Chapter 3 Example Capstone
3.0 Methodology - This section must contain the following: 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7
Requirement Specifications Research Method Data Gathering Instruments and Procedures Procedures Software Design Technical Design Development and Testing Testing Statistical Design
3.1 Requirements Specifications - The discussion of this section must contain the following:
3.1.1 Functional Requirements How will the objectives be executed What are the features of the system
3.1.2 Hardware Requirements Hardware requirements during the development of the system Hardware requirements requirements during the implementation of the system
3.1.3 Software Requirements Software needed during the development of the system. Include OS, third party to used Include the versions of the software used Software needed during the implementation of the system. Include OS, third party to used Include the versions of the software used
Example #1 of 3.1 Requirements Specifications: Application Project Title: Online Event Management System for St. Patrick School
3.0 Methodology 3.1 Requirements Specifications 3.1.1 Functional Requirements
Login Access for IT Administrator, High School Department Head, Subject Coordinators, Accounting. IT Administrator is in charge of maintaining user access and accounts (to add, update and deactivate the account). The Department Head can post annual and unplanned events, approve multiple events and disapprove events with SMS notification, manage events (postpone-resume, cancel events and to add the students to the free events). The Subject Coordinator has the ability to propose and manage events (update event draft proposals for school events, postpone-resume and cancel events) andadd the
students in the free events and to check the number of attendees through generated and/ printed reports. The Accountingaccepts payments (out of scope-manual operation) for registration will issues receipt (for events with payment) and will help to monitor the number of paid students who will attend a particular event. A system that allows an entry of single event for multiple coordinators and attendees level. A system that displays approved school events in a calendar formatandwithdescription. formatandwithdescription. A system that provides 3 types of status set in homepage. First is the status of upcoming event proposals. Second is the rescheduling of the disapproved event. Third is for both coordinators and department head to close the event that will be required after the event. A system that provides remarks through SMS notification for disapproved school events. A system that provides event evaluation to close the said event and serves as the ending. A system that generates and print reports relevant to events,for all users (IT Admin, Department Head, Coordinator, and Accounting) but only standard users associated to the profiles that are assigned to them can access their own modules, records, fields and various utilities.
3.1.2 Hardware Requirements Table 3.1
MINIMUM Dual Core GHz
RECOMMENDED Intel Core i3 or higher 256 MB RAM or higher 217 GB or more
256 MB RAM
Hard Disk Resolution Computer with Internet connection Printer Broadband Stick
At least 3 GB 1280 x 800 n/a
3 GB or more 1280 x 800 n/a
Canon Printer Smart HUAWEI Mobile Broadband E153
Any inkjet printer Tattoo Globe Broadband Stick
DEVELOPMENT Intel Core 2 Duo T5870 @ 2.00 GHz 2.00 GB 32 BIT
3 GB 1280 x 800 Bayan DSL wifi, Globe Tattoo HUAWEI Wifi, Canon Printer Smart - HUAWEI Mobile Broadband E153
217 GB of Storage
3.1.3 Software Requirements Table 3.2
Internet Explorer 9 (working also in: IE 10, Mozilla Firefox and Safari) n/a
Windows 7 or above Google Chrome
Windows 7 Google Chrome
ASP.NET 4.0 Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 MS SQL SERVER 2008
3.2 Research Method - The discussion of this section must contatin the following: Discuss whether historical, descriptive or experimental The procedural part of the method, its appropriateness to the study and its advantages should be given attention and should be discussed. This should all be relative to your study Historical – It describes what appear in the past and makes a critical inquiry into the truth of what occurred (e.g. why are we using English today?) Descriptive – purposive process of gathering, analyzing, classifying, and tabulating data about prevailing conditions,practices, belief, process, trends, cause-effect relationship and them making adequate and accurate interpretation about such data. Experimental – Highly controlled procedure in which manipulated treatments or actions from a factor or condition, called the experimental or independent variable, are applied upon another condition to determine the effect of the former to the latter with all other factor kept constant.
3.2 Research Methods The method of research used in this study is descriptive. With the help of this method, the researchers/developers are able to specify the needs of the school and to give solution to their problem. Descriptive Method allows the collection, analysis, classification and tabulation of information from the client-school where developers based their development of the said system.
3.3 Data Gathering Instruments and Procedure - The discussion of this section must contain the following: Method of collecting data and the development of instrument for gathering data must be explained. Survey/Questionnaire – (normative survey) used to collect demographic data about the people’s behaviour, practices, intentions, beliefs, attitudes, opinions, judgments and then this data are analyzed, organized and interpreted. (A sample interview question must be presented here) Observation – perceiving data thorough senses. Test, registration and other devices as source data – forms used, test written, old programs are apotent source data that you can checked to validate the survey or interviews made and to analyze if there is a need to retain, modify or reengineer the system
3.3 Data Gathering Instruments and Procedures 3.3.1 Data Gathering Instruments Used Interview Sheets Interviewers provided a set of questions for the target interviewees engaged in the proposed system, the Online Event Management System. Interviewees were the HS Department Head, Subject Coordinators, Accounting and students of St. Patrick School. Observation Form The Researchers provided an observation form where the respondents indicated their everyday life experiences. Also indicated in it was the purpose of the study and the hypothesis. Documents, Books and Manuals Books, manuals and online articles related to the study were used. The school gave the researches access to information by providing them with a copy of the manual of the school and the softcopy of data and information that they needed. A Survey Questionnaire provides an effective medium for the communication between the clients and the researchers and developers. Developers understand more what their clients want them to do. It is an easy way to identify what are the problems that they normally encounter in the present system and what are the solutions which could be suggested by the developers. It is the easiest way to extract and compile all information needed to build the desired system of a client. 3.3.2 Procedures Used in the Study Interview The proponents conducted a formal interview with the High School Department Head of St. Patrick School. In a formal interview, it is easier to gather more accurate information to facilitate the development and design of the system. The department head gave the authority and signed the proposal letter that allowed the researchers to gather the data needed from the subject coordinators for the system’s benefit. As the target users of OEMS, The Department Head, Subject Coordinators, and the Accountingof St. Patrick School were able to express their struggle in handling events manually. And by that, the researchers and developers came up with the proposal for a system that will benefit both students and staff [Department Head, Coordinators, and the Accounting]. It is important that the proponents of the said system will use the needs and desires of the clients as their basis. Campus Survey The developers of OEMS went to the client-school and conducted a survey for the endusers who are the High School Department Head, Subject Coordinator and theAccountingto evaluate the system if it meets the users expectations and needs. It would also help the developers in the assessment of the system’s benefit. Observation The word observation itself shows that it has a big role in making this system possible. Upon observing, the system developers first established the objectives and motives and then planned the requirements and valid information that they needed to know. In gathering information researchers could easily identify the needs of users by using the observation form. Evaluation The proponents will conduct the testing period for the system they developed with the High School Department Head and Subject Coordinators and Students of St. Patrick School. This will be the basis for enhancing features for the system’s benefit which would help for its future assessment. The system will be evaluated in terms of its performance: 5 - excellent, 4 - very good, 3 - good, 2 – fair, 1 – need of improvement. Online Research
The researchers used online articles as guide and basis for their studies, and searched for other data gathering methods. Library Research This research process is used in searching reference books in gathering information for Related Literature and Studies matters. The researchers read books and thesis in the library correlated to the studies they are undergoing.
3.4Software Design - this section must containg the following:
Process of problem solving and planning for software solution Abstraction – process of result of generalization by reducing information content of a concept or observable phenomenon Refinement – process of elaboration - Decomposing a macroscopic statement of function in a stepwise fashion until programming language ataements are reached. - Abstraction and refinement are complementary Modularity – software Architecture is divided into components called modules Software Architecture – Overall structure of the software and the ways in which the structure of the software and the ways in which that structure provides conceptual integrity for a system Control Hierarchy – A program structure that represents the organization of a program component and implies hierarchy of control Data Structure – Representation of the logiacal relationship of each module individually Information Hiding – Modules should be specified and designed so that information contained within a module in inaccessible to other modules that have no need for such information 3.4 Software Design 3.4.1 Conceptual Diagram
3.4.2 Software Development Life Cycle
Systems are created to solve problems. One can think of the systems approach as an organized way of dealing with a problem. The proponents will use Prototyping Life Cycle Model in developing the application. The phase of prototyping includes Preliminary Investigation, Determination Requirements, Development of Prototype System, Design System, Development Software and Coding, System Testing, System Implementation and System Maintenance.
Figure 3.2 Prototype Model
Software prototyping refers to creation of incomplete models of thе software program during the process whісh may be different from the final product. Prototyping helps thе software users tо evaluate thе software durіng the design stage beforеасtuallytrуing them out. In thіѕ model, thе users are thоrоughlу involved in the software development process, whісh increases theіr acceptance оfthе final implementation. It also helps the users to understand the business problem, which is necessary to avoid solving problem. Implementation. It аlsо helps the users to understand the business problem, which is necessary to avoid solving the wrong problem. Following are the different phases of software development cycle:
1. Preliminary Investigation – This is the first stage of system development life cycle. The proponents are going to get the brief investigation of the system under consideration and give a clear picture of what actually the physical system is? In practice, the initial system study involves the preparation of a System proposal which lists the Problem Definition, Objectives of the Study, and Terms of reference for Study, Constraints, Expected benefits of the new system, etc. in the light of the user requirements 2. Determination Requirements –This is the second stage of the system development life cycle where the proponents will gather the process of collecting factual data in St. Patrick School, understand the processes involved, identifying problems and recommending feasible suggestions for improving the system functioning. This involves studying the school business processes, gathering operational data, understand the information flow, finding out bottlenecks and evolving solutions for overcoming the weaknesses of the system so as to achieve the organizational goals. 3. Development of Prototype System – In this phase, the proponents are going to develop the application Visual Studio 2010, MS SQL 2008 Database, HUAWEI Mobile Broadband E153 for SMS and Adobe Photoshop CS5 for image purposes. 4. Design System –The proponents will identify the interface and design of the system. The tools and techniques used for describing the system design of the system are: Flowchart, Data flow diagram (DFD), Data dictionary, Structured English and Decision table. 5. Development Software &Coding -The proponents need to develop a software system to make it workable and to coordinate the data movements and control the entire process in a system. 6. 6. System Testing – Once the code has-been generated, program testing begins, The proponents must test the process on logical internals of the software ensuring that all statements have been tested to uncover errors and ensure that defined input will produce actual results that agree with the required result as stated in SRS to test the acceptance, integration, and product testing. 7. 7. System Implementation- Here, the system developed is incorporated in the design of the project. The developers assemble their creations in the previous phases of the prototype Model. Development environment is setup, System designs are converted in c ode. 8. 8. System Maintenance- Once system is implemented in live conditions, it has to be maintained properly. The software developed may face some changes due to some unexpected inputs or changes due to new personnel in the organization. Hence any problems arising need to be fixed to maintain the system well.
3.5 Technical Design - This section includes the following technical information on the system software: Data Schema Context Diagram Dataflow Diagram Flow Chart
Algorithms Block Diagrams
Example #1 of 3.5 Technical Design : Application Project Title:FEUDiliman Portal
3.5 Technical Design
3.5.1Data Flow Diagram
Logical Data Flow Diagram
Figure 3.5 Equipments Reservation (Professor/Faculty)
Figure 3.5 shows the Equipments Reservation process for the faculty.A professor must input the reservation data which will then be seen by the library admin. The reservation will immediately be confirmed and is recorded in the database. Upon the reservation date, the equipment will be available for releasing with the consent of the admin.
Figure 3.6 Facilities Reservation (Professor/Faculty) Figure 3.6 shows the Facility Reservation process for the faculty. A professor must input ` the reservation data which will then be seen by the department head. The reservation will immediately be confirmed and is recorded in the database. Upon the reservation date, the facility will be available.
Figure 3.7Facilities Reservation (Students) Figure 3.7 illustrates the Facility Reservation process for Students. A student must input the reservation data which will then be seen by the department head. The reservation will immediately be confirmed and is recorded in the database. Upon the reservation date, the facility will be available.
Figure 3.8 Organization Registration Figure 3.8 illustrates the Organization Registration process. A student will register in their chosen organization which will then be redorded, available to the officer for any changes. If a student pays for their registration, an officer may finalize and confirm the registration and a student will receive a notification in their account.
Figure 3.9Ordering of Organization Shirts Figure 3.9 shows the Ordering of Organization Shirts process. A student will input the amount of shirts they wish to purchase according to their chose size and organization which will then be recorded in the database, available to the officer for any changes. If a student pays for their order, an officer may finalize and confirm the order and a student will receive a notification in their account.
Figure 3.10 shows the process for the Alumni Module. An alumni must register with their correct details which will be verified by the system if their data is correct to be saved in the database. Upon creating their accounts, the alumni should input the other required data before viewing their accounts. Once the student has processed their requests at the registrar, the request will be saved in the database.They will receive notifications via email, SMS and in their accounts for any changes made at their process or if it is available as well.
3.6 Development and Testing - this section must include the following: Schedule.Icludegantt chart until September1 – Submission of document Operation and Testing Procedure How the system will be installed and operated Evaluation criteria (based on acceptability mentioned in objectives of the study) Evaluation procedure. The steps to be taken to e valuate the system.
Example #1 of 3.6 Development and Testing Application Project Title: Online Event Management System for St. Patrick School
3.6 Development and Testing
3.6.1 Project Schedule Table 3.3 Schedule
This is a special type of bar chart where each bar represents an activity. The length of each bar is proportional to the duration of the time planned for the corresponding activity of the proponents. The project started in the month of June and will end in August.
3.6.2 Operations and Testing Procedures 184.108.40.206 Operation Procedures The procedure to operate the system: 1. Install Application. 2. Test system per user (IT Admin, Department Head, Coordinator, and Accounting). 220.127.116.11 Testing Procedures For IT Administrator: 1. Enter Username and Password for IT Admin, Click Login button. 2. Click Add Users Tab from Menu to create new user account. 3. To manage user account, click Manage Users tab from menu. 4. To generate or print reports for users status, click Reports tab. 5. To modify account information, click Account Settings tab. For the Department Head: 1. Enter Username and Password for Department Head. 2. Browse homepage with calendar of Approved Events. 3. To create Annual / Unplanned event, click Post an Event tab. 4. To approve and/ disapprove pending proposed events, click Approve / Disapprove Events tab. 5. To postpone-resume, cancel events, click Manage Events tab. 6. To generate or print reports, click Reports tab. For Subject Coordinator: 1. Enter Username and Password for Coordinator. 2. Browse homepage with calendar of Approved Events. 3. To create proposals for events, click Propose Event tab. 4. To update draft, postpone-resume, cancel events place mouse to Manage Events and click designated tabs for those processes. 5. To generate or print reports, click Reports tab. 6. To modify account information, click Account Settings tab.
ForAccounting: 1. Enter Username and Password for Accounting. 2. To issue and print receipt click Issue receipt tab. 3. To generate or print reports, click Reports tab. 4. To modify account information, click Account Settings tab. For Students: 1. As a viewer, student will directly go to website spsoems.somee.com to view the website. 7. To modify account information, click Account Settings tab. 18.104.22.168 Evaluation criteria The OEMS is in need of evaluation to asses if the system is worthy to pass the studies test. It would help the future improvement and enhancement of the system. Here are some qualities that a system must have and meet: Connectivity Convenience Efficiency Effectiveness Innovative Security Performance User-friendly Table 3.4Evaluation Criteria Numerical Scale 5 4 3 2 1
Equivalent Excellent Very Good Good Fair Need Improvement
Example #2 of 3.6 Development and Testing Application Project Title: Online Event Management System for St. Patrick School
3.6 Development and Testing
3.6.1 Project Schedule The developers initially gathered data through interviews and surveys which they used as basis for the requirements of the system they developed. The developers also observed the process of the processes they chose to integrate to see which parts of the system can be improved. After the required data have been gathered, the developers analyzed the inf ormation to be able to create solutionsand take the necessary steps to complete the system. Once the data have been analyzed, the developers then proceeded to the development of a prototype. A simple user interface to get the overall feel of the system and to know which functions are to be focused on. Once the prototypes have been developed, the clients evaluated the prototypes for any changes or recommendations they had for the system.
5. After the evaluation, the developers used the gathered data to further improve or refine the prototype they developed. The cycles 2 - 5 repeated until the client approved of the said prototype and had no further changes to suggest. 6. Once the prototype was completed, the developers began with the actual program, integrating the logical functions of the system, making it functional and usable. 7. Once all the modules were fully developed, the system was integrated into one base which is the portal itself, to function as a whole. This was then preceded by testing to catch any bugs and errors or to make changes or improvements that were suggested.
3.6.2 Operation and Testing procedure For the operational procedure of the system, the steps vary depending on the module being used. 22.214.171.124 Development and testing Procedure Table 3.4 Operation and Testing Student Side 1. Log in using Student – User Account 2. Choose a function Reservation System: 1. Choose Facilities to reserve 2. Input required fields 3. Click confirm Organization Registration System: 1. Choose Organization 2. Click register button Organization Shirt Ordering System: 1. Choose Organization 2. Click order button Forums: 1. Create a new topic 2. Choose a topic or announcement 3. Post a comment Faculty Side 1. Log in using Faculty - User Account 2. Choose a function Reservation System: 1. Select Equipment and Facilities 2. Choose Equipment or Facility to reserve 3. Input required fields 4. Click confirm Forums: 1. Create a new topic 2. Choose a topic or announcement 3. Post a comment Admin Side 1. Log in using Admin - User Account 2. Choose a function
Organization Registration and Shirt Ordering System: Change registration and order shirt details 1. Click “Change” button 2. Input the desired Registration Fee, Registration Deadline, Shirt Fee, Percent Down Payment, Order Deadline, Down Payment Deadline, Quantity per order 3. Click “Save” Change Organization Shirt Designs Images 1. Choose Organization 2. Choose the image file 3. Click “Upload” button File Maintenance: 1. Choose records to Edit or Deactivate 2. Input details to Add 3. Input details to Search Forums: 1. Post an announcement 2. Post comments 3. Select a user to block or unblock 4. Delete comments 5. Delete posts Student Officer Side 1. Log in using Student Officer – User Account 2. Choose function in the Organization Page Organization Registration System: 1. Add payment 2. Cancel registrations 3. View Reports 4. Send Notification Organization Shirt Ordering System: 1. Add payment 2. Cancel orders 3. View Reports 4. Send Notification 5. Alter sizes 6. Release Shirts
Organization Details: 1. Click “Edit info” 2. Input details 3. Click “Save” 4. Choose image file for the logo 5. Click “Change”
Registrar Side 1. Log in using Registrar – User Account 2. Add request 3. Process request 4. Available request 5. Release request Alumni Registration: 1. Click “Add” 2. Input details to Add 3. Click “Save” button Forums: 1. Create a new topic 2. Choose a topic or announcement 3. Post a comment Librarian Side 1. Log in using Librarian – User Account 2. Choose a function Equipment Reservation: 1. Release or Cancel Equipment Reservations 2. If cancelling, input a reason 3. Return Equipment (tag as damaged if it is returned as damaged) Block or Unblock a Faculty: 1. Choose the faculty to Block or Unblock File Maintenance (Equipment): 1. Enter the details if searching 2. Choose the equipment to update or deactivate 3. Enter details to add Department Head Side 1. Log in using Department Head – User Account
Facilities Reservation: 1. Cancel Facility reservations 2. Enter reason File Maintenance (Facilities): 1. Enter the details if searching 2. Choose the facility to update or deactivate 3. Enter details to add Guest Side Registration of Alumni: 1. Fill up form 2. Click “Submit” button
126.96.36.199 Evaluation Criteria Functionality – refers to the system’s performance or able to perform a function based what is expected and its design. Efficiency – refers to the system’s ability to produce the right output in the shortest amount of time Convenience - Refers to the accessibility of the system and whether it makes tasks easier for the users. Usability – refers to convenience and readiness to use the system. Reliability – refers to the system’s ability to perform instructions with minimal errors. Acceptability –refers to whether the system is acceptable for the client and users and if it is ready to be used and integrated Table 3.5shows the numerical scale and interpretation that will be used for evaluation criteria to asses if the application fails or meet its objective. Table 3.5Numerical Scale and Interpretation Numerical Scale
1 2 3 4 5
Highly Unacceptable Unacceptable Uncertain Acceptable Highly Acceptable
_______________________________________________________________________ FEU Diliman Portal 3-25 Table 3.6shows the interpretation based on the ranged of mean scores. Table 3.6Likert Scale Numerical Scale
1.00-1.50 1.51- 2.50 2.51 -3.50 3.51 -4.50 4.51 - 5.00
Highly Unacceptable Unacceptable Uncertain Acceptable Highly Acceptable
188.8.131.52 Evaluation Procedure Once the system was completed, several individuals werebe asked to evaluate the system. For this, the following steps were followed: The developers selected forty-five people from FEU-FERN who then evaluated the system The respondents were asked to use the functions in the portal based on their position using a pre-determined account for testing Each respondent were then given an Evaluation Sheet The results were tabulated and averaged to determine if the system had met its objectives and the user’s approval ratings.
3.7 Statistical Design - This section must contain the following:
How will the data gathered during evaluation be treated Sampling Design Size of the population Type of data gathering technique that will be used Respondents profile Statistical Method Evaluation formula
Example #1 of 3.7 Statistical Design Application Project Title: Online Event Management System for St. Patrick School
3.7 Statistical Design
Criteria for evaluating the ability of the system: Connectivity – Ability to make and maintain a connection between the user and the system itself. Convenience – It is the quality of the system being suitable the school to easily connect and inform the students for purposes or needs. Something that increases comfort or saves work. Efficiency and Effectiveness – Has the maximum level of service offered with less effort and expenses used and works competently on this project. A system must be working in live conditions and must be operating and functioning well. Innovative – The user interface design must carry out the usability before the testing. It is something newly introduced, such as a new method of informing the students of the upcoming events instead of giving flyers and posting the event on bulletin board. Security – A system must be ensured and protected from unintended or unauthorized access, change or destruction. Performance -Ability of a system to work and operate well based on the functional ability stated on the very beginning of the studies. And it is a user-friendly system. User-friendly – Ability of the system to adapt the user interface design and key to develop new and improved user interaction online. In this way the system is easily understood by the users and can be easily checked if users can grasp what they need to do and what you need to do to make the interface more intuitive. Size of the Population St. Patrick School has 272 High School Students and 20 faculty members and approximately 20 Administration Staff including the accounting officers or the Accountingof High School Department. Respondents’ Profile The application was evaluated by the High School Department Head, Coordinators, faculty members, Accounting and some selected students. This was to determine if the developers met the desired system for St. Patrick School. The developers conducted system demonstration, testing, survey, evaluation and interview of the users. They had 8 survey questions (for all major users) and 10 questions for the evaluation of the system. The form covered8 system capabilities (Connectivity, Convenience, Efficient and Effectiveness, Innovative, Security, Performance, and User-friendly) designed only for the St. Patrick School Online Event Management System. Table 3.5 Respondents Gender Gender
3.7 Statistical Design 3.7.1 Sampling The application was evaluated by college students, faculty, staff, and alumni of FEUFERN. The 25 students were divided per course, 5 each, 4 Student Officers, 5 from the Faculty, 5 from the Alumni, 2 from the Registrar’s Office, 1 from the Library and 3 from the Academic Office Table 3.7 Respondents Number Percentage BSIT 5 11% BSA
3.7.2 Statistical Method Based on the criteria, the users simply computed for the average and total of the scores on how the user evaluated the system to see whether the developed system had met the needs of the users. The formula that the designersusedwas the statistical formula used to compute for the mean/average which is:
Where: = Mean/ Average n = number of testers x = total score