Child Development Laura E. Berk 7th Edition

November 2, 2017 | Author: kundagol | Category: Senses, Infants, Sleep, Science, Visual Perception
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Child Development Laura E. Berk 7th edition Chapter 4

Infancy: Early Learning, Motor Skills, and Perceptual Capacities   

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Tuesday, August 28 The Organized Newborn, pp. 126-135   

Choose where you’d like to sit Reading Check Chapter 4 Quote of the Day: “Don’t wait for people to be kind, show them how.” 

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Any questions – Field Assignment #1 Thursday:  

Study Guide Exam #1 Child Study, Part 1 – BE HERE!

Reading Check Chapter 4

Resources for Student Success 

Get 2 classmate contacts

Review Chapter 3: Events in Prenatal Development  

Cut apart on solid lines Put in order using text pages 85-90

Answer Key   

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1. 7 2. 2 3. 9 4. 4 5. 12 6. 10

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7. 1 8. 11 9. 3 10. 6 11. 8 12. 5

DVD Clips – Chapter 3

Newborn Reflexes Table 4.1, p. 126

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Eye Blink Withdrawal Rooting Sucking Swimming

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Moro Palmar Grasp Tonic Neck Stepping Babinski (pp. 126-127)

•Digital Archives DVD Clips 4:01 & 4:02 (Table 4.1, pp. 126-127)

Infant States of Arousal (Table 4.2, p. 128) 

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Regular Sleep Irregular Sleep Drowsiness Quiet Alertness Waking Activity and Crying (p. 128; 130-131) Former Text DVD Ch. 5, “Newborn States” (5:31 minutes)

Sleep Patterns 

Sleep moves to an adult-like night-day schedule during the first year Sleep needs decline from 18 to 12 hours a day by age 2 More Americans are co-sleeping (pp. 128-130) Partner Read: Cultural Variation in Infant Sleeping Arrangements, p. 129

Childhood Sleep Changes (Figure 4.1, p. 130)

Activity: Worksheet 

How Sleep Deprived Are You?

KEY: Sleep Deprived 

4 or less

Adequate sleep

5 or 6

Most days adequate sleep. Some days a person's sleep account may be a bit short & this may mean that performance is less than 100% on certain activities.

7 or 8

Evidence of a sleep debt that may cause a noticeable reduction in work efficiency.


Definitely a large sleep debt. The person’s work is likely to suffer from large, random, errors; small errors.

12 -14

In addition to above, the person's general quality of life suffers. Person is less interested in things formerly found fun & is less inclined so spend time socializing. More accident prone.

15 +

Sleep debt is a major problem. Clinical levels of sleep disturbance. Seek professional help.


Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) (p. 132) Video & Study Guide: Back to Sleep

Adult Responsiveness to Infant Cries

Depends on: 

Interpretation of Cry  

Adults use cry intensity and context Accuracy improves with experience

Adult Characteristics   

Empathy Child-centered attitude Perception of control over crying (p. 133)

Ways to Soothe a Crying Baby Applying What We Know, p. 134  

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Hold on shoulder & rock or walk Swaddling – wrapping baby snugly in blanket Pacifier Ride in carriage, car, swing Combine methods Let cry for short time (p. 133)

Infant Crying Patterns (Figure 4.2, p. 131)

Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale 

Evaluates baby’s:   

Reflexes State changes Responsiveness to physical & social stimuli (p. 134)

Helps identify newborns having trouble adapting to the environment

Uses include: 

Discovering individual & cultural differences Helping parents get to know their babies Predicting development based on changes in scores (pp. 134-135)

Thursday, August 30: Motor Development in Infancy, pp. 142-147 

Quote of the Day: “It is not what is outside, but what is inside that counts.” 

Agrabah Salesman, Aladdin

Today we’re going over Child Study, Part 1 & Grading Rubrics Study Guide Exam #1 handed out at the end of class

Child Study, Part 1 

DUE: Tuesday, September 25

Partner Review 

Text, p. 142, Ask Yourself: Apply

The Steps of Classical Conditioning (Figure 4.3, p. 136)

Operant Conditioning Terms Reinforcer 

Increases probability of behavior occurring again  

Presenting desirable stimulus Removing unpleasant stimulus

What did the instructor do today to reinforce? What behavior was she reinforcing?

Punishment 

Reduces probability of behavior occurring again 

Presenting unpleasant stimulus Removing desirable stimulus (p. 137)

Habituation   

Defined, p. 138 Recovery Examples

Using Habituation to Study Infant Memory & Knowledge (Figure 4.5, p. 138)

Infant Memory: Novelty & Familiarity Preferences (Figure 4.6, p. 139)

Imitation  

Newborns can imitate Harder to induce in older babies 

Some suggest it is a reflex

Capacity improves with age 

Helps infants learn (p. 141)

Trends in Motor Skills Development

Cephalocaudal  

“Head to tail” Head before arms and trunk, which are before legs

Proximodistal 

From the center of the body outward Control of head and trunk before arms and legs (p. 143)

Motor Skills as Dynamic Systems 

Increasingly complex systems of action with each skill 4 factors in each new skill: 1. 2. 3. 4.

CNS development Body’s movement capacity Child’s goals Environmental supports (p. 144)

Steps in Reaching & Grasping  

Prereaching Reaching 

Ulnar Grasp 

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With two hands, then one Adjust grip to object Move objects from hand to hand

Pincer Grasp (pp. 146-147) Partner Activity: Learning Like an Infant

Tuesday, Sept. 4: Perceptual Development in Infancy (pp. 148-160)    

Quote of the Day: Reminder: Exam #1, Thursday, Sept. 6 You need Scan tron #899 We will begin Chapter 5 after the exam

Infants’ Sense of Touch 

Newborns: reflex responses to touch on mouth, palms, soles, genitals  

Later, exploratory mouthing Pleasurable touch releases endorphins

Sensitive to pain  

Pain can affect later behavior Relieve pain with anesthetics, sugar, gentle holding (p. 148)

Newborn Senses of Taste and Smell  

Prefer sweet tastes at birth Quickly learn to like new tastes 

Have odor preferences from birth 

Affected by mother’s diet during pregnancy

Can locate odors and identify mother by smell from birth (p. 149)

Balance Relies on information from three types of sensory stimulation: •

Proprioceptive •

Vestibular •

Sensations in skin, joints & muscles Inner ear canals

Optical flow 

Movements in visual field (p. 150)

Newborn Sense of Hearing 

Can hear a wide variety of sounds at birth

Prefer complex sounds to pure tones

Learn sound patterns within days

Sensitive to voices and biologically prepared to learn language (p. 151)

Developments in Hearing (Digital Archives DVD Clip 4:5)

4–7 months

Sense of musical phrasing

6–8 months

“Screen out” sounds from nonnative languages • Recognize familiar words, natural phrasing in native language

8–9 months

Detect syllables that often occur together in the same word

Newborn Sense of Vision 

Least developed of senses at birth

Unable to see long distances, focus  Scan environment and clearly try to track interesting objects 

Color vision improves in first two months (p. 152)

Improvements in Vision Brain development helps infants reach adult levels of vision:  

2 months: Focus and color vision 6 months: acuity, scanning & tracking 6–7 months: depth perception (p. 152)

Steps in Depth Perception (pp. 153-155)

Birth – 1 month

Sensitivity to kinetic cues

2–3 months

Sensitivity to binocular cues

5 –12 months

Sensitivity to pictorial cues • Wariness of heights •

Digital Archives DVD Clip 4:6 or Former Text DVD Ch. 6 Visual Cliff (3:51 minutes)

Steps in Pattern Perception (p. 155)

3 weeks 2 months

Poor contrast sensitivity • Prefers large simple patterns •

Can detect detail in complex patterns • Scans internal features of patterns •

4 months


detect patterns even if boundaries are not really present

12 months


detect objects even if two-thirds of drawing is missing

Contrast Sensitivity At Two Months (Figure 4.15, p. 155)

Subjective Boundaries in Visual Patterns (Figure 4.16, p. 157)

Early Face Perception (Figure 4.17, p. 155)

Testing Newborns for Size Constancy (Figure 4.18, p. 159)

Testing for Object Unity (Figure 4.19, p. 159)

Steps in Intermodal Perception (p. 160)


Detect amodal sensory properties

3 – 4 Prefer “matching” sights and months sounds 5 – 6 Reach for object in the dark, months coordinating sight and touch

Differentiation Theory (p. 163)

Infants: 1.


Search for invariant features of the environment Note stable relationships between features 


Visual patterns, intermodal relationships

Gradually detect finer and finer features: differentiation

Affordances (p. 163) Action possibilities offered  

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In a situation or by an object When child has certain motor capabilities Discovered by acting on the environment Make actions future-oriented Former Text DVD Ch. 6: Affordance (0:38 seconds)

Is Infancy a Sensitive Period? (pp. 164-165)

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