USB, 3D graphics applications. This compliance ensures a fast and reliable experience through Citrix Xen Desktop throughout the usage. Some security features in Citrix Xen Desktop?
Citrix Xen Desktop comes with an integrated hardened SSL VPN with advanced, policy-based access control lets you give users encrypted access to desktops, applications, and valuable intellectual property from anywhere while eliminating the risk of data theft or loss. Centralized data control provides high security compliance. Choices of Hypervisors given in Citrix Xen Desktop are?
There are multiple choices of Hypervisors that comes along Citrix Xen Desktop solutions. • XenDesktop on XenServer by Citrix • XenDesktop on Hyper-V by Microsoft • XenDesktop on V-Sphere by VmWare These are the three major players in cloud computing solution industries and XenDesktop is supported by all three of them.
What is On-demand Apps feature in FlexCast Delivery?
The On-demand Apps feature in FlexCast delivery is a feature provided by Citrix Xen Desktop to deliver software applications on a client request for usage. These applications are packaged as images which are isolated and independent to the compatible hardware. On-demand applications could be like a Microsoft office application running on Linux machine. What issue does the NetScaler solves?
The Netscaler technology resolves issues of low speed internet and low bandwidth that needs to stream a desktop from a centralized server. This provides slow streaming compliance on the virtualization solution to provide optimum support and feature on the client machine. What is Virtual Desktop Infrastructure and is it provided by Citrix Xen Desktop?
Virtual desktop infrastructure is the practice of hosting a desktop operating system within a virtual machine running on a hosted, centralized or remote server. The term was coined by VMware Inc. Microsoft included a technology called virtual desktop infrastructure in Windows Server 2008. Intel has built hardware virtualization support into its processors, citing a growing need for client-hosted virtualization. Yes, virtual Desktop Infrastructure is provided by Citrix as Citrix Xen Desktop. What is Xen in Citrix Xen Desktop Solution and why is it there?
Xen is an open-source hypervisor that is somehow appealed to Citrix developers and Citrix Cloud services are based on further development of this hypervisors only. Xen being an open-source project has contributors from around the world. This is the only major open-source hypervisor that supports Dom-0. Thus it is the best choice for cloud developers till date. http://ur-sree.blogspot.in/2011/09/citrix-xen-app-interview-questions.html Citrix (Xen app) Interview Questions QUESTION NO: 1 Scenario: A company's XenApp farm is spread across four geographically separated datacenters. Each datacenter is its own zone in the farm. Datacenter A contains 50 servers. Datacenter B contains 100 servers. Datacenter C contains 20 servers, and Datacenter D contains 10 6
servers, one of which is the license server. Which datacenter would be the appropriate location for the farm's data store? A. Datacenter A B. Datacenter B C. Datacenter C D. Datacenter D Answer: B
QUESTION NO: 2 which port is used by the Citrix License Administration Console? A. 2598 B. 7279 C. 8082 D. 27000 Answer: C QUESTION NO: 3 Scenario: A user successfully launched a published application delivered from a XenApp server running within the user's LAN. Session Reliability has been disabled. Which port is used for communication between the Citrix online plug-in and the XenApp server? A. 80 B. 1494 C. 2598 D. 3389 Answer: A QUESTION NO: 4 Scenario: A user successfully launched a published application through an Access Gateway. The application is delivered from a XenApp server running in the datacenter and Session Reliability has been enabled. Which port is used for communication between the Access Gateway and the XenApp server? A. 80 B. 443 C. 1494 D. 2598 Answer: D QUESTION NO: 5 7
statement best describes the purpose of the data collector? A. It verifies a user's permissions for the requested application. B. It is used by the Delivery Services Console to run the farm discovery. C. It authenticates the user and populates the Web Interface with their icons. D. It maintains and communicates farm information to data collectors in other zones Answer: D QUESTION NO: 6 Scenario: A XenApp farm is located in a datacenter in New York. A request has been made to add a XenApp server in London. The WAN network connection is stable enough to allow the new server to exist in the New York farm. What should be done by the administrator to ensure that the least amount of Citrix IMA traffic traverses the WAN? A. The administrator needs to create a new zone and add the new server to that zone, making it the zone data collector. B. The administrator does not need to create a new zone because Citrix IMA traffic will only originate from the data collector. C. The administrator does not need to create a new zone if "Not Preferred" is specified as the election preference for the new server. D. The administrator does not need to create a zone for the new server, but rather create a new farm and link Citrix IMA traffic in theDelivery Center. Answer: D QUESTION NO: 7 Which three options can an administrator use to add members to the Remote Desktop Users group during a XenApp installation? (Choose three.) A. Power Users B. Domain Users C. Administrators D. Anonymous Users E. Authenticated Users F. List of users from the Users Group Answer: D, E, F QUESTION NO: 8 Which method can be used when changing the farm membership of a server? A. Run the QFARM command. 8
B. Run the CHFARM command. C. UseXenApp Server Role Manager. D. Use the Delivery Services Console. Answer: B QUESTION NO: 9 Which statement correctly describes behavior of the XenApp Server Role Manager? A. Remote Desktop Services will be automatically installed. Within theXenApp Server role the online plug-in is automatically installed. B. Remote Desktop Services will need to be installed separately. Within theXenApp Server role the online plug-in is automatically installed. C. Remote Desktop Services will be automatically installed. Within theXenApp Server role both the online and offline plug-in are automatically installed. D. Remote Desktop Services will need to be installed separately. Within theXenApp Server role both the online and offline plug-in are automatically installed. Answer: C QUESTION NO: 10 Scenario: The main application used in an organization is the CRM application, which is published in a separate application folder called CRM. An administrator must configure delegated administration rights for the help desk. The help desk's administrative rights will need to be limited to: - View all areas of the Delivery Services Console. - Perform session tasks related to their job, such as resetting sessions across the farm. Which approach would give the required result for the help desk group? A. Configure View Only permissions for the Delivery Services Console and configure Full administration permissions for the sessions node. B. Configure View Only permissions for the Delivery Services Console and configure Full administration permissions for the CRM application folder. C. Configure View Only permissions for the following nodes: Administrators, Farm Management, Printers and Printer Drivers, Applications and Server Information. Configure Full administration permissions for "Sessions" under theservers node. 9
D. Configure View Only permissions for the following nodes: Administrators, Farm Management, Printers and Printer Drivers, Applications and Server Information. Configure Full administration permissions for "Sessions" under the CRM folder in the application node. Answer: D QUESTION NO: 11 Which lightweight plug-in is installed with minimal user interaction? A. MAC plug-in B. Online plug-in C. Online plug-in - Web D. Secure Access plug-in Answer: C QUESTION NO: 12 Scenario: Users access their XenApp applications through a Web Interface. Each XenApp server has all the required applications installed. The administrator discovers that users are being connected to several different XenApp servers while using their applications, causing profile corruption. How should the administrator resolve this issue? A. Utilize the session sharing feature by standardizing all published application settings. B. Utilize the Session Reliability feature by upgrading all online plug-ins to the latest version. C. Utilize the session sharing feature by standardizing only the screen resolution on all published applications. D. Utilize the Session Reliability feature by opening port 2598 between theXenApp servers and the Web Interface server. Answer: A QUESTION NO: 13 which two methods can an administrator use to deliver the plug-in to multiple users at the same time? (Choose two.) A. Microsoft transform file B. Command line interface C. Merchandising Server rules D. Active Directory Group Policy 10
Answer: A QUESTION NO: 14 An administrator has configured an HDX Media Stream for Flash (client-side) policy and set the Flash latency threshold to 75 milliseconds. What will the result be if the latency between the server and client device is greater than 75 milliseconds? A. Flash content quality is improved. B. Flash content quality is degraded. C. Flash content is rendered on the client. D. Flash content is rendered on the server. Answer: B QUESTION NO: 15 Scenario: Users want the best performance when displaying images in their sessions. The administrator decides to configure HDX 3D Image Acceleration to remove redundant data from the images and improve the image transfer speed. The administrator wants to set this feature to remove the maximum amount of redundant data so it uses the minimum bandwidth requirements. Which lossy compression level setting must the administrator select to meet these requirements? A. None B. Low C. Medium D. High Answer: D QUESTION NO: 16 Scenario: An administrator has published RealOne Player in the farm so users can view multimedia files from within their sessions and play them on their client devices. HDX MediaStream Multimedia Acceleration is enabled in the farm. Users are complaining that the multimedia files are NOT playing correctly. What must the administrator do to ensure that multimedia files play in user sessions? A. Disable audio on the server. B. Enable HDXMediaStream for Flash. 11
C. Increase the buffer size on the server. D. Install video and audiocodecs on the client device Answer: D QUESTION NO: 17 Where is Smooth Roaming configured? A. In the plug-in B. In a Citrix policy C. In the farm properties D. In the Web Interface site properties Answer: D QUESTION NO: 18 Which option is used to establish farm-wide shadowing settings to force a shadow acceptance prompt and force logging on all shadow connections? A. Citrix policy B. Shadow Taskbar C. XenApp Server Role Manager D. Web Interface Management Console Answer: A QUESTION NO: 19 where is CPU Utilization Management configured? A. Farm properties B. CitrixUsers policy C. CitrixComputers policy D. Worker Group properties Answer: A QUESTION NO: 20 An administrator wants to know the server load for a server named CTXXA01. Which two commands can an administrator use from any Citrix server in the farm to get the proper results? (Choose two.) A. qfarm /load B. query farm CTXXA01 /load C. query user /server:CTXXA01 D. query session /server:CTXXA01 Answer: A,B QUESTION NO: 21 Scenario: The Citrix IMA Service test in Health Monitoring and Recovery is configured to run on a 12
server. An administrator needs to ensure that if the test fails, existing ICA connections are maintained and attempts to reconnect disconnected sessions are made, but new ICA sessions cannot be started on the server. Which recovery action must the administrator select for the test? A. Alert Only B. Restart IMA C. Reboot Server D. Remove Server from load balancing Answer: B QUESTION NO: 22 Scenario: An administrator for an organization needs to limit the sessions to one connection for vendors and authenticated users. However, HR department members must run two sessions at once. The administrator creates three policies to control the number of user sessions. - Policy A Limits ALL users to one session - Policy B Limits Vendors to one session - Policy C Limits HR to two sessions In order to ascertain the policy behavior the administrator must determine the level of priority to allow the HR department access to multiple sessions. Which priority is needed to apply these policies and to ensure that HR is able to run two sessions simultaneously? A. Set the priority of Policy B to the highest level, Policy C to the next level and Policy A to the lowest level. B. Set the priority of Policy B to the highest level, Policy A to the next level and Policy C to the lowest level. C. Set the priority of Policy A to the highest level, Policy B to the next level and Policy C to the lowest level. D. Set the priority of Policy C to the highest level, Policy B to the next level and Policy A to the lowest level. Answer: A QUESTION NO: 23 Scenario: An administrator needs to configure the XenApp farm in a highly secure environment. All 13
administrative actions must be logged, even if the configuration logging database is unavailable. Which two options must the administrator configure to make this as secure as possible? (Choose two.) A. Ensure all administrators know the database password. B. Enable IMA encryption before enabling configuration logging. C. Use a shared database account for access to the configuration logging database. D. Ensure the 'Allow changes to the farm when logging database is disconnected' option is not selected. Answer: B,D QUESTION NO: 24 Which role is assigned to a custom XenApp Administrator by default? A. Add server to farm B. View Administrators C. Log on to Management Console D. View all areas of server farm management Answer: C QUESTION NO: 25 Scenario: An administrator wants to use session sharing for all published applications. All applications are installed and published on all of the servers in the farm. What else must the administrator do to ensure that session sharing is used? A. Specify file type associations. B. Enable the Connection access control policy rule. C. Ensure the offline plug-in is installed on client devices. D. Configure all published applications with the same settings. Answer: D QUESTION NO: 26 Scenario: An administrator is setting up a new XenApp environment for a warehouse. Thin clients will be used with a Linux-based operating system and XenApp will be delivered across a low speed wide area network. Users will need to be given an experience similar to what is available from a Windows desktop operating system. Which type of published application will allow for this? A. Server Desktop B. Remote Desktop C. Published content 14
D. Published application, Explorer.EXE, installed on a server Answer: D QUESTION NO: 27 Scenario: Users frequently open documents on their local PCs. Going forward, an administrator plans to have the users open documents with the published application on the XenApp servers. Which action must the administrator take to accomplish this? A. Install the offline plug-in. B. Configure the Web Interface to allow content redirection. C. Verify the Client drive redirection user policy is enabled. D. Associate the required file type to the published application. Answer: D QUESTION NO: 28 which two statements are correct for an application delivered to a client device by Citrix application streaming? (Choose two.) A. It requires the offline plug-in to be installed. B. It can be used when connected to the network. C. It consumes CPU and memory resources on theXenApp server. D. Screen updates are sent from the server using theICA protocol. Answer: A,D QUESTION NO: 29 Scenario: An administrator has been asked to roll out a new version of an existing application. The new software needs to be deployed alongside the existing version without making any permanent changes to the XenApp servers. Clients are a mixture of Windows and Linux thin clients and all have the XenApp online plug-in installed. How should the administrator roll out the application? A. Create a streaming profile of the new application, and publish the application using the 'Streamed to client' profile. B. Create a streaming profile of the new application, then publish the application using the 'Accessed from a server' and 'Streamed to server1 profile. C. Upgrade the existing version of the software on theXenApp servers, and publish the application using the 'Accessed from a server' and 'Installed application' profile. D. Install the new version of the application onto a differentXenApp server, and 15
publish the application using the 'Accessed from a server' and 'Installed application' profile. Answer: A QUESTION NO: 30 which two steps are required to profile an application? (Choose two.) A. Create a PRFILE package. B. Store the package on a file share. C. Create an unattended .MSI package. D. Store the package on each XenApp server. Answer: B,C QUESTION NO: 31 Scenario: After the CRM application has been streamed on the XenApp servers, users complain that they can no longer open contracts for customers stored in the Adobe Acrobat file format through the CRM application. Adobe Acrobat has also been streamed to the XenApp servers. How should the administrator solve this issue? A. Create a new .MSI package for Adobe Acrobat and publish it. B. Create a new .PROFILE package for Adobe Acrobat and publish it. C. Create an inter-isolation link between the CRM application .PROFILE file and the Adobe Acrobat .PROFILE file with the streaming application profiler. D. Select a .PDF file on allXenApp servers, select 'pen With' and make sure that Adobe Acrobat has been associated with .PDF files. Select 'Always use the selected program to open this kind of file'. Answer: B QUESTION NO: 32 Scenario: An administrator has been asked to configure server-side streaming to the XenApp servers. The application package has been published. Which component is required for serverside streaming? A. Online plug-in B. Offline plug-in C. Load throttling D. Client-to-server redirection Answer: B QUESTION NO: 33 16
Scenario: An administrator has been monitoring activity on the XenApp servers and determined that most users in an environment access published resources Monday through Friday between 7:00 am and 7:00 pm. The administrator would like to consolidate the number of active sessions outside of this time period to five servers. Which component should the administrator configure to complete this task? A. Load balancing policies B. Preferential load balancing C. Health Monitoring and Recovery D. Power and Capacity Management Answer: B QUESTION NO: 34 what is the proper extension for a roaming profile in the template location for Citrix Profile Management? A. .DAT B. .LOG C. .MAN D. .PROFILE Answer: D QUESTION NO: 35 Scenario: A company has six servers in the farm. The administrator wants to direct all connections by Research and Development (R&D) employees to Server1. If Server1 becomes unavailable, user connections should be directed to any available server in the farm. What must the administrator do to direct these connections to the appropriate servers? A. Provide Server 1 with a lower priority than the other servers. B. Provide Server 1 with a higher priority than the other servers. C. Create two worker groups and configure a load balancing policy. D. Add the R&D employees to two worker groups and configure a load balancing policy. Answer: B QUESTION NO: 36 Scenario: There are 20 servers in a farm. A resource-intensive application is published on five of the servers. An administrator needs to create a load evaluator that reports a full load when the 17
number of users connecting to one of the five servers hosting the application exceeds 60. The administrator must also ensure that only users in a particular location can access the five servers hosting the application. Which two load management rules must the administrator configure for the load evaluator? (Choose two.) A. IP Range B. Scheduling C. Load Throttling D. Server User Load Answer: A,C QUESTION NO: 37 Scenario: A company has nine servers in the farm. An administrator wants to set the preference for user connections from Austin to three specific servers. What must the worker group contain to direct Austin user sessions to these servers? A. The servers in the farm B. The Austin user accounts C. The three specific servers D. The Austin user accounts and servers Answer: B QUESTION NO: 38 Scenario: A farm contains 10 servers. An application is published on two of the servers. An administrator needs to apply a load evaluator that reports a full load when the number of users connecting to the application exceeds 100. Which load evaluator would the administrator use to meet the requirements of the scenario? A. Default load evaluator assigned to the server B. Custom load evaluator assigned to the server C. Custom load evaluator assigned to the application D. Advanced load evaluator assigned to the application Answer: B
QUESTION NO: 39 Users are experiencing issues when attempting to connect to published resources 18
through Access Gateway. Which two should the administrator monitor? (Choose two.) A. Terminal Services B. Citrix XTE Service C. Citrix IMA Networking D. Secure Ticket Authority Answer: B,C QUESTION NO: 40 For which scenario would the Advanced load evaluator be most appropriate for the environment? A. The number of users allowed to connect to a server should be limited to 100. Maximum load for servers must be determined by read and write operations. B. The number of users allowed to connect to a selected application needs to be limited to 100. Maximum load for servers must be determined by page swaps. C. A resource- and memory-intensive application is published on the servers in a farm. When CPU or memory usage reaches 90 percent, a full load should be reported. D. An administrator needs to schedule availability of selected servers or applications. Only users connecting from client devices within a certain IP address range can access published resources on servers. Answer: C QUESTION NO: 41 Scenario: A company has published a memory-intensive application on all servers in the farm. By default, each server is expected to run 100 sessions. All servers have enough memory to run the application when other sessions NOT running the memory-intensive application are running on the server. Testing has revealed that the application requires at least 50% free memory to launch on a server. How can the administrator ensure that the application will only be started on a server when it has sufficient resources available? A. Configure the Memory Usage rule to 50% in a custom load evaluator and assign it to the servers. B. Configure the Memory Usage rule to 50% in a custom load evaluator and assign it 19
to the application. C. Configure the Server User Load rule to 50 sessions in a custom load evaluator and assign it to the servers. D. Configure the Server User Load rule to 50 sessions in a custom load evaluator and assign it to the applications. Answer: A QUESTION NO: 42 Scenario: Users from the marketing department need to print on several printers. They are complaining that the default printer in their published applications is NT the same as the default printer on their workstations. An administrator published the application with the option "Start this application without waiting for printers to be created" enabled. Which action must the administrator take to resolve this issue? A. Create a user policy; add Printing\Client printer redirection to the 'Allowed' list; assign this policy with a filter, selecting marketing group. B. Create a user policy; add Printing\Default printer to 'Set default printer to the client's main printer'; assign this policy with a user filter, selecting marketing group. C. Make sure the client Default printer option is disabled in the settings tab of the connection properties in the Citrix Remote Desktop Session Host Configuration tool. D. Create a user policy in the Active Directory (Windows Component\Remote Desktop Services\Remote Desktop Session\Printer Redirection); enable the "Redirect only the default client printer" setting; assign it to the marketing group. Answer: D QUESTION NO: 43 In which two ways can an administrator prevent printer drivers from being installed? (Choose two.) A. Use Windows Print Management. B. Enable the Printer driver mapping and compatibility policy. C. Use the Active Directory group policy to block driver installation. D. Configure the automatic installation of in-box printer drivers policy. Answer: A,C 20
QUESTION NO: 44 Scenario: A Citrix administrator of a large hospital's IT infrastructure is asked to configure XenApp printing for nurses who move between workstations. All terminals are configured to connect to a Web Interface server, and all floors have a dedicated subnet and floor specific machine IDs. The administrator needs to make sure users always print to the network print device closest to the device they are connecting from. How will the administrator complete this task? A. Configure a Session Printers policy for each subnet. Filter the policies based on Users. B. Configure a Session Printers policy for each subnet. Filter the policies based on Client IP address. C. Configure an Auto-create clientprinters policy for each group of machine IDs. Filter the policies based on Client Name. D. Configure an Auto-create clientprinters policy for each group of machine IDs. Filter the policies based on Access Control. Answer: B
QUESTION NO: 45 Which statement correctly describes Citrix universal printing? A. Citrix universal printing is a solution that will allow a XenApp server to act as a print server. B. Citrix universal printing is a solution that allows printing without the need to install a local printer. C. Citrix universal printing is a solution that will allow printing regardless of the operating system of the client device. D. Citrix universal printing is a solution that allows users to print whether or not the correct print drivers are installed Answer: B QUESTION NO: 46 Under which two circumstances would an administrator create a printer driver mapping policy? (Choose two.) 21
A. A specific driver is not allowed on the server. B. A printer must be available while disconnected. C. The drivers on the client and server are named differently. D. The printing profile must be redirected to the client device. Answer: C,D QUESTION NO: 47 An administrator must configure printing in an environment to make network printers automatically appear to all users without any setup. Which policy must the administrator implement to accomplish this? A. Default printers B. Session printers C. Universal printing D. Auto-create generic universal printer Answer: B QUESTION NO: 48 Scenario: An environment contains a previously configured XenApp Services site that points to the original XenApp farm. An administrator needs to configure a Web Interface server to connect multiple XenApp farms so that users can access their applications using the local start menu on their PC with the Citrix online plug-in. How can the administrator configure the Web Interface server using the Web Interface Management Console for this scenario? A. Using theXenApp Web site section, add at least one server in each farm to the previously configured farm and change the XML port so it is different. B. Using theXenApp Services site section, add at least one server in each farm to the previously configured farm and change the XML port so it is different. C. Using theXenApp Services site section, add a new farm for each additional farm and at least one server in that farm to the manage farms option; enter the correct XML port information. D. Using theXenApp Web site management section, add a new farm for each additional farm and at least one server in that farm to the manage farms option; enter the correct XML port information. 22
Answer: C QUESTION NO: 49 Scenario: An administrator is implementing an Access Gateway solution and needs to configure the internal Web Interface server for use with an external Access Gateway. The administrator has already created a new XenApp Web site named "external." Click the 'Exhibit' button to view the secure access option for the external web site. Which option most thoroughly describes the required steps? A. Select the access method 'Direct', enter the FQDN of the internal URL, specify twoXenApp servers as Secure Ticket Authority servers and select the 'Use for load balancing' option. B. Select the access method 'Translated', enter the FQDN of the internal URL, specify twoXenApp servers as Secure Ticket Authority servers and select the 'Use for load balancing' option. C. Select the access method 'Gateway Direct', enter the FQDN of the external URL, specify twoXenApp servers as Secure Ticket Authority servers and select the 'Use for load balancing' option. D. Select the access method 'Alternate', enter the FQDN of the external URL, specify two Web Interface servers as Secure Ticket Authority servers and select the 'Use for load balancing' option. Answer: A QUESTION NO: 50 A company has deployed a new Secure Access Gateway device to secure external connections to their XenApp farm. Which change needs to be made to the XenApp Services web site in order to provide secure access to XenApp resources through the Secure Access Gateway device? A. Set the client-side proxy settings to 'Secure (HTTPS)'. B. The Secure Access Method needs to be configured to 'Gateway direct'. C. Kerberos authentication needs to be enabled in the properties of the Authentication method. D. The FQDN of the Secure Access Gateway needs to be specified in the Secure Access Method properties. Answer: B 23
QUESTION NO: 51 Scenario: The administrator wants to configure Web Interface so users can access their applications using a browser. Some users will use pass-through with smart card authentication, while others will use smart card authentication only. What must the administrator do to satisfy the requirements of these users? A. Enable both authentication methods for a single Web Interface site. B. Create a Web Interface Services site and apply both authentication methods. C. Enable Pass-through authentication to pass the Windows logon method to a site. D. EnableExplicit authentication to allow the site to adapt the authentication method. Answer: B QUESTION NO: 52 Scenario: An administrator wants to configure the enumeration speed for two Web Interface servers to ensure the fastest response time possible for users. The datacenter for the XenApp servers is 500 miles from office "A" and 1200 miles from office "B". Which location for the Web Interface servers will optimize the enumeration speed of user applications? A. In the datacenter on the same subnet asXenApp servers B. One web server in each office to be accessed by local users C. In the datacenter on the same subnet with only Web servers to isolate HTTP traffic D. One in the datacenter, one in Office "A" with users directed to the closest web server Answer: D QUESTION NO: 53 Scenario: An administrator has just configured a Web Interface server. The XenApp farm is configured with the default settings. The data collector is CTXDC01 and the member server is CTXXA01. Click on the 'Exhibit' button to review the scenario. What is the issue in this scenario? A. In the XML port field, the value should read "80." B. In the Resourcestypes field, the value should read "Offline." C. In the Authentication methods field, the value should read "Prompt." D. In the XML Service field, the value should read "CTXDC01, CTXXA01." 24
Answer: A QUESTION NO: 54 Scenario: An administrator wants to add the ability to stream applications to XenApp servers in an environment in order to cut down on the number of applications installed and managed. Users currently access the installed applications on the XenApp servers using the Citrix online plug-in configured with the URL of a XenApp Services site configured for online access. Which two steps are required to achieve the desired functionality? (Choose two.) A. Install the Citrix offline plug-in on theXenApp servers. B. Install the Citrix offline plug-in on the user's client device. C. Change the existingXenApp Services site configuration resource type to 'Dual Mode'. D. Create a newXen App Services site and choose the 'Offline' resource type; configure the existing XenApp Services site to use the new site as a backup. Answer: A,D
QUESTION NO: 55 Scenario: A company has successfully implemented a XenApp farm together with a dedicated Web Interface server. All clients are configured with the Citrix online plug-in and the site name for the configured site within Web Interface is XAPROD. To increase the high availability of the solution, an administrator configures a second Web Interface server. What must the administrator configure to ensure that users can still connect to their applications even in the event of a Web Interface server failure? A. The Backup option within the server settings of the XAPROD site in the XenApp Web site node. B. The redirection option within the server settings of the XAPROD site in theXenApp Web site node. C. The Backup option within the server settings of the XAPROD site in the XenApp Services site node. D. The redirection option within the server settings of the XAPROD site in theXenApp Services site node. 25
Answer: B QUESTION NO: 56 Scenario: Several printers are set up on each user's Windows workstation. Users are complaining on a daily basis that XenApp published applications take too long at start-up. Which two actions could an administrator take to reduce start-up time? (Choose two.) A. Reduce the number of print drivers loaded at start-up. B. Set up only the default printer on the client to be Auto-created. C. Set up Auto-created printer creation after application launches. D. Allow users to self-provision printers by publishing the ICA Client Printer Configuration tool. Answer: A,B QUESTION NO: 57 When using the qfarm /load command, what would be displayed as the server load value when a server has a full load? A. 0 B. 1000 C. 9999 D. 10000 Answer: D QUESTION NO: 58 An administrator needs to reset the session of a user who has become disconnected. Which two tools will allow the administrator to accomplish the reset against a remote server? (Choose two.) A. Performance monitor B. Windows Task Manager C. Delivery Services Console D. Remote Desktop Services Manager Answer: C,D QUESTION NO: 59 The ActiveX control required by the Web Interface is NOT allowed to run with the current Internet Explorer settings. How should an administrator resolve this issue? A. Add the site to the Local Intranet trusted sites. B. Reset the client Internet Explorer setting to the default to allow ActiveX controls. C. Under the Advanced security tab, select 'Allow active content to run files on my 26
computer.' D. Add the Web Interface site to the Trusted Sites within IE using the Default security settings for the zone. Answer: C QUESTION NO: 60 Scenario: Using a custom load evaluator that utilizes only the Server User Load with the default setting, an administrator wants to use the qfarm /load command to see the server load value. What is the value the administrator will see displayed for a server with 17 users with active connections and two disconnected sessions? A. 17 B. 19 C. 1700 D. 1900 Answer: A QUESTION NO: 61 Which two conditions could prevent the Citrix Universal Printer from appearing in the list of users' auto-created printers? (Choose two.) A. The driver is not supported. B. The user is running a terminal device. C. The user is running an outdated online plug-in. D. The driver is on the blacklist in the Printer driver mapping and compatibility policy. Answer: B,C QUESTION NO: 62 Scenario: Some users complain that they cannot reconnect to their disconnected sessions. After investigation, the administrator discovers that no users are able to connect to Server1. Which two issues could cause the problem? (Choose two.) A. Logons have been disabled for Serverl B. Online plugin is not installed on Serverl C. IMA Service is not running on the Server1 D. Session reliability has been enabled on Server1 Answer: C,D QUESTION NO: 63 Users are complaining that their local printers are NOT available in their XenApp 27
sessions when running from a Windows client. Which troubleshooting step should the administrator take? A. Install the Universal Print driver on the client device. B. Verify a network printer is set up on the client device. C. Check that Session printing is enabled in the Citrix policy. D. Verify that the Auto-create clientprinters policy rule does not prohibit printer creation. Answer: C http://ur-sree.blogspot.in/2011/09/1-default-ica-port-number-citrix_14.html
1) Default ICA port number? Citrix Independent Computing Architecture (ICA) protocol is a networking protocol that runs over TCP/IP using registered port 1494. However, some firewalls are not preconfigured with details of the ICA protocol. Configuration for the ICA protocol is straightforward. The ICA protocol is similar to the TELNET protocol. It uses a single port at the MetaFrame server. The default port is 1494; you can change the port number using the ICAPORT utility.
2). what is Data Store? It contains information about The data store provides a repository of persistent information about the farm that Each server can reference, including the following: • Farm configuration information • Published application configurations • Server configurations • MetaFrame administrator accounts • Printer configurations • Trust relationships
3) What is Data store? For each server farm, you need a database called a data store. Citrix Presentation Server uses the data store to centralize configuration information for a server Farm in one location. The data store maintains information about the servers, applications, and administrators in the server farm. Using a data store ensures a scalable and flexible system for managing your servers.
4) How to check the data store is up or not/ Hklm\software\citrix\IMA\runtime Righhand side value is there it means the connections is through Next method ?
5) What is LHC (Local Host Cache) 28
A subset of data store information, the local host cache, exists on each server in the farm, providing each member server with quick access to data store information. The local host cache also provides redundancy of the data store information, if for example, a server in the farm loses connectivity to the data store. When a change is made to the farm’s data store, a notification to update the local host cache is sent to all the servers in the farm. However, it is possible that some servers will miss an update because of network problems. Member servers periodically query the data store to determine if changes were made since the server’s local host cache was last updated. If changes were made, the server requests the changed information.
6) What is IMA? Independent Management Architecture (IMA) it’s a Service Independent Management Architecture (IMA) provides the framework for server Communications and is the management foundation for MetaFrame Presentation Server. IMA is a centralized management service comprised of a collection of core Subsystems that define and control the execution of products in a server farm. IMA enables servers to be arbitrarily grouped into server farms that do not depend on the physical locations of the servers or whether the servers are on different network subnets. IMA runs on all servers in the farm. IMA subsystems communicate through messages passed by the IMA Service through default TCP ports 2512 and 2513. The IMA Service starts automatically when a server is started. The IMA Service can be manually started or stopped through the operating system Services utility.
7) Purpose of the Data Collector / Zone Data Collectors:Zone data collectors are communication gateways between zones in farms that have more than one zone. Zone data collectors communicate information used by MetaFrame Presentation Server to list available applications for users and, when users open an application, to locate the most appropriate server on which to run the application When resolving a user’s application request to the least-loaded server in the farm, a zone data collector queries the other zone data collectors for the information it needs to identify the server with the lightest load.
8) Configuring Zones and Data Collectors A zone data collector is a server that manages dynamic information about the servers in the zone. Each farm has at least one zone. Zones are designed to enhance the performance of a farm by allowing Geographically related servers to be grouped together, whether they are connected to the same network subnet or not.
9) What is Speed Screen? Citrix has long talked up “SpeedScreen Latency Reduction” (or “SLR” for short) Citrix’s SpeedScreen Latency Reduction does two things. Firstly, (and most importantly), it provides something called “local text echo.” Local text echo allows 29
characters to appear on the ICA client device’s screen the instant a user pushes the key on their keyboard.
10) Using a RAID Environment This section describes factors to consider if you are thinking about putting the farm’s data store in a Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) environment. See the table below for information about cost, performance, and fault tolerance related to four different RAID configurations. RAID 0 RAID 0 has no redundancy. It is “striped,” which means that data is divided into blocks spanning multiple disks. RAID 0 has multiple actuators (read/write mechanisms) because of the multiple disk use. More actuators improve read and write performance. Citrix does not recommend the use of RAID 0 for critical data, such as a server farm’s data store. The savings realized from purchasing fewer disks does not typically make up for the costs resulting from downtime and support. RAID 1 RAID 1 uses fully redundant disk mirroring. With disk mirroring, a complete copy of one drive is maintained on another drive. RAID 1 provides high fault tolerance and can improve read performance. However, RAID 1 writes the data twice, which can degrade write performance in single disk/controller environments. In addition, this type of redundancy requires twice the disk space. RAID 5 Like RAID 0, RAID 5 is striped. However, because RAID 5 adds parity to the data striping, it includes fault tolerance. If one disk in a RAID 5 group fails, the logical disk continues to function. The parity information is used to recreate data on a replacement disk. The loss of two disks in a group at one time cannot be sustained. RAID 5 uses multiple disk actuators that provide improved read and write performance. RAID 10 RAID 10 combines RAID 1 and RAID 0. It is a striped and fully mirrored set of disks. It is the best configuration for both redundancy and performance. Because of this, it is the most expensive storage option.
11) How to put a server into install mode, "Gui way, command line way" 12. How does Citrix load balancing work? When a client initiates a connection to the server, a vserver terminates the client connection and initiates a new connection with the selected server, or reuses an existing connection with the server, to perform load balancing. The load balancing feature provides traffic management from Layer 4 (TCP and UDP) through Layer 7 (FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS).
The NetScaler uses a number of algorithms, called load balancing methods, to determine how to distribute the load among the servers. The default load balancing method is the Least Connections method. A typical load balancing deployment consists of the entities described in the following figure The entities function as follows: Vserver. An entity that is represented by an IP address, a port, and a protocol. The vserver IP address (VIP) is usually a public IP address. The client sends connection requests to this IP address. The vserver represents a bank of servers.
Service. A logical representation of a server or an application running on a server. Identifies the server's IP address, a port, and a protocol. The services are bound to the vservers.
Server object. An entity that is represented by an IP address. The server object is created when you create a service. The IP address of the service is taken as the name of the server object. You can also create a server object and then create services by using the server object.
Monitor. An entity that tracks the health of the services. The NetScaler periodically probes the servers using the monitor bound to each service. If a server does not respond within a specified response timeout, and the specified number of probes fails, the service is marked DOWN. The NetScaler then performs load balancing among the remaining services.
5) Difference's between ica and rdp The Difference between Microsoft RDP and Citrix ICA Windows 2000/2003 Terminal Services supports the native Microsoft Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) as well as the Citrix Independent Computing Architecture (ICA) protocol (via the Citrix MetaFrame add-on). The following table provides an overview of the features available with each of these protocols: Table: Windows 2000/2003 Terminal Services supported protocols and features:
Windows CE-based thin client
Windows XP Embedded-based thin client
SPX, IPX, NetBEUI
Dial-up, VPN, xDSL
Direct dial-up (non-RAS) Audio
Stereo Windows audio Local printing
Printing to a local printer attached to a thin client
Local drive mapping Local drives accessible from server-based applications
Local port redirection
Redirection of server ports (LPT/COM) to local client ports
Cut and paste
Cut and paste of text and graphics between client and server
User-centric Session Client remembers previous user's logon name for each Access connection
Connect to an active or disconnected session using a different screen resolution
Connect directly to an application rather than to an entire desktop
Server-based applications resize and minimize similar to local applications
Advertise server-based applications directly to client desktops
16-bit color depth
Pooling of servers behind a single server address and for increased availability
Viewing and interacting with other client sessions (also called "shadowing")
Optionally cache display bitmaps in memory for improved performance
Optionally cache display bitmaps to disk for improved performance
Multiple-level encryption for security of client communications +
Multiple-level encryption on Windows CE thin clients
Automatic client update
Administrative means for updating client connection software from the server
Pre-configured client Predefined client with published applications, IP addresses, server names, and connection options
1 Requires Windows 2000 Advanced Server or Datacenter Server. 2 Not available on Windows CE .NET thin clients. 6) You just installed X, y, z application on a Terminal Server / citrix server and the application runs fine for the administrator but not for average Joe user. How would you go about figuring out the problem? What tools would you use? 7) In presentation Server 4.5 what is the name of the console where you publish applications. 8) What's the name of the .CMD file that runs every time a user logs into Citrix. USRLOGON.CMD Whenever a user logs on to MetaFrame, the USRLOGON.CMD file is run. This file is located in %systemroot%/system32. It is configured to run automatically when each user
logs in. This file has two functions: 1. USRLOGON.CMD creates the ROOTDRIVE variable. This variable is used by the Logon Script to identify the user's home directory. 2. USRLOGON.CMD calls USRLOGN2.CMD. USRLOGN2.CMD runs the application scripts that fix user level problems with certain applications. 9) What is an .ICA File, What is contained inside an ica File File type: Citrix file or Bitmap graphic (Image Object Content Architecture) ICA files contain network and system settings used by several Citrix applications. 10) What is Speed Screen 11) Difference between published applications and Published Desktops? Pros/Cons of both.
Query command in citrix? 33
1. What is Farm? Citrix farm is a collection of citrix servers which provide published applications to all users. It also prevent singel of failure of all citrix servers due to load balanced capabilities. 2. What is the requirement for Citrix server installation? Operating systems:
Windows Server 2003 (Standard, Enterprise, or Datacenter Edition) with Service Pack 1 or 2 installed Windows Server 2003 R2 Disk space requirements: 400MB for Citrix Presentation Server, Enterprise Edition 50MB for the Presentation Server Console 25MB for the Access Management Console 35MB for the Document Center Terminal Services running in application mode Java Runtime Environment Version 1.5.0_09 o If you do not have this installed, Autorun.exe prompts to install it for you o Alternatively, you can cancel the installation and install JRE manually from the
Support\JRE1.5 folder on the server installation CD for Citrix Presentation Server .NET Framework Version 2.0 o If you do not have this installed, Autorun.exe prompts to install it for you o You can also install .NET Framework Version 2.0 manually from the Support\dotNet20
folder of the Citrix Presentation Server CD or image 3. What is Client Lock Down Fire up a full PN Client and go to Tools->ICA Settings->Hotkeys Tab. CTRL+ALT+DEL hotkey is Ctrl+F1. So if you add that hotkey combo into the default.ica file in WebInt, it will give users the ability to lock their Citrix sessions by hitting Ctrl+F1 and walk away from the thin client 4. What is Printer terminology in Citrix
Common Microsoft Windows and Citrix Printing Terms Defined Citrix Printing Terms Autoconnected Printers: Printers that are defined for users in their ICA sessions based off the list of network printers defined on the client machine, but are 34
connected directly to the print server. During session initialization, the server attempts to map directly to the print server using the credentials of the user that initiated the ICA session. If the server is unable to establish a direct connection to the location, the printer is autocreated in the session instead of being autoconnected. When a printer is autoconnected, the print job is sent directly from the server running Presentation Server, bypassing the client device, to the specified print server outside of the ICA session. Autocreated Printers: Client local or network printers that appear for the user within an ICA session and use the ICA protocol to send a print job. Autocreated printers use the ICA printer naming convention. Autorestored Printers: A manually created client printer attached to a standard client printer port. This kind of printer can be created by an administrator or power user running the Add Printer wizard and manually creating a local printer that is attached to a standard client printer port. These printers are deleted when logging off and re-created when logging on. Autoretained Printers: These are client printers that are added by the user within an ICA session through the Add Printer wizard by browsing and connecting to printers enumerated through the client network print provider. When re-creating a retained printer, all Citrix policies except the autocreation policy are respected. This means that retained client printers are created exactly as the autocreation policy would have selected them. Such printers continue to be re-created with every logon from the same client until the client printer within the session is deleted manually or the remembered printer connection is removed from the client’s properties store. On a Windows client, the properties store can be found in the user profile under HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Citrix\PrinterProperties Client Printers: Any printer available to a user before an ICA session is launched. Client Local Printer: Printers that are physically connected to client devices through LPT, COM, or TCP ports. Client Network Printer: A network printer that appears in the Printers and Faxes folder of a client device and is managed by a print server. This differs from a print device attached to a standard TCP/IP port. Citrix Print Manager Service (cpsvc.exe): Provides printer management for all ICA sessions including printer policy enforcement, driver installation, client printer port management, auto-creation of network and client printers, and printer/port cleanup when logging off. Citrix Universal Print Driver (UPD): A single driver that is installed and configured on the server to which an administrator can assign to all client autocreated printers. This allows for an administrator to not have to manage, install, and duplicate a potentially large set of third-party print drivers through the server farm.
Citrix Universal Printer: A single generic printer using the Citrix Universal Print Driver. It is mapped within each session and is not bound to any printer defined on the client device. It is not enabled by default. Legacy-style Client Printer Port: The printer ports used by printers created using the legacy naming convention. Such ports are tied to the client workstation by name. The naming convention is as follows: \\ Where is the name of the client workstation and is the name of the printer on the client. Standard-style Client Printer Port: The printer ports used by printers created using the standard naming convention. Such printers are tied to the client workstation by Terminal Services session ID. The naming convention is as follows: :: Where is the session ID number of an active session and is the name of the printer on the client. Session Printers: Network printers shared by a print server that are discovered and attached through a session printing policy. Unmanaged Printer: Permanent printers attached to legacy client printer ports. Both the port and printer become permanent fixtures on the server that they are created on. Whenever the specific client is not connected to the server, the port is marked offline. However, if a session is opened from the client, the port is marked online and any queued print jobs begin to print on the specific client printer. 7. How to use datastore for database 8. What is the difference between all citrix versions? 9. What are different load evaluators are available in Citrix
Citrix load evaluators Many deployments of Citrix where I've had to do health checks have had their default Citrix load evaluators set for load balancing. The default load evaluator sets the user load as 100 users per server. This can be very dangerous as this figure has for all intents and purposes not been tested to and whilst a 100 users per server may be possible on large powerful servers, it isn't attainable across the board. Load evaluators on each server need to be configured to just below the stress limit. So if the servers become unresponsive at a user load of 60 and the server can be 36
rebooted successfully instead of at 61 users where a reboot does nothing. Then we can assume that 60 is the stress limit for the server and using n-1 (where n is the stress limit) would be a fair indicator for the load evaluator. However we need to factor in transaction times to see whether they are impacted at n-1 and if they are we need to set the load evaluator for a lower user load. When loads on servers reach certain points, the associated infrastructure will start to struggle to meet demands put on it. For example, the network components may not be able to deal effectively with network requests and as such user sessions may become unresponsive. Not knowing your stress limits on resources before going 'live' can become a total nightmare when a system is 'live' as it may take time to locate the causes and as I've said before, 'fix it cheaply in test or pay a fortune to fix it later!'. During one stress testing phase I found above a certain load all the servers in the farm became unresponsive. The load on the servers was just before the server stress limits and the aggregate server load on the other associated infrastructure was therefore very high. So the first port of call was to check whether the servers could see the rest of the infrastructure they interfaced with. Which was fine, next I looked at the network and eventually found out the network card on the data store couldn't cope with the number of requests made by the Citrix servers. This is where stress testing shows it's benefits as in most cases non functional testing is never done on a full scale environment, that is, if the plan is to deploy 1000 Citrix servers for 25,000 users, your test environment won't be the same size as the cost could be excessive. So the test environment in most cases is a scaled down version. The only way to contemplate how thousands of users would affect the system, is to try to test at the stress limits and monitor the infrastructure components. For example, using an environment a quarter of the size of the planned primary environment and using the maximum levels of user load (n-1) per server, it's possible to get high numbers of test users using the test environment. By running these stress tests over several days not only would the infrastructure be able to simulate months of load but also apply consistent levels of stress on infrastructure components. This is the stress testing approach I used on a Citrix environment where it was determined the datastore network cards were unsuitable. Testing using the expected loads didn't create any infrastructure issues and the Citrix servers coped extremely well at these loads as the transaction times remained fairly consistent. 37
When the higher loads were applied, the datastore started to struggle. Fortunately we were able to change the network cards during testing otherwise the higher loads would have caused a nightmare if we'd gone into production using these types of network cards. It's important to assess the correctness of setup including whether the right thresholds have been configured for Citrix load evaluators. Citrix User Policies With User Policies, you can apply select MetaFrame settings, including shadowing permission settings, printer autocreation settings, and client device mapping settings, to specific users or user groups. Using policies, you can tailor your environment at the user / group level. Policy rules have three states: Rule Enabled, Rule Disabled, or Rule Not Configured. By default, not all rules are configured. All unconfigured rules are ignored when users log on to the MetaFrame server. I highly recommend reducing the amount of rules set to Rule Not Configured to reduce to need to process the policy and to speed up the logon time. Keep with the following when creating a new Citrix Policy: 1.
Decide the purpose for the Citrix policy Why are you creating the policy and who will it affect. An example of a policy would be to assign them common settings specific to their function, connection type or geographic location.
Create the policy - You will need to define a name for the policy, assign user(s) / group(s) to the policy and set the rules that will be the basis of the policy.
Prioritize or rank your policies In order to over come user(s) / groups(s) that are members of multiple policies you will need to configure policy priority. I highly recommend creating an Administrator policy the disables all policy and gives full control to a select group of Citrix administrators to the top of the policy list to prevent from locking yourself out. In order to view the priory of Citrix Policies you set the consoles view mode to Details. Select Details on the View menu Click the Priority section of the title bar to sort by priority. Important! User Policy settings override all other MetaFrame XP and Terminal Services settings. However, if you disable functionality in Citrix Connection Configuration, you cannot enable the functionality by creating user policies How to Create a New Citrix Policy The following details how to create Citrix User Policies Open the Citrix Management Console, right click on the Policies section and click Create Policy 38
Enter a name for the new policy and click OK.
2. Adjust the policy priority by clicking up or down priory buttons located on the toolbar. You have now sucessfully created a Citrix Policy and are ready to configure the rules and assign user(s) / group(s) to it. How to Configure a Citrix Policy The following details how to configure policy rules. 1.
Double click on a Citrix Policy to open the policy properties.
2. Click the policies that the rules you would like to set and click OK when finished. You have now successfully configured a Citrix Policy and are ready to assign the Policy to user(s) / group(s). How to Assign a Citrix Policy to User(s) and or Group(s) The following details how to assign a policy to user or groups. 1.
Right click on the policy you would like to assign user and or group to and click Assign Users.
Select the User(s) / Groups(s) you would like to assign to the policy and click OK. I highly recommend sticking with group to simply policy management. However if you need to assign a user then you will need to check the Show users checkbox. The Citrix policy will now be assigned to the designated user(s) / group(s) next time they login to the MetaFrame farm. 11. What you will check when any user is not able to launch citrix application. 1) First try to launch same application from Citrix server(on which you installed and published) 2) Try to add same application to your ID and try to launch 3) Check user permissions for that Applications 4) Verify that latest Citrix client software installed at desktop 5) Verify that user is having correct proxy settings to connect to your Citrix network (for remote users) 13. What is ICA and what are the advantage of ICA 39
14. What is Speed Screen 15. What are the query command in citrix 1)qfarm 2)querydc 3)queryds 4)queryhr 16. What are the different ports use in Citrix Some Citrix Port Numbers 1494: This port is used by any client using the TCP protocol to communicate with the Presentation Server. You will need to open this port on your firewall for inbound connections unless you are using some form of encapsulation or encryption. You can change the port using the ICAPORT command but I find it to be more trouble than it is worth. 1604: Called the ICA Browser port this is a UDP port that can be used by the Program Neighbourhood to enumerate applications. You probably won t use this though. 80: This is the default port used by the XML service and is used by clients who enumerate applications with the TCP+HTTP or XML protocol. You will thus need to open this port on your firewall for inbound connections if clients will be using it to locate servers. You can change the port easily enough using the CTXXMLSS command. 443: This is the default SSL. The SSL Relay will use it to secure communications between the Web Interface and the server farm. You could also use it to secure client communication to the web Interface or use it for client connections to the Presentation Server. 5000: The Presentation Server uses this port to communicate with the IBM Db2 server hosting the data store. 1521: This port is used to communicate with the Oracle data store. 1433: The port used to communicate with a Microsoft SQL data store. 2512: This port is used for server to server communication such as when load information is communicated. The port used to access the data store is saved in the HKLMSOFTWARECITRIXIMAIMAPORT key on the server containing the data store. All other servers use the port number saved in HKLMSOFTWARECITRIXIMAPSSERVERPORT key in the registry to access the data store. Have a look at IMAPORT to see how to change it. 40
2513: This port is used by the Presentation Server Console when connection to a server. Have a look at IMAPORT to see how to change it. 2598: This is the session reliability port number and needs to be opened on your firewall if the ICA Clients will be using session reliability when communication with the server. 27000 and a random port number: This is the port used for communication between the Citrix License server and the Presentation Servers. Remember that the Citrix vendor daemon running on the license server uses a random port. It tracks license usage. 17. How the licensing works in Citrix and difference in Citrix Licensing version wise 18. What are the console available to manage citrix server. Access Management Console Presentation management console Citrix web console 19. What is WebInterface or Nfuse (Nfuse is the web interface of the citrix server). 20. What is citrix secure / access gateway and how its work Citrix Access Gateway™ is a universal SSL VPN appliance that combines the best features of IPSec and typical SSL VPNs — without the costly and cumbersome implementation and management — to make access easy for users, secure for the company, and low-cost for the IT department. The Access Gateway provides a secure, always-on, single point of access to any information resource. It works through any firewall; supports all applications and protocols, including IP telephony; is fast, simple and cost-effective to deploy and maintain via its Web-deployed, autoupdating client; and ensures that devices meet company security standards with a worm-blocking client and integrated end-point scanning. The Access Gateway automatically and seamlessly reconnects users to their applications when they change locations and devices, and gives them the same access experience they have at the desktop. Citrix Access Gateway provides secure access to any application hosted on Citrix Presentation Server™, as well as distributed Windows® and UNIX® applications, direct-access Web applications, network file shares, data and collaboration services, and even telephony services using VoIP softphones. With the addition of the Advanced Access Control option, the IT organization can utilize sense and response 41
capabilities to not only provide or deny access to appropriate applications, but also control the level of user action rights for each application or resource accessed. 21. What are the difference between Win2K and 2K3 Terminal server. 22. What is the difference between 2k & 2k3 terminal server licensing 23. What is SBC 24. What is Printer driver replicationa and mapping 25. How to recover when Datastore failing
data store can be recreated by the *.mdb file which is located at program files/Citrix/Indipendent Architectute Management this file can be moved to another server and a data base connectivity and be created using ODBC and creating a *.dsn file. 26. How to recover when IMA failing There can be a number of reasons why the IMA Service appears not to have started including the following: IMA Service load time IMA Service subsystem Missing Temp directory Print spooler service ODBC configuration Roaming Profile Examine the following Windows Registry setting: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWARECitrixIMARuntimeCurrentlyLoadingPlugin If there is no value specified in the CurrentlyLoadingPlugin portion of the above Windows Registry entry then either the IMA Service could not connect to the data store or the local host cache is missing or corrupt. If a CurrentlyLoadingPlugin value is specified the IMA Service made a connection to the data store and the value displayed is the name of the IMA Service subsystem that failed to load. Missing Temp Directory If administrators see an â€œIMA Service Failedâ€ error message with an error code of 2147483649 when starting the MetaFrame XP Presentation Server the local system account might be missing a Temp directory which is required for the IMA Service to run. 42
To gain further insight into the situation change the IMA Service startup account to the local administrator and restart the server. If the IMA Service is successful in starting under the local administratorâ€™s account then it is likely that a missing Temp directory for the local system account is causing the situation. If the Temp directory is not present then manually create one as >Temp. For example: C:WinntTemp Also verify that the TMP and TEMP system environment variables point to the temporary directory. Restart the server to restart the IMA Service 27. What is the requirement of Installation Manager and wht kind of extension its support. 28. What are the parameters of Resource Manager? In your day-to-day management of your MetaFrame XPe environment, Citrix Resource Manager will be one of your most valuable tools. Resource Manager (RM) serves three purposes:
Real time monitoring of MetaFrame XPe servers.
Historic reports containing information about MetaFrame XPe servers.
A central repository of usage information and statistics across all servers in your farm.
Real time monitoring allows you to view the status of different components of the MetaFrame XP server. Each component (known to Resource Manager as a "metric") is viewed via the CMC, and has a green icon next to it if everything is okay. If there are problems, the icon will turn a different color, depending on what the problem is. You can configure the system to send alerts to SNMP traps, email addresses, or short message service pagers if problems occur. You can completely customize the types, behaviors and thresholds of each metric in your environment. In addition to displaying the live status of MetaFrame XPe servers, Resource Manager can also be used to collect and store detailed data about individual servers. A system snapshot is taken every 15 seconds, and a report can be generated on any timeframe in the past 96 hours, allowing you to see exactly what the condition of the server was at a specific time. Finally, if you are using Feature Release 2, MetaFrame XPe servers running Resource Manager can periodically send statistics and data to a centralized database. From there you can generate reports about overall farm usage. You can even set up pricing information and generate invoices based on which users accessed the systems. 43
The newest version of Citrix Resource Manager has evolved quite a bit in the past few years, even since MetaFrame XP was first released. For that reason, this section addresses the Resource Manager component of MetaFrame XPe with Service Pack 2 applied. Since Service Pack 2 is free, you can use it even if you don't plan on using Feature Release 2.
Technical Overview Even though Citrix Resource Manager is fairly straightforward, there are several components required to make it work. These components include:
Citrix Resource Manager software.
Farm metric server.
IMA data store.
Local resource manager database.
Database connection server.
Resource Manager Software. In order to use Resource Manager, you need to ensure that the Resource Manager components are enabled when you install MetaFrame XPe. If not, you can install them at any time by running the SP-2/FR-2 installation program. The Resource Manager software must be locally installed on each MetaFrame XPe server that you want to monitor. This software extends the functionality of the IMA service, allowing it to collect metrics on various server components. Metrics. A metric is a component (and its associated parameters) that is monitored, including the thresholds for changing the status of the metric and sending alerts. Each metric has an icon that changes colors to indicate its current status. Metrics are configured in the server farm and applied to specific servers or published applications. Examples of the hundreds of metrics available include current user load, CPU utilization, and number of published applications in use. Farm Metric Server. The Farm Metric Server (FMS) is responsible for monitoring the status of the metrics of all servers and published applications in the entire server farm. This server actually controls the metric icons, changing their status as conditions warrant. The FMS gets its information from the zone data collector, which is updated every 15 seconds by each MetaFrame XPe server.
IMA Data Store. All Resource Manager configuration information is stored in the IMA data store. This includes the metrics and their associated configurations and thresholds, as well as alert parameters and which metrics are applied to which servers and published applications. Just like the other information in the IMA data store, each MetaFrame XPe server's local host cache contains its local subset of the Resource Manager information from the IMA data store. Local Resource Manager Database. While the Resource Manager configuration information is stored in the IMA data store, each MetaFrame XPe server is responsible for locally maintaining its own Resource Manager data. This data, stored in \Program Files\Citrix\Citrix Resource Manager\LocalDB\RMLocalDatabase.mdb on each server, is maintained for the previous 96 hours, with new data overwriting the oldest data. Summary Database. In Feature Release 2 environments, the summary database is a SQL or Oracle database that stores long term information about server usage. You can configure this data to be whatever you want, but most people store only a small subset of the local resource manager data in the summary database. The difference is that the summary database is used to store the data for weeks or months. Database Connection Server. This server is responsible for receiving summary data from all MetaFrame XPe servers and writing it to the summary database. This is the only server that directly connects to the summary database. Figure 16.2 (next page) shows how the various Resource Manager components work together in the MetaFrame XPe environment. Figure 16.2: The components of Citrix Resource Manager Monitoring Servers and Applications Everything in Resource Manager is monitored via the metrics that you configure. After installation, default server metrics are in place so you can begin monitoring a server immediately without any additional configuration. How you view the current status of the metrics depends on which type of metric you are interested in viewing. There are essentially two types of metrics: published application metrics and server metrics. Obviously, the published application metrics show information relating to each specific published application. They can be viewed in the published application's area in the CMC (CMC | Published Applications | Your Application | Resource Manager Tab). The server metrics, which contain server-specific status and information, can also be viewed via the CMC (CMC | Servers | Your Server | Resource Manager Tab).
Metric Status When viewing metrics, each specific metric has an icon whose color corresponds to the state of the metric. Each metric type, both for published applications and servers, has six possible states, as outlined below: Green. The metric is operating within its acceptable limits as configured in its properties. Yellow. The metric has exceeded the limits of the green state and switched to yellow, having exceeded the time and value limit threshold you configured. Red. The metric has exceeded the time and limit thresholds of the yellow state and switched to red. Any configured SNMP, SMS or email alerts have been sent. Blue. The metric has been added, but it has not yet been configured, so it can't change color. This blue status will not change until you edit the properties of the metric and configure it for use. Gray (Paused). The metric has entered a "snooze" state, manually invoked by an administrator. During this snooze period the metric will not activate any red alarms, and yellow and red conditions will not cause the metric to appear in the watcher window. However, during this snooze state, the metric is still active and it is still collecting data. The metric will exit the snooze state and become green, yellow, or red, after a preconfigured amount of snooze time has passed, as configured in the metric's properties. Black (Stopped). The metric has entered a "sleep" state, manually invoked by an administrator. During this sleep period, the metric will not activate any red alarms. Also, yellow or red conditions will not cause the metric to appear in the watcher window. However, during this sleep state, the metric is still active, and it is still collecting data. The metric will not exit the sleep state until it is manually "woken up" by an administrator. SMA Service => sweet monitoring and alerting service How many connections to servers in the farm can IMA process/keep at one time? While there is no finite answer to this, there is a registry setting that limits the Host Resolver to keeping only 512 open connections to hosts. This is very important in large farm design, and it can be manipulated. The connections to hosts in a zone by a ZDC do not last forever, and can be torn down and re-established. It is important to farm performance that steps are taken in the zone to limit this teardown/setup process from occurring, and bumping up the registry setting alleviates this in zones with more than 512 hosts. The registry setting is: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Citrix\IMA\Runtime\ MaxHostAddressCacheEntries 46
When Miami Inc designs their global farm, the ZDC setup is of the utmost importance as the number of servers in each zone will grow over time to very high levels. A thorough understanding of this setting and the following information is critical. Zone Setup and Information What is the function of a zone? Zones perform two functions: • Collecting data from member servers in the zone • Distributing changes in the zone to other servers in the farm What is a Zone Data Collector (ZDC)? Each zone in a Presentation Server farm has its own “traffic cop” or ZDC. A ZDC may also at times be referred to as the Zone Manager. The ZDC maintains all load and session information for every server in the zone. ZDCs keep open connections to other farm ZDCs for zone communication needs. Changes to/from member servers of a ZDCs zone are immediately propagated to the other ZDCs in the farm. How does the ZDC keep track of all of the hosts in the farm to make sure they are live? If ZDC does not receive an update within the configured amount of time from a member server (default 1 minute) in its zone, it sends a ping (IMAPing) to the member server in question. This timeframe can be configured in: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Citrix\IMA\Runtime\KeepAliveInterval If ZDC does not receive an update within the configured amount of time from a peer ZDC server, it does not continually ping the “lost” ZDC. It waits a default of 5 minutes, which is configurable in: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Citrix\IMA\Runtime\GatewayValidationInterval