CCNA2 Expl Chapter 1
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SEMESTER 2 Chapter 1 Planning and Cabling a Network V 4.0
1.1. 1.1.1. 1.3 3
1.1.2 1.1. 1.1.2. 2.2 2
What ar are th the co common co components between a router and other computers? What do does a ro router con conn nect ect? What does a router do with each packet it receives? What are the 2 types of connections to a router interface? What What are are the the two two prim primar ary y func functi tion ons s of a router? What address does the router use to compare to the routing table? What two processes are used by a router to learn about remote networks and build their routing tables? What are the five components common to all routers? List List the the 5 diff differ eren entt com compo pone nent nts s stor stored ed in RAM. What happens to the information in RAM if the router looses power? What are the permanent storage areas in a router? What 3 things are stored in ROM? What is stored in flash? What happens to flash memory when the power is lost? What is stored in NVRAM?
What must you do to save changes you have made to a router? What is the most common method used for configuring a router? What is the first thing that happens as the router boots up? What are the 4 phases of the boot up process?
What does POST test? What is the main function of the bootstrap program? What are the 2 main places to find the IOS? If a full IOS can not be loaded what does the bootstrap loader do? Where is the startup configuration found? What are the main items stored in the configuration file?
CPU, RAM, ROM, Operating System
Connects multiple networks The router forwards the packet to either the destination of the packet, or another network that will lead it to its destination LANs and WANs Determine the best path to send packets and forwarding the packets toward their destination. The destination IP address Static routes and dynamic routing protocols
RAM, ROM, ROM, Power supply, Fan, and AIM Operating System, Running Config File, IP routing table, APR Cache, and Packet Buffer The content is lost ROM, flash, and NVRAM Bootstrap instructions, Basic diag software and scaleddown version of IOS Permanent storage for Cisco IOS Nothing All configuring changes such as startup config file and running config file changes. Save the contents to the NVRAM before powering off CLI interface Startup-config file is copied into the RAM and stored as the running-config file. Performing the POST Loading bootstrap program Locating and loading Cisco IOS software Locating and loading the startup config file or entering setup mode Router hardware Locate the Cisco IOS and load it to RAM Flash memory or on a TFTP server Load a scaled down version version of IOS to diagnose diagnose issues to be able to load a complete version of IOS into RAM In the NVRAM Interface addresses, routing information, passwords, any other configurations saved by the net admin.
Where is the second place that the router looks for the startup config if it is not located in NVRAM? If the router can not locate a startupconfig, what mode does it enter? What key command do you press to exit setup mode if you accidentally entered it? What command can be used to help verify and troubleshoot some of the basic hardware and software components of the router? What is the last line displayed in the show version output? What is the default configuration register setting? What does that setting tell the router?
What are the two management ports? What is an interface?
What must be configured for each interface? What are the two major groups of router interfaces? What OSI layer does a router operate at? What is the router interface that connects to a LAN called? What is the process that each router uses to determine where to send the packet? What are the four essential information elements to include in the topology diagram? What are the basic tasks to perform when configuring a router?
What is the prompt for the user mode? What is the command to enter the privileged EXEC mode? What is the prompt for privileged EXEC mode? What is the command to enter the global configuration mode? What is the command to enter the hostname of a router? What happens to the prompt after you press enter? What is the command used to enter the password to enter the privileged EXEC mode? List the commands to set the password for the console port?
Setup mode Ctrl-C
Current configured value of the software configuration register in hexadecimal 0x2102 He router will attempt to load a Cisco IOS software image from the flash memory and load the startup config file from NV RAM Console port and Auxiliary port Physical connector on the router whose main purpose is to receive and forward packets IP address and subnet mask of a different network LAN and Wan Network Layer Ethernet Decapsulation, searching routing table, then reencapsulation Device names, interfaces used in the design, IP addresses and subnet masks, and Default gateway addresses for end devices such as PCs Name router, set passwords, config interfaces, config banner, save changes, verify basic config and router operations Router> enable Router# Config t Hostname *(insert name here)* (inserted name here)#(config) Enable secret class
Line con 0 Password ciscoline Login Exit
List the commands to set the password for the Telnet lines?
List the commands to enter the Banner Message of the Day (motd). What should the banner show? What is the command to enter the interface configuration mode? What is the command to set the IP address and subnet mask for an interface? What is the command to enter a description for the interface? What is the command to turn on an interface? What is the command to view the running-configuration file? What is the command to save the current config in NVRAM? What command will display the routing table? What command displays all of the interface configuration parameters and statistics? What command displays abbreviated interface configuration information, including IP address and interface status? Where is the routing table stored? What is a directly connected network? What is a remote network? What would a C in the first column of a routing table mean? What additional information is included when the destination is a remote network? What command reveals the configured or acquired default gateway, connected, loopback, multicast, and broadcast networks? How does a PC determine which network it belongs to? What command will activate a router interface? What routes does a router know before any static or dynamic routing is configured? What denotes a static route in the routing table? What are the three items that must be included in a static route? When should static routes be used?
What are dynamic routing protocols used for? What are 2 of the activities that dynamic routing protocols perform?
Line vty 0. 4 Password ciscovty Login exit Banner motd #(insert text here) # Warn against unauthorized access Interface (line name) IP addr (address) (subnet mask)
Description (information) No shutdown Show running-config Copy running-config startup-config Show IP route Show interfaces
Show ip interface brief
Data file in RAM Network directly attached to one of the router interfaces Network not directly connected to the router Directly connected route Routing metric and administrative distance
Show ip route
Its host IP address and subnet mask No shutdown Directly connected networks
Code S Ip address, subnet mask, next hop A network only has a few routers, connected to the internet through a single ISP or is configured in a hub-andspoke topology Share information about reachability and status of remote networks Network discovery, and updating and maintaining routing tables
What is network discovery?
What are some dynamic routing protocols? What are the three routing principles?
Ability of a routing protocol to share info about networks it knows with other routers that are using the same routing protocol RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS_IS, and BGP Every router makes its decision alone The fact that one router has certain info in its routing table does not mean that other routers have the same info
What is asymmetric routing? 1.4.2
What does a router compare to select the best path to place in the routing table? What is a metric?
Routing info about a path from one network to another does not provide routing info about the reverse or return path Packets traverse the network in one direction and return via another path Hop count and Bandwidth
Quantitative value used to measure the distance to a given route Path with the lowest metric Hop count
What is the best path? The number of routers that a packet must travel through before reaching its destination is called? The data capacity of a link, Bandwidth sometimes referred to as the speed of the link? What is it called when two paths to a Equal cost load balancing destination have exactly the same metric? What is equal cost load balancing? When a routing table has 2 or more p aths with the same metric to the same destination network. What are the two functions of packet Path determination and switching function forwarding? What is the process used by a router Packet switching to accept a packet on one interface and forward it out another interface called? What are the three major steps a Decapsulates the Layer 3 packet by removing the Layer 2 router performs on a packet? frame header and trailer. Examines the destination IP address of the IP packet to find the best path in the routing table.
What happens to the value of the TTL as a packet moves through a network? Which address does not change as the packet moves through the network? Which address changes as the packet moves through the network? How does a PC determine which network it belongs to? How does it determine if the destination is on the same network?
Encapsulates Layer 3 packet into a new Layer 2 frame and forwards the frame out the exit interface It decrements the TTL by one
Layer 3 IP address
Layer 2 data link address By performing an AND operation on its own IP address and subnet mask which results in its network address. The AND operation will result the same n etwork
Where does the PC send the packet if the destination is not on its own network? Where does the PC look for the default gateway MAC address? What does the PC do if the MAC address is not in the ARP table? Excellent description of how a packet travels from one pc to another. Make certain you understand the steps. Note any questions you have about the process.
Forward the packet back to the router
Checks its ARP table for the mac address of the default gateway Sends an ARP request to the router