CISS 6001 New Security Challenges

September 16, 2017 | Author: Auréline Borel | Category: Plagiarism, Academic Dishonesty, Test (Assessment), Students, Educational Assessment
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Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences CISS6001 New Security Challenges Unit of Study Outline

Semester 2, 2011

Coordinator: Dr Monika Barthwal-Datta Phone: 02 9351 5739, email: [email protected] Office: Centre for International Security Studies, Merewether Building, Room 466 Consultation Times: Tuesdays 11am-12pm Classes Time: Wednesdays 6-9pm Venue: New Law Lecture Theatre 10

1. Unit of study information 1.1. Faculty Handbook description This unit considers the evolving nature of security in the context of global politics. It focuses on a range of non-traditional security challenges and how they affect states as well as non-state referents of security. In doing so, it acknowledges the relationships between these issues and traditional security concerns, while opening up the space for the role and concerns of non-state actors to be considered. The unit explores how issues such as environmental degradation, food insecurity, conflict over water, migration and Identity, and demographic challenges impact the security of communities and states, and how policymakers and analysts may best deal with these challenges in the emerging international environment. 1.2. Aims and context This is a core unit in the Master of International Security degree program. Commencing in the 1980s but accelerating since the end of the Cold War, much scholarship on international security has expanded to consider the security significance of non-military issues. This unit provides students with theoretical and empirical foundations for examining non-traditional dimensions of security, thereby advancing the CISS strategic objective of encouraging integrated, multi-disciplinary approaches to security analysis. The content of the unit complements the core unit GOVT6119 International Security, which focuses on more traditional security concepts, and its regional emphasis is consistent with the core unit CISS6002 Strategy and Security in the Asia-Pacific.

2. Learning outcomes, teaching and learning activities & assessment 2.1. Intended learning outcomes 1. Acquire a critical understanding of emerging security issues, drawing on the interdisciplinary fields of international relations, strategic studies, political science, economics, environmental studies, law, business, public health, and demography.

2. Apply and critique different concepts in the field of security studies. 3. Formulate, analyse and evaluate policy options in relation to non-traditional security challenges. 4. Engage in critical analysis of security studies literature in order to differentiate between academic and policy writing. 5. Demonstrate a capacity for critical reflection so that the assumptions underpinning security concepts and policies can be effectively scrutinized. 6. Appreciate the changing nature of the frontiers of knowledge in the realm of security studies through research; initiate and conduct research in archives, libraries, and using internet resources. 7. Communicate effectively in verbal, written and group contexts to a professional standard. 2.2. Learning and teaching activities Lectures are used to set the scene and show how each topic fits into the overall unit of study aims. You are strongly advised to actively participate. Occasional guest lecturers will be invited to provide expert insights. Seminars are essential for helping you clarify any misunderstandings and apply concepts to more difficult problems. Participation is strongly encouraged for you to check your understanding of concepts. Essential readings are provided for each week and are mandatory. Supplementary readings act as a further introduction to the topic and point of departure for those doing essays or group presentations on the topic. Students are expected to conduct their own library and web searches for additional sources. Also consult the sections on ‘further reading’ at the end of relevant chapters in the two textbooks mentioned below. Main Texts to Purchase:  

Alan Collins (ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Paul D. Williams, (ed.), Security Studies: An Introduction, London: Routledge, 2008.

Other Texts Recommended for Purchase:  

Roland Dannreuther, International Security: The Contemporary Agenda, New York: Polity, 2007. Terry Terriff, et al., Security Studies Today, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1999.

A site for this unit is available on Blackboard. The site contains an electronic version of this outline and the cover sheet (under „Assessment‟) for written assessment tasks 2.3. Assessment Assessment task

Weighting

Due date

Learning outcomes

Word length*

1. Participation

10%

Ongoing

All

N/A

1. Seminar paper

40%

7 days after the relevant session

1,2,3,5,7

2,000

2. Research essay

50%

Oct 12

1,2,4,5,6,7

3,000

Total

100%

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5,000

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Written assessment tasks should be word-processed with margins adequate for written comments from the Coordinator. Use double-spacing, number each page, and use a clear, legible font no smaller than 12 points. The penalty for late submission is a 2-point reduction of your mark (out of 100) per day late (weekends included). The Coordinator will grant extensions on a case-by-case basis and will typically require the applicant to provide a medical certificate. The Coordinator will not accept written assessment tasks beyond two (2) weeks after the due date. 2.4. Assessment details Participation: The Coordinator will assess the overall quality (rather than the quantity) of your preparation for and contributions to weekly meetings. Seminar paper: At the start of semester, you will select one topic from the list of topics for the course (see p. 8-9) and work in pairs/ small groups to give a brief presentation (30-40 mins) as Designated Experts. At a minimum, you should be able to engage in critical analysis of all the essential readings for your topic. Use of relevant and appropriate handouts, audiovisual aids etc. highly recommended. Within seven days of the relevant weekly meeting, you must submit a 2,000 word (references included) paper addressing one of the Discussion Questions for your topic (or another question approved by the Coordinator). Research essay: You will answer one question from a list of essay questions distributed in Week 1. This assessment task is an opportunity for you to:  initiate and conduct research using books, journal articles and electronic resources  demonstrate your familiarity with data and arguments at the frontiers of knowledge in the realm of security studies  demonstrate your ability to think critically and advance a structured argument  demonstrate your ability to write succinctly in a scholarly style that conforms to conventions on proper referencing (see, for example, p. 21) The word limit is 3,000 (references included). Deadline to submit: By 5pm on October 20 2011

2.5. Workload and minimum requirements Academic Board guidelines state that one credit point equates to approximately 1.5 to 2 hours of student effort per week for a typical 13 week semester. This means that if you are an average student seeking to get an average result for this Unit then you should plan to spend at least 9 hours each week on learning. If you are studying four x 6 credit point UoS you should plan to spend at least 36 hours each week on your study. These recommended hours assume that you are actively engaged in learning during this time. In order to pass this unit, students are required to: 

attend at least 11 out of the 13 weekly seminars;



submit all assessment tasks; and



achieve an overall grade of at least 50%

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2.6. Feedback The unit coordinator will return marked assessments within 3 weeks of submission.

3. University policies and services 3.1. Academic honesty The Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences is committed to the principles of academic honesty as set out in the Academic Board Policy: Academic Dishonesty and Plagiarism. Students have a responsibility to familiarise themselves with these principles. In accordance with Academic Board policy, the School‟s definition of academic dishonesty includes but is not limited to:  plagiarism: for full details see below;  recycling: the resubmission for assessment of work that is the same or substantially the same, as work previously submitted for assessment in the same or in a different unit of study;  fabrication of data;  the engagement of another person to complete or contribute to an assessment or examination in place of the student, whether for payment or otherwise;  communication, whether by speaking or some other means, to other candidates during an examination;  bringing into an examination forbidden material such as textbooks, notes, calculators or computers;  attempting to read other student‟s work during an examination; and/or  writing an examination or test paper, or consulting with another person about the examination or test, outside the confines of the examination room without permission.  copying from other students during examinations  inappropriate use of electronic devices to access information during examinations. 3.2. Plagiarism Plagiarism is the theft of intellectual property. Students have a responsibility to understand the full details of the Academic Board Policy: Academic Dishonesty and Plagiarism which can be downloaded from the University‟s Policy online website. All students are required to include a signed statement of compliance with work submitted for assessment, presentation or publication certifying that no part of the work constitutes a breach of the University‟s policy on plagiarism. This statement of compliance is printed on all assignment/essay cover sheets and written work will not be marked if the compliance statement is unsigned. Common forms of plagiarism include but are not limited to:  presenting written work that contains sentences, paragraphs or longer extracts from published work without attribution of the source;  presenting written work that reproduces significant portions of the work of another student; and/or  using the structure of another person‟s argument, even if the wording is changed. Legitimate cooperation between students is permitted and encouraged but students should be aware of the difference between cooperation and collusion. Discussion of general themes and concepts is allowed but students are not permitted to read each other‟s work prior to submission or cooperate so closely that they are jointly selecting quotes, planning essay structure or copying each other‟s ideas. While plagiarism is never acceptable, there is a distinction between negligent plagiarism and plagiarism that involves dishonest intent. Negligent plagiarism is defined in Academic Board policy as “innocently, recklessly or carelessly presenting another person‟s work as one‟s own work without acknowledgement of the source‟.

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Where negligent plagiarism is proven, students will be counselled and referred to appropriate services for assistance. They will also be issued with a written warning explaining the consequences of any subsequent breaches of the University‟s policy prohibiting plagiarism. Further action may be taken including requiring the student to resubmit or undertake another assessment task, undertake remedial action, or in some cases a fail grade may be applied to the work or part of the work. Dishonest plagiarism is defined in Academic Board policy as „knowingly presenting another person‟s work as one‟s own work without acknowledgement of the source‟. Where academic dishonesty or dishonest plagiarism is proven as not serious enough to constitute potential student misconduct under Chapter 8 of the University of Sydney By-Law 1999 the student will be counselled and referred to appropriate services for assistance. They will also be issued with a written warning explaining the consequences of any subsequent breaches of the University‟s policy prohibiting plagiarism. Further action may be taken including requiring the student to resubmit or undertake another assessment task, undertake remedial action, or in some cases a fail grade may be applied to the work or part of the work. In cases where academic dishonesty or dishonest plagiarism is proven as serious enough to constitute potential student misconduct under Chapter 8 of the University of Sydney By-Law 1999 the case will be referred to the Registrar. Students are encouraged to think for themselves. In assessing students‟ work academic staff look for evidence of understanding and capacity for independent thought; it is always disappointing to discover plagiarism. Written work containing plagiarism will be assessed according to its academic merit, but may fail because it does not meet the minimum standard required. 3.3. Late work and extensions Essays and assignments not submitted on or before the due date are subject to penalty. The Faculty‟s Policy on Late Work for undergraduate units of study states that late work is penalised at the rate of two marks (out of 100) per working day (ie week day). In this instance, „two marks‟ means two full points off the awarded mark, not two percent of the awarded mark. For assignments marked out of a maximum total other than 100, the penalty will apply pro rata. For example, for assignments marked out of 40, the penalty will be 0.8 marks per working day. Only coordinators, either of individual units or of the junior and/or senior curricula have the authority to grant extensions. Requests for extension must be made via the Faculty‟s online assessment consideration system at http://sydney.edu.au/arts/current_students/online_application.shtml Late essays or assignments will not be accepted (except where applications for special consideration are lodged) beyond the designated return date for the relevant written work. In cases where documented misadventure or serious illness prevents students from submitting work before the designated return date an alternative assessment task will be set. For further details see the Faculty of Arts Late Work Policy at: http://sydney.edu.au/arts/current_students/policies.shtml We understand that students encounter difficulties of various kinds during their study and we are able to refer you to appropriate counselling services where necessary, but is your responsibility to contact the Unit of Study Coordinator if you do have problems that affect your attendance or prevent you meeting assignment deadlines. Extensions may be granted in the case of illness or misadventure; these must be applied for via the Faculty of Arts online system for Extensions, Special Consideration and Special Arrangements.

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3.4. Special consideration: Illness or misadventure Student requests for special consideration are assessed in accordance with the principles set out in Part 5 of the Academic Board policy on Assessment and Examination of Coursework. Students intending to submit an application for special consideration should make themselves familiar with the full details of this policy. Applications for Special Consideration must be made as soon as possible and within five working days of the due date of the assessment. Where circumstances prevent this, a student may still apply but must provide a reasonable case for the delay in submitting their application. Only illness or misadventure during a semester or occurring at the time of an examination will warrant Special Consideration for academic performance. The academic judgement as to whether Special Consideration will be granted will depend upon both the nature of the illness or misadventure and its timing with respect to the assessment. For instance a short acute illness supported by a Professional Practitioner Certificate the day of the examination would normally be accepted as grounds for Special Consideration, but the same illness occurring several weeks before an assessment would be unlikely to be considered acceptable grounds. All applications for Special Consideration must be made via an online system. To access this system please go to: http://sydney.edu.au/arts/current_students/online_application.shtml If students miss an exam because of illness or misadventure they should first notify the department concerned and then apply for Special Consideration using the online system. Requests for Simple Extensions of less than five working days for non-examination based assessment are also covered by the online system. 3.5. Special arrangements Special Arrangements may be made available to any student enrolled in a Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences unit of study, who is unable to meet assessment requirements or attend examinations, because of one or more of the following situations: 1. essential religious commitments or essential beliefs (including cultural and ceremonial commitments) 2. compulsory legal absence (e.g. jury duty, court summons, etc), 3. sporting or cultural commitments, including political/union commitments, where the student is representing the University, state or nation, 4. birth or adoption of a child, 5. Australian Defence Force or emergency service commitments (including Army Reserve), and 6. Where the Faculty can form the view that employment of an essential nature to the student would be jeopardise and that the student has little or no discretion with respect to the employment demand Applications for special arrangements are also handled through the same online system as Special Consideration (see above). Applications for Special Arrangements should be made at the beginning of semester with regard to religious beliefs or commitments relating to moveable feasts, prayer or worship times, or with regard to other requirements of a student‟s religion. Applications for other types of commitment should be made as soon as possible after being notified of a requirement to be absent from the University. With regard to examinations held during University-wide examination periods, applications should be submitted within two weeks of the examination timetable.

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3.6. Appeals Faculty policy reflects Academic Board policy on Appeals which can be found at: http://sydney.edu.au/student_affairs/AcAppealsStudents.shtml. All care is taken to ensure that marking is consistent and fair and that markers adhere to the assessment criteria as advertised. In some rare cases, however, a student may feel that the mark awarded does not reflect the quality of the work done. If you wish to lodge an appeal against the grade awarded, the first step is to contact the Unit of Study Coordinator to arrange for a time to discuss the assessment task. This should happen within 15 working days of marks being made available to students. If you are not happy with the outcome of this discussion, then you may appeal formally against the grade awarded. The student should first read the Academic Board Resolution on „Student Appeals Against Academic Decisions‟. This appeal should be lodged within 15 working days, of the outcome of discussions at local level as outlined above. The appeal must be lodged through the Faculty Office (attention Dean of the Faculty of Arts) and include the following: 

Appeal for Reassessment Form (PDF) (available at http://sydney.edu.au/arts/current_students/undergraduate_forms.shtml)



Written statement outlining the reasons for appeal and any additional supporting documentation. The written statement should draw attention to such matters as perceived injustice in terms of bias or inconsistent application of the grade descriptors published by the Department.

All information concerning your appeal will be confidential 3.7. Learning assistance Students experiencing difficulties with their written expression, including essay writing style or structure can seek assistance from the Learning Centre, which runs workshops on a range of subjects including study skills, academic reading and writing, oral communication, and examination skills. The centre offers programs specifically designed for students from a nonEnglish speaking background. The Learning Centre is located on Level 7 of the Education Building A35 (beside Manning House); contact them on 9351 3853 or email [email protected] . For further information visit the Learning Centre website at http://sydney.edu.au/stuserv/learning_centre/ . Online learning assistance is available via the Write Site, which offers modules on grammar, sources and structure to help students develop their academic and professional writing skills. Each module provides descriptions of common problems in academic and professional writing and strategies for addressing them. Students can view samples of good writing and also do some practice activities in error correction. For further information visit the Write Site at http://writesite.elearn.usyd.edu.au . Learning assistance is also available to Indigenous Australian students via the Koori Centre and includes academic skills group workshops covering topics such as concentration strategies, writing for specific disciplines, time management, research and reading strategies, academic writing styles and referencing. The Koori Centre is located on Level 2 of Old Teachers College A22; contact 9351 2046 or 1800 622 742 (toll free) or email [email protected] For further information visit the Koori Centre website at http://sydney.edu.au/koori . 3.8. Other support services Disability Services is located on Level 5, Jane Foss Russell Building G20; contact 8627 8422 or email [email protected] . For further information visit their website at http://sydney.edu.au/stuserv/disability/ . CISS6001, NEW SECURITY CHALLENGES

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The Counselling Service is located on Level 5, Jane Foss Russell Building G20; contact 8627 8433 or email [email protected] For further information visit their website at http://sydney.edu.au/stuserv/counselling/ . Note: All Academic Board policies referred to above are available online at http://sydney.edu.au/policy .

4. Schedule Week 1 Introduction: A ‘new’ security agenda 27 July Week 2 Food Security 3 August Week 3 Environmental Security and Climate Change 10 August Week 4 Energy Security 17 August Week 5 Water scarcity, conflict and security 24 August Week 6 Demographic challenges to security 31 August Week 7 Migration and Identity 7 September Week 8 Infectious diseases 14 September Week 9 Terrorism and the war on terror 21 September **Mid-semester Break: Monday 26 September to Friday 30 September** Week 10 Transnational crime 5 October Week 11 Cyber Security 12 October Week 12 International laws and institutions 19 October Week 13 Critical reflections 26 October

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5. Reading Guide Week 1 Introduction: the ‘new’ security agenda Wednesday 27 July Discussion Questions: Key topics: 

What is „new‟ about the „new‟ security agenda?



Should security studies include the study of these „new‟ challenges?



How should security be defined?

Essential reading:   

Alan Collins, „Introduction: What is Security Studies?‟ in Alan Collins (ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. (Chapter 1) Pauline Kerr, „Human Security‟ in Alan Collins (ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. (Chapter 6) Ralf Emmers, „Securitization‟ in Alan Collins (ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. (Chapter 7)

Supplementary reading:           

Amitav Acharya, „Human Security‟ in John Baylis, Steve Smith and Patricia Owens (eds.) The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, 4th ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. (Chapter 28) David A. Baldwin, „The Concept of Security‟, Review of International Studies 23, no. 1 (1997): 5-26. Barry Buzan, People, States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era, 2nd ed., New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991. Edward A. Kolodziej, Security and International Relations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. (Chapter 1) Michael Sheehan, International Security: An Analytical Survey, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2005. (Chapter 4: the Broader Agenda) Ken Booth (ed.) Critical Security Studies and World Politics, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2005. Jessica Tuchman Mathews, „Redefining Security‟, Foreign Affairs 68, no. 2 (1989): 162177. David Mutimer, „Beyond Strategy: Critical Thinking and the New Security Studies‟ in Craig A. Snyder (ed.), Contemporary Security and Strategy, London: Macmillan, 1999. (Chapter 4). Emma Rothschild, „What is Security?‟, Daedalus 124, no. 3 (1995): 53-98. Ole Waever, „Securitization and Desecuritization,‟ in Ronnie Lipschutz (ed.), On Security, Columbia University Press, 1995. (Chapter 3) James J. Wirtz, „A New Agenda for Security and Strategy?‟ in John Baylis, James Wirtz, Colin S. Gray and Eliot Cohen (eds.) Strategy in the Contemporary World, 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. (Chapter 16)

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Week 2 Food Security Wednesday 3 August Discussion Questions: 

What are the links between food security and global security?



What are the causes of food insecurity?



What kind of domestic and foreign policies do states need in order to ensure food security at the state and global levels?

Essential reading:   

Alan Dupont and Mark Thirlwell „A New Era of Food Insecurity?‟, Survival, Vol. 51, no. 3 (2009), pp. 71-98 Walter P. Falcon and Rosamond. L. Naylor, „Rethinking Food Security for the TwentyFirst Century‟, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 87, No. 5, Proceedings Issue (Dec., 2005), pp. 1113-1127. „The 9-billion people question – A special report on feeding the world‟, The Economist, February 26 2011.

Supplementary reading:        

Philip McMichael and Mindi Schneider, „Food Security Politics and the Millennium Development Goals‟, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 32, no. 1 (2011), pp. 119-139. Joseph Schmidhuber and Francesco N. Tubiello, „Global Food Security under climate change‟, PNAS, Vol. 104 no. 5 (December 11 2007), pp. 19703-19708. Ray Bush, „Food Riots: Poverty, Power and Protest‟, Journal of Agrarian Change, Vol. 10 no. 1 (January 2010), pp. 119–129. Benjamin Shepherd, „Redefining food security in the face of foreign land investors: The Philippines Case‟, NTS-Asia Research Paper no. 6 (2011). Available at http://www.rsis.edu.sg/nts/HTML-Newsletter/Report/pdf/NTS-Asia_Ben_Shepherd.pdf Tim Siegenbeek van Heukelom, „A Human Approach to Food Security: Land Grabs in the Limelight‟, Journal of Human Security, Vol. 7, No. 1 (2011), pp. 6-20. H. Charles J. Godfray et al, „Food Security: The Challenge of Feeding 9 Billion People‟, Science, Vol 327, no 5967 (February 12 2010), pp. 812-818 Mark W. Rosegrant and Sarah A. Cline, „Global Food Security: Challenges and Policies‟, Science, Vol. 302, no. 5652 (12 December 2003), pp. 1917-1919. Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/content/302/5652/1917.full Ismail Serageldin, „Biotechnology and Food Security in the 21st Century‟, Science, Vol. 285 no. 5426 (16 July 1999), pp. 387-389. Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5426/387.full

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Week 3 Environmental Security and Climate Change Wednesday 10 August Guest Lecturer: Prof Alan Dupont, Director, CISS Discussion Questions: 

What is the security significance, if any, of climate change?



Is there a relationship between environmental degradation and violent conflict? Explain.



What are the advantages and disadvantages of framing the environment in security terms?

Essential reading:   

Jon Barnett, „Environmental Security‟ in Alan Collins (ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. (Chapter 11) Marc A. Levy, „Is the Environment a National Security Issue?‟ International Security 20, no. 2 (1995): 35-62. John Podesta and Peter Ogden, „The Security Implications of Climate Change‟, The Washington Quarterly 31, no. 1 (Winter 2007-08): 115-138.

Supplementary reading:            

Daniel Deudney, „The Case against Linking Environmental Degradation and National Security‟ Millennium: Journal of International Studies 19, no. 3 (1990): 461-476. Alan Dupont, „The Strategic Implications of Climate Change‟, Survival 50, no. 3 (2008): 29-54. Evelyn Goh, Developing the Mekong: Regionalism and Regional Security in ChinaSoutheast Asia Relations, Adelphi Paper 387, London: IISS, 2007, pp.17-39. Thomas Homer-Dixon, Environment, Scarcity, and Violence, London: Princeton University Press, 1999. Peter Hough, Understanding Global Security, 2nd ed., London: Routledge, 2008. (Chapters 6 and 8) Tim Huxley, „The Tsunami and Security: Asia‟s 9/11?‟, Survival 47, no. 1 (2005): 123132. Christopher Jasparro and Jonathan Taylor, „Climate Change and Regional Vulnerability to Transnational Security Threats in Southeast Asia‟, Geopolitics 13, no. 2 (2008): 232256. Richard A. Matthew, „In Defense of Environment and Security Research‟ ECSP Report, Issue 8 (2002): 109-124. Carolyn Pumphrey (ed.), Global Climate Change: National Security Implications, Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2008. Michael Renner, „Environmental Security: the Policy Agenda‟, Conflict, Security and Development 4, no. 3 (2004): 313-334. Paul J. Smith, „Climate Change, Mass Migration and the Military Response‟, Orbis (Fall 2007): 617-633. Lisa Burke, „Floods, Tsunamis and Earthquakes‟ in Eckert, A. E. and Sjoberg, L. (eds.) Rethinking the 21st Century: ‘New’ Problems, ‘Old’ Solutions, London: Zed Books, 2008.

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Week 4 Energy Security Wednesday 17 August Discussion Questions: 

Is energy a „security‟ issue, or is „energy security‟ just an energy issue?



Where and why does energy resource scarcity generate tension between states?



Can competition for energy lead to violent conflict? Explain.

Essential reading:    

Michael T. Klare, „Energy Security‟ in Paul D. Williams, (ed.), Security Studies: An Introduction, London: Routledge, 2008. (Chapter 32) Mathew Burrows and Gregory F. Treverton, „A Strategic View of Energy Futures‟, Survival 49, no. 3 (2007): 79-90. William T. Tow, „Strategic Dimensions of Energy Competition in Asia‟, in Michael Wesley (ed.), Energy Security in Asia, London: Routledge, 2007 (chapter 9). Xu Yi-chong, „China's Energy Security‟ Australian Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (2006): 265-286.

Supplementary reading:  

       



Michael Wesley, Power Plays: Energy and Australia’s Security, Canberra: Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 2007. Available at Available at http://www.aspi.org.au/publications/publication_details.aspx?ContentID=142 Anthony Bubalo and Mark Thirlwell, „New Rules for a New „Great Game‟: Northeast Asian Energy Insecurity and the G-20‟, Policy Brief, Sydney: Lowy Institute for International Policy, 2006. Available at http://www.lowyinstitute.org/PublicationGet.asp?i=508 Anthony Bubalo, Michael Fullilove and Mark Thirlwell, Fuelling Confrontation: Iran, the US and the Oil Weapon, Analysis, Sydney: Lowy Institute for International Policy, 2006. Available at http://www.lowyinstitute.org/Publication.asp?pid=384 David A. Deese and Joseph S. Nye (eds.), Energy and Security, Cambridge MA: Ballinger, 1981. Christopher Dent, „Economic Security‟ in Alan Collins (ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. (Chapter 12) Jan H. Kalicki and David L. Goldwyn (eds.) Energy and Security: Towards a New Foreign Policy Strategy, Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2005. Susanne Peters, „Coercive Western Energy Security Strategies: „Resource Wars‟ as a New Threat to Global Security‟, Geopolitics 9, no. 1 (2004): 187-212. Lawrence Saez, „U.S. Policy and Energy Security in South Asia: Economic Prospects and Strategic Implications‟, Asian Survey 47, no. 4 (2007): 657-678. Frank Verrastro and Sarah Ladislaw, „Providing Energy Security in an Interdependent World‟, The Washington Quarterly 30, no. 4 (2007): 95-104. Zha Daojiong, „China‟s Energy Security: Domestic and International Issues‟, Survival 48, no. 1 (2006): 179-190. Zhang Xuegang, „Southeast Asia and Energy: Gateway to Stability‟, China Security 3, no. 2 (2007): 18-35.

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Week 5 Water scarcity, conflict and security Wednesday 24 August Guest lecturer: Christopher Baker, CISS Discussion Questions 

Could water scarcity lead to conflict between countries?



How is water linked to other „new‟ security issues?

Essential reading:       

Peter M. Gleick, „Water and Conflict: Fresh Water Resources and International Security‟, International Security, Vol. 18, no. 1 (1993): 79-112. Thomas F. Homer-Dixon, „Environmental Scarcities and Violent Conflict: Evidence from Cases‟, International Security Vol. 19, no. 1 (1994): 5-40. Michael T. Klare, „The New Geography of Conflict‟ Foreign Affairs Vol. 80, no. 3 (MayJune 2001): 49-61. Alex Liebman, „Trickle Down Hegemony? China‟s „Peaceful Rise‟ and Dam Building on the Mekong‟, Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 27 no. 2 (2005): 281-304. „Managing the Mekong: Conflict or Compromise?‟ The New Security Beat – Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars, (12 January, 2010). URL: http://www.newsecuritybeat.org/2010/12/managing-mekong-conflict-orcompromise.html John Vidal, „International Special Report: Water Security – Global Disputes: Water Wars Loom as Demand Grows‟, The Guardian, (26 June, 2010).

Supplementary reading:  Wendy Barnaby, „Do Nations go to War Over Water?‟ Nature, Vol. 458, (19 March, 2009): 282-283.  Nina Behrman ed.), „The Waters of the Third Pole: Sources of Threat, Sources of Survival‟, China Dialogue/Humanitarian Futures Program/Aon Benfield, London: Kings College, 2010. URL: http://www.humanitarianfutures.org/hfpubs/futures/thirdpole  Alex Evans, „Resource Scarcity, Climate Change and the Risk of Violent Conflict‟, World Development Report 2011: Background Paper, World Bank (9 September,2010), URL: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTWDR2011/Resources/64060821283882418764/WDR_Background_Paper_Evans.pdf  Peter M. Gleick, „Watch Peter Gleick on Peak Water‟, The New Security Beat – Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars, (2 May, 2009). URL: http://www.newsecuritybeat.org/2009/02/video-peter-gleick-on-peak-water.html  Gleick, „Water Conflict Chronology‟, The World's Water, http://worldwater.org/chronology.html.  Miriam R. Lowi, „Bridging the Divide: Transboundary Resource Disputes and the Case of the West Bank Water‟, International Security Vol. 19, no. 1 (1994): 113-138.  Jeroen F. Warner and Mark Zeitoun, „International Relations Theory and Water Do Mix: A Response to Furlong‟s Troubled Waters, Hydrohegemony and International Water Relations‟, Political Geography, Vol. 27 (2008): 802-810.

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Week 6 Demographic challenges to security Wednesday 31 August Guest Lecturer: Prof Peter Curson (TBC) Discussion Questions: 

What is the security significance, if any, of youth and old age?



How will current demographic trends impact on international security?



What are the key linkages between population and security? Are they important?

Essential reading:  N. Eberstadt, „Strategic Implications of Asian Demographic Trends‟, in J.Ellings, A.l Freidberg and M.Wills(Eds), Strategic Asia 2003-04. Fragility and Crisis, 2003 : 453-485.  C.C. Fair et.al, „Demographics and Security:The Contrasting Cases of Pakistan and Bangladesh‟, Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, XXV111 (4) Summer 2003 : 53-76.  G.McNicholl, „Demographic factors in East Asian Regional Integration‟. Working Paper No 158. Population Policy Research Division. Population Council. 2002.  B.Nichiporuk,et al, „Demographics and Security in Maritime Southeast Asia‟, Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Winter/Spring 2006 : 83-91. Supplementary reading:  Valerie M. Hudson and Andrea M. den Boer. Bare Branches: The Security Implications of Asia's Surplus Male Population, Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2004.  R.P Cincotta, R. Engelman & D. Anastasion, The Security Demographic: Population and Civil Conflict After the Cold War. Washington DC. Population Action International. 2003.  N. Eberstadt, „Some Strategic Implications of Asian/Eurasian Demographic Trends‟, Working Paper Series, Vol.14 (8). Havard Center for Population & Development Studies. Nov.2004.  J.A.Goldstone, „Population and Security: How Demographic Change can Lead to Violent Conflict‟, Journal of International Affairs, 56 (1) Fall 2002: 1-22.  L.Mastny and R.P.Cincotta, „Examining the Connections between Population and Security‟, in State of the World – Global Security 2005. London. Worldwatch Report. Earthscan. 2005.  B. Nichiporuk, The Security Dynamics of Demographic Factors, RAND, 2000.  N.Weiner and M.S.Teitelbaum, Political Demography; Demographic Engineering. New York, Berghahn. 2001.

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Week 7 Migration and identity Wednesday 7 September Discussion Questions: 

When and why is migration framed as a security issue?



Under what circumstances might cultural identity be a security issue?



How important are „values‟ to national security?

Essential reading:  Paul Roe, „Societal Security‟ in Alan Collins (ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. (Chapter 10)  Fiona B. Adamson, „Crossing Borders: International Migration and National Security‟, International Security 31, no. 1 (2006): 165-199.  Tara Magner, „A Less than „Pacific‟ Solution for Asylum Seekers in Australia‟ International Journal of Refugee Law 16, no. 1 (2004): 53-90. Supplementary reading:  Alan Collins, „Securitization, Frankenstein‟s Monster and Malaysian Education‟, Pacific Review 18, no. 4 (2005): 567-588.  Melissa Curley and Siu-lun Wong, Security and Migration in Asia: the Dynamics of Securitisation, London, Routledge, 2008.  Richard Dagger, „Politics, Rights, and the Refugee Problem‟ in Peter A. French and Jason A. Short (eds.), War and Border Crossings: Ethics when Cultures Clash, Lanham MD, Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.  Roxanne Lynne Doty, „States of Exception on the Mexico-U.S. Border: Security, “Decisions,” and Civilian Border Patrols‟, International Political Sociology 1, no. 2 (2007): 113-137.  Charlotte Epstein, „Guilty Bodies, Productive Bodies, Destructive Bodies: Crossing the Biometric Borders‟, International Political Sociology 1, no. 2 (2007): 149-164.  Bill McSweeney, „Identity and Security: Buzan and the Copenhagen School‟, Review of International Studies 22 (1996): 81-93.  Nana Poku and David T. Graham, Redefining Security: Population Movements and National Security. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1998.  Steve Ratuva, „The Paradox of Multiculturalism: Ethnopolitical Conflict in Fiji‟ in M. Anne Brown (ed.), Security and Development in the Pacific Islands: Social Resilience in Emerging States, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2007. (Chapter 10)  Christian P. Scherrer, Ethnicity, Nationalism and Violence: Conflict Management, Human Rights, and Multilateral Regimes, Aldershot, Burlington, 2003.  Myron Weiner, „Bad Neighbors, Bad Neighborhoods: An Inquiry into the Causes of Refugee Flows‟, International Security 21, no. 1 (1996): 5-42.

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Week 8 Infectious diseases Wednesday 14 September Discussion Questions:  In what ways do infectious diseases relate to military endeavours? 

What forms of national and international action are required in response to an influenza pandemic?



Is HIV/AIDS a security issue? Why or why not?

Essential reading:  Stefan Elbe, „HIV/AIDS and Security‟ in Alan Collins (ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. (Chapter 18) 

Elizabeth M. Prescott, 'SARS: a Warning', Survival, 45, no. 3 (2003): 207-226.



US Homeland Security Council, National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza: Implementation Plan, 2006. Chapter 1 – Executive Summary. Available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/homeland/pandemic-influenza-implementation.html

Supplementary reading:  Jennifer Brower and Peter Chalk, The Global Threat of New and Reemerging Infectious Disease: Reconciling U.S. National Security and Public Health Policy. Santa Monica CA, RAND, 2003.  Mely Caballero-Anthony, „Combating Infectious Diseases in East Asia: Securitization and Global Public Goods for Health‟, Journal of International Affairs, 59, no. 2 (2006): 105127.  Christian Enemark, Disease and Security: Natural Plagues and Biological Weapons in East Asia, London: Routledge, 2007.  D.P. Fidler, Germs, Norms and Power: Global Health's Political Revolution (Law, Social Justice & Global Development Online, 4 June 2004). Available at http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/lgd/2004_1/fidler/  Colin McInnes and Kelley Lee, „Health, Security and Foreign Policy‟, Review of International Studies, 32, no. 1 (2006): 5-23.  M. B. A. Oldstone, Viruses, Plagues, and History, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.  Susan Peterson, „Epidemic Disease and National Security‟, Security Studies, 12, no. 2 (2002/3), 43-81.  Andrew T. Price-Smith, The Health of Nations: Infectious Disease, Environmental Change, and Their Effects on National Security and Development, Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2002.  Gwyn Prins, „AIDS and Global Security‟ International Affairs 80, no. 5 (2004): 931-952.  Jeffrey K. Taubenberger and David M. Morens, „1918 Influenza: the Mother of All Pandemics‟, Emerging Infectious Diseases 12, no. 1 (2006): 15-22.  Jonathan B. Tucker, Scourge: the Once and Future Threat of Smallpox, New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001.  Hans Zinsser, Rats, Lice, and History, London: Routledge, 1935.

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Week 9 Terrorism and the War on Terror Wednesday 21 September Discussion Questions:  What is „terrorism‟? 

Does the killing of Osama Bin Laden constitute victory‟ in the War on Terror? Discuss.



Is it useful to talk about „state terrorism‟? Why or why not?

Essential reading: 

 

David Rapoport, “The Four Waves of Modern Terrorism”, UCLA, Burkle Center for International Relations. May 5, 2006: http://www.international.ucla.edu/cms/files/Rapoport-Four-Waves-of-ModernTerrorism.pdf Brenda Lutz and James Lutz, „Terrorism‟ in Alan Collins (ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. (Chapter 16) Neil Renwick, „Southeast Asia and the Global „War on Terror‟ Discourse‟, Cambridge Review of International Affairs 20, no. 2 (2007): 249-266.

Supplementary reading:  Isabelle Duyvesteyn, „How New is the New Terrorism?‟, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 27, no. 5 (2004): 439-454.  Christian Enemark and Christopher Michaelsen, „Just War Doctrine and the Invasion of Iraq,‟ Australian Journal of Politics and History 51, no. 4 (2005): 545-563.  Natasha Hamilton-Hart, „Terrorism in Southeast Asia: Expert Analysis, Myopia and Fantasy‟, Pacific Review 18, no. 3 (2005): 303-325.  Bryn Hughes, „Securitizing Iraq: The Bush Administration‟s Social Construction of Security‟, Global Change, Peace and Security 19, no. 2 (2007): 83-102.  Michael Ignatieff, The Lesser Evil: Political Ethics in an Age of Terror. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004.  Edward Newman, „Weak States, State Failure, and Terrorism‟, Terrorism and Political Violence 19, no. 4 (2007): 463-488.  Bradley E. Smith, „America‟s First Response to Terrorism: the Barbary Pirates and the Tripolitan War of 1801‟, Military Review, November-December 2005: 65-69.  Leonard Weinberg, Ami Pedahzur and Sivan Hirsch-Hoefler, „The Challenges of Conceptualizing Terrorism‟, Terrorism and Political Violence 16, no. 4 (2004): 777-794.  Paul D. Williams, „Security Studies, 9/11 and the Long War‟ in Alex Bellamy, Roland Bleiker, Richard Devetak and Sara Davies (eds.), Security and the War on Terror, London: Routledge. (Chapter 1)

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Week 10 Transnational crime Wednesday 5 October Discussion Questions: 

At what point, if ever, does a crime problem become a security problem?



Is transnational organised crime a greater threat to human security or to state security?



What form of transnational organised crime is most harmful? Why?

Essential reading:  Jeanne Giraldo and Harold Trinkunas, „Transnational Crime‟ in Alan Collins (ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. (Chapter 19)  Ralf Emmers, „ASEAN and the Securitization of Transnational Crime in Southeast Asia‟, Pacific Review 16, no. 3 (2003): 419-438.  Peter Grabosky and John McFarlane: “The Potential of Crime to Undermine Australia‟s National Security” in Security Challenges 3, no. 4 (2007): 131-150 Available at http://www.securitychallenges.org.au/SC%20Vol%203%20No%204/vol%203%20no% 204%20Grabosky%20and%20McFarlane.pdf Supplementary reading:  Australian Crime Commission, Organised Crime in Australia, 2007. Available at http://www.crimecommission.gov.au/content/publications/Other_Publications/080117_ Organised_Crime_In_Australia.pdf  Alan Dupont, East Asia Imperilled: Transnational Challenges to Security, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2001. (Chapter 9: Transnational Crime)  Richard M. Gibson and John B. Haseman, „Prospects for Controlling Narcotics Production and Trafficking in Myanmar‟, Contemporary Southeast Asia 25, no. 1 (2003): 1-19.  Peter Gill and Adam Edwards, Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security London: Routledge, 2003.  Peter Hough, Understanding Global Security, 2nd ed., London: Routledge, 2008. (Chapter 10: Criminal threats to security)  John McFarlane: “Transnational Crime and Asia-Pacific Security” in Sheldon W. Simon (Ed.), The Many Faces of Asian Security, Lanham, Boulder, New York, Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2001, pp. 197-229.  Emmanuel Obuah, „Combating Global Trafficking in Persons: the Role of the United States Post-September 2001‟, International Politics 43, no. 2 (2006): 241-265.  Louise L. Shelly, „Transnational Organised Crime: An Immanent Threat to the NationState?‟, Journal of International Affairs 48, no. 2 (1995): 464-489.  S. Joshua. „Narcotics and the National Security of Producer States‟, Journal of Conflict Studies 16, no. 1 (1996): 100-133.  Phil Williams, „Transnational Criminal Organizations and International Security‟, in Michael T. Klare and Yogesh Chandrani (eds.), World Security: Challenges For A New Century, New York: St. Martin‟s Press, 1998.

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Week 11 Cyber Security Wednesday 12 October Discussion Questions: 

What do we mean by cybersecurity and who is responsible for it?



What are the major threats faced in the cyber realm and how to they impact on the way we govern, do business and interact with each other?



What are the key characteristics of the Internet and what are the challenges in achieving global cybersecurity?

Essential reading: • Pfleeger C & Pfleeger S 2007, “Chapter 1: Is There a Security Problem in Computing?” in Security in Computing, 4th Edition, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey • Nye J 2011, “Cyberspace Wars,” The New York Times, 27 February, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/28/opinion/28iht-ednye28.html • “War in the Fifth Domain,” Economist, Vol.396 Issue 8689, 1 July, 2010. Supplementary reading: • Brown, I & Peter S 2011, “Reducing Systemic Cybersecurity Risk,” in OECD/IFP Project on Future Global Shocks, pp 1 – 33., http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/57/44/46889922.pdf • Clark, R & Knake R 2010, “Chapter 3: The Battlespace” in Cyber War: The next threat to national security and what to do about it, HarperCollins, New York. • Deibert, R, 1997, “Chapter 5: Transformation in the Mode of Communication: The Emergence of the Hypermedia Environment,” in Parchment, Printing and Hypermedia - Communication in World Order Transformation, Columbia University Press, New York. • Pfanner, E 2011, “Apocalypse in Cyberspace? It‟s Overdone,” The New York Times, 16 January,2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/17/technology/17cache.html • Center for Strategic and International Studies 2011, Significant Cyber Incidents Since 2006, compiled by the Center for Strategic and International Studies., last modified, 9 March, 2011, http://csis.org/files/publication/110309_Significant_Cyber_Incidents_Since_2006.pdf

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Week 12 International laws and institutions Wednesday 19 October Discussion Questions:  What are the implications of the „new security agenda‟ for international law? 

Are existing international institutions adequate to deal with the issues on this agenda?



Is human security more or less important than state sovereignty?

Essential reading:   

United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr1994/ The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, 2002. Available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.html A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, Report of the High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. New York: United Nations, 2004. Available at http://www.un.org/secureworld/report3.pdf

Supplementary reading:         

A Safer Future: Global Public Health Security in the 21st Century, Geneva, World Health Organization, 2007. Available at http://www.who.int/whr/2007/en/index.html The Responsibility to Protect. Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, 2001. Available at http://www.iciss.ca/report-en.asp Desmond Ball and Brendan Taylor, „Regional Security Cooperation‟ in Robert Ayson and Desmond Ball (eds.), Strategy and Security in the Asia-Pacific, Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 2006. (Chapter 18). Alex J. Bellamy, „Responsibility to Protect or Trojan Horse? The Crisis in Darfur and Humanitarian Intervention after Iraq.‟ Ethics & International Affairs 19, no. 2 (2005): 31. Sara E. Davies, „International Law and the State of Exception‟ in Alex Bellamy, Roland Bleiker, Richard Devetak and Sara Davies (eds.), Security and the War on Terror, London: Routledge. (Chapter 5) Jürgen Haacke, ASEAN’s Diplomatic and Security Culture: Origins, Development and Prospects, London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003. David M. Jones and Mike L. Smith, „The Changing Security Agenda in Southeast Asia: Globalization, New Terror, and the Delusions of Regionalism‟, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 24, no. 4 (2001): 271-288. Alexander Kelle, 'Securitization of International Public Health: Implications for Global Health Governance and the Biological Weapons Prohibition Regime', Global Governance, 13, no. 2 (2007), 217-35. Ben Saul, „The Dangers of the United Nations‟ “New Security Agenda”: “Human Security” in the Asia-Pacific Region‟, Asian Journal of Comparative Law 1, no. 1 (2006). Available at http://www.bepress.com/asjcl/vol1/iss1/art10/

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Week 13 Critical reflections Wednesday 26 October Discussion Questions: 

Is it necessary to extent the concept of security beyond the military sphere? Why or why not?



Which „new security challenges‟ are genuinely new?



Should these emerging security challenges be tackled differently from how states have dealt with military threats to their security? Explain.

Essential reading:  David Mutimer, „Critical Security Studies: A Schismatic History‟ in Alan Collins (ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. (Chapter 4)  Ole Waever and Barry Buzan, „After the Return to Theory: the Past, Present, and Future of Security Studies‟ in Alan Collins (ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. (Chapter 21)  Ralph Pettman, „Human Security as Global Security: Reconceptualising Strategic Studies‟, Cambridge Review of International Affairs 18, no. 1 (2005): 137-150. Supplementary reading:  Roland Paris, „Rational and Irrational Approaches to Human Security: A Reply to Ralph Pettman‟, Cambridge Review of International Affairs 18, no. 3 (2005): 479-481.  Nicholas Thomas and William T. Tow, „The Utility of Human Security: Sovereignty and Humanitarian Intervention‟, Security Dialogue 33, no. 2 (2002): 177-192.  Alex J. Bellamy and Matt McDonald, „`The Utility of Human Security‟: Which Humans? What Security? A Reply to Thomas & Tow‟, Security Dialogue 33, no. 3 (2002): 373377.  Nicholas Thomas and William T. Tow, „Gaining Security by Trashing the State? A Reply to Bellamy and McDonald‟, Security Dialogue 33, no. 3 (2002): 379-382.  Johan Eriksson, „Observers or Advocates? On the Political Role of Security Analysts‟, Cooperation and Conflict 34, no. 3 (1999): 311-330.  Mike Fell, „Is Human Security our Main Concern in the 21st Century?, Journal of Security Sector Management 4, no. 3 (2006): 1-11.  Gary King and Christopher J. L. Murray, „Rethinking Human Security‟, Political Science Quarterly 116, no. 4 (Winter 2001-02): 585-610.  Edward Newman, „Human Security and Constructivism‟, International Studies Perspectives 2, no. 3 (2001): 239-251.  Holger Stritzel, „Towards and Theory of Securitization: Copenhagen and beyond‟, European Journal of International Relations 13, no. 3 (2007): 357-383.  Michael C. Williams, „Words, Images, Enemies: Securitization and International Politics‟, International Studies Quarterly 47, no. 4 (2003): 511-531.  Multiple authors, special issue of Security Dialogue 35, no. 3 (2004): 275-392.

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1. Guide to referencing You need to use references (either footnotes at the bottom of the page or endnotes at the end of the paper) in your written assessment tasks. You also need to include a bibliography which lists in alphabetical order the sources you have used. Examples: Book 1. Footnote/endnote: Alan Dupont, East Asia Imperilled: Transnational Challenges to Security, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, p. 84. (NB: If you are referring to a particular book more than once, subsequent references should be shortened: i.e. Dupont, East Asia Imperilled, p.100.) 2. Bibliographic entry Dupont, Alan, East Asia Imperilled: Transnational Challenges to Security, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Journal article 1. Footnote/endnote: Christian Enemark, „Infectious Diseases and International Security: the Biological Weapons Convention and Beyond‟, Nonproliferation Review 12, no. 1 (2005): p. 113. (NB: If you are referring to a particular article more than once, subsequent references should be shortened: i.e. Enemark, „Infectious Diseases and International Security‟, p.120.) 2. Bibliographic entry Enemark, Christian, „Infectious Diseases and International Security: the Biological Weapons Convention and beyond‟, Nonproliferation Review 12, no. 1 (2005): pp. 107-125. Chapter in an edited book 1. Footnote/endnote Roderic Alley, „The NPT since 1995: relapse or refurbishment?‟, in Carl Ungerer & Marianne Hanson (eds.), The Politics of Nuclear Non-Proliferation, St Leonards NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2001, p. 55. (NB: If you are referring to a particular chapter more than once, subsequent references should be shortened: i.e. Alley, „The NPT since 1995?‟, p.58.) 2. Bibliographic Entry Alley, Roderic, „The NPT since 1995: relapse or refurbishment?‟, in Carl Ungerer & Marianne Hanson (eds.), The Politics of Nuclear Non-Proliferation, St Leonards NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2001, pp. 54–71. Internet references When referencing from the internet, your entry needs to include the author and the name of the document, the date of the document, the URL and preferably the date you accessed it. For example: Alexander Downer, „The Spread of Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Weapons: Tackling the Greatest Threat to Global Security – The Sum of All Our Fears‟, Speech to the Sydney Institute, Sydney, 17 February 2003, at http://www.foreignminister.gov.au/speeches/2003/030207_sydinst.html, [accessed 4 March 2003]. (NB: If you are referring to a particular internet source more than once, subsequent references should be shortened: i.e. Downer, „The Spread of Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Weapons‟, URL cited.)

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