Chapte Chapter 11 Chapterr 11 Industry Key Issue 1 Where Is Industry Distributed?
The Industrial Revolution originated in Britain during the late 18 th century century because of the combination of entrepreneurs capital ra! materials and available labor" Three#$uarters of the !orld%s industrial production is concentrated in four regions& north!estern 'urope eastern 'urope eastern (orth )merica and 'ast )sia" Western 'urope has ma*or industriali+ation regions in Britain the Rhine# Ruhr ,alley the mid#Rhine and northern Italy" Britain%s is the oldest of these industrial regions although it is no! attracting high#tech industries especially -apanese companies" .ost British industries locate in southeast 'ngland today" The Rhine#Ruhr has been important largely because of coal and iron deposits and steelma/ing" The mid#Rhine includes parts of 0ermany and rance and has been important because of its pro2imity to large consumer mar/ets" The 3o valley of northern Italy began !ith te2tile manufacturing and has benefited from lo! labor costs"
The oldest industrial areas in eastern 'urope are the central industrial district !hich is centered on .osco! and the 4t" 3etersburg industrial district !hich !as one of Russia%s early nodes of industrial development" 5ther industrial areas in eastern 'urope include the ,olga industrial district particularly important for petroleum and natural gas and the 6ral industrial district !hich has become a main source of ra! materials but lac/s energy sources" The Ku+nets/ is Russia%s most important industrial region east of the 6ral .ountains" 5utside the former 4oviet 6nion there are important industrial regions in eastern 6/raine and 4ilesia !hich includes parts of 3oland and the 7+ech Republic"
(orth )merica became a ma*or industrial region later than 'urope" Te2tiles !ere important in the 6"4" by 189" .anufacturing has been traditionally located in the northeastern 6"4" !ith its numerous ra! materials" These areas include (e! 'ngland the .iddle )tlantic the .oha!/ ,alley and the 3ittsburgh#:a/e 'rie region" The !estern 0reat :a/es have also become important especially because of the dominance of 7hicago as a mar/et center" 7anada%s most important industrial area is the region around the the 4t" :a!rence ,alley benefiting from its location and the availability of cheap hydroelectric po!er"
'ast )sia has become a ma*or industrial region since the second half of the ;9th century century by ta/ing advantage of its large labor force" -apan emerged first follo!ed by 4outh Korea Tai!an and 7hina" The latter is no! the !orld%s second# largest manufacturer and has the largest labor force"