Ch14

May 13, 2018 | Author: Sadie Hnatow | Category: Diffusion, Gases, Density, Mole (Unit), Evaporation
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Complete solutions manual to accompany fundamentals of heat and mass transfer seventh edition by Bergman, Lavine, Incrop...

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YTBDGLK >8!> CABPA: OMAH:

Kmx|tl bo B4 nah A4 pmxf yntxmng ytluu|tlu ma xfl tnxmb 9!4> xb 9!0=!

Knuu otnexmba bo lnef uylemlu ma xfl kmx|tl!

UEFLKNXME:

yB

4 ; 9!4>

y A4 K B

4

K A

NUU\KYXMBAU: NANG]UMU:

; 54

;

c` " ckbg

46 c` " ckbg

&>- Yltolex `nu dlfnvmbt!

Otbk xfl hlomamxmba bo xfl knuu otnexmba' m ; ώ m

;

km

4

9!0=

Υώ m

 ώ

Flael' pmxf  ώ m ;

ym

ym

;

& ℗ " K m - X

T mX

;

K m ym

℗X

!

Flael ;

km

K m ym

" ℗X

ΥK m ym " ℗X

bt' enaelgma` xltku nah hmvmhma` a|kltnxbt nah hlabkmanxbt d} xfl xbxng ytluu|tl y' ;

km

K m  m

ΥK m  m

!

Pmxf xfl kbgl otnexmbau nu

B

4

A

4

;

yB " y ;

;

4

9!4> 9!4> # 9!0=

;

9!4>

y A " y ; 9!0=' 4

omah xfl knuu otnexmbau nu

kB

4

kA

4

;

54 Ð 9!4> 54 Ð 9!4> # 46 Ð 9!0=

; > ∔ kB

4

;

9!0?0!

; 9!455

7 7

YTBDGLK >8!4 CABPA:

Kbgl otnexmba &bt knuu otnexmba- nah kbgle|gnt plm`fx bo lnef uylemlu ma n kmx|tl bo a

uylemlu! L~|ng kbgl otnexmbau &bt knuu knuu otnexmbau- bo B4' A4 nah EB4 ma n kmx|tl! OMAH: UEFLKNXME:

 B ;  A ;  EB ; 9!555 4 4 4 bt

kB ; k A ; kEB ; 9!555 4

K EB KB

NUU\KYXMBAU: NANG]UMU:

4

4

4

4

; 88

; 54'

K A

4

; 46

&>- Yltolex `nu dlfnvmbt!

&n- Pmxf

 ώ km ; m ;  ώ

ώ m

∞ ώ m

;

ym " T m X

;

ymK m " ℗X

∞ ym " T mX ∞ ymK m " ℗X

m m m nah hmvmhma` a|kltnxbt nah hlabkmanxbt d} xfl xbxng ytluu|tl y'

km ;

K m  m

∞ K m m

7

!

m Umkmgntg}'

m ;

ym

∞ ym

;

 ώ m T m X

∞ ώm T mX

m

m

;

& ώ m " K m - ℗X ∞ & ώ m " K m - ℗X m

bt' hmvmhma` a|kltnxbt nah hlabkmanxbt d} xfl xbxng hlaumx}  ώ 

m ;

km " K m

∞ km " K m

7

!

m &d- Pmxf KB

 # K A  A # K EB  EB ; 54 Ð 9!555 # 46 Ð 9!555 # 88 Ð 9!555 ; 58!? 4 B4 4 4 4 EB4

kB ; 9!5>' 4

k A ; 9! 4 0 ' 4

kEB ; 9!84! 4

7

Pmxf

kB " KB # k A " K A # k EB " K    ; 9!555 " 54 # 9!555 " 46 # 9!555 " 88 4 4 4 4 4 EB 4

kB ; 4!=60 Ð>9 ∔4! 4

omah

 B ; 9!5- Yltolex `nu dlfnvmbt!

Otbk xfl l~|nxmba bo uxnxl obt na mhlng `nu'

ym

;

℗X

!

Flael' pmxf yN ; yD'

> dnt

EN

; ED ;

EN

; ED ; 9!989

6!5>8 Ð>9 ∔4 k5 ⋌ dnt " ckbg ⋌ C Ð 4=6 C ck ckbg " k 5!

7

Pmxf  ώ m ; K m Em ' mx obggbpu xfnx  ώ N ;

88 c` " ck c kbg Ð 9!98 ckbg " k 5 ; >!06 c` " k 5

 ώ D ;

46 c` " ck ckbg Ð 9!98 ckbg " k 5 ; >!>5 c` " k 5!

7

Ngub' pmxf

m

; Em " ΥmE m

omah ;

N

D

;

9!98 " 9!96 ; 9!<

7

nah pmxf

km

;  ώm " Υώ m

omah

kN

; >! 0 6 "

&>!06 # >!>5- ; 9!?>

7

kD

; >!>5 "

&>!06 # >!>5 - ; 9!5=!

7

YTBDGLK >8!8 CABPA: Fl+Vl kmvx|tl ebaxnmama` 9!0< kbgl otnexmba bo Fl nx 599 C nah > nxk! OMAH: Knuu otnexmba bo Fl nah kmvx|tl knuu hlaumx}' kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba' nah kbgle|gnt plm`fx! Knuu bo ebbgnax ebbgnax ma >9 gmxltu! gmxltu! UEFLKNXME:

Fl+Vl kmvx|tl 9!0< kbgl otnexmba Fl X ; 599 C' y ; > nxk

NUU\KYXMBAU: Mhlng `nu kmvx|tl! YTBYLTXMLU:

K Fl

; 8 c` " ckbg '

K Vl

; >5>! >5>!5 5 c`" ckbg ckbg

NANG]UMU: Xfl kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba bo xfl kmvx|tl ena dl ob|ah hmtlexg} otbk xfl mhlng `nu gnp' ma xfl obtk

E;

y

℗X

> nxk

; 6!49< Ð >9

∔4

5

k ⋌ nxk " ck ckbg ⋌ C Ð 599 C

; 9!989? ckbg " k 5

7

Xfl knuu hlaumx} bo bal ebkybalax ma n kmvx|tl ena dl tlgnxlh xb xfl kbgl otnexmba d} ebkdmama` L~u! >8!>> nah >8!> xb }mlgh

ώm ; K m vm E Obt Fl xfmu tlu|gxu ma

ώ Fl ; 8 c` " ckbg Ð 9!0< Ð 9!989? ckbg " k 5 ; 9!>4>= c` " k 5 Xfla xfl xbxng knuu hlaumx} ena dl ob|ah d} u|kkma` xfl uylemlu knuu hlaumxmlu'

ώ ; ∞ ώm ; E∞ K m v m ; 9!989? S 8 c` " ck ckbg Ð 9!0< # >5>!5 c` " ck ckbg Ð 9!4< [ m

m

ώ ; >!8< >!84 k Fl ; ; ; 9!9650 5 ώ >!8< >!8 nxk xbxng ytluu|tl!

YTBYLTXMLU: Xndgl N+6 '

Nkkbamn+nmt dmant} kmx|tl &4=6 C-' H ND ; 9!46 Ð >9 +8

F}htb`la+nmt dmant} kmx|tl &4=6 C-' H ND ; 9!8> Ð >9 NANG]UMU:

+8

4

k  "u3

4

k  "u!

Neebthma` xb xtlnxklax bo Ulexmba >8!>!8' nuu|kma` mhlng `nu dlfnvmbt'

H ND q X5 " 4 pfltl X mu ma clgvma |amxu! Mx obggbpu xfla' xfnx obt

AF5 ∔ Nmt :

5" 4

H ND &59 ∔8 k 4 " u &50!95 ** >6!94 ** 88!9> ** 4!9>? ** 54!99 ** >**** >46!>? *****

* Xndgl N!6 ** Xndgl N!8 ah *** J!T! Fbplgg nah T!B! D|ecm|u' O|ahnklaxngu bo La`malltma` Xfltkbh}ankmeu' 4 lh!' [email protected]+Fmgg' >==4! **** K!J! Kbtna nah F!A! Ufnymtb' U fnymtb' O|ahnklaxngu bo La`malltma` Xfltkbh}ankmeu' ?xf lh!' Jbfa Pmgl} nah Ubau' Fbdbcla' 4996! ***** Ytbdglk ?!?5

NANG]UMU: Xfl knuu hmoo|umvmx} vng|lu k|ux dl ebttlexlh xb neeb|ax obt xfl xlkyltnx|tl nah ytluu|tl hlylahlael! Otbk Xndgl N!6'  HND ∛ y >X 5 " 4 nah xfl ebttlexlh knuu hmoo|umvmx} obt AF 5 mu ∔

 HNDe

;

9!46 Ð >9 8 k 4 "u Ð &>nxk " >! Ð>9 8 k 4"u ∔

Tlylnxma` xfl enge|gnxmba obt xfl bxflt u|duxnaelu }mlghu xfl obggbpma`! U|duxnael N

 HNDe &k4 "u-

AF5 F4B EB4 F4 B4 Nelxbal Dlazlal Anyfxfnglal

9!4> Ð >9 9!>= Ð >9+8 9!>4 Ð >9+8 +8 9!59 Ð >9 +8 9!>? Ð >9 9!=5 Ð >9+< +< 9!?< Ð >9 +< 9!8? Ð >9

+8

N ygbx bo xfl ebttlexlh knuu hmoo|umvmxmlu vltu|u kbgle|gnt plm`fx bo U|duxnael N obggbpu! Ebaxma|lh!!!

YTBDGLK >8!? &Ebax!-

5< 59      u    "    4    Q   k    &    ?    Q    9    >   v   e    D    N    H

4< 49 >< >9

¹

< 9

9

49

89

?9

69

>99

>4 >4 9

>8 >89

KPN &c`"ckbg-

Neebthma` xb cmalxme xflbt}' xfl knuu hmoo|umvmx} hletlnulu pmxf maetlnuma` kbgle|gnt plm`fx! Xfmu dlfnvmbt mu tlnhmg} lvmhlax ma xfl ygbx' n ah xfltlobtl xfl cmalxme xflbt} mu ebaumuxlax pmxf klnu|tlh vng|lu!

EBKKLAXU: Ukngg kbgle|glu ena hmoo|ul xftb|`f xfl fbux klhm|k kbtl tlnhmg} xfna gnt`l kbgle|glu!

7

YTBDGLK >8!0 CABPA: Xfl maalt nah b|xlt u|tonelu bo na mtba e}gmahlt bo >99+kk gla`xf ntl lybulh xb n

entd|tmzma` `nu &kmx|tlu bo EB nah EB 4-! Bdultvlh lyltmklaxng lyltmklaxng hnxn ba xfl xfl vntmnxmba bo xfl xfl entdba ebkybumxmba &plm`fx entdba' ,- ma xfl mtba nx >999¹E nu n o|aexmba bo tnhm|u! Entdba ogbp tnxl |ahlt |ahlt uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau!

e d `f mu n ebauxnax mo xfl hmoo|umba

OMAH: &n- Dl`maama` pmxf Omec”u gnp' ufbp xfnx h ώ e  " h ga t

ebloomemlax' HE+Ol' mu n ebauxnax3 uclxef bo xfl entdba knuu hlaumx}'  ώ e&t-' nu o|aexmba bo ga&t- obt u|ef n hmoo|umba ytbeluu3 &d- Etlnxl n `tnyf obt xfl lyltmklaxng hnxn nah hlxltkmal pflxflt H E+Ol obt xfmu hmoo|umba ytbeluu mu ebauxnax' maetlnulu bt hletlnulu pmxf maetlnuma` knuu hlaumx}3 nah &e- \uma` xfl lyltmklaxng hnxn' enge|gnxl nah xnd|gnxl HE+Ol obt ulglexlh entdba ebkybumxmbau bvlt xfl tna`l bo xfl lyltmklax! UEFLKNXME:

YTBYLTXMLU:

&>999¹E-!

 Mtba

t &kkPx! E &,-

8!8= >!84

 ώ  ;

8!?? >!54

5

0059 c`"k !Lyltmklaxng bdultvnxmbau bo entdba ebkybumxmba 8!0= >!49

8!=> >!9=

? 9!64

- Uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Bal+hmklaumbang' tnhmng hmoo|umba ma n uxnxmbant}

klhm|k' nah &5- \amobtk xbxng ebaelaxtnxmba! NANG]UMU: &n- Obt xfl bal+hmklaumbang' tnhmng &e}gmahtmeng- ebbthmanxl u}uxlk' Omec”u gnp mu

 jN

; ∔ H ND

Nt

hώ N

&>-

ht

pfltl Nt ; 4ωtG! Obt uxlnh}+uxnxl uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' ebahmxmbau' jN mu ebauxnax' nah mo HND mu ebauxnax' xfl ytbh|ex

t

h N ht

;

E>

&4-

k|ux dl n ebauxnax! \uma` xfl hmooltlaxmng hmooltlaxmng tlgnxmba ht"t ; h &ga t-' mx obggbpu xfnx xfnx

h N h dga t `

;

E>

&5-

ub xfnx ba n ga&t- ygbx'  ώ N mu n uxtnm`fx gmal! gmal! Ull xfl `tnyf dlgbp obt xfmu dlfnvmbt! dlfnvmbt! Ebaxma|lh !!!

YTBDGLK >8!0 &Ebax!&d- Xb hlxltkmal pflxflt H E+Ol mu n ebauxnax obt xfl lyltmklaxng hmoo|umba ytbeluu' xfl hnxn ntl tlytlulaxlh ba n ga&t- ebbthmanxl!

Px! entdba hmuxtmd|xmba + lyltmklaxng lyltmklaxng bdultvnxmbau >!?

>!8 Ly hnxn >!4

   - >    ,    &   a   b    d   t 9!6   n    E    x    P 9!?

9!8

9!4

9 >!8<

>!<

>!!?

>!?<

>!0

>!0<

ga &t' kk-

Umael xfl ygbx mu abx gmalnt' HE+Ol mu abx n ebauxnax! ebauxnax! Otbk xfl xtlnxklax xtlnxklax bo yntx &n-' mo HND mu abx n ebauxnax' xfla

H ND

h N hdga t `

;

E4

k|ux dl ebauxnax! Pl ebaeg|hl xfnx HE+Ol pmgg dl gbplt nx xfl tnhmng ybumxmba pfltl xfl `tnhmlax mu fm`flt! Flael' pl lylex HE+Ol xb maetlnul pmxf maetlnuma` entdba ebaxlax! &e- Otbk n ygbx bo Px + ,E vu! t &abx ufbpa-' xfl knuu otnexmba `tnhmlax mu hlxltkmalh hlxltkmalh nx xftll gbenxmbau nah Omec”u gnp mu |ulh xb enge|gnxl xfl hmoo|umba ebloomemlax'

 je

; ∔ ώ ⋌ N t ⋌ H E∔ Ol

Θ

dPx ∔ , E` Θt

pfltl xfl knuu ogbp tnxl mu

 je

;

5!? Ð >9∔5 c` " >99 f d5?99 u " f` ; > Ð >9 ∔6 c` " u 5

nah  ώ  ; 0059 c`"k ' hlaumx} bo mtba! mtba! Xfl tlu|gxu bo xfmu xfmu nang}umu }mlgh' }mlgh' Px + E &,>!54 9!=!56<

HE+Ol Ð >9

>>

?! 5!0= 4!04

4

&k  "u-

YTBDGLK >8!6 CABPA:

Nmt mu laegbulh nx |amobtk ytluu|tl ma n vltxmeng' e}gmahtmeng ebaxnmalt pfbul xby nah dbxxbk u|tonelu ntl knmaxnmalh nx hmooltlax xlkyltnx|tlu!

OMAH:

&n- Ebahmxmbau ma nmt pfla dbxxbk u|tonel mu ebghlt xfna xby u|tonel' &d- Ebahmxmbau pfla dbxxbk u|tonel mu fbxxlt xfna xby u|tonel!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- \amobtk ytluu|tl' &4- Yltolex `nu dlfnvmbt!

&n- Mo X> 1 X4' xfl nmng xlkyltnx|tl `tnhmlax &hX"h- pmgg tlu|gx ma na nmng hlaumx} `tnhmlax! Fbplvlt' umael hώ "h 7 9 xfltl pmgg pmg g dl ab d|b}nae} d|b} nae} htmvla' ebavlexmvl eb avlexmvl kbxmba bo b o xfl kmx|tl! NANG]UMU:

Xfltl pmgg ngub dl nmng uylemlu hlaumx} `tnhmlaxu' h ώ B " h nah hώ A " h! Fbplvlt' xfltl mu ab 4 4

&

-

`tnhmlax nuubemnxlh pmxf xfl knuu otnexmbau hkB " h ; 9' hk A " h ; 9 ! Flael' otbk Omec”u 4 4

gnp' L~! >8!>4' xfltl mu

ab

knuu xtnauolt d} hmoo|umba!

&d- Mo  X> 7 X4 ' h ώ  " h 1 9 nah xfltl kn} dl n d|b}nae} htmvla' ebavlexmvl kbxmba bo xfl kmx|tl! Fbplvlt' hkB " h ; 9 nah hk hk A " h ; 9' nah xfltl mu uxmgg ab knuu xtnauolt! Flael' ngxfb|`f ngxfb|`f 4 4 xfltl mu kbxmba bo lnef uylemlu pmxf xfl ebavlexmvl kbxmba bo xfl kmx|tl' xfltl mu ab tlgnxmvl kbxmba dlxplla uylemlu! EBKKLAXU:

Xfl ebkkbag} |ulh uylemng enul bo Omec”u gnp'

 jN ; ∔H ND

h ώ N h

pb|gh dl manyytbytmnxl obt xfmu ytbdglk umael  ώ  mu abx |amobtk! Mo nyygmlh' xfmu uylemng uylemng enul mahmenxlu xfnx knuu xtnauolt pb|gh bee|t' xfltld} ytbvmhma` na maebttlex tlu|gx!

YTBDGLK >8!= CABPA: Hmklaumbau bo t|ddlt t|ddlt uxbyylt ma klhmemal klhmemal jnt! Kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba bo klhmemal klhmemal vnybt nx xby nah dbxxbk dbxxbk u|tonelu! Knuu hmoo|umvmx} bo klhmemal klhmemal vnybt ma t|ddlt! OMAH: Tnxl nx pfmef klhmemal vnybt lmxu xftb|`f xfl uxbyylt! UEFLKNXME:

H4 ; 49 kk

EN'4 ; 9

G ; 49 kk

+5

v

5

EN'> ; 4 Ð >9 ckbg"k

H> ; >9 kk

NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- @gnuu alec mu mkyltklndgl xb klhmemal vnybt' xf|u xfltl mu al`gm`mdgl knuu gbuu b|x bo ugnaxlh u|tonel' &4- Bal+hmklaumbang knuu hmoo|umba' hmoo|umba' &5- Uxlnh} uxnxl' &8Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' &9+= k4 "u! NANG]UMU: Xfl nang}umu obggbpu xfl ‗ngxltanxmvl ebah|exmba ebah|exmba nang}umu‛ nyytbnef! Obt bal+ hmklaumbang hmoo|umba hmoo|umba ma xfl +hmtlexmba' Omec”u Gnp ma kbgnt obtk' L~! >8!>5' tlh|elu xb * J N ; ∔EHND

h N h

; ∔ H ND

hEN h

&>-

pfltl xfl xbxng ebaelaxtnxmba' E ' fnu dlla nuu|klh nuu|klh ebauxnax! Xfl xtnauolt tnxl bo bo uylemlu N * xftb|`f xfl laxmtl uxbyylt etbuu+ulexmba' A N ' ena dl lytluulh nu A N ; J N Ne ' pfltl Ne mu xfl etbuu+ulexmbang ntln! Obt uxlnh}+uxnxl' bal+hmklaumbang bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba pmxf ab eflkmeng tlnexmba' xfl uylemlu xtnauolt tnxl k|ux dl dl ebauxnax! Pl k|gxmyg} L~! L~! &>- d} Ne ' ulyntnxl vntmndglu' nah maxl`tnxl dlxplla xfl xby nah dbxxbk bo xfl uxbyylt' nu obggbpu

A N ; J*N Ne ; ∔ H NDN e AN

G h

∣9

Ne

; ∔ H ND ∣

 N4

 N>

hEN h hE N ; H ND &E N> ∔ E N4 - ; H NDE N>

&4-

Xfl etbuu+ulexmbang ntln mu `mvla d}

Ne ; ω T 4 ' pfltl T ; T> # & T 4 ∔ T>-  " G Ebaxma|lh 

YTBDGLK >8!= &Ebax!Xf|u h ; GhT"&T 4 ― T>-' nah L~! &4- dlebklu

AN

T 4 hT G T> ωT 4 T 4 ∔ T>



; H NDEN>

AN ⎓ >

> ⎑ G ∔ ; HNDE N> ⎗ ⎒ ω ⎛ T> T 4 ⎩ T4 ∔ T>

Xf|u

AN ;

;

ωHNDEN>T>T 4 G

ω Ð 9!4 Ð >9∔= k4 " u Ð 4 Ð >9∔5 ckbg " k 5 Ð 9!99< k Ð 9!9> k

∔ A N ; 5!>8 Ð >9 >< ckbg " u

9!94 k

7

EBKKLAXU: &>- Xfl nuu|kyxmba bo ebauxnax ebaelaxtnxmba' E' mu lelgglax dlen|ul xfl ‗kmx|tl‛ bo t|ddlt nah klhmemal vnybt pb|gh dl hbkmanxlh d} xfl t|ddlt! &4- \uma` xfl ytbyltxmlu bo pnxlt obt xfl klhmemal' pl ena luxmknxl fbp k|ef xfl gm~|mh pb|gh dl hlyglxlh ylt +>< 0 +6 }lnt! Xfl kbgnt gbuu gbuu ma bal }lnt mu 5!>8 Ð >9 ckbg"u Ð 5!>< Ð >9 u"}t ; =!= Ð >9 ckbg"}t! Mo  xfl kbgle|gnt plm`fx mu >6 c`"ckbg' xfl gbuu pb|gh dl >!6 Ð >9+? c`"}t! Mo xfl gm~|mh gm~|mh hlaumx} hlaumx} mu 5 += 5 >999 c`"k ' xfl vbg|kl gbuu pb|gh dl >!6 Ð >9 k  "}t! Obt n dbxxgl etbuu+ulexmbang ntln bo 4 Ð +5 4 >9 k ' xfl gm~|mh glvlg pb|gh htby d} gluu xfna > ¼ k ylt }lnt!

YTBDGLK >8!>9

CABPA: Lvnybtnxmba bo gm~|mh N maxb n ebg|ka ebaxnmama` vnybt N nah D! Uylemlu D enaabx dl ndubtdlh ma gm~|mh N!

OMAH: Xfl tlgnxmbaufmy dlxplla xfl tnxmb bo xfl kbgnt+nvltn`l vlgbemx} xb xfl uylemlu vlgbemx} bo  uylemlu N xb xfl kbgl otnexmba bo uylemlu N! Dmant} `nu kmx|tl' N # D

UEFLKNXME:

A‛N'

v'D ; 9



Gm~|mh D

NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- Uxlnh}' bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba' &4- Ab eflkmeng tlnexmbau! NANG]UMU: Otbk Ulexmba >8!4!4' pl cabp xfnx A $D' A $N'

;

E N v N' nah A $D' v *

Otbk L~! >8!4='

;

;

v *

Xfltlobtl

v N'

E D v D'

;

;

9

9 ! Otbk L~! >8!40' bt

v D'

;

9

&>-

 N v N' N '

&4-

N

7

;

Xfl tlgnxmbaufmy mu ufbpa ma xfl `tnyf dlgbp!     '    N   v    "    *      v  '   }    x    m   e   b    g   l   v   u   l    m   e   l   y   u   b    x   l   `   n   t   l   v   n   +   t   n    g   b   k    o   b   b    m    x   n    T

>

9!6

9!?

9!8

9!4

9 9

9!4

9!8

9!?

Kbgl Otnexmba bo Uylemlu N' vN

9!6

>

Ebaxma|lh 

YTBDGLK >8!>9 &Ebax!-

EBKKLAXU: &>- Pfla xfl kbgl otnexmba bo Uylemlu N mu ukngg nah Uylemlu D mu abx ma kbxmba' xfl kbgnt+nvltn`l vlgbemx} mu hbkmanxlh d} Uylemlu D nah mu al`gm`mdgl ebkyntlh xb xfl aba+zltb uylemlu vlgbemx} bo N! Ma bxflt pbthu' xfl vnybt ma xfl ebg|ka ena dl xtlnxlh nu n uxnxmbant} klhm|k umael' ngxfb|`f Uylemlu Uylemlu N mu ma kbxmba' xfltl mu vlt} gmxxgl uylemlu N ytlulax! &4- Pfla xfl kbgl otnexmba bo Uylemlu N mu gnt`l' xfltl mu vlt} gmxxgl Uylemlu D ytlulax' nah xfl vlgbemx} bo xfl kmx|tl mu hbkmanxlh d} xfl vlgbemx} bo Uylemlu N! Flael' xfl vlgbemx} tnxmb nyytbneflu |amx} nu kmx|tl dlebklu hbkmanxlh d} Uylemlu N!

YTBDGLK >8!>> CABPA: OMAH:

Pnxlt ma na byla yna lybulh xb ytluetmdlh nkdmlax ebahmxmbau!

Lvnybtnxmba tnxl ebaumhltma` &n- hmoo|umba bag} nah &d- ebavlexmvl loolexu!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Bal+hmklaumbang Bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba' &5- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' &8- \amobtk X nah y' &9 5 Pnxlt vnybt &X ; 599 C' > nxk-' y unx ; 9!95 dnt' v` ; 5=!>5 k  "c`!

YTBYLTXMLU: Xndgl N+6 '

4

k  "u3 Xndgl N+? '

NANG]UMU:

&n- Xfl lvnybtnxmba tnxl ebaumhltma` bag} hmoo|umba obggbpu otbk L~! >8!54 umkygmomlh obt n uxnxmbant} uxnxmbant} klhm|k! klhm|k! Xfnx mu'

hEN

‴ '  ⋌ N ; ∔H NDN A N'  ; A‴N

h

!

Tleb`amzma` xfnx Ϗ ≮ yN "yN'unx ; EN "EN'unx' xfl tnxl mu lytluulh nu

A N'  ; ∔H NDN A N'  ;

9!4? Ð >9

∔8

E N' ∑ ∔ E N'u G

4

;

H NDN G

4

k " u &ω  " 8 - & 9!4 k 69 Ð >9

&

∔5

>

&> ∔ 9!4< - ; >!960 Ð >9∔6 ckbg " u

5

5=!>5 k " c` Ð >6 c` c` " ckbg

k

-

E N'unx &> ∔ Ϗ ∑ -

pfltl EN'u ; > " v ` KN pmxf

K N

; >6 c`" ckb ckbg!

&d-Xfl lvnybtnxmba tnxl ebaumhltma` ebavlexmvl loolexu |uma` L~! >8!89 mu

‴ ' ⋌ N ; A N'  ; A ‴N

EH NDN G

ga

> ∔  NG > ∔  N'9

!

\uma` xfl yltolex `nu gnp' xfl xbxng ebaelaxtnxmba bo xfl kmx|tl mu ∔4 5

&

E ; y " ℗X ; >!9>55 dn d nt " 6!5>8 Ð>9

-

k ⋌ dnt " ckbg ⋌ C Ð599C ; 9!989?5 ck c kbg " k 5

pfltl y ; > nxk ; >!9>55 dnt! Xfl kbgl otnexmbau nx  ; 9 nah  ; G ntl

 N' 9 ;

y N'u y

;

9!95 dnt dnt >!9>55 dn dnt

; 9!9586

 N' G ; Ϗ ∑  N'9 ; 9!9960!

Flael 5

A N'  ;

9!989?5 ck c kbg " k Ð 9!4? Ð >9

EBKKLAXU:

69 Ð >9

∔8

∔5

4

4

k " u &ω  " 8 -& - &9!4 k -

k

ga

> ∔ 9!9960 > ∔ 9!9586

; >!>90 Ð >9

∔6

ckbg " u!

Obt xfmu umx|nxmba' xfl nhvlexmvl loolex mu vlt} ukngg d|x hblu xlah xb maetlnul &d} >!8!>4 CABPA:

Uyfltmeng htbyglx bo gm~|mh N nah tnhm|u tb lvnybtnxma` maxb uxn`anax `nu D!

OMAH:

Lvnybtnxmba tnxl bo uylemlu N ma xltku bo yN'unx' yntxmng ytluu|tl yN&t-' xfl xbxng ytluu|tl y nah bxflt yltxmalax yntnklxltu!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Bal+hmklaumbang' tnhmng' uylemlu hmoo|umba' &5Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' maeg|hma` xbxng ebaelaxtnxmba' &8- Htbyglx nah kmlt nmt nx |amobtk ytluu|tl nah xlkyltnx|tl' &8!54 obt n tnhmng uyfltmeng ebbthmanxl u}uxlk' xfl lvnybtnxmba tnxl bo gm~|mh N maxb n dmant} `nu kmx|tl N # D mu

A N' t ; ∔ HNDN t

hEN ht

E # N A N' t E

4

pfltl Nt ; 8ωt nah AN't ; AN' n ebauxnax'

⎓ ⎛

A N ⎗> ∔

EN ⎑ 4 hEN ; ∔ ⋌ ⋌ H 8 ω  t ! ND ⎒ E ⎩ ht

Otbk yltolex `nu dlfnvmbt' EN ; y N " ℗X nah E ; y " ℗X'

A N & y ∔ y N - ; ∔H ND ⋌ 8ω  t 4 ⋌

y hyN ℗X ht

Ulyntnxma` vntmndglu' ulxxma` hlomamxl gmkmxu' nah maxl`tnxma`

∔ AN

℗X

>

t ht

yN't N' t

; HND ∣tb t 4 ∣y N' t

y 8ω  

b

hy N

y ∔ yN

omah xfnx

A N ; 8ω  tb H ND

y

>

℗X > ∔ tb " t

ga

y ∔ yN & t y ∔ y N' b

pfltl y N' b ; y N & tb - ; yN'unx ' xfl unx|tnxmba ytluu|tl bo gm~|mh N nx xlkyltnx|tl X! EBKKLAXU:

Ebkyntl xfl klxfbh bo ubg|xmba nah tlu|gx pmxf xfl ebaxlax bo Ulexmba >8!4!4' Lvnybtnxmba ma n Ebg|ka!

7

YTBDGLK >8!>5 4

Eglna u|tonel pmxf y|tl uxlnk fnu ebahlaunxl tnxl bo 9!949 c`"k ⋌u obt xfl ytluetmdlh ebahmxmbau! Pmxf xfl ytlulael bo uxn`anax nmt ma xfl uxlnk' xfl ebahlaunxl u|tonel htbyu otbk 46¹E xb 48¹E nah xfl ebahlaunxl tnxl mu fngvlh! CABPA:

OMAH:

omgk!

Yntxmng ytluu|tl bo nmt ma xfl nmt+uxlnk kmx|tl nu n o|aexmba bo hmuxnael otbk xfl ebahlaunxl

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu maeg|hma` ytluu|tl ma nmt+uxlnk kmx|tl' &5- Yltolex `nu dlfnvmbt! YTBYLTXMLU: Xndgl N+? '

9!94=65 dnt3

Xndgl N+6 '

Pnxlt Pnxlt vnybt: yunx &46¹E ; 59> C- ; 9!950?0 dnt3 y unx &48¹E ; 4=0 C- ; +8

Pnxlt+nmt &4=6 C' > dnt-: HND ; 9!4? Ð >9

4

k  "u!

NANG]UMU: Xfl yntxmng ytluu|tl hmuxtmd|xmba bo xfl nmt nu n o|aexmba bo hmuxnael } ena dl ob|ah otbk xfl uylemlu &N- tnxl lytluumba' L~! >8!89'

&

-&

-

‴ ' } ; & EHND " } - ga > ∔  N' } " > ∔  N'9 ! A‴N Pmxf E ; y " ℗X'  D' }

; > ∔ N' } nah  D' 9 ; > ∔  N'9' tleb`amzma` xfnx D ; yD "y' omah ⎓

℗X



yHND

‴ '} y D & } - ; yD'9 ⋌ ly ⎗ A‴N y

D'9

‴ Pmxf A‴N'}



}⎒



d nt ; 9!99068 dnt! ; y ∔ y N'9 ; yunx & 46¹E - ∔ yunx & 48¹E - ; &9!950?0 ∔ 9!94=65 -dn

c` " ckbg ; 5!8< Ð>9 ∔8ckbg " k 4 ⋌u' ; ∔ & 9!949 " 4 - c` " k 4 ⋌ u " 4= c`

∔4 5 ⎓ ⎑ 8 4 6!5>8 Ð >9 k ⋌ dnt " ckbg ⋌ C Ð 4== C ∔ y & } - ; 9!9068 dnt Ð l ly ⎗ 5!8< Ð>9 ckbg " k ⋌ u }⎒ D ⎗ ⎒ 9!950?0 dnt Ð ?!=94 Ð>9 ∔8 k 4 " u ⎛ ⎩ y

D

cYn Ð ly & ∔9!559} & } - ; 068 cY

pmxf yD ma ScYn[ nah } ma Skk[' pfltl X ; 4?¹E ; 4== C' xfl nvltn`l xlkyltnx|tl bo xfl nmt+uxlnk +>

5"4

+8

4

5"4

+8

kmx|tl' nah HND ≆ y X ; 9!4? Ð >9 k  "u &>"9!950?0- &4=="4=6- ; ?!=94 Ð >9 Ulglexlh vng|lu obt xfl ytluu|tl ntl ufbpa dlgbp nah xfl hmuxtmd|xmba mu ufbpa ndbvl: } &kkyD&}- &cYnEBKKLAXU:

9

<

>9

><

068

>

4=!9

- Uxlnh}+uxnxl' bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba ma xfl ebg|ka' &4- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' &5- \amobtk xlkyltnx|tl nah ytluu|tl xftb|`fb|x xfl ebg|ka' &8- Pnxlt vnybt lfmdmxu mhlng `nu dlfnvmbt' nah &

nxk' 549 549 C-: Umael HND q y

H ND

omah

9!4? Ð >9∔8 k4 " u d>!99 " 9!48!89' xfl kbgnt ogbp tnxl ylt |amx ntln mu

A N' ‴‴

;

E HND G

ga

> ∔  N'G > ∔  N'9

pfltl E mu xfl kmx|tl ebaelaxtnxmba hlxltkmalh hlxltkmalh otbk xfl mhlng `nu gnp nu

E;

y

;

T  X

9!4< nxk 6!49< Ð>9 ∔4 k5 ⋌ nxk"ckbg ⋌ C Ð 549 C

pfltl T   ; 6!49< Ð>9

∔4

;

9!99=5=0 ckbg"k 5

k5 ⋌ nxk"ckbg ⋌ C! Xfl kbgl otnexmbau nx  ; 9 nah  ; G ntl

N'G

;

9

 N '9

;

y N  " y ; 9!>9!>9

9!> k

& 9!94 ∔ 9!99< - ckbg " k 5

ckbg " u ⋌k 4!

7

Xfl knuu og|v mu

‴ ; K N A‴N 'v ;

8 c` " ckbg Ð>!< Ð>9 ∔6 ckbg " u ⋌ k 4

; ? Ð>9

∔6

c` " u ⋌k 4!

YTBDGLK >8!>? CABPA: OMAH:

Xftll+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba bo uylemlu N ma n uxnxmbant} klhm|k pmxf eflkmeng tlnexmbau!

Hltmvl kbgnt obtk bo hmoo|umba l~|nxmba!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- \amobtk xbxng kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba' &4- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k!

Xfl hltmvnxmba yntngglgu xfnx bo Ulexmba >8!8!4' lelyx xfnx L~! >8!85 mu nyygmlh ba n kbgnt dnumu! Xfnx mu'

NANG]UMU:

/ / A N'  # A N' } # A N' z # A N'` ∔ A N'  # h ∔ A N' } # h} ∔ AN'z # hz ; A N'ux ! Pmxf

A N'  # h ; A N'  #

∄A N'

A N'  ; ∔ HND & h}hz -

∄

h '

∄EN ' ∄

/ / A N'` ; A N & hh}hz - '

A N' } # h} ; !!!! A N ' } ; !!!!

/ A N'ux ;

∄EN hh}hz ∄x

Mx obggbpu xfnx

∄ ⎓ ∄EN ⎑ ∄ ⎓ ∄E ⎑ ∄ ⎓ ∄E ⎑ / ∄EN HND ! # ⎗ HND N ⎒ # ⎗ HND N ⎒ # A N; ⎗ ⎒ ∄ ⎛ ∄ ⎩ ∄} ⎛ ∄} ⎩ ∄z ⎛ ∄z ⎩ ∄x EBKKLAXU:

Mo HND mu ebauxnax' xfl obtl`bma` tlu|gx tlh|elu xb L~! >8!86d!

7

YTBDGLK >8!>0 CABPA:

@nu &N- hmoo|ulu xftb|`f n e}gmahtmeng x|dl pngg &D- nah lyltmlaelu eflkmeng tlnexmbau nx / ! n vbg|klxtme tnxl' A N OMAH:

Hmooltlaxmng l~|nxmba pfmef `bvltau kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba bo `nu ma ygnuxme!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Bal+hmklaumbang tnhmng hmoo|umba' &4- \amobtk xbxng kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba' &5-

Uxnxmbant} klhm|k! Hmvmhma` xfl uylemlu ebaultvnxmba tl~|mtlklax' L~! >8!85' d} xfl kbgle|gnt plm`fx' K N' nah nyyg}ma` mx xb n hmooltlaxmng ebaxtbg vbg|kl bo |amx gla`xf abtkng xb xfl yn`l'

NANG]UMU:

/ / A N' t # A N'` ∔ A N't # ht ; A N'ux pfltl

‴ ' t ; ∔4ω  tH ND A N't ; & 4ω t ⋌>- A‴N A N't # ht ; A N' t #

∄A N't ∄t

∄EN ∄t

ht

/ N'` ; ∔ A / N & 4ω  t ⋌ ht ⋌>A

/ N'ux ; A

∄ ⎮⎥EN & 4ω  tht ⋌ >-⎨⎯ ∄x

!

Flael

/ & 4ω tht - # 4ω H ∔A N ND

∄ ⎓ ∄EN ⎑ ∄EN t ht ; 4ω  tht ⎗ ⎒ ∄t ⎛ ∄t ⎩ ∄x

bt

H ND ∄ ⎓ ∄EN ⎗t t ∄t ⎛ ∄t

∄EN ⎑ / ⎒ ∔ A N ; ∄x ! ⎩

EBKKLAXU:

7

&>- Xfl kma|u um`a ma xfl `laltnxmba xltk mu aleluumxnxlh d} xfl onex xfnx xfl tlnexmbau hlyglxl xfl ebaelaxtnxmba bo uylemlu N!

/ & t ' x - ' xfl obtl`bma` l~|nxmba eb|gh dl ubgvlh obt EN &t'x-! &4- Otbk cabpglh`l bo  A N &5- Abxl xfl n`tllklax dlxplla xfl ndbvl tlu|gx nah xfl bal+hmklaumbang obtk bo L~! >8!8= obt |amobtk E!

YTBDGLK >8!>6 CABPA:

Bal+hmklaumbang' Bal+hmklaumbang' tnhmng hmoo|umba bo uylemlu N ma n uxnxmbant}' uyfltmeng klhm|k pmxf eflkmeng tlnexmbau! OMAH:

Hltmvl nyytbytmnxl obtk bo hmoo|umba l~|nxmba!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Bal+hmklaumbang' tnhmng hmoo|umba' &4- \amobtk xbxng kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba' &5-

Uxnxmbant} klhm|k! NANG]UMU:

Hmvmhma` xfl uylemlu ebaultvnxmba tl~|mtlklax' L~! >8!85' d} xfl kbgle|gnt plm`fx' nah nyyg}ma` mx xb xfl hmooltlaxmng ebaxtbg vbg|kl' mx obggbpu xfnx

A N' t

K N'

# A/ N'` ∔ A N' t # ht ; A/ N'ux

pfltl

∄EN ∄t ∄A N't A N' t # ht ; A N' t # ∄t A N' t

/ A N' `

; ∔HND 8ω  t 4

ht

-

&

; A/ N 8ω  t 4ht '

/ A N'ux

∄ ⎮⎤EN 8ω  t 4ht ; ⎥ ∄x

&

-⎨⎬⎯ !

Flael

&

4 / A N 8ω t ht

-

# 8ω

∄⎓ 4 ∄EN ⎑ 4 ∄EN ω  t ; H t h t 8 ht ∄t ⎗⎛ ND ∄t ⎒⎩ ∄x

bt

> t4

∄⎓ ∄EN 4 ∄EN ⎑ / H t A ! # ; ∄t ⎗⎛ ND ∄t ⎒⎩ N ∄x

EBKKLAXU:

7

L~|nxmba >8!8!>= CABPA:

Ytluu|tl nah xlkyltnx|tl bo f}htb`la uxbtlh ma n uyfltmeng uxllg xnac bo ytluetmdlh hmnklxlt nah xfmecaluu!

OMAH:

&n- Mamxmng tnxl bo f}htb`la knuu gbuu otbk xfl xnac' &d- Mamxmng tnxl bo ytluu|tl htby ma xfl xnac!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Bal+hmklaumbang uylemlu hmoo|umba ma n uxnxmbant} klhm|k' &4- \amobtk xbxng kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba' E' &5- Ab eflkmeng tlnexmbau! NANG]UMU:

A N't

&n- Otbk Xndgl >8!> ;

E N' b ∔ E N' G

E N'b

;

&> " 8ω H ND - &> " tm ∔> " tb -

T k'hmo 

-

&

8ω  9!5 Ð>9∔>4 k 4 " u >!< ckbg " k 5 A N't

;

;

9!9< k ∔ > " 9! 9!9 " 9!

0!5< Ð>9∔>4 ckbg " u

bt

a N' t

; K N A N ' t ;

4 c` " ckbg Ð 0!5< Ð>9 ∔>4 ckbg " u ; >8!0 Ð>9 ∔>4 c` " u!

7

&d- Nyyg}ma` n uylemlu dngnael xb n ebaxtbg vbg|kl ndb|x xfl f}htb`la'

/ K N'ux / K

/ ; ∔K N'b|x ; ∔ a N' t

N'ux ;

h & ώ N _ -

5

;

ωH

hx

hώ N

?

hx

5

;

ω H

hy N

;

ω H K N

5

hy N

?℗X

hx

? T N X hx

Flael

hyN

?℗X

;∔

hx

5

ω H K N

hyN hx

Ð

+>4

>9

a N't

;∔

; ∔5!9

EBKKLAXU:

-

&

? 9!965>8 k5 ⋌ dnt " ck ckbg ⋌ C &599 C ω &9!>k∔0

5

Ð >8!0 Ð >9

∔>4

c` " u

4 c` " ckbg

7

dnt " u! 4

Mo xfl uyfltmeng uflgg mu nyybmknxlh nu n ygnal pngg' A n' ; HND&EN'b- ωH  "G ; 0!90

ckbg"u! Xfmu tlu|gx mu 8, gbplt xfna xfnx nuubemnxlh pmxf xfl uyfltmeng uflgg uflgg enge|gnxmba!

YTBDGLK >8!49 CABPA:

Xlkyltnx|tl bo nxkbuyfltme nxkbuyfltme nmt nah pnxlt! Yltelaxn`l d} vbg|kl bo b}`la ma xfl nmt!

OMAH:

&n- Kbgl nah knuu otnexmbau bo pnxlt nx xfl nmt nah pnxlt umhlu bo xfl maxltonel' &d- Kbgl nah knuu otnexmbau bo b}`la ma xfl nmt nah pnxlt!

UEFLKNXME:

K p

; >6' K nmt nmt ; 4=

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Yltolex `nu dlfnvmbt obt nmt nah pnxlt vnybt' &4- Xfltkbh}ankme l~|mgmdtm|k nx gm~|mh"vnybt maxltonel' &5- Hmg|xl ebaelaxtnxmba bo b}`la nah bxflt `nulu ma pnxlt' &8- Kbgle|gnt plm`fx bo nmt mu mahlylahlax bo vnybt ebaelaxtnxmba! YTBYLTXMLU: Xndgl N+? '

Unx|tnxlh pnxlt pnxlt &X ; 4=9 C-: yvny ; 9!9>=>0 dntu!

Xndgl N+='

B4 "pnxlt'

F ; 50'?99 dntu! NANG]UMU:

&n- Nuu|kma` mhlng `nu dlfnvmbt' y p'vny ; &Ap'vny "_- ℗X nah y ; &A"_- ℗X' ma pfmef

enul

 p ' vny

;

& y p' vny " ynmt -

;

& 9!9>=>0 " >!9>55 -

Pmxf kp'vny ; & ώ p'vny "  ώ nmt- ; &Ep'vny K  p "Enmt

K  nmt-

;

9!9>6=

; vp'vny & K  p " K  nmt-! Flael'

kp'vny ; 9!9>6= &>6"4=- ; 9!9>49 Nuu|kma` al`gm`mdgl `nu yfnul ebaelaxtnxmbau ma xfl gm~|mh'  vp'gm~

7 7 7

; kp'gm~ ; >

&d- Umael xfl yntxmng vbg|kl bo n `nulb|u uylemlu mu ytbybtxmbang xb xfl a|kdlt bo kbglu bo xfl uylemlu' mxu kbgl otnexmba mu l~|mvnglax l~|mvnglax xb mxu vbg|kl vbg|kl otnexmba! Flael ba xfl nmt umhl bo xfl maxltonel maxltonel

 B4'nmt kB

4' nmt

7

9!49<

;

;

B

4' nmt

&

KB

4

" K nmt

-

;

9!49< & 54 " 4= - ; 9!44?

7

Xfl kbgl otnexmba bo B4 ma xfl pnxlt mu

B

4' gm~

pfltl yB 4' nmt pnxlt mu

kB

;

4' gm~

EBKKLAXU:

;

yB

B

;

4' nmt

4' nmt

B

" F ; 9!496 dn dntu " 50' ?99 dn dntu ; 9∔?

7

ynxk ; 9!49< Ð >!9>55 dntu ; 9!496 9!496 dntu! Xfl knuu otnexmba otnexmba bo B4 ma xfl

4' gm~ &

K9

4

" K p

-

;

∔ ∔ 9 ? & 54 " >6 - ; =!65 Ð>9 ?

7

Xfltl mu n gnt`l hmuebaxma|mx} ma xfl b}`la ebaxlax dlxplla xfl nmt nah pnxlt umhlu bo xfl maxltonel! Hluymxl xfl gbp ebaelaxtnxmba ebaelaxtnxmba bo b}`la ma xfl pnxlt' mx mu mu u|oomemlax xb u|yybtx xfl xfl gmol bo n~|nxme bt`namuku!

YTBDGLK >8!4> CABPA:

Ytluu|tl nah xlkyltnx|tl bo f}htb`la f}htb`la maumhl nah b|xumhl b|xumhl bo n emte|gnt x|dl! Hmoo|umvmx} nah ubg|dmgmx} bo f}htb`la ma x|dl pngg bo ytluetmdlh xfmecaluu nah hmnklxlt!

OMAH:

Tnxl bo f}htb`la xtnauolt xftb|`f x|dl ylt |amx gla`xf!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Uxlnh} hmoo|umba ma tnhmng hmtlexmba' &4- \amobtk xbxng kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba ma pngg' &5- Ab eflkmeng tlnexmbau' &8- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k! NANG]UMU:

A‴N't

Xfl knuu xtnauolt tnxl ylt |amx x|dl gla`xf mu ;

E N & t> - ∔ EN & t4 ga & t4 " t> - " 4ω  H ND

pfltl otbk L~! >8!?4' EN'u ; Uyn'

EN & t> - ; Uy N'> ; >?9 ck ckbg " k5 ⋌ nxk Ð 4 nx nxk ; 549 ck ckbg " k 5

EN & t4 - ; Uy N' 4

ck ckbg " k 5 ⋌ nxk Ð 9!> nxk ; >? ck ckbg " k 5!

; >?9

Flael'

A‴N't

& 549 ∔ >? - ckbg " k 5 ; ga & 49!< " 49 - " 4 Ð>!6 Ð>9 ∔>> k 4 " u ω  

A‴N't

; >!5= Ð>9

EBKKLAXU:

∔?

;

598 ckbg " k 5 4!>6 Ð>96 u " k 4

7

ckbg " u ⋌ k!

Mo xfl pngg pltl nuu|klh xb dl ygnal'

T ‴k'hmo  ;

G HNDω  H

< Ð>9∔8 k

;

∔>>

k " uω   & 9!98 k -

6

4

>!6 Ð>9

pfmef mu egbul xb xfl vng|l bo 4!>6

Ð

4

;

4!4>Ð>96 u " k 4

>9 u"k obt xfl e}gmahtmeng pngg!

YTBDGLK >8!44 CABPA: OMAH:

B}`la ytluu|tlu ba byybumxl umhlu bo n t|ddlt klkdtnal!

&n- Kbgnt hmoo|umba og| bo B4' &d- Kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmbau bo B4 b|xumhl xfl t|ddlt!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Bal+hmklaumbang' uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k bo |amobtk

xbxng kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba' E ; E N # ED' &5- Yltolex `nu dlfnvmbt! YTBYLTXMLU: Xndgl N+6 '

+=

B}`la+t|ddlt B}`la+t|ddlt &4=6 C-: HND ; 9!4> Ð >9 +5

t|ddlt &4=6 C-: U ; 5!>4 5!>4 Ð >9 NANG]UMU:

‴ ' A‴N

4

k  "u3 Xndgl N+>9' B}`la+

5

ckbg"k ⋌dnt!

&n- Obt xfl nuu|klh ebahmxmbau ∐

; J N'  ; ∔ H ND

hEN

;

h

H ND

E N & 9 - ∔ EN & G G

!

Otbk L~! >8!?4'

EN & 9 - ; Uy N'> ; ?!48 Ð >9∔5 ckbg " k5

EN & G - ; Uy N' 4

; 5!>4 Ð>9

∔5

ckbg " k 5!

Flael

?!48 = 4 & 9!4> >9 >9 k " u ∔

‴ A‴N'

;

‴ A‴N'

; >!5>Ð>9

Ð

∔=

Ð>9

∔5

∔ 5!>4 Ð>9

∔5

- ckbg " k5

9!99 9!999< 9< k

ckbg " u ⋌ k 4!

7

&d- Otbk xfl yltolex `nu gnp

EN'> ;

EN ' 4

yN'> ℗X

;

4 dnt

& 9!965>8 k

; 9!< E N'> ; 9!9898

EBKKLAXU:

5

⋌ dnt " ck c kbg ⋌ C

-4=6 C

; 9!9690

ckbg " k 5

ck ckbg " k 5!

Tleb`amzl xfnx xfl kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmbau b|xumhl xfl klkdtnal hmoolt otbk xfbul

pmxfma xfl klkdtnal3 xfnx mu' E N'> ≩ EN&9- nah EN'4 ≩ EN&G-!

7

7

YTBDGLK >8!45 CABPA: OMAH:

Pnxlt vnybt mu xtnauolttlh xftb|`f ht} pngg d} hmoo|umba!

Xfl knuu hmoo|umba tnxl xftb|`f n 9!9>

Ð

5 Ð < k pngg!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Bal+hmklaumbang Bal+hmklaumbang uylemlu hmoo|umba' &5Fbkb`lalb|u klhm|k' klhm|k' &8- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' &8!84'

‴ ' A‴N

; ∔EH ND

h N h

; ∔H ND

hEN h

; H ND

EN'> ∔ EN' 4 G

!

Otbk L~! >8!?4

EN'> ; Uy N'> ; 9!>< Ð >9∔5 ckbg " k5

EN ' 4

; Uy N' 4 ;

9 ckbg " k 5!

Flael ‴ A‴N

; >9

∔=

4

k "uÐ

9!>< Ð>9∔5 ckbg " k5 9!9> !9> k

; 9!>< Ð>9

∔>9

ckbg " u ⋌ k 4!

Xfltlobtl

aN

; K N

aN

;

& N ⋌ A‴N‴ - ; >6 c` " ckbg Ð>< k 4 Ð 9!>< Ð>9 ∔>9 ckbg " u ⋌k 4

bt

8!9< Ð>9 ∔= c` " u!

7

YTBDGLK >8!48 CABPA:

Ytluu|tl nah xlkyltnx|tl bo flgm|k ma n `gnuu e}gmahlt bo >99 kk maumhl hmnklxlt nah < kk xfmecaluu! OMAH:

Knuu tnxl bo flgm|k gbuu ylt |amx gla`xf!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Bal+hmklaumbang Bal+hmklaumbang tnhmng hmoo|umba xftb|`f e}gmahlt pngg' &5- Al`gm`mdgl lah gbuulu' &8- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k' klhm|k' &9 NANG]UMU:

A‴N't

Fl+UmB4 &4=6 C-: HND ≆ 9!8 Ð >9

5

+>5

4

k  "u3 Xndgl N+>9' Fl+UmB4 &4=6

ckbg"k ⋌dnt!

Otbk Xndgl >8!>' ;

EN'U> ∔ EN'U4 ga & t4 " t> - " 4ω  H ND

pfltl' otbk L~! >8!?4' EN'U ; UyN! Flael

EN'U> ; Uy N'> ; 9!8< Ð>9 ∔5 ckbg " k 5 ⋌ dnt Ð 8 dnt EN'U4

; UYN' 4 ;

; >!6 Ð>9

∔5

ckbg " k 5

9!

Flael

A‴N't

;

A‴N't

;

>!6 Ð>9∔5 ckbg " k5

&

ga & 9!99 ∔>5 k 4 " u

-

8!0< Ð>9∔>< ckbg " u ⋌ k!

Xfl knuu gbuu mu xfla

a‴N' t

; K N A‴N ' t ;

a ‴N't

; >!=9 Ð >9

8 c` " ckbg Ð 8!0< Ð>9 ∔>< ckbg " u ⋌k

∔>8

c` " u ⋌ k! k!

7

YTBDGLK >8!4< CABPA:

Xlkyltnx|tl nah ytluu|tl bo flgm|k uxbtlh ma n uyfltmeng y}tl ebaxnmalt bo ytluetmdlh hmnklxlt nah pngg xfmecaluu!

OMAH:

Knuu tnxl bo flgm|k gbuu!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Flgm|k gbuu d} bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba ma tnhmng

hmtlexmba xftb|`f xfl y}tl' &5- E ; EN # ED mu mahlylahlax bo t' nah N 77 >' &8- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k! YTBYLTXMLU: Xndgl N+6 '

C-: U ; 9!8< 9!8< Ð >9 NANG]UMU:

+5

Fl+UmB4 &4=5 C-: HND ; 9!8 Ð >9

+>5

5

4

k  "u3 Xndgl N+>9' Fl+UmB4 &4=5

ckbg"k ⋌dnt!

Otbk Xndgl >8!>' xfl kbgnt hmoo|umba tnxl kn} dl lytluulh nu

EN'U> ∔ E N'U4

A N't ;

T k'hmo 

pfltl

T k'hmo  ;

⎓> > ⎑ ⎓ > > > ⎑ ∔ ; >!6>Ð>9>4 u " k5 ⎗ ∔ ⎒; ⎗ ⎒ 8ω  HND ⎛ t> t4 ⎩ 8ω   9!8 Ð>9∔>5 k 4 " u ⎛ 9!> k 9!>> k ⎩ >

-

&

pmxf

EN'U> ; Uy N ; 9!8< Ð>9 ∔5 ckbg " k 5 ⋌ dnt Ð 8 dn dnt ; >!69 Ð>9 ∔5ckbg " k 5 EN'U4 ; 9 omah

>!69 Ð>9∔5 ckbg " k5

A N't ;

>!6>Ð>9>4 u " k5

; >9∔>< ckbg " u!

Flael

a N' t ; K N A N' t ; 8 c` " kbg Ð>9 ∔

><

EBKKLAXU:

ckbg " u ; 8 Ð>9 ∔

><

c` " u!

7

Umael t> ≆ t4' xfl uyfltmeng uflgg eb|gh fnvl dlla nyytbmknxlh nu n ygnal pngg pmxf G 4

4

; 9!9> k nah N ≆ 8ω  tk ; 9!>5= k ! Otbk Xndgl >8!>'

T k'hmo  ;

A N' ;

G HNDN

;

9!9> k

& 9!8 Ð>9∔>5 k4 " u - &9!>50 k4 -

EN'U> ∔ EN'U4 T k'hmo 

;

>!69 Ð >9∔5 ckbg " k 5

Flael xfl nyytbmknxmba mu lelgglax!

>!6 Ð >9>4 u " k5

; >!6 Ð>9>4 u " k5 nah

; >9∔>< ckbg " u!

YTBDGLK >8!4?

CABPA: Xfmecaluu bo ybg}klt ynecn`ma` knxltmng' xlkyltnx|tl nah f|kmhmx} ebahmxmbau ma `nu ba lmxflt umhl bo xfl knxltmng! OMAH: &n- Ubg|dmgmx} bo xfl ynecn`ma` knxltmng' &d- Xbxng pnxlt vnybt xtnauolt tnxl obt n knxltmng xfnx fnu >9, bo xfl hmoo|umvmx} bo xfl knxltmng ma Lnkygl >8!5' &e- Xbxng pnxlt vnybt xtnauolt tnxl obt n knxltmng xfnx fnu >9, xfl ubg|dmgmx} bo xfl knxltmng ma Lnkygl >8!5' &h- Xbxng pnxlt vnybt xtnauolt tnxl noxlt ebnxma` xfl lxltmbt u|tonel pmxf n xfma omgk xb tlh|el mxu ubg|dmgmx} d} n onexbt bo  =' glnvma` xfl maxltmbt u|tonel |axtlnxlh! UEFLKNXME:

Ybg}klt knxltmng

Lvxltmbt

yN&v ; 9-

X ; 4=< C Ϗ> ; 9!=

yN&v ; GMaxltmbt

EN'u&v ; 9; EN'u>

EN'u&v ; G; EN'u4

X ; 4=< C Ϗ4 ; 9!>

U|tonel 4 U|tonel > v G

NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu nah uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k! YTBYLTXMLU: Xndgl N!?' pnxlt &X ; 4=< C-: yunx ; 9!94?>0 dntu! NANG]UMU: &n- Obt xfl lxltmbt U|tonel >' y N &  ; 9- ; Ϗ>yN'unx ; 9!= Ð 9!94?>0 dntu ; 9!945 Ð 9!94?>0 dntu ; 9!994?>0 dntu! Otbk Lnkygl >8!5' E N'u 4 ; EN'u &  ; G- ; 9!< Ð >9+5 ckbg"k 5 ub xfnx U;

E N'u4 y N &  ; G-

;

9!< Ð >9 ∔5 ckbg " k 5 9!994?>0 dnt

; >=> Ð >9+5

ckbg k5dnt

7

&d- Otbk Lnkygl >8!5' A N''y ; 9!54 Ð >9∔>< ckbg"u ! Mo xfl hmoo|umvmx} mu tlh|elh xb >9, bo mxu btm`mang vng|l' ∔ ∔ A N' ; 9!>A N' 'y ; 9!> Ð 9!54 Ð >9 >< ckbg " u ; 9!54 Ð >9 >? ckbg " u

7 Ebaxma|lh 

YTBDGLK >8!4? &Ebax!-

&e- Mo xfl ubg|dmgmx} mu tlh|elh xb >9, bo mxu btm`mang vng|l nx dbxf u|tonelu' EN'u> ; 9!< Ð >9∔8 ckbg " k 5 nah EN'u4 ; 8!< Ð >9∔8 ckbg " k 5 ! Flael' ∔ A N' ; 9!>A N' 'y ; 9!54 Ð >9 >? ckbg"u

7 +5

&h- Mo xfl ubg|dmgmx} bo lxltmbt U|tonel > mu tlh|elh d} n onexbt bo =' EN'u> ; EN'u>'y "= ; 8!< Ð >9 ckbg"k 5 "= ; 9!< Ð >9+5 ckbg"k 5 ; EN'u4! Flael' EN'u> ― EN'u4 ; 9 nah AN' ; 9

7

EBKKLAX: &>- Xfl unkl vng|l bo xfl ubg|dmgmx} kn} dl ob|ah ma yntx &n- d}

ebaumhltma` ebahmxmbau nx U|tonel >! &4- D} knamy|gnxma` xfl ubg|dmgmxmlu bo xfl u|tonelu mahlylahlaxg}' bal kn} lgmkmanxl ebaelaxtnxmba `tnhmlaxu ma xfl knxltmng nah' ma x|ta' ebkyglxlg} lgmkmanxl pnxlt vnybt xtnauolt d} hmoo|umba! Knxltmngu xfnx fnvl ytbyltxmlu hlum`alh xb efna`l xftb|`f xflmt xfmecaluu ma bthlt xb ytbkbxl hlumtlh dlfnvmbt ntl cabpa nu  o|aexmbangg}+`tnhlh  knxltmngu!

YTBDGLK >8!40

CABPA: Hmklaumbau bo uyfltl ebaxnmama` n yfntknel|xmeng ytbh|ex! Knuu gbuu bo uyfltl bvlt

uylemomlh xmkl yltmbh' knuu hmoo|umvmx}' lxltang ebahmxmbau! OMAH: Xfl vng|l bo xfl yntxmxmba ebloomemlax' C! UEFLKNXME: Hb ; kk Hm ; < kk ΘK ; 6!5 k` Θx ; > pllc ώy ; >4- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu nah uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k! YTBYLTXMLU: Yfntknel|xmeng ytbh|ex &`mvla-:

ώy ; >4 ⎓ > > ⎑ ⎨ ∔ ⎬ ⎤ Θxώ y ⎥ 8ωHND ⎗⎛ t> t4 ⎒⎩⎯ 6!4 Ð >9∔? c`

0 hn}u Ð 48 f"hn} Ð 5?99 u"f

; 9!9958

Ð >49 k Ð >9 k ⎩ ⎯

7

YTBDGLK >8!46

CABPA: Hmklaumbau bo A ;>99 egbulh+lah ynggnhm|k x|dlu! F}htb`la &F 4- ytluu|tlu nah xlkyltnx|tl ba lmxflt umhl bo x|dl pngg! Knuu hmoo|umvmx} bo nxbkme f}htb`la &F- xftb|`f xfl ynggnhm|k' nah Umlvltx”u ebauxnax! OMAH: Fb|tg} ytbh|exmba tnxl bo y|tl f}htb`la &F 4-! UEFLKNXME:

G ; 69 kk

AF

Hm ; >!? kk

Y|tl F4 X ; ?99 C' Y ; ? dnt

x ; 0< ηk

EF'm

EF'b

A ; >99 x|dlu

Mky|tl f}htb`la' F 4 X ; ?99 C' Y ; >< dnt' v F4 ; 9!6<

NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu nah uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k! YTBYLTXMLU: F}htb`la &F- ma ynggnhm|k' `mvla: HND ; 0 Ð >9+= k4 "u! NANG]UMU: Xfl ebaelaxtnxmba bo nxbkme f}htb`la &F- ba xfl b|xlt nah maalt u|tonelu bo xfl x|dl ntl E F'b ; >!8

ckbg 5

k dnt

>"4

Ð &9!6< Ð >< dnt->"4 ; "4 ; 5!85 ckbg"k5

Xfl bal+hmklaumbang uylemlu hmoo|umba tlumuxnaelu obt xfl pngg nah lah bo bal x|dl ntl

T k'hmo'p k'hmo'p ;

ga& t4 " t> 4ωGHND

;

ga ⎮ &9!6 Ð >9∔5 k # 0< Ð >9∔? k- " 9!6 Ð >9 ∔5 k ⎨



4ω Ð 69 Ð >9

+5

k Ð 0 Ð >9

+=

⎯ ; 49? u"k5

4

k "u "u

nah T k'hmo'l ;

x HNDNe

;

0< Ð >9∔? k 0 Ð >9

+=

4

k "u "u Ð ω Ð &9!6 Ð >9

; 9 u"k =

+5

k-

4

5

Xfl kbgnt xtnauolt tnxl bo nxbkme f}htb`la &F- ma bal x|dl mu xfltlobtl

Ebaxma|lh 

YTBDGLK >8!46 &Ebax!-

AF ;

&9 5 k

#

&9 5 k

; ?>!= Ð >9 ∔=

ckbg u

Xfl kbgnt xtnauolt tnxl bo kbgle|gnt f}htb`la &F4- mu xfltlobtl AF4 ; 9!8!4= CABPA: OMAH:

Ebahmxmbau bo xfl lfn|ux `nu ynuuma` bvlt n enxng}xme u|tonel obt xfl tlkbvng bo AB!

&n- Kbgl otnexmba bo AB nx xfl enxng}xme u|tonel' &d- AB tlkbvng tnxl!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Bal+hmklaumbang Bal+hmklaumbang uylemlu hmoo|umba xftb|`f xfl omgk' &5- Loolexu bo d|gc kbxmba ba AB xtnauolt ma xfl omgk ntl al`gm`mdgl &uxnxmbant} klhm|k-' klhm|k-' &8- Ab fbkb`lalb|u tlnexmbau bo AB pmxfma xfl omgk' & # & Gc>‴‴ " H ND -

9!><

;

> # 9!99> k Ð 9!9< k " u >9

∔8

;

4

9!>9! 7

k "u

Ngub ‴ A‴N'u

;∔

c>‴‴E N' G > # & Gc>‴‴ " H ND -

pfltl' otbk xfl l~|nxmba bo uxnxl obt n yltolex `nu'

E;

y

>!4 dnt

;

℗X

6!5>8 Ð>9

∔4

k

5

;

⋌ dnt " ckbg ⋌ C Ð 005

9!9>60 ckbg " k 5!

C

Flael

9!9< k " u Ð 9!9>60 ckbg " k 5 Ð 9!><

‴ A‴N'u

;∔

‴ 'U a‴N

‴ 'U ; 59 ; K N A‴N

-

&

> # 9!99> k Ð 9!9< k " u >9 ∔8 k 4 " u

; ∔=!5< Ð >9

∔<

ckbg " u ⋌ k 4

bt

c` " ckbg

& =!5< ∔

Ð>9

∔<

ckbg " u ⋌ k 4

-

; ∔4!69 Ð>9

∔5

c` " u ⋌ k 4!

Xfl kbgnt tnxl bo AB tlkbvng obt xfl laxmtl u|tonel mu xfla ∔< ‴ 'u N ; ∔=!5< Ð>9 A‴N ckbg " u ⋌ k 4 Ð 9!94 k 4

A N 'u

;

a N'U

; ∔Ð >9

; ∔>!60 Ð>9

∔?

ckbg " u

bt

EBKKLAXU:

∔<

c` " u!

7

Dlen|ul d|gc kbxmba mu gmclg} xb ebaxtmd|xl um`amomenaxg} xb AB xtnauolt pmxfma xfl omgk' xfl ndbvl tlu|gxu ufb|gh dl vmlplh nu n omtux nyytbmknxmba!

YTBDGLK >8!59 CABPA:

Tnhm|u bo ebng ylgglxu d|tama` ma b}`la nxkbuyfltl bo ytluetmdlh ytluu|tl nah xlkyltnx|tl! OMAH:

B}`la kbgnt ebau|kyxmba tnxl!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba ma t' &4- Uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &5- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' &8- Yltolex `nu dlfnvmbt' & " t # E 4!

bt

Xfl db|ahnt} ebahmxmbau nx t ↔ ∑ nah t ; tb ntl' tluylexmvlg}'

EN & ∑ - ; E ↔ E 4 ; E

/ ‴‴ ; A‴‴ & t - ; ∔EH A N N b ND

h N ht t b

; ∔H ND

hE N ht t b

Flael

∔c>‴‴ & ∔ E> " tb # E - ; ∔H NDE> " tb4

-

&

c>‴‴ & E> " tb - # H ND E> " tb4 ; c>‴‴E

E> ;

bt bt

c>‴‴E

& c>‴‴ " tb - #

&

HND " tb4

-

!

Xfl b}`la kbgnt ebau|kyxmba tnxl mu

‴ & tb - ; ∔H ND A‴N E;

pfltl

y

℗X

;

hE N

; ∔H ND

ht t b

c>‴‴E

c>‴‴tb # H ND > nxk

&6!49< Ð>9∔4 k5 ⋌ nxk " ckbg ⋌ C ->89 ∔5 ckbg " k 5!

Flael'

‴ & tb - ; ∔>!0>Ð>9 ∔8 k 4 " u A‴N

9!> k " u Ð 6!89< Ð>9 ∔5 ckbg " k5 ; ∔9 ∔8 ckbg " u ⋌ k 4 >9∔8 # >!0>Ð>9 ∔8 k 4 " u

-

&

‴ & tb - ; 8ω   &9!99> k - Ð 9 ∔8 ckbg " u ⋌ k 4 A N & tb - ; 8ω tb4A ‴N 4

A N & tb - ; ?!?? Ð >9∔= ckbg " u! EBKKLAXU:

7

Xfl B4 ebau|kyxmba ebau|kyxmba tnxl pb|gh maetlnul pmxf maetlnuma` c >‴‴ nah nyytbnef n gmkmxma`

 omamxl vng|l nu c >‴‴ nyytbneflu maomamx}!

YTBDGLK >8!5> CABPA:

Ybtl `lbklxt} ma n enxng}xme tlnexbt! Ebaelaxtnxmba bo tlnexma` uylemlu nx ybtl bylama` nah bthlt bo enxng}xme tlnexmba!

OMAH:

&n- Hmooltlaxmng l~|nxmba pfmef hlxltkmalu ebaelaxtnxmba bo tlnexma` uylemlu' &d- Hmuxtmd|xmba bo tlnexma` uylemlu ebaelaxtnxmba ngba` xfl ybtl!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba ma  hmtlexmba' &5Uxnxmbant} klhm|k' &8- \amobtk xbxng kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba' &‴‴E N &ω H - h ∔ A N'  # h ; 9' pfltl

&

-

A N'  # h ; A N'  # hA N'  " h h nah otbk Omec”u gnp 4

4

h ⎑ ω H hE N ω H ⎓ A N'  ; ⎗ ∔EH ND N ⎒ H ND ! ;∔ h ⎩ 8 8 h ⎛ Flael



hA N h

h 4E N h

4

h ∔ c>‴‴EN &ω H - h ;



ω H

8

4

H ND

h 4E N h

4

∔ c>‴‴E N &ω H - h ; 9

8 c>‴‴   EN ; 9! HHND

7

&d- N ubg|xmba xb xfl ndbvl l~|nxmba mu tlnhmg} bdxnmalh d} tleb`amzma` xfnx mx mu bo lnexg} xfl unkl obtk nu xfl lalt`} l~|nxmba obt na lxlahlh lxlahlh u|tonel bo |amobtk etbuu ulexmba! Flael obt db|ahnt} ebahmxmbau bo xfl obtk

∔H ND &hE N " h - ; G ; c>‴‴E N &G -

E N & 9 - ; E N' 9 '

xfl ubg|xmba k|ux dl nangb`b|u xb xfnx bdxnmalh obt n oma pmxf n ebavlexmba xmy ebahmxmba! ebahmxmba! Pmxf xfl nangb`b|u ~|naxmxmlu >" 4 >" 4 EN ↘ ζ  ≮ X ∔ X∑ ' k ≮ & 8 c>‴‴ " HH ND ↘ & 8f " Hc -  

c>‴‴ ↘ f

H ND ↘ c' xfl ubg|xmba mu' d} nangb`} xb L~! 5!0<

EN &  - ;

ebuf k &G ∔  - # & c>‴‴ " kH ND - umaf k &G ∔  ebuf kG k G # & c>‴‴ " kH ND - umaf kG kG 4

!

7

Xfl xbxng ybtl tlnexmba tnxl mu ― HND&ωH  "8- &hEN "h-;9' pfmef ena dl maolttlh d} nyyg}ma` xfl nangb`} xb L~! 5!0?!

EBKKLAXU:

YTBDGLK >8!54 CABPA:

Ytluu|tl' xlkyltnx|tl nah kbgl kbgl otnexmba bo EB ma n|xb lfn|ux! lfn|ux! Hmoo|umba ebloomemlax obt obt EB ma `nu kmx|tl! Omgk xfmecaluu nah tlnexmba tlnexmba tnxl ebloomemlax obt enxng}xme enxng}xme u|tonel! OMAH:

&n- Kbgl otnexmba bo EB nx enxng}xme u|tonel nah EB tlkbvng tnxl' &d- Loolex bo tlnexmba tnxl ebloomemlax ba tlkbvng tnxl!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Uxlnh}+uxnxl' &4- Bal+hmklaumbang Bal+hmklaumbang uylemlu hmoo|umba ma omgk' &5- Al`gm`mdgl loolex bo nhvlexmba ma omgk &uxnxmbant} klhm|k-' &8- Ebauxnax xbxng kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba nah hmoo|umba ebloomemlax ma omgk! NANG]UMU:

N & 9- ;

Otbk L~! &>8!?=- xfl u|tonel kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba mu

 N'G > # & Gc>‴‴ " H ND -

;

9!99>4

&

> # 9!9>k Ð 9!99< k " u " >9 +4

∔8

4

k "u

-

7

; 9!9996

5

5

TX    ; >!4 dnt"&6!5>8 Ð >9 k ⋌dnt"ckbg⋌C Ð 005 C- ; 9!9>60 ckbg"k ' L~! &>8!09- }mlghu Pmxf E ; y" T   n EB kbgnt og|' nah flael n EB tlkbvng tnxl' bo 

‴ 'u A‴N

‴ A‴N'u

‴ ; ∔ A‴N

;

&9- ;

c>‴‴E  N' G > # & Gc>‴‴ " H ND -

9!99< k " u Ð 9!9>60 ck ckbg " k 5 Ð 9!99>4

&

> # 9!9>k Ð 9!99< k " u " >9

∔8

4

k "u

-

; 0!86 Ð>9

∔6

ckbg " u ⋌ k 4

7

Mo xfl ytbeluu mu hmoo|umba gmkmxlh' Gc>‴‴ " HND 11 > nah ‴ A‴N'u

;

E H ND  N' G G

EBKKLAXU:

;

9!9>60 ck ckbg " k

5

Ð >9

∔8

9!9>k

4

k " u Ð 9!99>4

;

4!48 Ð >9

‴ 'u ↔ 9 nu c> ‴‴ ↔ 9! Mo xfl ytbeluu mu tlnexmba gmkmxlh' A‴N

∔0

ckbg " u ⋌ k

4

7

YTBDGLK >8!55 CABPA: Knuu ogbp tnxl bo `nu ebaxnmama` ynggnhm|k &uylemlu N-' pfmef ogbpu xftb|`f n x|dl nah hlybumxu maxb ybtlu bo x|dl pngg! Maglx knuu ebaelaxtnxmba bo ynggnhm|k! Knuu xtnauolt ebloomemlax dlxplla `nu nah x|dl u|tonel! Hlybumxmba tnxl mu ytbybtxmbang xb knuu ebaelaxtnxmba bo ynggnhm|k nx x|dl u|tonel!

OMAH: &n- Lytluumba obt vntmnxmba bo klna uylemlu hlaumx} bo ynggnhm|k pmxf ! Lytluumba obt gbeng hlybumxmba tnxl obt x|dl bo hmnklxlt H! &d- Tnxmb bo hlybumxmba tnxlu nx  ; G nah  ; 9!

UEFLKNXME:

H @nu / ' ώN'k'm k

ώN'k' fk v;9

v;G

∔a‴N‴ 'u ; c>ώ N'u NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- Uxlnh} uxnxl' &4- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' &5- Ebauxnax knuu ogbp tnxl' &8Al`gm`mdgl glncn`l bo `nu xftb|`f ybtb|u pnggu!

NANG]UMU : &n- Ulexmba 6!= hlvlgbyu xfl vntmnxmba bo klna uylemlu hlaumx}' ώN'k' obt xfl enul ma pfmef xfl u|tonel uylemlu ebaelaxtnxmba' ώN'u' mu |amobtk! Fltl' fbplvlt' xfl u|tonel ebaelaxtnxmba pmgg vnt} nu xfl klna uylemlu hlaumx} hletlnulu pmxf ! \ahlt uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' xfl knuu og| bo ynggnhm|k tlnefma` xfl u|tonel k|ux l~|ng xfl knuu og| bo ynggnhm|k ‴ mu xfl knuu og|  otbk xfl hlybumxma` maxb xfl ybtlu! Tlolttma` xb L~|nxmba 6!64' pfltl a‴N'u u|tonel'

‴ 'u a‴N

; f k &ώN'u ∔ ώ N'k - ; ∔c>ώN'u  

Ubgvma` obt xfl u|tonel ebaelaxtnxmba }mlghu ώN'u ; fkώN'k "&fk # c >-! Xfla u|duxmx|xma` u|duxmx|xma` xfmu xfmu maxb ‴ }mlghu lmxflt lytluumba obt a‴N'u

‴ 'u a‴N

; ∔ \ kώ N'k '

∔> ; > " f # > " c   k >

\k

Ebkyntma` xfmu tlu|gx pmxf L~|nxmba 6!64' pl ull xfnx xfl} ntl nangb`b|u mo pl tlygnel f k pmxf \k nah ώN'u pmxf 9! Nyyg}ma` xfl unkl nangb`} xb L~|nxmba L~|nxmba 6!6?' xfl hmuxtmd|xmba bo xfl klna uylemlu hlaumx} mu

ώ N'k & \ ώY ; ly ⎓⎗ ∔ k  ⎑⎒ / ώN'k'm k ⎛ ⎩

&>-

7

pfltl Y mu xfl yltmklxlt' Y ; ωH! Abxl xfnx pl eb|gh fnvl ob|ah xfmu unkl tlu|gx d} lytluuma` lytluuma` knuu uylemlu ebaultvnxmba ebaultvnxmba obt uylemlu N! Abxma` xfnx xfl xfl tnxl nx pfmef uylemlu N mu enttmlh / ώ N'k " ώ ' nah nuu|kma` ώ xb dl ebauxnax' pl fnvl hbpauxtlnk d} xfl ogbp mu k Ebaxma|lh 

YTBDGLK >8!55 &Ebax!-

/ hώN'k k ώ h

‴ 'uY ; ∔ \ k Yώ N'k ; a‴N

Maxl`tnxma` pmxf tluylex xb  nah nyyg}ma` xfl maglx ebahmxmba }mlghu xfl unkl tlu|gx nu L~|nxmba &>-! Xfl gbeng hlybumxmba tnxl mu

‴ 'u ; \ kώN'k ; \ kώN'k'm ly ⎓⎗ ∔ \ kώY  ⎑⎒ ; \ kώN'k'm ly ⎓⎗ ∔ D  ⎑⎒ ∔ a‴N / k ⎛ ⎩ ⎛ G⎩

&4-

7

/! pfltl D ; \kώYG" k &d- Xfl tnxmb bo hlybumxmba tnxlu nx  ; G nah  ; 9 mu

tnxmb bo hlyb lybumxmba tnxlu ; ly & ∔ DEBKKLAX: Otbk L~! &4-' xfl hlybumxmba tnxl hletlnulu lybalaxmngg} pmxf hmuxnael ! Xfltlobtl' nu xfl x|dl gla`xf maetlnulu' xfl hlybumx xfmecaluu nx xfl b|xglx lah pmgg dlebkl xfmaalt' nah xfl vntmnxmba ma hlybumx xfmecaluu dlxplla xfl maglx nah b|xglx pmgg maetlnul!

7

YTBDGLK >8!58 CABPA: Tnhm|u bo n uyfltmeng bt`namuk bt`namuk nah kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba ebaelaxtnxmba bo b}`la nx u|tonel! Hmoo|umba

nah tlnexmba tnxl ebloomemlaxu! OMAH: &n- Tnhmng hmuxtmd|xmba bo B 4 ebaelaxtnxmba' &d- Tnxl bo B4 ebau|kyxmba' &e- Kbgnt

ebaelaxtnxmba nx t ; 9! UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- Uxlnh}+uxnxl' bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba' &4- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k' &5- \amobtk

xbxng kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba' &8- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu &c 9' HND-! NANG]UMU: &n- Obt xfl ytluetmdlh ebahmxmbau nah nuu|kyxmbau' nuu|kyxmbau' L~! &>8!

E ∔ > # E4 t

Pmxf xfl tl~|mtlklax xfnx E N&t- tlknma omamxl nx t ; 9' E> ; 9! Pmxf EN&tb- ; EN'b

E 4 ; E N' b ∔

c 9 tb4 ? HND

& 4 4-

7

EN ; EN'b ∔ & c 9 " ? H ND - tb ∔ t

Dlen|ul EN enaabx dl gluu xfna zltb nx na} gbenxmba pmxfma xfl bt`namuk' xfl tm`fx+fnah umhl bo xfl obtl`bma` l~|nxmba k|ux ngpn}u lellh zltb' xfltld} ygnema` gmkmxu ba xfl vng|l bo E N'b! Xfl ukngglux ybuumdgl vng|l bo E N'b mu hlxltkmalh otbk xfl tl~|mtlklax xfnx EN&9- ≬ 9' ma pfmef enul EN'b ≬ c 9tb4 " ? H ND

&

-

7

&d- Umael b}`la ebau|kyxmba bee|tu nx n |amobtk vbg|klxtme tnxl bo c 9' xfl xbxng tluymtnxmba tnxl mu

/ ; ∉ c ' bt T 9 / ; & 8 " 5- ω   t 5 c   T b 9

7 Ebaxma|lh  

YTBDGLK >8!58 &Ebax!&e- Pmxf t ; 9'

EN & 9 - ; EN'b ∔ c 9 tb4 " ? H ND EN & 9 - ; < Ð>9 ∔ ckbg " k ∔ >!4 Ð>9 ∔ ckbg " u ⋌k <

5

8

5

>9 ∔ k

&

8

-

4

" ? Ð>9 ∔ k " u 6

4

EN & 9 - ; 5 Ð>9∔< ckbg " k5

7

EBKKLAXU: &>- Xfl kmamk|k vng|l bo E N'b obt pfmef n yf}umengg} tlngmuxme ubg|xmba mu ybuumdgl mu

EN'b ; c 9 tb4 " ? H ND ; 4 Ð>9 > 9 ∔< ckbg " k 5!

&4- Xfl xbxng tluymtnxmba tnxl kn} ngub dl bdxnmalh d} nyyg}ma` Omec”u gnp nx t ; t b' ma pfmef enul

&

4

-

&

4

/ ; ∔A & t - ; #H T N b ND 8ω tb h E N " ht t ; tb ; H ND 8ω T b Xfl tlu|gx n`tllu pmxf xfnx bo yntx &d-!

-&c

b " ? H ND - 4 tb

; & 8 " 5 - ω   tb5c 9 !

YTBDGLK >8!5< CABPA: Tnhm|u bo n uyfltmeng bt`namuk nah kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba bo b}`la nx mxu u|tonel!

Hmoo|umba nah tlnexmba tnxl ebloomemlaxu! OMAH: &n- Tnhmng hmuxtmd|xmba bo B 4 ebaelaxtnxmba' &d- Lytluumba obt tnxl bo B 4 ebau|kyxmba' ebau|kyxmba' &e-

Kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba nx t ; 9 nah tnxl bo b}`la ebau|kyxmba obt ytluetmdlh ebahmxmbau! UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- Uxlnh}+uxnxl' bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba' &4- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k' &5- \amobtk

xbxng kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba' &8- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu &c >' HND-! NANG]UMU: &n- Obt xfl ytluetmdlh ebahmxmbau nah nuu|kyxmbau' nuu|kyxmbau' L~! &>8! h ⎓ h EN ⎑ H ND t 4 ⎗ ⎒ ∔ c> EN ; 9 4 ht ⎛ h t ⎩ t 4

Pmxf } ≮ t EN' h EN "ht ; &>"t- h}"ht ― }"t nah

> h ⎓ ⎑ H ND ⎓ h } ⎑ 4 h E N ⎑ H ND h ⎓ h} ; ∔ H t t } ⎒ ⎒ ; 4 ⎗⎗ t 4 ⎒⎒ 4 ht ⎗⎛ ND 4 ht ⎗⎛ ht h t ⎩ ⎩ t t t ⎛ ht ⎩ 4

Xfl uylemlu l~|nxmba mu xfla

h4} ht

4



c > HND

};9

Xfl `laltng ubg|xmba mu bo xfl obtk >" 4

} ; E> umaf & c> " H ND -

>" 4

t # E 4 eeb buf &c> " H ND -

t

bt

E E >" 4 >" 4 EN ; > umaf & c> " H ND t # 4 ebuf &c> " H ND t t t Dlen|ul EN k|ux tlknma omamxl nx t ; 9' E4 ; 9! Flael' pmxf pmxf EN &tb- ; EN'b'

E> ;

EN'b tb >" 4

umaf & c> " H ND -

tb

nah Ebaxma|lh  

YTBDGLK >8!5< &Ebax!-

⎓t E N ; E N' b ⎗ b ⎗ t ⎛

⎑ umaf & c> " H ND ->" 4 t ⎒⎒ >" 4 ⎩ umaf & c> " H ND - tb

7

&d- Xfl xbxng B4 ebau|kyxmba tnxl ebttluybahu xb xfl tnxl bo hmoo|umba nx xfl u|tonel bo xfl bt`namuk!

&

-

⎮ >

#

4 / ; ∔ A & t - ; #H T N b ND 8ω  tb h E N " ht tb

/ ; 8ω  t 4H E T b ND N'b tb ⎤ ∔

⎤⎥ tb4

> tb

>" 4

& c> " H ND -

>" 4

ebx & c> " H ND -



tb ⎬

⎬⎯

7

/ ; 8ω t H E T b ND N'b &ξ ebxf ξ  ∔>pfltl

ξ 

&

≮ c> tb4 " H ND

>" 4

-

! >"4

&e- Obt xfl ytluetmdlh ebahmxmbau' &c > "HND-

EN ;

< Ð >9

∔<

5

ckbg " k Ð >9

umaf & 8!804 -

∔8

k

+>

; &49 u >" 4

Ð

umaf & c> " H ND -

t

+6

4

>"4

ð >9 k  "u-

; >!>5? Ð >9

t

+>

; 88'049 k

∔>9 ckbg k

5

nah ξ ; 8!804! >" 4

Ð

umaf & c> " H ND -

t

t

Ma xfl gmkmx bo t ↔ 9' xfl obtl`bma` lytluumba }mlghu

EN & t ↔ 9 - ; >Ð>9 ∔? ckbg " k 5

7

/ ; 8ω   Ð >9∔8 k Ð>9∔6 k 4 " u Ð < Ð>9∔< ckbg " k5 & 8!804 ebxf 8!804 ∔ >T

; 4!>6 Ð>9∔>< ckbg " u EBKKLAXU: Xfl xbxng tluymtnxmba tnxl kn} ngub dl bdxnmalh d} maxl`tnxma` xfl vbg|klxtme tnxl bo 

/ ebau|kyxmba bvlt bvlt xfl vbg|kl bo xfl bt`namuk! bt`namuk! Xfnx mu' T

/ h∉ ; tb c E & t - 8ω  t 4ht! ; ∔∣ A N ∣ > N 9

YTBDGLK >8!5? CABPA: Ebkd|uxmba nx ebauxnax xlkyltnx|tl nah ytluu|tl bo n f}htb`la+b}`la kmx|tl nhjnelax

xb n klxng pngg neebthma` xb xfl tlnexmba 4F4 # B4 ↔ 4F4B! Kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmbau ebaelaxtnxmbau bo bo f}htb`la' 5

b}`la' nah pnxlt vnybt ntl 9!>9' 9!>9 nah 9!49 ckbg"k ' tluylexmvlg}! @laltnxmba tnxl bo pnxlt +4

vnybt mu 9!=? Ð >9

5

ckbg"k ⋌u!

OMAH: &n- Lytluumba obt EF nu o|ae o|aexmb xmba a bo hmuxna hmuxnael el otbk otbk pngg' pngg' ygbx ygbx ~|ngmx ~|ngmxnxm nxmvlg vlg}' }' &d&d- EF nx xfl 4 4

pngg' &e- Uclxef ngub e|tvlu obt EB &  - nah E F B &  - ' nah &h- Kbgnt og| bo pnxlt nx  ; >9 kk! 4 4 UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- Uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Bal+hmklaumbang Bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba' &5- Uxnxmbant}

klhm|k' &8- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu maeg|hma` ytluu|tl nah xlkyltnx|tl! YTBYLTXMLU: Uylemlu dmant} hmoo|umba ebloomemlax &`mvla' obt F 4' B4 nah F4B-: HND ; 9!? Ð >9

+<

4

k  "u! NANG]UMU: &n- Xfl uylemlu ebaultvnxmba l~|nxmba' L~! >8!86d' nah mxu `laltng ubg|xmba ntl

h 4E N h

4

#

/ A N H ND

;9

EN &  - ; ∔

/ A N 4H ND

 # E> # E 4!

&>'4-

Xfl db|ahnt} ebahmxmba nx xfl pngg k|ux dl hEN&9-"h ; 9' u|ef xfnx E> ; 9! Obt xfl uylemlu / / f}htb`la' lvng|nxl E4 otbk cabpglh`l bo  EF &>9 kk kk - ; 9!>9 ck ckbg " k 5 nah A F4 ; ∔ A F4B ' 4 neebthma` xb xfl eflkmeng tlnexmba! Flael'

∔9!=? Ð>9∔4 ckbg " k 5 ⋌ u & 9!>9 ckbg " k5 ; ∔ & 9!9>9 k -4 # 9 # E 4 Ð 9!? Ð>9∔< k 4 " u

4

E4 ; 9!94 ckbg " k 5! Flael' xfl f}htb`la uylemlu ebaelaxtnxmba hmuxtmd|xmba mu

EF

&- ; ∔ 4

/ A F

4

4H ND

 4 # 9!94 ; 699 4 # 9!94

7

pfmef mu yntndbgme pmxf zltb ugbyl nx xfl pngg3 ull uclxef ndbvl! &d- Xfl vng|l bo  EF

EF

4

4

nx xfl pngg mu'

ckbg " k 5! & 9 - ; & 9 # 9!94 - ckbg " k5 ; 9!94 ck

7 Ebaxma|lh  

YTBDGLK >8!5? &Ebax!&e- Xfl ebaelaxtnxmba hmuxtmd|xmba obt pnxlt vnybt uylemlu pmgg dl bo xfl unkl obtk'

/ A F 4B 4 EF B &  - ; ∔  # E> # E 4 4 4H ND

&5-

Pmxf E> ; 9 obt xfl pngg ebahmxmba' omah E 4 otbk EF B &>9 kk - ' 4 ∔ 9!=? Ð >9 & ;∔

4

9!49 ckbg " k

5

5

ckbg " k

4 Ð 9!? Ð >9

∔<

4

- & 9!9>9 k -

4

5

# E4

E 4 ; 9!46 ckbg " k !

k "u

Flael' EF B nx xfl pngg mu' 4

EF B & 9 - ; 9 # 9 # E 4 ; 9!46 ckbg " k 5 4 / / nah mxu hmuxtmd|xmba hmuxtmd|xmba nyylntu nu ndbvl! Tleb`amzma` xfnx A B 4 ; ∔ 9!9 k ; =!?9 Ð>9

∔<

4

ckbg " k ⋌u!

7

EBKKLAXU: Abxl xfnx xfl `laltnxmba tnxl bo bo pnxlt vnybt mu n ybumxmvl ~|naxmx}! ~|naxmx}! Pfltlnu obt F4

/ / nah B4' uylemlu ntl ebau|klh nah flael A F 4 nah A B4 ntl al`nxmvl! Neebthma` xb xfl eflkmeng tlnexmba bal kbgl bo F4 nah 9!< kbgl bo B4 ntl ebau|klh xb `laltnxl bal kbgl bo F4B! Xfltlobtl'

/ / / / A F 4 ; ∔ A F 4B nah A B4 ; ∔9!< A F 4B !

YTBDGLK >8!50 CABPA:

Kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmbau bo b}`la nx maalt nah b|xlt u|tonelu bo g|a` xmuu|l! _bg|klxtme tnxl bo b}`la ebau|kyxmba pmxfma xfl xmuu|l!

OMAH:

&n- _ntmnxmba bo b}`la kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba pmxf ybumxmba ma xfl xmuu|l' &d- Tnxl bo b}`la xtnauolt xb xfl dgbbh ylt |amx xmuu|l u|tonel ntln!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Bal+hmklaumbang uylemlu xtnauolt d} hmoo|umba xftb|`f n ygnal pngg' &5- Fbkb`lalb|u' uxnxmbant} klhm|k pmxf |amobtk xbxng kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba nah ebauxnax hmoo|umba ebloomemlax! NANG]UMU:

&n- Otbk L~! >8!0> xfl nyytbytmnxl obtk bo xfl uylemlu hmoo|umba l~|nxmba mu h 4EN H ND ∔ c b ; 9! 4

h

Maxl`tnxma`'

hEN " h ; & c b " HND -  # E> Pmxf EN

EN ;

c b 4H ND

 4 # E> # E4 !

; EN & 9 - nx  ; 9 nah EN ; EN & G - nx  ; G'

E4 ; EN & 9 -

E> ;

EN & G - ∔ EN & 9 G



cbG 4H ND

!

Flael

EN &  - ;

c b 4H ND

 &  ∔ G - # ⎮⎥ EN & G - ∔ EN & 9 -⎨⎯

 G

# EN & 9 - !

7

&d- Xfl b}`la nuumkmgnxmba tnxl ylt |amx ntln mu

‴ '  & G - ; ∔ H ND & hE N " h A‴N

 ;G

⎓ cb G c G ⎑ H ∔ b ⎒ ∔ ND ⎮⎥ E N & G - ∔ E N & 9 -⎨⎯ G ⎛ H ND 4H ND ⎩

‴ '  & G - ; ∔ H ND ⎗ A‴N

c G H ‴ '  ; ∔ b # ND ⎮⎥ EN & 9 - ∔ EN & G -⎨⎯ ! A‴N 4 G EBKKLAXU:

Xfl ndbvl kbhlg ytbvmhlu n fm`fg} nyytbmknxl nah umkygmomlh xtlnxklax bo n ebkygmenxlh ytbdglk! ytbdglk! Xfl g|a` xmuu|l mu nex|ngg} flxltb`lalb|u nah ebahmxmbau ebahmxmbau ntl xtnaumlax!

7

YTBDGLK >8!56 CABPA: OMAH:

@tb|ah glvlg og| bo AB4 ma n uxn`anax |tdna nxkbuyfltl!

&n- _ltxmeng hmuxtmd|xmba bo AB4 kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba' &d- Etmxmeng `tb|ah glvlg og| bo AB4'

‴ A‴N'9'etmx !

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Bal+hmklaumbang Bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba ma n uxnxmbant} klhm|k' &5- Xbxng kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba E mu |amobtk' &8- Yltolex `nu dlfnvmbt! NANG]UMU:

&n- Obt xfl ytluetmdlh ebahmxmbau xfl kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba bo AB4 mu `mvla d} L~! >8!05' u|djlex xb xfl obggbpma` db|ahnt} ebahmxmbau!

hEN  ⎑

EN & ∑ - ; 9'



h  ⎩  ; 9

;∔

‴ A‴N'9 HND

!

Otbk xfl omtux ebahmxmba' E > ; 9! Otbk xfl ulebah ebahmxmba' ebahmxmba'

‴ '9 " H ND! ∔kE4 ; ∔ A‴N

Flael

EN &  - ;

‴ A‴N'9 kHND

l ∔ k

7

>"4

pfltl k ; &c > "HND-

!

&d- Nx `tb|ah glvlg' EN & 9 - ;

‴ A‴N'9 kHND

‴ ℗XA‴N'9

yN & 9 - ; EN & 9 - ℗X ;

kHND +8 >"4

Flael' pmxf k ; &9!95"9!>< Ð >9 -

‴ A‴N'9'etmx ;

! Flael' otbk xfl yltolex `nu gnp'

kH NDy N & 9 -

℗X

+>

k

etmx

!

88!0 k ∔> Ð 9!>< Ð>9 ∔8 k 4 " u Ð 4 Ð>9 ∔? dnt ; 4 5 6!5>8 Ð>9 ∔ k ⋌ dnt " ckbg ⋌ C Ð 599 C

‴ A‴N'9'etmx ; 9∔>> ckbg " u ⋌ k4 ! EBKKLAXU:

+>

; 88!0 k !

7

Dlen|ul xfl hmuyltumba bo ybgg|xnaxu ma xfl nxkbuyfltl mu `bvltalh uxtba`g} d} ebavlexmba loolexu' xfl ndbvl kbhlg ufb|gh dl vmlplh nu n omtux nyytbmknxmba pfmef hluetmdlu n pbtux enul ebahmxmba!

YTBDGLK >8!5= CABPA: OMAH:

@tb|ah glvlg og| bo AB4 ma n uxn`anax |tdna nxkbuyfltl!

&n- @bvltama` hmooltlaxmng l~|nxmba nah db|ahnt} ebahmxmbau obt xfl kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba bo 

AB4' &d- Ebaelaxtnxmba bo AB4 nx `tb|ah glvlg xftll fb|tu noxlt xfl dl`maama` bo lkmuumbau! UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba ma n uxnxmbant} klhm|k' &4- \amobtk xbxng kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba' &5- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu! NANG]UMU:

&n- Nyyg}ma` xfl uylemlu ebaultvnxmba tl~|mtlklax' L~! >8!85' ba n kbgnt dnumu xb n |amx ntln bo xfl ebaxtbg vbg|kl'

‴ '  ∔ & c>EN - h ∔ A‴N ‴ '  # h ; A‴N ‴ '  # h Pmxf A‴N

∄EN h! ∄x

‴ '  # & ∄A N ‴ '  " ∄ - h nah A ‴N ‴ '  ; ∔H ND &∄E N " ∄ - ' mx obggbpu xfnx ; A‴N

∄ 4 EN

∄EN ! ∄x

7

Mamxmng Ebahmxmba:

EN & ' 9 - ; 9!

7

Db|ahnt} Ebahmxmbau:

∔ HND

H ND

∄

4

∔ c>EN ;

∄EN ⎑ ‴ '9 ' ; A‴N ⎒ ∄ ⎩  ; 9

7

E N & ∑' x - ; 9!

&d- Xfl ytlulax ytbdglk mu nangb`b|u xb Enul &4- bo Om`! " 4

⎓ x ⎑ ‴ '9 ⎗ EN & ' x - ; 4 A‴N ⎒ ⎛ ω  HND ⎩

⎓ ⎑ ⎓ ‴   4 ⎑ A‴N'9  ⎗ ⎒ ⎒∔ ly ⎗ ∔ ltoe >" 4 ⎗ 8H NDx ⎒ H ND ⎗ 4&H x ⎒ ⎛ ⎩ ND ⎛ ⎩

Nx `tb|ah glvlg & ; 9- nah 5f' >" 4

⎓ x ⎑ ‴ '9 ⎗ EN & 9' 5f - ; 4 A‴N ⎒ ⎛ ω  HND ⎩

&

E N & 9' 5f - ; 4 5 Ð >9 EBKKLAXU:

∔>>

ckbg " u ⋌ k

4

-&

>9' 699 u " ω   Ð 9!>< Ð >9

∔8

4

k "u

>" 4

-

; =!96 Ð >9

∔0

5

ckbg " k !

7

Xfl ebaelaxtnxmba hlen}u tnymhg} xb zltb pmxf maetlnuma` ' nah nx  ; >99 k mx mu' obt ngg ytnexmeng y|tybulu' l~|ng xb zltb!

YTBDGLK >8!89

Mamxmng ebaelaxtnxmba bo bo f}htb`la ma n ufllx bo ytluetmdlh xfmecaluu! xfmecaluu! U|tonel ebaelaxtnxmbau obt xmkl x 1 9!

CABPA:

OMAH:

Xmkl tl~|mtlh obt hlaumx} bo f}htb`la xb tlnef ytluetmdlh vng|l nx kmhygnal bo ufllx!

UEFLKNXME:

5

EN&'9- ; 5 ckbg"k ; EN'm 5

EN&9'xo - ; >!4 c`"k "4 c`"ckbg 5

EN&9'xo - ; 9!? ckbg"k ; EN EN&49 kk'x- ; 9 ; E N'u

&>- Bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba ma ' &4- Ebauxnax H ND' &5- Ab maxltang eflkmeng tlnexmbau' &8- \amobtk xbxng kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba' &9+0 k4"u ; 555 u EBKKLAX:

Obk 1 9!4! Flael' xfl nyytbmknxl' bal+xltk ubg|xmba mu vngmh!

7

YTBDGLK >8!8> CABPA: OMAH:

Tnhm|u nah xlkyltnx|tl bo nmt d|ddgl ma pnxlt!

Xmkl xb tlnef ==, bo unx|tnxlh vnybt ebaelaxtnxmba nx elaxlt!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Bal+hmklaumbang tnhmng hmoo|umba bo vnybt ma nmt' &4- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' &5Nmt mu mamxmngg} ht}' &8- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k! YTBYLTXMLU: Xndgl N+6 ' NANG]UMU:

+8

Pnxlt vnybt+nmt &599 C-: HND ; 9!4? Ð >9

4

k  "u!

Mo xfl bal+xltk nyytbmknxmba xb xfl maomamxl ultmlu ubg|xmba &L~! ε b∐ ≆ E> ly ∔ο >4Obk ; ; ; 9!9>! E N'm ∔ E N'u 9! 9 ∔ >

&

-

\uma` vng|lu bo  E> ; 4!9 nah τ > ; 5!>8>< obt Dm k

↔ ∑' mx obggbpu xfnx

9!9> ; 4!9 ly ⎮ ∔ & 5!>8>< - Ob k ⎨ ⎥⎤ ⎯⎬

Ob k ; 9!8!84 CABPA: Tnhm|u nah xlkyltnx|tl bo nmt d|ddgl!

OMAH: &n- Xmkl xb tlnef =- Bal+hmklaumbang tnhmng tnhmng hmoo|umba bo vnybt ma nmt' nmt' &4- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' &5-

Nmt mu mamxmngg} ht}' &8- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k! klhm|k! YTBYLTXMLU: Xndgl N!6 ' Pnxlt vnybt+nmt &599 C-: HND ; 9!4? Ð >9 k  "u! +8

4

NANG]UMU: &n- Pl kn} lkygb} xfl bal+xltk nyytbmknxmba xb xfl maomamxl ultmlu ubg|xmba &L~! ∔

5ζ b*

ο >5

Suma&ο > - ∔ ο > ebu&ο > -[

&

3 ζ b* ; E> ly ∔ο >4 Ob 

-

D} nangb`}' xfl ytlelhma` l~|nxmbau kn} dl ptmxxla nu E N EN'kn

; >∔

* 5ε b

uma&ο > - ∔ ο > ebu&ο > - [ 5 S

ο >

3 ε b* ;

EN ∔ E N'u EN'm ∔ E N'u

&

; E> ly ∔ο >4 Obk 

-

\uma` vng|lu bo E > ; 4!999 nah ο > ; 5!>8>< otbk Xndgl obt Dmk↔ ∑' mx obggbpu xfnx E N E N'kn

; 9!=< ; > ∔

ε b* ;

5ε b* 5!>8>9 k " u ; =!0 Ð >9 u ; =!0 ku 4

7

&d- Xfl xmkl nuubemnxlh pmxf na nvltn`l pnxlt vnybt ebaelaxtnxmba bo ⎒ hx  ⎗ 4 tb   x ;9 ⎛ ωξ  ⎩

5ξ 



bt ^ ^b

;

5ξ  ⎮ 4 t b

x ⎤ t b4 ⎥ ωξ 

>" 4

⎨ ∔ x ⎬ ⎯

⎮ 4 ⎨ ; 5⎤ Ob ∔ Ob ⎬ ⎥ ω  ⎯ Nyyg}ma` xfl nangb`} dlxplla flnx nah knuu xtnauolt'

E N E N'kn

⎮ 4 ⎨ ; 9!=6' pfmef hblu abx unxmuo} xfl etmxltmba Obk 1 9!4!

YTBDGLK >8!85 CABPA: OMAH:

Mamxmng entdba ebaxlax nah ytluetmdlh u|tonel ebaxlax obt flnxlh uxllg!

Xmkl tl~|mtlh obt entdba kbgl otnexmba xb tlnef 9!9> nx n hmuxnael bo > kk otbk xfl u|tonel!

UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Uxllg kn} dl nyytbmknxlh nu n ulkm+maomamxl ulkm+maomamxl klhm|k' &4- Bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba ma ' &5- Mubxfltkng ebahmxmbau' &8- Ab maxltang eflkmeng tlnexmbau' &  N & 9' x - ;  N'u ; 9!94

 N & ∑' x - ; 9!99>!

Xfl ytbdglk mu nangb`b|u xb xfnx bo flnx xtnauolt ma n ulkm+maomamxl klhm|k pmxf ebauxnax u|tonel xlkyltnx|tl' nah d} nangb`} xb L~! ∔ 9! 9!94 9!99> k ; 9! ∔ 9!94 ⎗ 4 5!>0 Ð>9∔>> x >" 4 ⎒ ⎗ ⎒ ⎛ ⎩

&

-

pfltl lto p ; 9! u ; 6!84 f! 7

YTBDGLK >8!88 CABPA: Xfmec ygnxl bo y|tl mtba nx >999¹E u|djlexlh xb n entd|tmzma` ytbeluu pmxf u|hhla

lybu|tl xb n entdba ebaelaxtnxmba E E'u nx xfl u|tonel! OMAH: &n- Ebaumhlt xfl flnx xtnauolt nangb` xb xfl entd|tmznxmba ytbeluu3 uclxef xfl knuu nah flnx

xtnauolt u}uxlku3 lygnma ebttluybahlael dlxplla vntmndglu3 ytbvmhl nang}xmeng ubg|xmbau xb xfl knuu nah flnx xtnauolt umx|nxmba3 &d- Hlxltkmal xfl entdba ebaelaxtnxmba tnxmb' E E &' x-"EE'u' nx n hlyxf bo > kk noxlt > fb|t bo entd|tmznxmba3 nah &e- Otbk xfl nangb`}' ufbp xfnx xfl xmkl hlylahlael bo xfl > " 4 knuu og| bo entdba maxb xfl ygnxl ena dl lytluulh nu a E ‴‴ ;  ώ E'u H E∔ Ol 3 ngub' bdxnma na Ol " ω  x

d

`

lytluumba obt xfl knuu bo entdba ylt |amx ntln laxltma` xfl mtba ygnxl bvlt xfl xmkl yltmbh x! UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- Bal+hmklaumbang xtnaumlax hmoo|umba' &4- Xfmec ygnxl nyytbmknxlu n ulkm+

maomamxl klhm|k obt xfl xtnaumlax knuu nah flnx xtnauolt ytbeluulu' nah &5- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' &8Uxnxmbant} klhm|k! NANG]UMU: &n- Xfl nangb`} dlxplla xfl entd|tmzma` knuu xtnauolt ytbeluu ma xfl ygnxl nah xfl flnx

xtnauolt ytbeluu mu mgg|uxtnxlh ma xfl ueflknxme ueflknxme ndbvl! Xfl dnumu obt xfl knuu + flnx xtnauolt nangb`} uxlku otbk xfl umkmgntmx} bo xfl ebaultvnxmba bo uylemlu nah lalt`} l~|nxmbau &L~u! >8!00 nah kk' x ; > f nah +>>

HE+Ol ; 5 Ð >9

4

k  "u' omah xfl ebaelaxtnxmba tnxmb' tnxmb'

O  M  EE d> kk' > f` @ J ; 9!95>8 9!99> k ; [email protected] 95>8 > " 4 J  EE'u +>> 4 F @ 4l5 Ð >9 k  " u Ð 5?99 uj J C 

7

&e- Otbk xfl uylemlu og| lytluumba ndbvl' xfl knuu og| bo entdba ena dl ptmxxla nu a$E'u

7

>" 4 ; ώE'u & HE∔ Ol Ol " ω x -

Xfl knuu ylt |amx ntln laxltma` xfl ygnxl bvlt xfl xmkl yltmbh obggbpu otbk xfl maxl`tnxmba bo xfl tnxl lytluumba

kE

&x- ; ∣

x 9

a$E'u hx

>" 4

;  ώE'u & HE+Ol " ω -

x

∣9 x+>"4 hx ; 4

ώ E' u

>" 4

& H E∔ Ol x"ω  -  

7

YTBDGLK >8!8< CABPA: Tnhm|u bo yfntknel|xmeng ytbh|ex' hlaumx} bo xfl nexmvl ma`tlhmlax' yntxmxmba ebloomemlax'

nah dmant} hmoo|umba ebloomemlax bo xfl nexmvl ma`tlhmlax ma xfl `nuxtbmaxluxmang xtnex!

OMAH: &n- Hbun`l hlgmvltlh bvlt < fb|tu otbk n  H ; ? kk hmnklxlt xndglx' &d- Hbun`l hlgmvltlh bvlt < fb|tu otbk  A  ; 499 ukngg' uyfltmeng xndglxu bo xfl unkl knuu! UEFLKNXME:

t b  ; 5 kk bt 9!5 kk  ώ N ;

>< c`"k c`"k5

@nuxtbmaxluxmang og|mh E N' ; 9' H ND ; 9!8 Ð>9+>9 k4 "u ∑

Klhmenxmba  ώ N'u  '

C ; 5 Ð >9+4

NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- Bal+hmklaumbang Bal+hmklaumbang tnhmng hmoo|umba bo nexmvl ma`tlhmlax' ma`tlhmlax' &4- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' ytbyltxmlu'

&5- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k' &8- Ebauxnax uyfltl tnhm|u! YTBYLTXMLU: @mvla:  HND ; 9!89 Ð >9

+>9

k  "u' C  ; 5 Ð >9 ! 4

+4

NANG]UMU: &n- Xfl nyytbmknxl ubg|xmba bo Efnyxlt < obt lxltang ebah|exmba otbk na mubxfltkng uyfltl nah xfl flnx+knuu xtnauolt nangb`} pmgg dl |ulh! Otbk Xndgl

&>'4-

D} nangb`}' L~! 4 kn} dl ptmxxla nu

‴‴ u t b aN'  HND & ώ N'u ∔ ώ N'∑ -

t b

;

ω  HNDx 

#>

&5-

Tlnttna`ma`'

‴‴ u ; aN'

 HND " ω

& ώ N'u ∔ ώ N'∑ - # HND & ώ N'u ∔ ώ N'∑  t b



Obt  ώ N' N'∑ ; 9' xfl hbun`l &obt  Nu ; 8ωt b - mu 4

x

 H ;

∣ 9



4 ‴‴ 'u hx 8ω tb aN

 H & ώ  - ⎨ ⎮ ; 8ω tb4 ⎤ HND " ω & ώ N'u -x  ∔>"4 # ND N'u ⎬ hx  t b ⎥ ⎯ b



 ώ N' xfl ytlelhma` lytluumba }mlghu Pmxf  ώ N'u N'u ; C 

 H ; 8ω tb C ώ N ⎮ 4tb HND " ω x >" 4 # HNDx ⎨





&8Ebaxma|lh 

YTBDGLK >8!8< &Ebax!-

U|duxmx|xma` xfl nyytbytmnxl vng|lu maxb L~! 8 tlu|gxu ma

⎮ 4 Ð 5 Ð >9∔5 k 9!8 Ð >9∔>9 k 4 " u Ð >6999u " ω   ⎨ ⎬  H ; 8ω  Ð 5 Ð >9 k Ð 5 Ð >9 Ð >6999u ⎬⎯ ∔5

∔4

5

7

 H ; ?9!= Ð >9 c` ; ?9!= Ð >9 ` ; ?9!= η ` +=

+?

&d- Obt xfl unkl mamxmng knuu nah  A  ; 499 xndglxu' 8 5

 A 8 5 5 ω tb'> ; ω t b ' A 

5

bt tb 'A ; tb '> " A >" 5 ; 5 Ð >9∔5 k " 499>" 5 ; 9!5 kk

Xfl hbun`l mu  H ;  AH> pfltl  H> mu xfl hbun`l obt bal xndglx! Flael'

⎮ 4 Ð 9!5 Ð >9∔5 k 9!8 Ð >9 ∔>9 k 4 " u Ð >6999u " ω    ⎨ ⎬  H ; AH> ; 499 Ð 8ω  Ð 9!5 Ð >9 k Ð 5 Ð >9 Ð >6999u ⎬⎯ ∔5

∔4

 H ; 095 Ð >9 c` ; 095 Ð >9 ` ; 095 η ` +=

+?

5

7

EBKKLAXU: &>- Xfl hbun`l mu ebaxtbgglh d} xfl xndglx umzl! Ma xfmu lnkygl' xfl klhmenxmba hbun`l

mu maetlnulh d} bvlt na bthlt bo kn`amx|hl d} tlygnema` xfl uma`gl xndglx pmxf xfl laenyu|gnxlh' ukngglt 5 tb  ; hmnklxlt uyfltmeng xndglxu! &4- Xfl mamxmng knuu bo xfl klhmenxmba mu  K  ; 8"5 ώω t  5 +5 5 +? +5 8"5Ð>! tnh nah' otbk Xndgl ' E> ≆ >!405! 4 ⎨ 9!0< ; >!405 ly ⎮ ∔ &>!- Ob k'> k'> ⎬ ⎤⎥ ⎯

Pmxf Dm k

4

Ob k'> ; ∔ ga & 9!0< " >!408 - " &>!-

Flael' obt 

∐ ; 9'

; 9!4>8!

Flael'

x> ;

G4 HND

Obk'> ;

&> k -4 >!4 Ð >9∔= k 4 " u

9!4>8 ; >!0= Ð >9 >96 u ; 490> hn}u! Ebaxma|lh  

7

YTBDGLK >8!8? &Ebax!&d- Xfl efna`l ma xfl ungx knuu pmxfma xfl pnxlt mu

ΘK N ; K N & x> - ∔ KN'm ; ∣ & ώ N ∔ ώ N'm - h_ ; N ∣

G

9

ώ N h

Flael'

‴ ;  ώ N'u ∣ ΘK‴N

G

9

& ώN " ώ N'u - h

>

&9 > ∔ ∐ - h∐

ΘK‴N‴ ;  ώ N'u G∣

ε  

> ΘK‴N‴ ;  ώ N'u G∣ ⎮⎤> ∔ E> ly ∔τ>4Ob k'> 9⎥

&

ΘK‴N‴ ;

⎮ ⎥

N'u G ⎤> ∔ E> ly

- ebu & >∐ -⎨⎯⎬ h∐ τ 

& ∔ >4Obk'> - uma > " > ⎨⎯⎬! τ

τ

τ 

U|duxmx|xma` a|kltmeng vng|lu'

⎮ >!408 ly ⎮ ∔ &>!-4 9!4>8 ⎨> ⎨ ⎤ ⎥⎤ ⎯⎬ ⎬ ΘK‴N‴ ; 569 c` " k5 &> k - ⎤> ∔ ⎬ >!tnh ⎤ ⎬ ⎥ ⎯ ΘK‴N‴ ; >=6!5 c` c` " k 4 !

7

&e- Uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau ebttluybah ebttluybah xb n |amobtk knuu knuu hlaumx} ma xfl pnxlt! Flael'  ώ N

& 9' ∑ - ; ώ N & G' ∑ - ; ΘK‴N‴ " G ; >=6!5 c` " k5!

EBKKLAXU: &>- Xfl nuu|kyxmba bo ebauxnax

ώ mu plnc' umael xfl hlaumx} bo ungx pnxlt hlylahu

uxtba`g} ba xfl ungx ebkybumxmba! &4- Xfl tl~|mtlklax bo Obk 1 9!4 obt xfl bal+xltk nyytbmknxmba xb dl vngmh mu dntlg} unxmuomlh!

7

YTBDGLK >8!80 CABPA: Xlkyltnx|tl hmuxtmd|xmba lytluumba obt n ulkm+maomamxl klhm|k' mamxmngg} nx n |amobtk

l

xlkyltnx|tl' xfnx mu u|hhlag} lybulh xb na mauxnaxnalb|u nkb|ax bo lalt`}' ^b ‴‴ J " k

4

j!

Nangb`b|u umx|nxmba bo n umgmeba &Um- pnolt pmxf n >+η k gn}lt bo yfbuyfbtb|u &Y- xfnx mu ygnelh ma n o|tanel u|hhlag} mamxmnxma` hmoo|umba bo Y maxb Um! OMAH: &n- Lygnma xfl ebttluybahlael dlxplla xfl vntmndglu ma xfl nangb`b|u xlkyltnx|tl nah

ebaelaxtnxmba hmuxtmd|xmba lytluumbau' lytluumbau' nah &d- Hlxltkmal xfl kbgl otnexmba bo Y nx n hlyxf bo 9!> ηk ma xfl Um noxlt 59 u! UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- Bal+hmklaumbang' xtnaumlax hmoo|umba' &4- Pnolt nyytbmknxlu n ulkm+maomamxl

klhm|k' &5- \amobtk ytbyltxmlu' nah &8- Hmoo|umba ytbeluu obt Um nah Y mu mamxmnxlh pfla xfl pnolt tlneflu xfl lglvnxlh xlkyltnx|tl nu n ebaul~|lael bo xfl gnt`l xlkyltnx|tl hlylahlael bo xfl hmoo|umba ebloomemlax' &0

YTBYLTXMLU: @mvla ma uxnxlklax : HY+Um ; >!4 Ð >9

4

k  "u3 Knuu hlaumxmlu bo Um nah nah Y: 4999 nah

5

4599 c`"k 3 Kbgle|gnt plm`fxu bo Um nah Y: 59!=0 nah 46!9= c`"ckbg! NANG]UMU: &n- Obt xfl xfltkng ytbeluu mgg|uxtnxlh ma xfl ueflknxme' xfl xlkyltnx|tl hmuxtmd|xmba hmuxtmd|xmba mu

d ` ∔ Xm ;

X ' x

^b‴‴

d `

 ώe ωξ x

> " 4

l∔ 4 " 8ξ x j

ly

&FX-

pfltl Xm mu xfl mamxmng' |amobtk xlkyltnx|tl xlkyltnx|tl bo xfl klhm|k! Obt xfl knuu xtnauolt ytbeluu' xfl Y ebaelaxtnxmba fnu xfl obtk

d `;

E Y ' x

K ‴‴ Y'b

dω  H Y ∔Um x`

> " 4

l∔ 4 " 8 H Y ∔Um x j

ly

&KX-

4

pfltl K ‴‴ Y'b mu xfl kbgnt ntln hlaumx} &ckbg"k - bo Y tlytlulaxlh d} xfl omgk bo ebaelaxtnxmba EY nah xfmecaluu hb! Xfl ebttluybahlael dlxplla knuu nah flnx xtnauolt vntmndglu ma xfl l~|nxmbau FX nah KX mavbgvlu xfl obggbpma` ebahmxmbau! ebahmxmbau! Xfl GFU tlytlulaxu xfl maetlnul pmxf xmkl bo xfl xlkyltnx|tl bt ebaelaxtnxmba ndbvl xfl mamxmng |amobtk hmuxtmd|xmba! hmuxtmd|xmba! Xfl mamxmng ebaelaxtnxmba mu zltb' ub bag} xfl E Y &' x- nyylntu! Ba xfl TFU abxl xfl ebttluybahlael bo xfl xltku ma xfl lybalaxmng yntlaxflumu nah ma xfl hlabkmanxbt! Xfl xfltkng hmoo|umvmx} nah hmoo|umba hmoo|umba ebloomemlax ntl hmtlexg} nangb`b|u3 xfmu ena dl ulla d} ebkyntma` xfl KX nah FX hmoo|umba l~|nxmbau' l~|nxmbau' L~! 4!4> nah >8!00! Xfl xltku ^ ‴‴ b  " ώ e nah lalt`} nah knuu mauxnaxnalb|ug} mauxnaxnalb|ug} nyylntma` nx xfl u|tonel! u|tonel! Xfl K ‴‴ Y'b obt FX nah KX tlytlulax xfl lalt`}

ytbh|ex  ώ e mu xfl xfltkng enynemx} ylt |amx ntln nah nyylntu ma xfl uxbtn`l xltk bo xfl FX hmoo|umba l~|nxmba! Obt KX' xfl ‗enynemx}‛ xltk mu xfl xfl vbg|kl mxulgo! Ebaxma|lh  

YTBDGLK >8!80 &Ebax!4

&d- Xfl kbgnt ntln hlaumx} &ckbg"k - bo Y nuubemnxlh pmxf xfl omgk bo xfmecaluu hb ; > η k nah ebaelaxtnxmba EY'b mu

K ‴‴ Y' b

; E Y'b ⋌ h b ; d ώ Y "  K   K Y `h b

K ‴‴ Y'b

; l4999 c` " k5 " 59!=0 ckbg " c` j Ð > Ð >9 ∔? k

K ‴‴ Y'b

; ?!8< 89 ∔< ckbg " k4

U|duxmx|xma` a|kltmeng vng|lu maxb xfl KX l~|nxmba' omah Ey & 9!> ηk' 59 u - ;

Ey

?!89 ∔< ckbg"k 4

& ω Ð>!4 Ð>9

+>0

4

k " u Ð 59 u

>" 4

-

&

ly ∔ 9!>Ð >9 +? k

4

>9 ∔ - " & 8 Ð >!>!4 Ð >9

>0

k 4 " u Ð 59 59 u

; >!6< ckbg"k5

Xfl kbgl otnexmba bo Y ma xfl Um pnolt mu Y

; EY " EUm ; EY " &ώUm " K U m -

Y

; >!6< ckbg"k 5 " & 4599 c`"k 5 " 4 6! 6!9= ckbg"c` -

Y

; 9!945

7

-⎨⎯

YTBDGLK >8!86 CABPA:

Entdba hmbmhl ebaelaxtnxmba nx pnxlt u|tonel nah tlnexmba tnxl ebauxnax!

OMAH:

&n- Hmooltlaxmng l~|nxmba pfmef `bvltau vntmnxmba pmxf ybumxmba nah xmkl bo EB 4 ebaelaxtnxmba ma pnxlt' &d- Nyytbytmnxl db|ahnt} ebahmxmbau nah ubg|xmba obt n hlly dbh} bo pnxlt pmxf al`gm`mdgl eflkmeng tlnexmbau! UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU:

&>- Bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba ma ' &4- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' maeg|hma` xbxng hlaumx} ώ' &5- Pnxlt mu uxn`anax' &8- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k! NANG]UMU:

&n- Otbk L~! >8!80d' mx obggbpu xfnx' obt xfl ytluetmdlh ebahmxmbau' ∄4 N ∄ ώ  ∔ c> ώ N ; N ! H ND 4 ∄x

7

∄

Xfl omtux xltk ba xfl glox+fnah umhl tlytlulaxu xfl alx  xtnauybtx bo EB4 maxb n hmooltlaxmng ebaxtbg vbg|kl d} hmoo|umba! hmoo|umba! Xfl ulebah xltk tlytlulaxu tlytlulaxu xfl tnxl bo EB4 ebau|kyxmba h|l xb eflkmeng tlnexmbau! Xfl xltk ba xfl tm`fx+fnah tm`fx+fnah umhl tlytlulaxu xfl tnxl bo bo maetlnul bo EB4 uxbtn`l pmxfma xfl ebaxtbg vbg|kl! &d- Obt n hlly dbh} bo pnxlt' nyytbytmnxl db|ahnt} ebahmxmbau ebahmxmbau ntl  ώ N

& 9' x - ; ώ N'9

 ώ N

& ∑' x - ; 9

nah' pmxf al`gm`mdgl eflkmeng tlnexmbau' xfl uylemlu hmoo|umba l~|nxmba tlh|elu xb

∄4 N > ∄ ώ N ; ! ∄ 4 HND ∄x Pmxf na mamxmng ebahmxmba' ώN&'9- ≮ ώN'm ; 9' xfl ytbdglk mu nangb`b|u xb xfnx mavbgvma` flnx xtnauolt ma n ulkm+maomamxl klhm|k klhm|k pmxf ebauxnax u|tonel xlkyltnx|tl! D} nangb`} xb L~! " 4 ⎗ 4&H x - ⎒ ND ⎛ ⎩

⎓ ⎑  ⎒!  ώ N &  ' x - ; ώ N' 9ltoe ⎗ ⎗ 4 & H x ->" 4 ⎒ ND ⎛ ⎩

7

YTBDGLK >8!8=

CABPA: Ubg|dmgmx} nah hmoo|umvmx} bo b}`la &B 4- ma ybg}entdbanxl! Hmuxnael bo xfma tlnexma`

omgk bo ybg}klt otbk H_H u|tonel! Mamxmng B 4 hmuxtmd|xmba! Etmxmeng ebaelaxtnxmba allhlh xb uxntx tlnexmba ma xfl xfma omgk! OMAH: Lgnyulh xmkl dlobtl tlnexmba dl`mau ma xfl xfma omgk! UEFLKNXME: Eu

Nxkbuyfltme ebahmxmbau

v

Ybg}entdbanxl HND ; ?!< Ð >9+>4 k4 "u U ; 6!= Ð >9+5 ckbg"k 5⋌dnt

Xfma tlnexma` omgk

NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu nah uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k!

&5- Ytlulael bo xfma' tlnexma` omgk hblu abx noolex xfl hmoo|umba ytbeluu' &8- Ulkm+maomamxl klhmn! YTBYLTXMLU: B}`la &B4- ma ybg}entdbanxl' `mvla: H ND ; ?!<

Ð >9+>4 k4 "u' U ; 6!= Ð >9+5

5

ckbg"k °dnt! NANG]UMU:

Xfl kbgl otnexmba bo b}`la ma nmt mu 9!4>! Xfltlobtl' xfl yntxmng ytluu|tl bo B4 ma xfl nxkbuyfltl mu Y94 ; 9!4> nxk Ð >!9>55

dnt nxk

; 9!4>5 dnt

nah xfl u|tonel ebaelaxtnxmba mu Eu ; E&;9- ; UYB4 ; 6!= Ð >9+5

ckbg 5

k ⋌ d nt

Ð 9!4>5 dnt ; >!6= Ð >9+5

ckbg k5

Maebtybtnxma` xfl flnx nah knuu xtnauolt nangb`} nah |uma` L~! !6= Ð>9 >9 >9 ⎑ < Ð>9 5 k k5 ⎒⎒ ; 5 ckbg ⎩ 9 ∔ >!6= Ð >9 ∔ 5 k

⎓ ⎑ ⎗ ⎒ ∔5 9 ! < > 9 k Ð ⎒ ; lto ⎗ 4 ⎗ ⎒ k ⎗⎗ 4 ?!< Ð >9∔>4 Ð x ⎒⎒ u ⎛ ⎩

pfmef }mlghu x ; 5=89 u

7

EBKKLAX: Xfl xfma omgk pmgg ebavltx B 4 xb n ytbh|ex bo xfl tlnexmba! N kbtl hlxnmglh

nang}umu pb|gh maeg|hl xfl loolexu bo B 4 ebavltumba ba xfl ytbeluu!

YTBDGLK >8!- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' &4- Bal+hmklaumbang knuu hmoo|umba pmxf flxltb`lalb|u eflkmeng tlnexmba! &5- Tlnexmba tnxl mu ytbybtxmbang xb kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba bo  b}`la!

NANG]UMU: &n- Otbk L~! >8!86d obt bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba bo uylemlu N &b}`la-'

∄E N ∄ 4E N / ; H ND # AN ∄x ∄ 4 / Obt n omtux+bthlt tlnexmba xfnx ebau|klu b}`la' pl ena ptmxl A N

∄EN ∄ 4EN ; H ND ∔ c>EN 4 ∄x ∄

; ∔ c>EN ! Xf|u'

7

i

Xfl db|ahnt} ebahmxmbau lytluu u}kklxt} ndb|x xfl kmhygnal nah tlgnxl xfl kbgnt ebaelaxtnxmba nx xfl u|tonel xb xfl yntxmng ytluu|tl bo b}`la ma xfl lavmtbaklax' yN!

∄EN ; 9' ∄  ;9

7

EN & G' x - ; UyN

Xfl mamxmng ebahmxmba lytluulu xfnx xfltl mu ab b}`la mamxmngg} ma xfl H_H dlobtl xfl yb|ef mu bylalh' xfnx mu'

EN & ' 9- ; 9

7

&d- Umael lnef kbgl bo b}`la xfnx tlnexu pmxf xfl ybg}klt tlu|gxu ma y kbglu bo ytbh|ex' pl ena

/ ptmxl xfl obggbpma` lytluumba obt xfl tnxl bo `laltnxmba bo ytbh|ex: A ytbh

/ ; yc E ! ; ∔ yA N > N Ebaxma|lh 

YTBDGLK >8! G x

∣ ∣

G 9 9

yc>ENhxh

7

YTBDGLK >8! CABPA: Ufllx knxltmng fnu fm`f' |amobtk ebaelaxtnxmba bo f}htb`la nx xfl lah bo n ytbeluu' nah mu

xfla u|djlexlh xb na nmt uxtlnk uxtlnk pmxf n uylemomlh' gbp ebaelaxtnxmba bo f}htb`la! Knuu xtnauolt yntnklxltu uylemomlh maeg|hl: maeg|hl: ebavlexmba knuu knuu xtnauolt ebloomemlax' fk' nah xfl knuu hmoo|umvmx} nah ubg|dmgmx} bo f}htb`la &N- ma xfl ufllx knxltmng &D-' HND nah UND' tluylexmvlg}! OMAH: &n- Xfl omang knuu hlaumx} bo f}htb`la ma xfl knxltmng mo xfl ufllx mu lybulh xb xfl nmt uxtlnk

obt n vlt} gba` xmkl'  ώ N'o ' &d- Mhlaxmo} nah lvng|nxl xfl yntnklxlt xfnx ena dl |ulh xb hlxltkmal pflxflt xfl xtnaumlax knuu hmoo|umba ytbeluu ma xfl ufllx ena dl efntnexltmzlh d} n |amobtk ebaelaxtnxmba nx na} xmkl3  Fmax : xfmu umx|nxmba mu nangb`b|u xb xfl g|kylh enynemxnael klxfbh obt n xtnaumlax flnx xtnauolt ytbeluu3 &e- Hlxltkmal xfl xmkl tl~|mtlh xb tlh|el xfl f}htb`la ebaelaxtnxmba xb xpmel xfl gmkmxma` vng|l enge|gnxlh ma yntx &n-! UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- Bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba' &4- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k' &5- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' &8-

\amobtk xlkyltnx|tl ma nmt uxtlnk nah knxltmng' nah &8!?4'

E N' o

; UND y N'∑ ; >?9 ckbg " k5 ⋌ nxk Ð 9!> nxk ; >? ckbg " k 5

ώo ; K N

EN'o

;  4 c`"ckbg Ð >? ckbg"k 5 ; 54 c`"k 5

7

&d- Xfl yntnklxltu nuubemnxlh pmxf xtnaumlax hmoo|umba ma xfl knxltmng obggbp otbk xfl nangb`b|u xtlnxklax bo Ulexmba ∔ EN'4 m " G

&>-

Nx xfl u|tonel'  ; G' xfl tnxl l~|nxmba' L~! ?!6' ebavlexmvl og| bo uylemlu N mu

A ‴‴ N'ebav

; f k h E N 'u ∔ E N ' ∑ m Ebaxma|lh  

YTBDGLK >8! &Ebax!-

nah u|duxmx|xma` xfl mhlng `nu gnp' L~! >8!=' nah maxtbh|ema` xfl ubg|dmgmx} tlgnxmba' L~! >8!?4' A‴N‴ 'ebav

;

A‴N‴ 'ebav

;

fk UND T   X∑ fk UND T   X∑

& UND yN'u ∔ UND yN'∑ & E4'u ∔ EN'∑ -

&4-

pfltl EN'∑ ; EN'o ' xfl omang ebaelaxtnxmba ma xfl knxltmng noxlt lybu|tl xb xfl nmt uxtlnk n gba` xmkl! Ebaumhltma` n u|tonel uylemlu og| dngnael' nu ufbpa ma xfl ueflknxme ndbvl' pmxf xfl tnxl l~|nxmbau &>- nah &4-' H ND & EN'> ∔ EN'4 G EN'> ∔ EN'4 EN'u

∔ E N'o

;

;

fk

& EN'u ∔ EN'o - 

UND T   X∑

f k " UND T   X∑ HND " G

;

‴ 'hmo T ‴k ‴ 'ebav T ‴k

;  Dmk

&5-

nah maxtbh|ema` tlumuxnaelu tlumuxnaelu xb uylemlu xtnauolt d} hmoo|umba hmoo|umba nah ebavlexmba! Tleb`amzl otbk xfl nangb`} xb flnx xtnauolt' L~! 9 nah Xndgl >8!4' xfnx pfla Dm k 7 9!>' xfl ebaelaxtnxmba ena dl efntnexltmzlh nu |amobtk h|tma` xfl xtnaumlax ytbeluu! ytbeluu! Xfnx mu' xfl hmoo|umba tlumuxnael mu al`gm`mdgl ebkyntlh xb xfl ebavlexmba tlumuxnael'

Dm k

Dm k

;

;

f kG UND  T| X∑ HND

7 9!>

&8-

d>!< k " f Ð 5?99 u " f` Ð 9!995 k >?9 ckbg " k5 ⋌ nxk Ð 6!49< Ð >9 +4 k 5 ⋌ nxk " ck ckbg ⋌ C Ð ` Ð >? ckbg " k5 ; lyO ∔ @ J  F  9!995 k Ð >?9 ckbg " k5 ⋌ nxk Ð 6!49 9+>?` ckbg " k5 49< Ð >9∔4 k5 ⋌ nxk " ckbg ⋌ C Ð 8!8!' d|x |ahlt ebahmxmbau obt pfmef +>>

xfl knuu hmoo|umvmx} bo f}htb`la `nu &N- ma xfl ufllx &D- mu H ND ; >!6 Ð >9 +6

4

k  "u &mauxlnh bo 

4

4!? Ð >9 k  "u-! Pmxf n ukngglt HND' n |amobtk ebaelaxtnxmba ebahmxmba kn} ab gba`lt dl nuu|klh xb lmux ma xfl knxltmng h|tma` xfl tlkbvng ytbeluu! OMAH: &n- Xfl omang knuu hlaumx} bo f}htb`la ma xfl knxltmng mo xfl ufllx mu lybulh xb xfl nmt uxtlnk

obt n vlt} gba` xmkl' ώ  xmkl'  ώ N'o ' &d- Mhlaxmo} nah lvng|nxl xfl yntnklxltu xfnx hluetmdl xfl xtnaumlax knuu xtnauolt ytbeluu ma xfl ufllx3  Fmax : xfmu umx|nxmba mu nangb`b|u xb xfnx bo xtnaumlax flnx ebah|exmba ma n ygnal pngg3 &e- Nuu|kma` n |amobtk ebaelaxtnxmba ma xfl ufllx nx na} xmkl h|tma` xfl tlkbvng ytbeluu' hlxltkmal xfl xmkl tl~|mtlh xb tlnef xpmel xfl gmkmxma` knuu hlaumx} enge|gnxlh ma yntx &n-3 &h- \uma` xfl nangb`} hlvlgbylh ma yntx &d-' hlxltkmal xfl xmkl tl~|mtlh xb tlh|el xfl f}htb`la ebaelaxtnxmba xb xpmel xfl gmkmxma` vng|l enge|gnxlh ma yntx &n-3 Ebkyntl xfl tlu|gx pmxf xfnx otbk yntx &e-! UEFLKNXME:

NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- Bal+hmklaumbang hmoo|umba' &4- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k' &5- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' &8-

\amobtk xlkyltnx|tl ma nmt uxtlnk nah knxltmng' nah &8!?4'

E N' o

; UND y N'∑ ; >?9 ckbg " k5 ⋌ nxk Ð 9!> nxk ; >? ckbg " k 5

;  K N EN'o ;  4 c` " ckbg Ð >? ckbg " k 5 ; 54 c` " k 5

 ώ o

7

&d- Obt xfl ygnal pngg ufbpa ma xfl ueflknxme dlgbp' xfl flnx nah knuu xtnauolt ebaultvnxmba l~|nxmbau nah xflmt mamxmng nah db|ahnt} ebahmxmbau ntl  Flnx xtnauolt  4

∄  X ∄  x

; ξ 

∄  X

∄  4

d ` ; Xm

 Knuu &Uylemlu N- xtnauolt  xtnauolt  ∄  EN ∄ 4EN ; HND 4 ∄  x

∄  

d ` ; E N 'm

X '9

EN '9

∄  X

∄  EN

d9' x` ; 9 ∄   ∄  X

dG' x` ; f XdG' x ` ∔ X∑ ∄  

∔ c 

∄  

∔HND

d9' x` ; 9 ∄ EN fk & G'x - ; ∄ UND T 

⎮EN & 'x - ∔ Eo ⎨⎯

X⎥

Ebaxma|lh  

 

YTBDGLK >8!8!! Xfl ubg|xmba xb xfl knuu xtnauolt ytbdglk mu mhlaxmeng mhlaxmeng xb xfl nangb`b|u flnx xtnauolt ytbdglk ytbvmhlh xfl xtnauybtx ebloomemlaxu ntl tlytlulaxlh nu f

f k " UND T  X

7;1

c

&>-

HND

&e- Xfl |amobtk ebaelaxtnxmba xtnaumlax hmoo|umba ytbeluu mu nangb`b|u xb xfl flnx xtnauolt g|kylh+ enynemxnael ytbeluu! Otbk xfl ubg|xmba bo Ytbdglk >8!' >8!' xfl xmkl xb tlnef xpmel xfl gmkmxma` ebaelaxtnxmba' EN &xb- ; 4 EN'o' ena dl enge|gnxlh nu EN & x b - ∔ E N'o EN'm

xb

∔ EN'o

⎓ fk ;  ly ⎗ ∔ ⎛ G UND

xb T 

⎑ ⎒ X⎩

&4-

7

; 84!= fb|t

Obt xfl ytlulax umx|nxmba' xfl knuu xtnauolt Dmbx a|kdlt mu Dmk

;

fk G UND T  X HND

d>!< k " f " 5?99 u " f` Ð 9!995 k

Dm k

;

Dm k

; =!<

>?9 ckbg " k5 ⋌ nxk Ð 6!49< Ð >9 +4 k 5 ⋌ nxk " ck ckbg ⋌ C Ð 9 +>>k 4  " u 11 9!>

nah flael xfl ebaelaxtnxmba bo N pmxfma D mu abx |amobtk &h- Mavbcma` xfl nangb`} pmxf xfl flnx xtnauolt umx|nxmba' pl ena |ul xfl bal+xltk ultmlu ubg|xmba' L~! ; >!84>= tnh nah E> ; >!4?9= otbk Xndgl ' ub xfnx L~! 8!? k`' x ; 86 ft X ; 599 C Ϗm ; 9' Ϗ ; 9!=8!>' pl tleb`amzl tleb`amzl xfnx ε * hlomalh ma L~! >8!6> ena dl ptmxxla ma xfl ngxltanxmvl obtk'

ε* ; Fltl

∔ EN'u ώ ∔ώ ; N N'u EN'm ∔ EN'u ώN'm ∔ ώ N'u EN

ώN'm ; 9

umael xfl ufllx mu mamxmngg} ht}' nah

ώ N'u ; K NUϏyN'unx

&>-

ώN'u ; KNEN'u ; K NUyN'∑ '

bt  &4-

pfltl U mu xfl ubg|dmgmx} &ull L~! >8!?4-! Xfl knuu `nmalh d} xfl ybg}klt ufllx mu xfla nangb`b|u xb xfl lalt`} xtnauolt' ^' ma xfl flnx xtnauolt ytbdglk! Uylemomengg}' obt xfl knuu gbuu' pl ena ptmxl ptmxl n ul~|lael bo l~|nxmbau nangb`b|u nangb`b|u xb L~u! ΘK N ; ∔∣ N ; &> ∔ ε *-h_ ΘK N'b ώ N'm ∔ ώN'u _ _ ∣ Mo Obk 1 9!4' xfl ubg|xmba ena dl nyytbmknxlh d} xfl omtux xltk ma xfl ultmlu' nah xfl tlu|gx obt xfl knuu gbuu pb|gh dl nangb`b|u nangb`b|u xb L~!

&5-

∔Θ K N uma ο> H ; >∔ E> ly&∔ο>4 ND x ώ N'u_ ο> G4

&8-

bt 

Otbk Xndgl obt Dm

∔Θ K N

↔ ' pl omah ο> ; >!? Ð >9∔? c` ώ N'u Ð >9∔< c` " k5

; >∔ ; >∔

uma ω " 4

ω"4 uma ω " 4

ω"4

>!4055 ly&∔

>!4055 ly&∔

ω4

HND

8 &9!999< k-4

ω4

HND

8 &9!999< k-4

48 f Ð 5?99 u"f -

86 f Ð 5?99 u"f -

Xfltl ntl xpb ubg|xmbau xb xflul xpb l~|nxmbau' HND ; >!=4 Ð >9+>5 k4"u' ώN'u ; 9!995686 c`"k 5 bt  HND ; 6!< Ð >9+>5 k4"u' ώN'u ; 9!99>=0? c`"k 5 Ebaxma|lh 

YTBDGLK >8!9+>5 k4"u' pl efbbul xfl xfl ulebah ubg|xmba! ubg|xmba! Xf|u'

HND ; 6!< Ð >9+>5 k4"u

U ; ώ N'u " K NϏyN'unx

7

; 9!99>=0? c` " k5 "&>6 c`"ckbg Ð 9!=9 5 ckbg " k5 ⋌ dnt  

7

EBKKLAXU: Xfl u}uxlk bo l~|nxmbau fnu xpb ubg|xmbau' d|x bal bo xflk pb|gh }mlgh n knuu hmoo|umvmx} gluu xfna 0 Ð >9+>5 k4"u' nah mu xfltlobtl xfltlobtl tljlexlh! Xfnx ubg|xmba ubg|xmba ngub fnu Obk 7 9!4' ub xfl ubg|xmba mu abx vngmh! Mx hblu tnmul xfl ~|luxmba bo pflxflt xfltl mu nabxflt ubg|xmba obt pfmef ebttlexg} obt  Obk 7 9!4' mx ena dl hlxltkmalh xfnx xfltl mu ab Obk 7 9!4! Mo xfl ytbdglk mu ubgvlh ebttlexg} bxflt ubg|xmba!

YTBDGLK >8!99 fb|tu bo bo byltnxmba! Efna`l ma +5 5 tlotnexmvl mahl' `mvla xfnx Θa ; &>!? Ð >9 k "ckbg- Ð E ! &d- Nvltn`l f}htb`la ebaelaxtnxmba nah efna`l ma tlotnexmvl mahl noxlt > nah >9 fb|tu bo byltnxmba! UEFLKNXME: i

F}htb`la' yN ; 49 dntu

H ; >99 ¼k

NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu' &4- Bal+hmklaumbang knuu hmoo|umba! YTBYLTXMLU: F}htb`la ma vmxtlb|u umgmen omdlt &`mvla-: H ND ; 4!66 Ð >9+>< k4"u' U ; 8!>< Ð ⋌ dnt! >9+5 ckbg"k5 dnt! NANG]UMU: &n- Xfmu mu n ytbdglk bo xtnaumlax knuu hmoo|umba ma n e} gmahlt' nangb`b|u xb xtnaumlax ebah|exmba ebah|exmba ma n e}gmahlt! Pl dl`ma d} enge|gnxma` xfl knuu xtnauolt Ob|tmlt a|kdlt'

Ob k

; HNDx " tb4 ; 4!66 Ð >9∔><

k4 " u Ð >99 f Ð 5?99 u " f &9∔? k-4

; 9!8><

Pmxf Obk 1 9!4' pl ena |ul xfl omtux+xltk nyytbmknxmba nyytbmknxmba xb xfl ultmlu ubg|xmba! ubg|xmba! Xfl nvltn`l f}htb`la ebaelaxtnxmba ena dl ob|ah d} nangb`} pmxf xfl abahmklaumbang lalt`} xtnauolt ^"^ b hlomalh ma L~! -

Fltl xfl u|tonel ebaelaxtnxmba' E N'u' mu |ulh ma ygnel bo xfl lavmtbaklax xlkyltnx|tl' X ' dlen|ul xfmu mu n ytbdglk bo uylemomlh u|tonel ebaelaxtnxmba' kbhlglh d} nggbpma` Dm k↔∑! D} nangb`} pmxf L~! > > pfltl otbk L~! ; 4!898< ! Otbk Xndgl D!8' J>&4!89-' pl ena hlxltkmal xfl nvltn`l f}htb`la ebaelaxtnxmba'

EN

; ∣ EN &  ' x -

h_ _

; E N' m #

ΘK N ∔E &E ΘK N'b N'u N'm

pfltl EN'm ; 9 umael xfl omdlt mamxmngg} ebaxnmau ab f}htb`la' nah E N'u ; UyN ; 8!>< Ð >9+5 ckbg"k5⋌ dnt   dnt Ð 49 dntu ; 9!9659 ckbg"k 5! Xf|u'

EN

; 9 # 9!=50&!9659 ckbg " k5 ∔ 9- ; 9!9006 ckbg " k5

7

Xfl efna`l ma tlotnexmvl mahl mu xfla

Θa ; >!? Ð >9∔5

k5 " ckbg Ð 9!9006 ckbg " k5

; >!48 Ð >9∔8

&d- Obt xfl ufbtxlt xmklu' xfl Ob|tmlt a|kdlt mu ab gba`lt gnt`lt xfna 9!4' nah pl k|ux |ul n hmooltlax nyytbnef! Pl eb|gh |ul xfl lnex maomamxl maomamxl ultmlu ubg|xmba' d|x d|x mx mu lnumlt xb |ul xfl ubg|xmbau ytbvmhlh ytbvmhlh ma Xndgl

ωObk

∔ 9! fb|t nah >9 fb|tu' Ob k ; 9!998>< nah 9!98>8!5 obt xfl nangb`mlu'

ε* ;

EN & t ' x - ∔ EN'u EN'm ∔ EN'u

; E> ly&∔ο>4 Obk -Jb &ο>t*-

&>-

pfltl otbk Xndgl ' nu Dm↔ Dm ↔∑' ο> ; 4!896 ly&∔ 4!89- Ð 9!?0 ; 9∔>? Tlolttma` xb xfl hlomamxmba bo  ε* ma L~! &>-' pl ull xfnx xfmu vlt} ukngg vng|l klnau xfnx xfl ebaelaxtnxmba fnu luulaxmngg} luulaxmngg} ngtlnh} tlneflh xfl u|tonel ebaelaxtnxmba! ebaelaxtnxmba! Xfltlobtl' entlo|g uxbtn`l bo xfl byxmeng omdlt pmgg abx ytlvlax kmetbetnecma`' umael pmxfma xpb hn}u &ytbdndg} k|ef gluu-' xfl pnxlt vnybt fnu ylalxtnxlh xftb|`f xfl net}gnxl ybg}klt ebnxma`!

7

xftb|`fb|x xfl e}gmahlt! Umael EBKKLAXU: &>- L~|nxmba

Ð

>9+>5 k4 "u

; 4999 c`"k5

ώN

Tlylgglax

C ; 9!9<

Ucma



>9+5 k"u

ώN'u'e

a‛ebav

G&x-

Ð

ώN'u'H

a‛hmo

ώN'u'm

NUU\KYXMBAU: &>- Ebauxnax ytbyltxmlu nah uxlnh}+uxnxl ebahmxmbau' &4- Uxnxmbant} klhm|k! &5- Ucma mu ulkm+maomamxl klhm|k! klhm|k! YTBYLTXMLU: Nexmvl Ma`tlhmlax' `mvla: ώN ; 4999 c`"k5' K N; > ⎮x $ ⎤ a ⎤ f k &ώ N'u'e ∔ ώ N'∑ -hx # G& x ; 9- ; hx # a N'hmo hx ⎬ ; ώ N ⎤⎥ 9 N'eb av ώ ⎬ ⎤⎥ 9 N 9 9 ⎯

>









H ND

ωx



&ώ N'u'H ∔ ώ N'm -hx⎬

⎬⎯

Ebaxma|lh 

YTBDGLK >8!
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