Chapter 2 the Artist's Medium

August 14, 2017 | Author: Joyce Anne P. Banda | Category: Printmaking, Paintings, Oil Painting, Engraving, Surrealism
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Medium and Technique

Medium, this comes from the Latin word medium, denotes the means by which an artist communicates his idea. These are the materials which are used by an artist to interpret his feelings or thoughts. Many mediums have been used in creating different works of art.

On the basis of medium, the arts are primarily classified as visual and auditory. 1. Visual arts are those whose mediums can be seen and which occupy space. These are grouped into two classes.

The first is the dimensional or two-dimensional arts which include painting, drawing, printmaking, and photography.

The three-dimensional arts include sculpture, architecture, landscape, community planning, industrial designs, and crafts like ceramics and furniture.

2. The auditory arts are those mediums can be heard and which are expressed in time. The combined arts are those whose mediums can be both seen and heard, and these exist in both space and time. These are the dance, the opera the drama, and the movies

Technique - is the manner in which the artist controls his medium to achieve the desired effect. It is the ability with which he fulfills the technical requirements of his particular work of art.

• The artist thinks, feel, and give shape to his vision in terms of his medium. When an artist chooses his medium, he believes that this can best express the idea he wants to convey. Most often, an artist employs more than one medium to give meaning to his creative production.

The distinctive character of the medium determines the way it can be worked on and turned into a work of art.

The nature of each medium determines how a work of art may be realized. Stone must be chiseled; metal must be cast; and wood must be carved. Each medium responds to the kind of artwork that must be produced.

Apparently, artists differ from one another in technique even if they use the same medium. A musician’s technique is his ability to make music sound the way he wants it.

• On the other hand, a sculptor’s technique is his way of handling chisel and hammer to produce the desired effect. • A pianist’s technique is his way of handling the instrument and interpreting a musical composition.

Mediums of the Visual Arts

• Visual Arts are those arts that are perceived with our eyes. The most common visual arts are painting, sculpture and architecture. Their medium is discussed as follows.

Painting is the art of creating meaningful effects on a flat surface by the use of pigments. Different mediums are used in painting. Each medium exerts a pronounced effect on the finished product, is capable of varied treatment and determines its own stroke. The materials of the painter are pigments applied to wet plaster, canvas, wood or paper.

Watercolor • Watercolor as a medium is difficult to handle because it is difficult to produce warm and rich tones to invite brilliance and a variety of hues. Changes maybe made once the paint has been applied.

• Example: Gouache – An opaque watercolour painting the major effects of which are caused by the whitepaper itself. It is done by mixing zinc white with the regular watercolour paints to tone them down giving the appearance of sobriety suitable for dramatic purposes.

An example of a cut paper and handpainted gouache. (Paris fight)

Fresco • Fresco – This is painting on a moist plaster surface with colors ground in water or a limewater mixture. The colors dry into plaster and the picture becomes part of the wall. Fresco must be done quickly because it is an exacting medium – the moment it is applies to the surface, it is become an integral part of the wall. The images are permanently fixed and almost impossible to remove. • Example: Michaelangelo’s “The Creation of Adam” in the Sistine Chapel ceiling

Michaelangelo’s “The Creation of Adam” in the Sistine Chapel ceiling

Tempera • Tempera – Tempera paints are mineral pigments mixed with egg yolk or egg white and ore. It is rapid drying rate and corrections are difficult to make. Tempera was one of the favourite medium of many painters throughout the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance before oil was adopted. • Tempera painting is usually done in wooden panel that has been made very smooth with plaster called ―gesso‖ (chalk and gum).

Tempera • Since this medium dries quickly, corrections are difficult to make. Thus, the artist must be precise and exact in his work. It is a well-designed medium for careful detail. One distinguishing advantage of tempera is its luminous tone—the colors being clear and beautiful.

Brain Original Abstract Tempera Painting of Marina Petro

Pastel • Pastel – This is a stick of dried paste made of pigment round with chalk and compounded with gum water. In spite of its richness and varied effects, it as never won a prize, because it is difficult to preserve the finished product in its original freshness. Some artist use a fixing medium or a protecting glass, but when the chalks rub, the picture loses some of its brilliance.

"The Old Smokehouse at Orchard Hills"

Encaustic • Encaustic – This is one of the early mediums used by the Egyptians for the painted portrait on mummy cases. This is done by painting with wax colors fixed wit heat. Panting with wax produces luster and radiance in the subject making them appear at their best in portraits.

Soaring Bird - Original Encaustic Painting

Oil • Oil – One of the most expensive art activities today because of the prohibitive cost of materials. It is the heaviest of painting media. It admits a great deal of corrections and working over. One good quality of paint as a medium is its flexibility. The artist may used a brush, palette knife, or even is bare hands when applying paint in is canvas. In some cases, we do not even notice the artist’s stroke because the paint is applied very smoothly. It also dries very slowly and the painting can be changed and worked over a long period of time. Painting done in oil is glossy and last long.

Oil Painting Title SUNSET IN A LAKE, Sunset Painting, by Gina De Gorna

Acrylic • Acrylic – This medium is used popularly by contemporary painters because of the transparency and quick-drying characteristics of watercolour and the flexibility of oil combined. Acrylic paints do not tend to break easily unlike oil paints which turn yellowish or darker over a period of time.

Picture of Picasso THE DREAM Value Acrylic painting


• Mosaic – Mosaic of art is a picture or decoration made of small pieces of inlaid colored stones or glass called ―tesserae‖, which most often are cut into squares glued on a surface with plaster or cement. Mosaic is usually classified as painting, although, the medium used is not strictly pigment. • Mosaic art is an important feature of Byzantine churches. A prominent religious artwork in Manila done in mosaic is found in the altar of Sta. Cruz Church showing a wounded white lamb, symbolizing Christ, with a stream that flows down directly to the tabernacle.

Belcher mosaic glass Belcher Mosaic Windows

Art Deco Swans Stone Mosaic

Stained Glass • Stained Glass – Stained glass as an artwork is a common in Gothic cathedral and churches. This is made by combining many small pieces of colored glass which are held together by bands of lead. It is also a kind of patchwork. Beautiful stained-glass windows showing scenes from the Bible are commonly found in the Philippine churches.

Religious stained glass window collection

Tapestry • Tapestry – This is a fabric consisting of a wrap upon which colored threads are woven by hand to produce a design, often pictorials, wall hangings and furniture covering. During the Middle Ages, they were hung on the walls of palaces and in cathedrals on festive occasions to provide warmth.

This medieval tapestry wall hanging is called Vendanges au Chateau.

Drawing • Drawing – Drawing is usually done on paper using pencil, pen and ink or charcoal. It is the most fundamental of all skills necessary in arts. Drawing has always been considered as a very good training for artists because it makes one concentrate on the use of line. • Some of the world’s best-known drawings are by the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519). He drew everything from animals and birds to ideas for flying machines.

Drawing • Drawing can be done with different kinds of mediums and the most common is pencil which comes in different degrees of hardness or softness, with the pencil lead (graphite) depending on the kind of drawing the artist will undertake. For line work, hard pencil lead is applied. When working on a granular surface, soft pencils are used because they invite effects of mass and a texture of gray.

Drawing • Ink, one of the oldest mediums still in use, offers a great variety of qualities, depending on the tools and techniques used in applying the ink on the surface. India ink, which comes in liquid form, is the favourite medium of comic strip illustrators and cartoonists. Chinese ink meanwhile comes in solid sticks that are dissolved in water before they are used.

An example of a cut paper and handpainted gouache. (Paris fight)

Pencil drawing woman seated on stool

Pen drawing of Sad Friday by ~Hakai Akumu

Charcoal back Dragica Micki fortuna

Lady ink drawing

Bistre • Bistre – Bistre is a brown pigment extracted from the soot of wood and often used in pen and wash drawings.

Bistre Sunflowers Fine Art Print - Diana Ludwig

Crayons • Crayons – Crayons are pigment bound by wax and compressed into painted sticks used for drawing especially among children in the elementary grades. They adhere better on paper surface.

Crayon Painting by Shumaila Ansari

Charcoal • Charcoal – These are carbonaceous materials obtained by heating wood or other organic substances in the absence of oxygen. Charcoal is used in representing broad masses of light and shadow. Light drawing pencils, soft charcoal produces the darkest value, while the darkest produces the lightest one.

Silverpoint • Silverpoint – In this medium, the artist has a technique of drawing with silver stylus on specially prepared paper to produce a thin garish line that was popular during the Renaissance period.

The Art Of Silverpoint Drawing

Printmaking • Printmaking – A print is anything printed on a surface that is a direct result from duplicating process. Ordinarily, the painting or graphic image is done in black ink on white appear and becomes the artist’s plate.

Printmaking • One of the advantages of print making is the process of making copies of the original drawing. Today, printmaking maybe categorized as painting, because it has long been acknowledge as an independent art. • There are five major types of prints – woodcut, engraving, relief, intaglio and stencil process. Each print can distinguish by the plate made.

Woodcut • Woodcut – As the name implies, this is made from the piece of wood prints just as do the letters of a typewriter. The lines of the design are wood, so they are not very fine. Woodcuts can be identified because of their firm, clear and black lines.

An example of a cut paper and handpainted gouache. (Paris fight)

Engraving • Engraving – This is the art of forming design by cutting, corrosion by acids. In engraving the lines are the design and cut into a metal plate with ink and transferred from the plate to the paper. The lines of an engraving are cut by hand with an instrument called ―burin‖ tool with an oblique point and rounded handle for carving stone and engraving metal.

Engraving • Etching is a development of engraving. A copper or zinc plate is discovered with ―ground‖ a smooth coating of wax mixed with pitch and amber. The artist scratches the picture into the ground and puts the plate in acid, which ―eats‖ the picture into the plate.

This piece is an etching and engraving technique entitled Apple Tree Evening

Relief • Relief – Relief printing involves cutting away from a block of wood. Color prints are made by preparing a separate block for each color to be used. It is important that only the parts to be printed with precision are on the prepare area.

"Self Portrait" relief print in black oil-based ink on heavy Rives BFK - February 2010

Intaglio • Intaglio – It is a printing process in which the design or the text engraved into the surface of the place and the ink is transferred to the paper from the groover.

Intaglio Printmaking - Plant 1 by John Morson.

Stencil • Stencil - Stencil printing is a very common activity done by high school students these days of their practical arts courses. It is a process which involves cutting of the design on special paper cardboard or metal sheet in such a way that when ink is rubbed over it, the design is reproduced on the surface.

Stencil Printmaking Lion Dance copyright Mori Yoshitoshi

In choosing a subject for sculpture, the most important thing to consider is the material. The materials available for sculpture are limitless. Each of these materials presents interesting motivation to challenge the sculptor’s creativity.

In choosing a subject for sculpture, the most important thing to consider is the material. The materials available for sculpture are limitless. Each of these materials presents interesting motivation to challenge the sculptor’s creativity.

Stone Hard and brittle substance formed from mineral and earth material. The finished product is granular and dull in appearance. These are normally used for gravestones in cemeteries. Stones include sandstone, granite, basalt, marble, and limestone.

• Sandstone – soft stone and contains a lot of sand. • Granite – granular igneous rock composed of feldopars and quartz, usually combined with other minerals and is quite difficult to chisel. This is good for large works with only a few designs. The Egyptian sculptures of Pharaohs were mostly done in granite. • Basalt – hard and black.

• Marble – limestone in a more or less crystalline state sufficiently close in texture and capable of taking a high polish, occurring in many varieties. – Breciated marble – composed of angular fragments. – Serpentine marble – prized for its variegated patterns and is often used in large flat planes. • Limestone – has a fine and even texture. Its color range from light cream to buff, and from light gray to a darker, bluish gray. It lends itself very well to carving.





Jade It is a fine, colorful stone, usually green, and used widely in Ancient China. It is highly esteemed as an ornamental stone for carving and fashion jewelry. Today, it is one of women’s fashion accessories because it carries certain social significance. It is believed to symbolize certain virtues such as faithfulness, wisdom, and charity.

Ivory This comes from the main parts of tusks of elephants. It is the hard white substance used to make carvings and billiards ball. In the home of some wellto-do families in the Philippines, faces and hands of images of saints sre made of ivory. The bodies are made of wood, carved and painted.

Metals Include any of a class of elementary substances such as gold, silver, or copper all of which are crystalline when solid and many of which are characterized by capacity, ductility, conductivity and peculiar luster when freshly fractured. Being ductile, it can be transformed into fine wires or treads. Its main quality is that it can be shaped into any direction or formed under great pressure without breaking. Traditionally, the metals that have been the medium for sculpture are copper, brass, bronze, gold, silver, and lead. Aluminum is the recent addition to the list.

Bronze One of the oldest alloys of metal composing chiefly of copper and tin with color and is one of the most universally popular metals for sculpture. Bronze as a material is strong, durable and resistant to any atmospheric corrosion. It is the best suited for sculptures in open or outdoor places like parks and plazas as well as for large-scale modeling.

Brass An alloy of copper and zinc, I nor popularly used by artists because of its limitations as a medium. Although it has many practical uses, brass does not rust and it takes a brilliant polish. Copper It has a peculiar brilliance, is used as a costing medium. This basically shaped by hammering. It can be fashioned into reliable forms. The rich reddish color and strength offer many possibilities to sculptor and the craftsman.



Gold and Silver It is used as casting materials for small objects like medals, coins, and pieces of jewelry. Because they are quite expensive, they are used for either personal accessories or religious adornments. Lead A bluish-gray metal, flexible and permanent material , is used for casting and forging. With the help of welding torch iron, it can be worked into a variety of unique and exiting forms.

Gold and Silver


Plaster It is a composition of lime, sand, and water. Plaster is worked as an armature of metal wires and rods in addition to various material and fibers. This applied on walls and ceilings and allowed to hard and dry. The medium is used extensively for making manikins, model molds, architectural decorations, and other indoor sculpture.


It is a natural earthly material that has the nature of plasticity when wet, consisting essentially of hydrated silicates of aluminum used for making bricks and ceramics. Clay is generally fragile so it becomes necessary to cast it in another durable material. The surface of the finished product made of clay may be painted or glazed. Earthware which is “baked earth” is commonly referred to as terra cotta, which is cheap compared with stone or bronze. Brilliant cloves are made possible by glazing. Like all pottery, terra cotta is easily broken. As a medium for sculptor, it has been used during the early times.

Glass It is a medium that is hard, brittle, non-crystalline, more or less transparent substances produced by fusion, usually consisting of mutually dissolved silica and silicates and contains soda and lime. This is used to make beautiful but fragile figurines. It can be molded in various colors and shape

Wood As a medium is perhaps easier to carve than any other mediums available because it can be intricately carved and subjected into a variety of treatment not possible with stone. It is lighter and softer to carve despite having greater tensile strength than stone; hence, it can be used in long pieces without taking breaking. The character of the grain and the color of the wood are the most important qualities that the sculptor considers. Wood should be treated to preserve its quality. Common wood used for sculpture are dapdap, white launan, oak, walnut, mahogany, narra and dao. They are selected for beauty and permanence.

Terra Cotta It is the tenderest of sculptural materials. Most oriental sculpture deals in this medium. This is used in vases, figurines, and in small thins.

• Architecture is an art. In its strictest meaning, it is the art of designing a building and supervising its construction.

Architecture is shelter to serve as protection of all activities of men – work, recreation, and sleep. One of the primary purposes of architecture is to fulfill man’s needs that led to its creation.

•This man’s needs include: • Physical needs - shelter (for self-preservation and reproduction) these shelters must have the necessities (kitchen, bedroom, bathroom,) and comfort (heat, ventilation, furnishing). • Emotional needs – endowed with rich beauty and interest. • Intellectual needs - a building for science, education, government etc.

• Psychosocial needs For recognition, prestige, civic, and personal – man build palaces, skyscrapers, cathedrals, public buildings, monument etc. For response – due to love, friendship, and sociability (fraternal buildings, city clubs, banquet halls, ballrooms, living rooms)

For self-expression – theaters, museums, cultural centers, stadiums, gymnasium, bowling alleys, etc.

Factors in the choice and Use of Architectural Materials 1. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

Structural Property – workability with tools when used in construction materials. Compressive strength Tensile Porosity Lightness Durability Rigidity Gracefulness Flexibility of use

Factors in the choice and Use of Architectural Materials 2. a) b) c)

Physical Property – aesthetic use of the material for beauty. Texture Tonal quality Color

Factors in the choice and Use of Architectural Materials 3. Weakness of the Material a) b) c) d) e) f)

Rotting Corrosion due to moisture Susceptibility to infection by ―bukbok,‖ termites and other pest Discoloration Solar radiation Fungus growth

Factors in the choice and Use of Architectural Materials 4. Longevity of the Material – lifespan of the material a) b) c) d)

10 years 20 years Half a century More than a century

Factors in the choice and Use of Architectural Materials 5. Other inherent properties a) b) c) d)

Weight Water resistance Heat resistance Acoustic values

Classification of Architectural Materials (Salvan, 1999)

Classification • Materials of Nature • Materials Manufactured by Man • Indigenous Materials

• Stones

Different kinds of Stones • Lime

Different kinds of Stones • Granite

Different kinds of Stones • Marble – Brecciated – Serpentine

Different kinds of Stones • Sandstone

Materials of Nature • Wood

Materials Manufactured by Man

• Ceramic

Manufactured by Man • Metal

Manufactured by Man • Concrete Materials

Manufactured by Man • Plastic

Indigenous Materials•


Indigenous Materials • Coco Coir

Indigenous Materials • Bagasse

Indigenous Materials • Abaca

Indigenous Materials • Bamboo

Indigenous Materials • Palm Stem

Indigenous Materials • Mud Brick

• Performing arts are those that are performed by artists usually on stage and often places. When heard and seen simultaneously, these arts become combined arts.

• • • •

Music Dance Theater Arts (play or drama) Literature

Music – is art and culture is reflected in art. The more music a person knows, the more cultured he becomes and it deals with a sound. The mediums of music are the sound produced by man (vocal music) and the sound produced by an instrument (instrumental music).

• Vocal Music – is the oldest and natural form of music. Our voice is produced by the vibrations of the vocal chords in our voice box. The sound produced by these vibrations is not loud enough to be heard, resonators (lungs, esophagus, head and mouth cavities) are needed to increase the volume of the voice. Hence correct position of the body, head and mouth will enable the air to vibrate freely.

Correct Posture – Standing correctly allows the air in the different body cavities to vibrate and flow ully. Keeping one foot forward will help maintain body balance. When seated while singing, keep your back away from the chairs in a rising position.

• Correct Breathing – the quality and volume of the voice depends upon breathing. Diaphragmatic breathing is advisable – a breathing supported by the diaphragm.

Correct Placement of the Voice – To develop good tone quality, never force out the voice to

prevent throating singing. Project the voice upward toward the head to produce a good

tonal quality.

• Correct Diction – Diction has nothing to do with air vibration but it is important singing utterance. Good diction includes correct pronunciation clean enunciation, and distinct articulation. Good diction conveys the meaning of the song to the listeners. To bring out the meaning of the song it is important to sing it in an expressive manner.

Correct Interpretation – to interpret the song properly, the vocalist should make the message clear as it is

sung. The text and the music convey the meaning of the song. The face, eyes, hands, and other parts of

the body assist the voice in conveying the meaning of the song. Without correct interpretation, a song becomes dull and uninteresting.

2 Classification of Vocal Music

• Long vocal forms • Short vocal forms

5 Long Vocal Forms • Opera – drama set to music with action,

costume and scenery. It consists of overture, areas recitative, ensemble, and chorus.

• Cantata – a story told in music; no action. It is a smaller version of the oratorio and may be secular or religious.

Oratorio – a form of dramatic music also consisting of an overture areas, recitatives, and







contemplative character performed in correct

style, without costume, scenery, or action. Greater emphasis is given to the chorus and

testo (narrator) is often utilized.

• Moro – moro – a Philippine drama set to

music that depicts Christian and nonChristian conflicts.

• Zarzuela – a Philippine drama set to music that is similar to the opera.

12 Short Vocal Forms • Folk Songs

• Motet

• Art Songs

• Madrigal

• Kundiman

• Ballad

• Balitaw

• Chorale

• Donza-babanera

• Round/Cannon

• Anthem

• Area

Voice Classification Voice differs considerably according to timbre (quality) and range.

Tibre Classified into women’s voices and men’s voices. 1. Women’s Voices: a. Soprano – tone is lighter in character,

less somber and frequently more flexible. b. Alto or Contralto – the tone is richer and


3 Classification of Soprano • Coloratura Soprano – highest and lightest of all

voices. The music written for voice quality is full runs, trills and light ornaments.

• Mezzo – Soprano – it is medium high in tonal quality. • Lyric soprano – it less high and flute-like. It is suited

to sweet songs like melodies.

Men’s Voices • Tenor – the highest type in men’s voices • Baritone – the voice is between tenor and bass • Bass – lowest and deepest voice quality

The Instrumental Music Musical Instruments are the second medium in music.

4 Forms of Instrumental Music • Sonata • Suite • Symphony • Concerto

Sonata - a long composition for solo instrument, consisting of large sections called movements.  3 Movements • Allegro • Andante • Rondo Example of Sonata in C Major by composer Wolfgang A. Mozart

Suite – a series of musical pieces that tells a story. A music that tells a story is called

Program Music and a music that tells no story is absolute music.

Example is the ―Nutcracker Suite‖ composed by Peter Tchaikowsky.

Symphony – a sonata for the orchestra. Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770-1827) was the great musician remembered for these immortal symphonies.

Concerto – a sonata for solo and orchestra designed to show-off the virtuosity of the soloist. Some of the greatest concerto musicians were J.S Bach and Vivaldi.

• Musical instruments are divided into 4 categories used in the Philippines: • • • •

String Woodwind Brass Percussion

• Percussion -played by scraping, rubbing and shaking. This produces different sound effects like running water, thunder etc…Example are snare drum, brass drum, cymbals, triangle

The Properties of Musical Sound • Pitch • Duration • Volume • Timbre or tone color

• Pitch – the highness or lowness of a one of a musical scale • Duration – depend on the length of time which vibration is maintained

• Volume – force or percussive effects as a result which the tone strikes us being loud or soft • Timbre or tone color – individual quality of the sound produced by other instrument

In painting, this is the attempt to portray the subject as it is. Even when the artist chooses a subject from nature, he selects, changes, and arranges details to express the idea he wants to make clear. The artist’s main function is to describe as accurately and honestly as possible what is observed through the senses. We can say an artwork is realistic when the presentation and organization of details in the work seem so natural. Example of this is Amorsolo’s paintings.

This is used when the artist becomes so interested in phase of a scene or a situation that he does not show the subject as an objective reality, but only his idea, or his feeling about it. Abstract means “to move away or separate ”. Abstract art made from showing things as they really are. The painter or artist paint the picture not as it really looked. The picture is not just like life not realistic. They ignore the exact form of a real-life object.

a. Distortion This is clearly manifested when the subject misshapen condition, or the regular shape is twisted out.

b. Elongation It refers to that which is being lengthened, portrait or an extension.

c. Mangling This may not be a commonly used way of presenting an abstract subject , but there are few artists who show subjects or objects which are cut, lacerated, mutilated, or hacked with repeated blows.

d. Cubism It stresses abstract form through the use of a cone, cylinder, or sphere at the expense of other pictorial elements. The cubists want to show forms in their basic geometrical shapes.

e. Abstract expression It departs completely from subject matter, from studied precision, and from any kind of preconceived design. Jackson Pollock was one of the abstract expressionist painters of the New York School.

A symbol in general, is a visible sign of something invisible such as an idea or a quality. It can be simply an emblem or sign like: % to represent percent, a lion to represent courage, a lamb to represent meekness. These well-known symbols arise from conventional usage association, and general relationship. The conventional type of symbol is not absent form works of art. But in poetry painting, the symbol has a freer development. It transcends the everyday run –ofthe-mill-sign and assumes a new and fresh meaning, originating from a highly personal and even unique association born in the mid of the poet or painter.

• A number of indispensable paintings of noted Filipino painter found in National Museum. An example is the giant-sized painting by Juan Luna, entitled “Spoliarium”. This art work painted in Rome, form July 1883 to March 1884

This was the first important art movement of the 1900 fauves flourished as a group only from about 1903 to 1907 greatly influenced many later artists. The fauves did not attempt to express ethical, philosophy psychological themes. Most of these artists tried to paint picture with comfort, joy, and pleasure. They used extremely bright colors, fauve, for example, a tree trunk need not be brown. It could be red, purple , or any other color.

A protest movement in the arts was formed in in 1916. The Dadaists tried to shock and provoke the public with outrageous pieces of writing, poetry recitals, and art exhibitions. The “dada,” a French word meaning “hobby horse,” was deliberately chosen because it was nonsensical. Perhaps the best known Dadaist was the French artist Marcel Duchamp.

It developed in Italy about the same time cubism appeared in France. Futurist painters wanted their works to capture the speed and force of modern industrial society. Their paintings glorified the mechanical energy of modern life. Subjects included automobiles, motorcycles, and railroad trains – subjects that express the explosive vitality of a modern city.

This movement in art and literature was founded in Paris in 1924 by the French poet Andre Breton. Like Dadaism, from which it arose, surrealism uses art as weapon against evil and restrictions that surrealists see in society. Unlike Dadaism, it tries to reveal a new and higher reality than that of daily life. Surrealism is an invented word meaning super realism. The movement was influenced by the Freudian psychology which emphasizes the activities of the subconscious state of mind

Subjects of this kind attempt to show what is inside man’s mind as well as the appearance of his outside world. The surrealists claim to create forums and images not primarily by reason, but by unthinking impulse and blind feeling or even by accident. In this way, the surrealists try to shock the viewer or reader and show what they consider the deeper and truer part of human nature. Benjamin Mendoza, a Bolivian painter, is well-known in presenting violent and cruel surrealist paintings.

This method was introduced in Germany during the first decade of twentieth century. Its influence was felt by the European artist from 1910 up to the present. It also seemed to have influenced the playwrights in English and Filipino like the work of Amelia Lapeña-Bonifacio in “Sepang Loca” (1958). The exponent of expressionism believed in the necessity of a spiritual rebirth for man in an age that was fast becoming influenced by materialism. Paul Dumol’s “Paglilitis ni Mang Separio” (1969),and Reuel Aguila’s “Mapait sa Bao” are plays which depicted the idea of rebirth of the individual as possible only within the content of the transformation of the entire society.

The emotional expression in expressionistic painting could be described as involving pathos, morbidity, violence or chaos, and tragedy. It sometimes portray defeat.


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