Chicago Manual of Style

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Chicago Manual of Style 2012...





INTRODUCTION The AMU and APUS History and Military Studies Programs require students to use the University of Chicago Manual of Style (now in its 16th edition) for citing sources within writing assignments. First published in 1906, the Chicago method of citation is the oldest academic citation guide and the preferred method in the field of history as well as other branches of the Humanities. The Chicago Manual includes direction for all facets of publishing academic works. In 1937, the dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago, Kate Turabian, published a simplified guide to the Chicago Manual of Style for students. Kate Turabian’s Manual for Writer’s of Term Papers,Theses, and Dissertations is currently in its seventh edition. For that reason, the Chicago style of citation may also be referred to as “Turabian;” they are one in the same. The focus of the guide you are reading is to demonstrate how to document the typical assignments students encounter in history courses such as, research papers, discussion boards, and book reviews, among others. The Chicago method of citation is more detailed than other formats such as APA or MLA. This is because the nature of historical research requires writers to use a wide array of sources that need to be traced to the exact passage of a book or a letter or another primary source from an archives. Although footnotes and endnotes are generally required for work in the humanities, the Author-Date format for parenthetical references is also included in the Chicago Manual of Style. Author-Date is traditionally reserved for the physical, natural, or social sciences. Parenthetical references do not allow readers to easily pinpoint some material. They also tend to distract the reader. The AMU and APUS programs require students in upper level courses to adhere to Chicago guidelines by using footnotes or endnotes for all written assignments and including a bibliography on research projects. Some instructors may allow the Author-Date format.


Topic: Prohibition

THESIS CONSTRUCTION Ideally, in the course of examining the sources you will discover that they answer your research question: this answer is your thesis. A thesis in history and the humanities serves much the same role as a hypothesis does in research in the sciences.


• Formulation of research questiona Why did Prohibition fail?

• It is an emphatic statement, a thesis statement requires an argument. • It is testable (by the evidence you bring to bear) .

In the early stages of your research, you will develop a working thesis, which is to say that the sources will seem to provide a tentative answer to your question. It is important, however, to remain flexible until you’ve thoroughly examined all of the sources at your disposal

• Always ask yourself: does this thesis hold up in the light of the new evidence I am uncovering? • As in scientific research, historians must be willing to modify their theses as the evidence directs them to do so. •

The thesis statement will not necessarily give a right or wrong answer. Instead, it should illuminate a point that is debateable. The job of the writer is to present readers with a valid argument.


Good Thesis aProhibition failed because the law lacked the means of enforcement.

Poor Thesis a In this paper, I will examine why Prohibition failed.

Topic: Women’s suffrage • Formulation of research questiona

What were women’s voting patterns following passage of the 19th amendment? •

Good Thesis a Upon gaining the right to vote, women did not vote as a bloc, or even in exceptionally large numbers.

Poor Thesis: aThe purpose of this paper is to examine women’s voting patterns.

Topic: Woodrow Wilson and racism •

Formulation of research questiona Was Woodrow Wilson racist?

Good Thesis a As the first Southerner in the White Hours in half a century, Woodrow Wilson made white supremacy part of federal policy. Poor Thesis a In this paper, I will examine Woodrow Wilson’s attitudes on race.



Primary Source

• Report of scientific discoveries

EXAMPLE: Newspaper articles, Journals entries, and photographs

EXAMPLE: Published research study results, and conference proceedings

• Second-hand account of an historical event • Interprets creative work EXAMPLE: Biographies, literary criticisms, theater reviews

• Results of experiments • Results of clinical trials • Social and political science research results • Factual, not interpretive




Secondary sources can be found in a multitude of locations but sticking to library resources will ensure research reliability and validity

. .

Secondary Source


• Original, first-hand account of an event or time period • Usually written or made during or close to the event or time period • Original, creative writing or works of art • Factual, not interpretive

• Analyzes and interprets primary sources

OBJECTIVITY Evidence that runs counter to your thesis always exists. Embrace the differing viewpoints and use them to demonstrate the competing ideas about your topic. Ignoring contradictory evidence leads to bias and inaccurate research. You may find that your initial thesis is incorrect. That is fine. Some of the most significant information has come from scholars who ultimately prove their theories wrong. In writing for history and the humanities, your final thesis will be the result of your research, not the starting point. Your Thesis:

“The integration of Boone County schools incited little controversy as a consequence of the county’s lily-white racial demographics.”

ü Then you come across an article detailing opposition to integration in Boone County schools. • You can’t ignore the article. • You can argue that the author’s argument was wrong or shortsighted, e.g., “Jeb Clampitt’s comparison of Boone county to the national showdown in Little Rock distorted his perspective… ü When you come across some protest against integration in Boone County but you don’t think it amounts to much, you still need to address it i.e., “The Hatfield and McCoy protest of December 1955 was notable, then, as an exceptional occurrence…” ü Sometimes the exception proves the rule, but you don’t obscure the truth

• Analyzes and interprets research results • Analyzes and interprets scientific discoveries EXAMPLE: Publications about the significance of study results

GATHERING EVIDENCE The purpose of studying history is to learn to analyze and evaluate events critically. Historical research involves the use of two types of sources, primary and secondary.

A primary source is material that was produced at the time of the event or by someone who has firsthand knowledge of the event Secondary sources are the works that describe an event. These include scholarly journal articles, books written by historians, and biographical works. A good research paper includes both types of documents but relies most heavily on primary sources.

Many primary documents can be acquired online either in published volumes such as the Papers of the Presidents, or in a digital format from archival repositories. Some newspapers, including the New York Times, are available all the way back to the nineteenth century. Secondary sources are available anywhere books are sold, but the university’s online library has both hard copies and e-books available, as well as numerous databases of scholarly journals and other resources. Research should be limited to the university library as much as possible to ensure that sources are academically rigorous and meet college standards.




QUOTATIONS Quotations should never drop in on paragraphs unannounced! Occasionally you will need only a small fragment of an unoriginal sentence, or you will find material that is confusing or incorrect. Any quoted material and some paraphrased material should be introduced by a signal phrase, that is, an introduction of sorts of the other author. The first mention of any author should give his or her full name, followed subsequently by last name only. A paraphrase or summary of another author’s work needs to be set off from the student’s own words, particularly when an entire paragraph may be summarized

Integrating resources is the art of actually writing the paper. The research to support the thesis must be interwoven with your own words to prove your case. Quotations add flavor to the paper, but other authors’ words should not drown out the student’s voice. For that reason, it is recommended that attribution to authors of secondary sources should be limited. It is rare that a quotation from a secondary source will make a statement better than a student can with his own words. In this instance, paraphrasing is often the best action.


Any use of another author’s ideas must be noted in a citation and quotation marks utilized appropriately!

OU KNOW . . .. DY

Patchwork plagiarism and word for word plagiarism can both result in receiving an “F” in the course

Note Ellipsis: The ellipsis mark (three periods with spaces in between) to condense a quotation by eliminating unnecessary words. If the omitted portion of a quotation is a full sentence, denote it by placing an extra period in the ellipsis.

ing Well. . Writ ..

Example At the annual meeting of the AMA house of delegates in 1942, a Kentucky physician rebuked the FSA’s critics, claiming that “the FSA is making a notable contribution . . . We will welcome with open arms in Kentucky the FSA when it comes.”3 3 Michael Grey, New Deal Medicine: The Rural Health Programs of the Farm Security Administration, (Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2002), p. 66

Confusing sentences and incorHe had his wife and children, but he just wanted his Diana in every rect grammar: In some cases, the sense of the world [word?].4 material to be quoted is confusing or 4“Mrs Virginia Hayes Shepherd, Interview May 18, 1937,” Library of Virginia, Richmond, quoted in Charles Perdue, grammatically incorrect. In this case, et al, eds., Weevils in the Wheat: Interviews with Virginia Ex-Slaves (Indiana University Press, 1980), quoted in Mary brackets and the term [sic] to indicate a Beth Norton and Ruth M. Alexander, eds., Major Problems in American Women’s History, 4th ed., (Houghton Mifflin Company, 2007), p. 182 grammatical error appears in the original material.

No more than 10-15% of a research paper should be quoted material.

Introducing Quoted Material: Any quoted material and some paraphrased material should be introduced by a signal phrase. , The first mention of any author should give his or her full name, followed subsequently by last name only

The challenge of incorporating this material, then, is often the most difficult part of writing the paper. The best way to use quoted material is to weave it into the body of the paper without interrupting the flow. There are several methods for integrating resources. A major consideration when including quotations is to maintain the structure of the sentence where they are included. In this case, snipping fragments from a longer passage and placing them in quote marks within a sentence is acceptable.

Ibid: When you have two consecutive notes from the same source you use “Ibid” Use “Ibid” alone if the page number is the same.

More recently, Rickey Hendricks in her history of Kaiser-Permanente notes that the “miniscule” FSA programs were not intended to be the basis for national health planning. 5 “In 1949, Life magazine reported that ‘suddenly and for no plain reason,’ American women were ‘seized with an eerie restlessness.’”6 5 Michael Grey, New Deal Medicine: The Rural Health Programs of the Farm Security Administration, (Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2002), p. 18 6 Stephanie Coontz, “Leave it to Beaver and Ozzie and Harriet: American Families in the 1950s,” in Nancy Hewitt and Kirsten Delegard, eds, Women, Families, and Communities: Readings in American History, vol. 2 from 1865, 2nd ed., (Pearson Longman, 2008), p. 181

Historian Elizabeth Pleck describes how one Family Service Association translated this psychological approach into patient counseling during the 1950s. Mrs. K. came to the Association because her husband was an alcoholic who repeatedly abused, both physically and sexually. The agency felt, however, that it was simplistic to blame the couple’s problems on his drinking.7 7 Ibid



FORMATTING All written work should contain a strong thesis that is back up by cited supporting material. In the case of forum responses, the major source will be the course textbook. Outside research is always welcome, and the standards for forum posts are less stringent than for research papers, BUT ALL MATERIAL MUST BE CITED. Because the classroom will not support superscript numbers and footnotes, the note number may be in line with the rest of the text. However, the citation should follow the correct Chicago format.

According to Carter’s domestic policy advisor Stuart Eizenstat, the pivotal issue lay in the fact that a “condition” of United Auto Workers (UAW) support was national health insurance.2 Carter was not enthusiastic about kowtowing to labor, and even less so about promoting national health insurance. He decided to do what was politically expedient, however, and in an address to the Student National Medical Association, he laid out the guidelines


for his health proposal:


“Every citizen must be entitled to the same level of comprehensive benefits……. Benefits should be insured by a combination of resources: employer and employee shared payroll taxes, and general tax revenues. As President, I would want to give our people the most rapid improvement in individual health care the nation can afford, accommodating first those who need it most, with the understanding that it will be a comprehensive program in the end.”3

Description •

Font Page Size

Standard 8.5 x 11 inch


Set the top, left, right and bottom to 1.5 inch


All text should be double spaced EXCEPT the following • Block Quotes • Table titles and figure captions • front mater (table of contents) • Footnotes or endnotes • Bibliographies

Carter would not ensure all of labor’s demands but

he managed to pass the “litmus test” of a minimum program by promising “universality, comprehensiveness, and a mandatory

• •

system.”4 Indeed, Leonard Woodcock, the president of the UAW,

• •

helped write the speech, a fact Carter eagerly pointed out to UAW delegates.5

Date Style

Use mm (Spelled out) dd, yyyy (4 July 1776 would read July 4, 1776.).

3 Jimmy Carter, “Address on National Health Policy before the Student National Medical Association,” Washington, D.C., April 16, 1976, from Butler 4 Eizenstat quoted in Halpern

Use one space after periods and colons. Left-align the document, leaving the right side of the text uneven (do not fully justify the text). Indent the first line of a paragraph 0.5” from the left margin; the easiest way to do this is to use the tab key, since most word processing programs have the default tab set at 0.5”

Text formatting

2 quoted in Martin Halpern, “Jimmy Carter and the UAW: Failure of an Alliance,” Presidential Studies Quarterly, Summer 1996, p. 755 Files, National Health Insurance, (4/16/76-4/17/76), Jimmy Carter Library, Atlanta, Georgia

Use a professional-looking font that is easy to read, such as Times New Roman, Arial, or Calibri Use 12-point font size. Footnotes should be 10-point font

5 Halpern; Adam Clymer, Edward M. Kennedy: A Biography, (New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.), 1999, p. 246

For m intext ore on c refer t itations op _____ age

Note the in Chicago Turabian the number of words is irrelevant and the number of lines determines a block quote



CITATION-FOOTNOTES ü All notes should be: o uniquely numbered, o single-spaced, o separated by a single blank line in between entries. ü The first line should be indented, as in a paragraph, and aligned to the left.

Carter believed that bringing health care inflation under control, would by itself, improve his chance of enacting a national health plan. He also feared that if national health insurance went into effect without any controls on pricing, increased demands for services would prove inflationary. 27

ü Commentary should be written in proper English and in complete sentences.

costs were “uniquely severe,” but also, “uniquely controllable.” He pointed out that his cost control bill could help fulfill another of his

The bibliography is the final component of the research paper. It should include all sources that have been consulted for research, even if they were not all used within the text of the paper. The bibliography page is numbered consecutively with the rest of the paper. The title “Bibliography” should appear centered on the top line of the paper. Entries in the bibliography are alphabetized by author. If there is no author, use the first word in the title that is not A, An, or The.

campaign promises as well: “[It] offers us one of our best opportunities to bring down the rate of overall inflation.”28 The Hospital Cost Control Act sought to cap overall hospital costs, (at nine percent in fiscal year 1978), with costs decreasing annually until an entirely new system for paying hospitals would come into effect, presumably with the enactment of national health insurance. Carter also proposed to curb new con-


Bibliographic entries

In introducing his legislation, Carter declared that hospital


1. Indentation. Entries in the bibliography should be reverseindented. That means that the first line is flush to the left margin and all subsequent lines are indented five spaces. 2. Punctuation. Most of the components of bibliographic entries are ended with periods, whereas in notes they are separated by commas. 3. Finally, bibliographic entries only contain page numbers for journal or magazine articles, and include the entire page range. Notes contain single page numbers on all entries (except web pages) so that the reader can locate a specific point or quotation within the source. Entries are single-spaced with a blank line between each citation.


struction costs to $2.5 billion nationwide, depending on population and the number of existing hospital beds in a given area. These controls only applied to in-patient services at acute care hospitals. 29 The administration continually revamped the bill according to arguments made during congressional debate, but the basic factors remained the same.

Not surprisingly, efforts to curtail hospital costs met with

vehement opposition, from industry lobbies as well as from members of Congress. The administration’s national health plan was not contingent on the enactment of hospital cost controls. 30 27 Stuart Eizenstat, Interview with the Author, August 5, 2001, Washington, D.C. 28 Text of Presidential Message on Hospital Cost Containment, March 6, 1979, Congressional Quarterly Almanac, 1979, p. 14-E 29 “Hospital Cost Control,” Congressional Quarterly Almanac, 1977, p. 500-01

30 Joseph A. Califano, Jr., Telephone interview with the author, November, 2001; Mongan, M.D., Interview with the author, Nov. 5, 2001, Boston, Mass.; Davis interview 229


If pages numbers are not avaliable, you may identify the location of a cited passage by adding a descriptve locator following the word Under

Author, “Title,” Journal Title Volume#, Issue# (Date: mm yyyy, or month or season, yyyy): page# [OR under “heading title,”] URL (accessed date Month date, yyyy).


Brian Uzzi and Jarrett Spiro, “Collaboration and Creativity: The Small World Problem,” American Journal of Sociology 111, no. 2 (September 2005), under “Milgram’s Small World Theory,” http:/ www,journalsuchicago edu/AJS.html (accessed December 19, 2005).



Author, Magazine Title, volume or issue number (Date: mm dd yyyy), page #-page#.

Author first name middle initial. Last name, review of Title of the book or Article, by Author of the orginal book or article, Journal name Volume number, no. issue number (day Month yyyy): Pages

NOTES FORMAT Shirley Temple Black, “Don’t Sit at Home and Be Afraid,” McCall’s, February 1973, 82. BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Black, Shirley Temple. “Don’t Sit at Home and Be Afraid.” McCall’s, February 1973, 82.



Author, “Title,” Journal Title Volume#, Issue# (Date: mm yyyy, or month or season, yyyy): page#.

These types of citations are listed in the notes, but the Chicago Manual indicates without pagination because of variations from different editions. In addition, such resources are not included in the bibliography. Please note that newspaper articles will not always have title and/ or page numbers. The format calls for:

NOTES FORMAT Karen Kapinski, “Caring for the Lost Historian,” Journal of Social Activism 15 (March 1991): 101. BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Kapinski, Karen. “Caring for the Lost Historian.” Journal of Social Activism15 (March 1991): 101-124.

NOTES FORMAT James K. Rockland, review of The American Dream, by Jonathan Davies, History Journal 12, no. 1 (22 April 2000): 32. BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Rockland, James K. Review of The American Dream, by Jonathan Davies. History Journal 12, no. 1 (22 April 2000): 32-33.



Author, “Title,” Newspaper Title, mm dd yyyy.

NOTES FORMAT John Moyers, “The Hunt for Osama,” Washington Post, June14, 2005.

SOURCES QUOTED FROM ANOTHER SOURCE Author, “Title,” Journal Title Volume#, Issue# (Date: mm yyyy, or month or season, yyyy): page#.

NOTES FORMAT Susan Bates, in Marian Segal, “Breast Cancer: Woman is Partner in Choosing Treatment,” FDA Consumer, (September 1991): p. 19 BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Segal, Marian. “Breast Cancer: Woman Is Partner in Choosing Treatment.” FDA Consumer, (September 1991) p: 19-23.

BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Moyers, John. “The Hunt for Osama.” Oh Washington Post. 14 June 2005.


NEWSPAPER-SPECIAL FORMAT ISSUES Regular columns and letters to the editor are formatted differently than


Author name, “article title,” Column name, Newspaper name, Month date, yyyy.

Gretchen Morgenson, “applying a Discount Earnings News,” Market Watch, New York Times, April 23, 2000. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Author name, letter to the editor, Newspaper name, Month date, yyyy.

Virginia J. Davis, letter to the editor, Chicago Tribune, July 29,2005.

SPECIAL ISSUES AND SUPPLEMENTS If the special issue has a title and editor of its own, include both in the citations. Add the words special issue before the journal title and follow it with a period. Supplements are numbered, often, with an S as part of the page numbers. Use a comma between the volume number and supplement number.

Author or editor (if editor add ed. after the comma following the editors’s name), “Title,” Special Issue, Journal Name,Volume, no. issue number (yyyy).

Good, Thomas, ed. “Non subject-matter Outcomes of Schooling.” Special issue, Elementary School Journal 99, no. 5 (1999).



Author’s first and last name, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher,Year), page numbers.

NOTES FORMAT Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), accessed February 28, 2010, http://press-pubs BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Kurland, Philip B. and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. accessed 28 February 2010, http://press



NOTES FORMAT Edmund Rostand, Cyrano de Bergerac, trans. Anthony Burgess,(Milwaukee, WI: Applause Books, 2000), p. 45 BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Rostand, Edmund. Cyrano de Bergerac. Translated by Anthony Burgess. Milwaukee, WI: Applause Books, 2000.

Author also comes first and is typically the government agency [Note: requires sufficient depth to clearly indicate the office within its hierarchy],

Author (if editor add ed. after the comma following the editors’s name), Book Title (Place of publication: Publisher, year), Accessed Month date, yyyy, URL

NOTES FORMAT Fred Stielow, Creating Virtual Libraries (New York: Neal Schuman Publishers, 1999), 68. BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Stielow, Fred. Creating Virtual Libraries. New York: Neal Schuman Publishers, 1999.

Author of Original Text, Text Tile, trans. Translators name, (Place of publication: publisher, year), page



Author (gov agency), committee, Title (Place of publication: publisher, year), page number.

NOTES FORMAT Congress, Senate, Committee of Foreign Relations, U.S. Scholarship Program for Developing Countries (Washington, DC: GPO, 1984), 7. BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Congress. Senate. Committee of Foreign Relations. U.S. Scholarship Program for Developing Countries. Washington, DC: GPO, 1984.



First author and Second Author, Book Title: Subtitle (please of publication: Publisher, year), page number

NOTES FORMAT Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52. BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007. FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS Dana Barnes et al., Plastics: Essays on American Corporate Ascendance in the 1960s . . .


MEDIA/VIDEO Author, “Media Title” Program Title, Season number, episode number, Director, aired Month day, year (Place of production: company, year), Format

NOTES FORMAT Michael Curtis and Gregory S. Malins, “The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy,” Friends, season 3, episode 1, directed by Gail Mancuso, aired September 19, 1996 (Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2003), DVD. BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Curtis, Michael and Gregory S. Malins. “The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy.” Friends. Season 3, episode 1. Directed by Gail Mancuso. Aired September 19, 1996. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2003. DVD.



Author, “Paper title: Subtitle,” (place of publication: publisher Ph.D. diss., year), page.

Interviewee (position, Company), interview with the position, date of interview.

NOTES FORMAT Frederick J. Stielow, “Isolation and Development on a Gulf Coast Island: Grand Isle, Louisiana, 1760-1962,” (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Ph.D. diss., 1977), 186. BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Stielow, Frederick J. “Isolation and Development on a Gulf Coast Island: Grand Isle, Louisiana, 1760-1962.” Ph.D. diss. Indiana University, 1977.

NOTES FORMAT Andrew Macmillan (principal adviser, Investment Center Division, FAO), interview with the author, September 1998.* BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT *Unpublished interviews do not need to be entered into the Bibliography.




Author (gov agency), committee, Title (Place of publication: publisher, year), page number.

Author, e-mail message to author, Month day, year.


NOTES FORMAT Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees, “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000 2010: A Decade of Outreach,” Evanston Public Library, accessed June 1, 2005, library/strategic-plan-00.html BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000 2010: A Decade of Outreach.” Evanston Public Library. Accessed June 1, 2005. library/strategic-plan-00.html

NOTES FORMAT Elizabeth Vetter, e-mail message to author, October 16, 2009. BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT *Personal communications are not included in the bibliography.



Author, “weblog title” (blog), Entry date Month day, year, URL

Author, “Podcast Segment title,” Podcast title, URL

NOTES FORMAT Rick Shenkman, “Which Poll Do You Believe?” (blog), October 31, 2009, http:/ BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Shenkman, Rick. How Stupid Are We? (blog). http://

NOTES FORMAT Ken Rudin, “Dissatisfaction Builds Ahead of Midterm Elections,” NPR People, http://www.npr org/emplates/story/story php?storyId=130744808. BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Rudin, Ken. “Dissatisfaction Builds Ahead of Midterm Elections.” NPR People. templates/story/story php?storyId=130744808.


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